Chapter 2. Getting started with Pacemaker

The following procedures provide an introduction to the tools and processes you use to create a Pacemaker cluster. They are intended for users who are interested in seeing what the cluster software looks like and how it is administered, without needing to configure a working cluster.

Note

These procedures do not create a supported Red Hat cluster, which requires at least two nodes and the configuration of a fencing device.

2.1. Learning to use Pacemaker

This example requires a single node running RHEL 8 and it requires a floating IP address that resides on the same network as one of the node’s statically assigned IP addresses.

  • The node used in this example is z1.example.com.
  • The floating IP address used in this example is 192.168.122.120.
Note

Ensure that the name of the node on which you are running is in your /etc/hosts file.

By working through this procedure, you will learn how to use Pacemaker to set up a cluster, how to display cluster status, and how to configure a cluster service. This example creates an Apache HTTP server as a cluster resource and shows how the cluster responds when the resource fails.

  1. Install the Red Hat High Availability Add-On software packages from the High Availability channel, and start and enable the pcsd service.

    # yum install pcs pacemaker fence-agents-all
    ...
    # systemctl start pcsd.service
    # systemctl enable pcsd.service

    If you are running the firewalld daemon, enable the ports that are required by the Red Hat High Availability Add-On.

    # firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=high-availability
    # firewall-cmd --reload
  2. Set a password for user hacluster on each node in the cluster and authenticate user hacluster for each node in the cluster on the node from which you will be running the pcs commands. This example is using only a single node, the node from which you are running the commands, but this step is included here since it is a necessary step in configuring a supported Red Hat High Availability multi-node cluster.

    # passwd hacluster
    ...
    # pcs host auth z1.example.com
  3. Create a cluster named my_cluster with one member and check the status of the cluster. This command creates and starts the cluster in one step.

    # pcs cluster setup my_cluster --start z1.example.com
    ...
    # pcs cluster status
    Cluster Status:
     Stack: corosync
     Current DC: z1.example.com (version 2.0.0-10.el8-b67d8d0de9) - partition with quorum
     Last updated: Thu Oct 11 16:11:18 2018
     Last change: Thu Oct 11 16:11:00 2018 by hacluster via crmd on z1.example.com
     1 node configured
     0 resources configured
    
    PCSD Status:
      z1.example.com: Online
  4. A Red Hat High Availability cluster requires that you configure fencing for the cluster. The reasons for this requirement are described in Fencing in a Red Hat High Availability Cluster. For this introduction, however, which is intended to show only how to use the basic Pacemaker commands, disable fencing by setting the stonith-enabled cluster option to false.

    Warning

    The use of stonith-enabled=false is completely inappropriate for a production cluster. It tells the cluster to simply pretend that failed nodes are safely fenced.

    # pcs property set stonith-enabled=false
  5. Configure a web browser on your system and create a web page to display a simple text message. If you are running the firewalld daemon, enable the ports that are required by httpd.

    Note

    Do not use systemctl enable to enable any services that will be managed by the cluster to start at system boot.

    # yum install -y httpd wget
    ...
    # firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=http
    # firewall-cmd --reload
    
    # cat <<-END >/var/www/html/index.html
    <html>
    <body>My Test Site - $(hostname)</body>
    </html>
    END

    In order for the Apache resource agent to get the status of Apache, create the following addition to the existing configuration to enable the status server URL.

    # cat <<-END > /etc/httpd/conf.d/status.conf
    <Location /server-status>
    SetHandler server-status
    Order deny,allow
    Deny from all
    Allow from 127.0.0.1
    Allow from ::1
    </Location>
    END
  6. Create IPaddr2 and apache resources for the cluster to manage. The 'IPaddr2' resource is a floating IP address that must not be one already associated with a physical node. If the 'IPaddr2' resource’s NIC device is not specified, the floating IP must reside on the same network as the statically assigned IP address used by the node.

    You can display a list of all available resource types with the pcs resource list command. You can use the pcs resource describe resourcetype command to display the parameters you can set for the specified resource type. For example, the following command displays the parameters you can set for a resource of type apache:

    # pcs resource describe apache
    ...

    In this example, the IP address resource and the apache resource are both configured as part of a group named apachegroup, which ensures that the resources are kept together to run on the same node when you are configuring a working multi-node cluster.

    # pcs resource create ClusterIP ocf:heartbeat:IPaddr2 ip=192.168.122.120 --group apachegroup
    
    # pcs resource create WebSite ocf:heartbeat:apache configfile=/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf statusurl="http://localhost/server-status" --group apachegroup
    
    # pcs status
    Cluster name: my_cluster
    Stack: corosync
    Current DC: z1.example.com (version 2.0.0-10.el8-b67d8d0de9) - partition with quorum
    Last updated: Fri Oct 12 09:54:33 2018
    Last change: Fri Oct 12 09:54:30 2018 by root via cibadmin on z1.example.com
    
    1 node configured
    2 resources configured
    
    Online: [ z1.example.com ]
    
    Full list of resources:
    
    Resource Group: apachegroup
        ClusterIP  (ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):       Started z1.example.com
        WebSite    (ocf::heartbeat:apache):        Started z1.example.com
    
    PCSD Status:
      z1.example.com: Online
    ...

    After you have configured a cluster resource, you can use the pcs resource config command to display the options that are configured for that resource.

    # pcs resource config WebSite
    Resource: WebSite (class=ocf provider=heartbeat type=apache)
     Attributes: configfile=/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf statusurl=http://localhost/server-status
     Operations: start interval=0s timeout=40s (WebSite-start-interval-0s)
                 stop interval=0s timeout=60s (WebSite-stop-interval-0s)
                 monitor interval=1min (WebSite-monitor-interval-1min)
  7. Point your browser to the website you created using the floating IP address you configured. This should display the text message you defined.
  8. Stop the apache web service and check the cluster status. Using killall -9 simulates an application-level crash.

    # killall -9 httpd

    Check the cluster status. You should see that stopping the web service caused a failed action, but that the cluster software restarted the service and you should still be able to access the website.

    # pcs status
    Cluster name: my_cluster
    ...
    Current DC: z1.example.com (version 1.1.13-10.el7-44eb2dd) - partition with quorum
    1 node and 2 resources configured
    
    Online: [ z1.example.com ]
    
    Full list of resources:
    
    Resource Group: apachegroup
        ClusterIP  (ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):       Started z1.example.com
        WebSite    (ocf::heartbeat:apache):        Started z1.example.com
    
    Failed Resource Actions:
    * WebSite_monitor_60000 on z1.example.com 'not running' (7): call=13, status=complete, exitreason='none',
        last-rc-change='Thu Oct 11 23:45:50 2016', queued=0ms, exec=0ms
    
    PCSD Status:
        z1.example.com: Online

    You can clear the failure status on the resource that failed once the service is up and running again and the failed action notice will no longer appear when you view the cluster status.

    # pcs resource cleanup WebSite
  9. When you are finished looking at the cluster and the cluster status, stop the cluster services on the node. Even though you have only started services on one node for this introduction, the --all parameter is included since it would stop cluster services on all nodes on an actual multi-node cluster.

    # pcs cluster stop --all

2.2. Learning to configure failover

This procedure provides an introduction to creating a Pacemaker cluster running a service that will fail over from one node to another when the node on which the service is running becomes unavailable. By working through this procedure, you can learn how to create a service in a two-node cluster and you can then observe what happens to that service when it fails on the node on which it running.

This example procedure configures a two-node Pacemaker cluster running an Apache HTTP server. You can then stop the Apache service on one node to see how the service remains available.

This procedure requires as a prerequisite that you have two nodes running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 that can communicate with each other, and it requires a floating IP address that resides on the same network as one of the node’s statically assigned IP addresses.

  • The nodes used in this example are z1.example.com and z2.example.com.
  • The floating IP address used in this example is 192.168.122.120.
Note

Ensure that the names of the nodes you are using are in the /etc/hosts file on each node.

  1. On both nodes, install the Red Hat High Availability Add-On software packages from the High Availability channel, and start and enable the pcsd service.

    # yum install pcs pacemaker fence-agents-all
    ...
    # systemctl start pcsd.service
    # systemctl enable pcsd.service

    If you are running the firewalld daemon, on both nodes enable the ports that are required by the Red Hat High Availability Add-On.

    # firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=high-availability
    # firewall-cmd --reload
  2. On both nodes in the cluster, set a password for user hacluster .

    # passwd hacluster
  3. Authenticate user hacluster for each node in the cluster on the node from which you will be running the pcs commands.

    # pcs host auth z1.example.com z2.example.com
  4. Create a cluster named my_cluster with both nodes as cluster members. This command creates and starts the cluster in one step. You only need to run this from one node in the cluster because pcs configuration commands take effect for the entire cluster.

    On one node in cluster, run the following command.

    # pcs cluster setup my_cluster --start z1.example.com z2.example.com
  5. A Red Hat High Availability cluster requires that you configure fencing for the cluster. The reasons for this requirement are described in Fencing in a Red Hat High Availability Cluster. For this introduction, however, to show only how failover works in this configuration, disable fencing by setting the stonith-enabled cluster option to false

    Warning

    The use of stonith-enabled=false is completely inappropriate for a production cluster. It tells the cluster to simply pretend that failed nodes are safely fenced.

    # pcs property set stonith-enabled=false
  6. After creating a cluster and disabling fencing, check the status of the cluster.

    Note

    When you run the pcs cluster status command, it may show output that temporarily differs slightly from the examples as the system components start up.

    # pcs cluster status
    Cluster Status:
     Stack: corosync
     Current DC: z1.example.com (version 2.0.0-10.el8-b67d8d0de9) - partition with quorum
     Last updated: Thu Oct 11 16:11:18 2018
     Last change: Thu Oct 11 16:11:00 2018 by hacluster via crmd on z1.example.com
     2 nodes configured
     0 resources configured
    
    PCSD Status:
      z1.example.com: Online
      z2.example.com: Online
  7. On both nodes, configure a web browser and create a web page to display a simple text message. If you are running the firewalld daemon, enable the ports that are required by httpd.

    Note

    Do not use systemctl enable to enable any services that will be managed by the cluster to start at system boot.

    # yum install -y httpd wget
    ...
    # firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=http
    # firewall-cmd --reload
    
    # cat <<-END >/var/www/html/index.html
    <html>
    <body>My Test Site - $(hostname)</body>
    </html>
    END

    In order for the Apache resource agent to get the status of Apache, on each node in the cluster create the following addition to the existing configuration to enable the status server URL.

    # cat <<-END > /etc/httpd/conf.d/status.conf
    <Location /server-status>
    SetHandler server-status
    Order deny,allow
    Deny from all
    Allow from 127.0.0.1
    Allow from ::1
    </Location>
    END
  8. Create IPaddr2 and apache resources for the cluster to manage. The 'IPaddr2' resource is a floating IP address that must not be one already associated with a physical node. If the 'IPaddr2' resource’s NIC device is not specified, the floating IP must reside on the same network as the statically assigned IP address used by the node.

    You can display a list of all available resource types with the pcs resource list command. You can use the pcs resource describe resourcetype command to display the parameters you can set for the specified resource type. For example, the following command displays the parameters you can set for a resource of type apache:

    # pcs resource describe apache
    ...

    In this example, the IP address resource and the apache resource are both configured as part of a group named apachegroup, which ensures that the resources are kept together to run on the same node.

    Run the following commands from one node in the cluster:

    # pcs resource create ClusterIP ocf:heartbeat:IPaddr2 ip=192.168.122.120 --group apachegroup
    
    # pcs resource create WebSite ocf:heartbeat:apache configfile=/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf statusurl="http://localhost/server-status" --group apachegroup
    
    # pcs status
    Cluster name: my_cluster
    Stack: corosync
    Current DC: z1.example.com (version 2.0.0-10.el8-b67d8d0de9) - partition with quorum
    Last updated: Fri Oct 12 09:54:33 2018
    Last change: Fri Oct 12 09:54:30 2018 by root via cibadmin on z1.example.com
    
    2 nodes configured
    2 resources configured
    
    Online: [ z1.example.com z2.example.com ]
    
    Full list of resources:
    
    Resource Group: apachegroup
        ClusterIP  (ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):       Started z1.example.com
        WebSite    (ocf::heartbeat:apache):        Started z1.example.com
    
    PCSD Status:
      z1.example.com: Online
      z2.example.com: Online
    ...

    Note that in this instance, the apachegroup service is running on node z1.example.com.

  9. Access the website you created, stop the service on the node on which it is running, and note how the service fails over to the second node.

    1. Point a browser to the website you created using the floating IP address you configured. This should display the text message you defined, displaying the name of the node on which the website is running.
    2. Stop the apache web service. Using killall -9 simulates an application-level crash.

      # killall -9 httpd

      Check the cluster status. You should see that stopping the web service caused a failed action, but that the cluster software restarted the service on the node on which it had been running and you should still be able to access the web browser.

      # pcs status
      Cluster name: my_cluster
      Stack: corosync
      Current DC: z1.example.com (version 2.0.0-10.el8-b67d8d0de9) - partition with quorum
      Last updated: Fri Oct 12 09:54:33 2018
      Last change: Fri Oct 12 09:54:30 2018 by root via cibadmin on z1.example.com
      
      2 nodes configured
      2 resources configured
      
      Online: [ z1.example.com z2.example.com ]
      
      Full list of resources:
      
      Resource Group: apachegroup
          ClusterIP  (ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):       Started z1.example.com
          WebSite    (ocf::heartbeat:apache):        Started z1.example.com
      
      Failed Resource Actions:
      * WebSite_monitor_60000 on z1.example.com 'not running' (7): call=31, status=complete, exitreason='none',
          last-rc-change='Fri Feb  5 21:01:41 2016', queued=0ms, exec=0ms

      Clear the failure status once the service is up and running again.

      # pcs resource cleanup WebSite
    3. Put the node on which the service is running into standby mode. Note that since we have disabled fencing we can not effectively simulate a node-level failure (such as pulling a power cable) because fencing is required for the cluster to recover from such situations.

      # pcs node standby z1.example.com
    4. Check the status of the cluster and note where the service is now running.

      # pcs status
      Cluster name: my_cluster
      Stack: corosync
      Current DC: z1.example.com (version 2.0.0-10.el8-b67d8d0de9) - partition with quorum
      Last updated: Fri Oct 12 09:54:33 2018
      Last change: Fri Oct 12 09:54:30 2018 by root via cibadmin on z1.example.com
      
      2 nodes configured
      2 resources configured
      
      Node z1.example.com: standby
      Online: [ z2.example.com ]
      
      Full list of resources:
      
      Resource Group: apachegroup
          ClusterIP  (ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):       Started z2.example.com
          WebSite    (ocf::heartbeat:apache):        Started z2.example.com
    5. Access the website. There should be no loss of service, although the display message should indicate the node on which the service is now running.
  10. To restore cluster services to the first node, take the node out of standby mode. This will not necessarily move the service back to that node.

    # pcs node unstandby z1.example.com
  11. For final cleanup, stop the cluster services on both nodes.

    # pcs cluster stop --all