Request help with procedure to finalize a cd/dvd command line (no gui) with something like wodim/cdrecord etc...

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Does anyone have a known good method to finalize a DVD/CDROM when using some RHEL-native command-line burn command such as either cdrecord or wodim (or another RHEL-available command-line utility)?

(Yes, I know k3b will do this, but we have RHEL server where we need to do it, we just want a command line method and not a third party software solution, and not a GUI)

We're doing this on RHEL 7.current

I found the Ubuntu folks recommend wodim -fix however that specific post has no real method to use that. I'm continuing to dig.

Is there also a way to determine if a disk is actually finalized? Does anyone have a known good method to finalize a CD/DVD?

Thanks, appreciate any help
-RJ

Responses

I suspect and am going to confirm that this might be the solution... Welcome/request feedback for any other methods...

wodim -v -eject -fix

Thanks, RJ

The "wodim -v -eject -fix" command doesn't seem to work on my system (RHEL 7.4). I checked using "cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -minfo 2>/dev/null", which shows "disk status: incomplete/appendable". Any other ideas on how to close a CD/DVD?

Thanks in advance, Rob

I'll examine more suggestions, thanks for the feedback Rob

Rob,

According to this, using mkisofs (genisoimage seems to have similar switches as mkisofs) - omit "multi" however, that link seems kinda old.

Ok, that being said, the wodim man page seems to infer that if you don't include -multi you ought not get a multi-session:

-multi

Allow multi session CDs to be made. This flag needs to be present on all sessions of a multi session disk, except you want to create a session that will be the last session on the media. The fixation will be done in a way that allows the CD/DVD-Recorder to append additional sessions later. This is done by generation a TOC with a link to the next program area. The so generated media is not 100% compatible to manufactured CDs (except for CDplus). Use only for recording of multi session CDs. If this option is present, the default track type is CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1 and the sector size is 2048 bytes. The XA sector subheaders will be created by the drive. The Sony drives have no hardware support for CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1. You have to specify the -data option in order to create multi session disks on these drives. As long as wodim does not have a coder for converting data sectors to audio sectors, you need to force CD-ROM sectors by including the -data option if you like to record a multisession disk in SAO mode. Not all drives allow multisession CDs in SAO mode.

-msinfo
Retrieve multi session info in a form suitable for genisoimage and print it to standard output. See msifile= option for another version.
This option makes only sense with a CD that contains at least one closed session and is appendable (not finally closed yet). Some drives create error messages if you try to get the multi session info for a disk that is not suitable for this operation.


ADDED

It seems if you do not use -tao (track at once), then multi-session is not possible

-dao

-sao

Set SAO (Session At Once) mode which is usually called Disk At Once mode. This currently only works with MMC drives that support Session At Once mode. Note that wodim needs to know the size of each track in advance for this mode (see the genisoimage -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

-tao

Set TAO (Track At Once) writing mode. This is the default write mode in previous wodim versions. With most drives, this write mode is required for multi session recording.

Please let us know if this does the trick - I'll test it myself when time permits.

Regards

RJ

Thanks for your help! The linked page you provided, and other information, reference finalizing a CD/DVD when performing the initial write. I'm trying to finalize a CD/DVD I've already written to.

My specific need involves a CD/DVD I've written using a Windows 10 system, which doesn't finalized CD/DVDs by default. I'd like to figure out how to close those already written-to CD/DVDs using Linux.

Hi Robert,

The original intent when I started this thread on May 24 2018 was to explore a method (I think I answered myself only today) to perform a disk burn using Linux command line that is not multi-session. What you are asking is beyond the scope of what I originally wrote.

That being said for your specific situation, One possible method would be to use either a RHEL workstation or CentOS workstation with the program called "k3b" which I believe ought to be able to finalize a previously burned dvd. the k3b graphical burning software is available on RHEL workstation according to this Red Hat article which says:

GUI based KDE DVD burning
(for RHEL Workstation and Desktop)

k3b is an easy to use CD/DVD burning application.
k3b is available for RHEL7 Workstation and Desktop.:

# yum list k3b
Loaded plugins: auto-update-debuginfo, langpacks, product-id, subscription-manager
Installed Packages
k3b.x86_64          2.0.2-17.el7          @rhel-7-workstation-rpms
For k3b, install k3b.x86_64 to get a GUI CD/DVD burner for KDE.
NOTE It is undetermined yet if k3b will be included in RHEL 8 since it apparently is part of KDE. KDE will not be part of RHEL 8. So there are other graphical CD/DVD burners. RHEL 7 will be around until 2024 or so. So keep the context of k3b perhaps with RHEL 7 since it’s undetermined if it will be with RHEL 8. I install k3b on gnome which I usually use.

If you need assistance for finalizing a DVD/CDRom using k3b (or finalizing an existing DVD/CD-Rom using command line methods) I recommend starting a different thread, this specific thread is different in nature. Thanks for posting in the Red Hat discussion area. That being said, I'll do some research of my own. If I find something along those lines, I'll create a separate thread myself and post the results.

Kind Regards,

RJ

Hi RJ (and Robert),

Please let me note that KDE is deprecated now ... just as a reminder. :)

Regards,
Christian

Thanks Christian, I’ve never liked KDE the graphical UI. If I said KDE above in any posts, I actually meant the rpm and software called K3B aka k3b.

Regards,

RJ

Same with me RJ, I don't like KDE, I mentioned it because when you install a KDE GUI
application, you may face a lot of dependency issues. Many KDE packages need to get
installed along-side (usually) and, when they are not in the repositories, you know ... :)

Regards,
Christian

NOTE: anyone visiting this thread, this specific reply is different in nature than the original discussion started

Rob,

I found another source that said to try:

cdrecord -fix -dev=/dev/dvdrw

Yet another that said:

wodim -fix

I read another source that suggested burning an empty file and then make sure not to use multi-session.

A k3b method (this is from 2013) might be listed here

Another source suggested:

growisofs -M /dev/dvdrw=/dev/zero

And yet another method using the "other"operating system's powershell. This link here, might be yet another method with that OS. And this is yet another link with such instructions. Here is yet another link to examine.

Regards

RJ

Merely a comment here but do NOT use wodim. It was a bad fork from the day it was created and never well maintained. Use the actual real "cdrecord" which you can get from https://sourceforge.net/projects/schilytools/files/ where we see schily-2019-07-22.tar.bz2. It is trivial to compile. Trivial. There is a file called AN-2019-07-22 in there which lists the five commands in order to compile the thing. Once you have real "cdrecord" you would be amazed how stuff "just works".

If you are doing a burn to a DVD-RW type of thing then you run :

/opt/schily/bin/cdrecord -v -dev=x,x,x -sao -fs=32m driveropts=burnfree file=foo.iso 

You need to get the device number by running a "scanbus" :

/opt/schily/bin/cdrecord -v -scanbus 

It is possible to work forwards from there.

Thanks Dennis!

Regards

RJ

Christian,

I checked the rpm search for k3b (this link requires a workstation subscription) which only shows k3b for rhel7, and not 8. I've used k3b for over a decade, and never once made the connection it was part of KDE. But yes, dependency issues for k3b, but in this case MIA. I for one am going to miss k3b.

Thanks

RJ

You're welcome, RJ ! :) Well, if you want to continue using k3b on newer RHEL editions - no problem ...
you can download the rpm and dependent packages from the fedora project and install them manually.

Regards,
Christian

Yup, right... I don't always download and install 3rd party software on my Linux system, but when I do it's because Red Hat doesn't supply something rational to use (which is genearally rare). I generally run with what Red Hat provides though...

Regards

RJ

Again same with me, RJ ... I try to keep my systems clean and avoid installing 3rd party stuff if even possible. :)
But as always in life : there are exceptions - it can be hardware drivers or, as in your case, if you like something.

Regards,
Christian