2.7.8. Road Warrior Access VPN Using Libreswan and XAUTH with X.509

Libreswan offers a method to natively assign IP address and DNS information to roaming VPN clients as the connection is established by using the XAUTH IPsec extension. XAUTH can be deployed using PSK or X.509 certificates. Deploying using X.509 is more secure. Client certificates can be revoked by a certificate revocation list or by Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP). With X.509 certificates, individual clients cannot impersonate the server. With a PSK, also called Group Password, this is theoretically possible.
XAUTH requires the VPN client to additionally identify itself with a user name and password. For One time Passwords (OTP), such as Google Authenticator or RSA SecureID tokens, the one-time token is appended to the user password.
There are three possible backends for XAUTH:
xauthby=pam
This uses the configuration in /etc/pam.d/pluto to authenticate the user. Pam can be configured to use various backends by itself. It can use the system account user-password scheme, an LDAP directory, a RADIUS server or a custom password authentication module.
xauthby=file
This uses the configuration file /etc/ipsec.d/passwd (not to be confused with /etc/ipsec.d/nsspassword). The format of this file is similar to the Apache .htpasswd file and the Apache htpasswd command can be used to create entries in this file. However, after the user name and password, a third column is required with the connection name of the IPsec connection used, for example when using a conn remoteusers to offer VPN to remove users, a password file entry should look as follows:
user1:$apr1$MIwQ3DHb$1I69LzTnZhnCT2DPQmAOK.:remoteusers
NOTE: when using the htpasswd command, the connection name has to be manually added after the user:password part on each line.
xauthby=alwaysok
The server will always pretend the XAUTH user and password combination was correct. The client still has to specify a user name and a password, although the server ignores these. This should only be used when users are already identified by X.509 certificates, or when testing the VPN without needing an XAUTH backend.
An example configuration with X.509 certificates:
conn xauth-rsa
    auto=add
    authby=rsasig
    pfs=no
    rekey=no
    left=ServerIP
    leftcert=vpn.example.com
    #leftid=%fromcert
    leftid=vpn.example.com
    leftsendcert=always
    leftsubnet=0.0.0.0/0
    rightaddresspool=10.234.123.2-10.234.123.254
    right=%any
    rightrsasigkey=%cert
    modecfgdns1=1.2.3.4
    modecfgdns2=8.8.8.8
    modecfgdomain=example.com
    modecfgbanner="Authorized Access is allowed"
    leftxauthserver=yes
    rightxauthclient=yes
    leftmodecfgserver=yes
    rightmodecfgclient=yes
    modecfgpull=yes
    xauthby=pam
    dpddelay=30
    dpdtimeout=120
    dpdaction=clear
    ike_frag=yes
    # for walled-garden on xauth failure
    # xauthfail=soft
    #leftupdown=/custom/_updown
When xauthfail is set to soft, instead of hard, authentication failures are ignored, and the VPN is setup as if the user authenticated properly. A custom updown script can be used to check for the environment variable XAUTH_FAILED. Such users can then be redirected, for example, using iptables DNAT, to a walled garden where they can contact the administrator or renew a paid subscription to the service.
VPN clients use the modecfgdomain value and the DNS entries to redirect queries for the specified domain to these specified nameservers. This allows roaming users to access internal-only resources using the internal DNS names.
If leftsubnet is not 0.0.0.0/0, split tunneling configuration requests are sent automatically to the client. For example, when using leftsubnet=10.0.0.0/8, the VPN client would only send traffic for 10.0.0.0/8 through the VPN.