Chapter 2. Managing secrets and keys with OpenStack Key Manager (barbican)

You use OpenStack Key Manager to create, update, and delete secrets and encryption keys. You can also back up and restore the encryption keys and the barbican database. It is recommended that you regularly back up your encryption keys and barbican database.

2.1. Viewing secrets

To view the list of secrets, run the openstack secret list command. The list includes the URI, name, type, and other information about the secrets.

Procedure

  • View the list of secrets:

    $ openstack secret list
    +------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------+---------------------------+--------+-------------------------------------------+-----------+------------+-------------+------+------------+
    | Secret href                                                                        | Name | Created                   | Status | Content types                             | Algorithm | Bit length | Secret type | Mode | Expiration |
    +------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------+---------------------------+--------+-------------------------------------------+-----------+------------+-------------+------+------------+
    | https://192.168.123.169:9311/v1/secrets/24845e6d-64a5-4071-ba99-0fdd1046172e | None | 2018-01-22T02:23:15+00:00 | ACTIVE | {u'default': u'application/octet-stream'} | aes       |        256 | symmetric   | None | None       |
    +------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------+---------------------------+--------+-------------------------------------------+-----------+------------+-------------+------+------------+

2.2. Creating a secret

To create a secret, run the openstack secret store command and specify the name of the secret and optionally the payload for the secret.

Procedure

  • Create a secret. For example:

    $ openstack secret store --name testSecret --payload 'TestPayload'
    +---------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Field         | Value                                                                              |
    +---------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Secret href   | https://192.168.123.163:9311/v1/secrets/ecc7b2a4-f0b0-47ba-b451-0f7d42bc1746 |
    | Name          | testSecret                                                                         |
    | Created       | None                                                                               |
    | Status        | None                                                                               |
    | Content types | None                                                                               |
    | Algorithm     | aes                                                                                |
    | Bit length    | 256                                                                                |
    | Secret type   | opaque                                                                             |
    | Mode          | cbc                                                                                |
    | Expiration    | None                                                                               |
    +---------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

2.3. Adding a payload to a secret

You cannot change the payload of a secret (other than deleting the secret), but if you created a secret without specifying a payload, you can later add a payload to it by using the openstack secret update command.

Procedure

  • Add a payload to a secret:

    $ openstack secret update https://192.168.123.163:9311/v1/secrets/ca34a264-fd09-44a1-8856-c6e7116c3b16 'TestPayload-updated'
    $

2.4. Deleting a secret

To delete a secret, run the openstack secret delete command and specify the secret URI.

Procedure

  • Delete a secret with the specified URI:

    $ openstack secret delete https://192.168.123.163:9311/v1/secrets/ecc7b2a4-f0b0-47ba-b451-0f7d42bc1746
    $

2.5. Generating a symmetric key

To generate a symmetric key, use the order create command and then store the key in barbican. You can then use symmetric keys for certain tasks, such as nova disk encryption and swift object encryption.

Prerequisites

  • OpenStack Key Manager is installed and running

Procedure

  1. Generate a new 256-bit key using order create and store it in barbican. For example:

    $ openstack secret order create --name swift_key --algorithm aes --mode ctr --bit-length 256 --payload-content-type=application/octet-stream key
    +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Field          | Value                                                                             |
    +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Order href     | https://192.168.123.173:9311/v1/orders/043383fe-d504-42cf-a9b1-bc328d0b4832 |
    | Type           | Key                                                                               |
    | Container href | N/A                                                                               |
    | Secret href    | None                                                                              |
    | Created        | None                                                                              |
    | Status         | None                                                                              |
    | Error code     | None                                                                              |
    | Error message  | None                                                                              |
    +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

    You can also use the --mode option to configure generated keys to use a particular mode, such as ctr or cbc. For more information, see NIST SP 800-38A.

  2. View the details of the order to identify the location of the generated key, shown here as the Secret href value:

    $ openstack secret order get https://192.168.123.173:9311/v1/orders/043383fe-d504-42cf-a9b1-bc328d0b4832
    +----------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Field          | Value                                                                              |
    +----------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Order href     | https://192.168.123.173:9311/v1/orders/043383fe-d504-42cf-a9b1-bc328d0b4832  |
    | Type           | Key                                                                                |
    | Container href | N/A                                                                                |
    | Secret href    | https://192.168.123.173:9311/v1/secrets/efcfec49-b9a3-4425-a9b6-5ba69cb18719 |
    | Created        | 2018-01-24T04:24:33+00:00                                                          |
    | Status         | ACTIVE                                                                             |
    | Error code     | None                                                                               |
    | Error message  | None                                                                               |
    +----------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
  3. Retrieve the details of the secret:

    $ openstack secret get https://192.168.123.173:9311/v1/secrets/efcfec49-b9a3-4425-a9b6-5ba69cb18719
    +---------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Field         | Value                                                                              |
    +---------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Secret href   | https://192.168.123.173:9311/v1/secrets/efcfec49-b9a3-4425-a9b6-5ba69cb18719 |
    | Name          | swift_key                                                                     |
    | Created       | 2018-01-24T04:24:33+00:00                                                          |
    | Status        | ACTIVE                                                                             |
    | Content types | {u'default': u'application/octet-stream'}                                          |
    | Algorithm     | aes                                                                                |
    | Bit length    | 256                                                                                |
    | Secret type   | symmetric                                                                          |
    | Mode          | ctr                                                                                |
    | Expiration    | None                                                                               |
    +---------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

2.6. Backing up simple crypto encryption keys

To backup simple crypto encryption keys, back up the barbican.conf file that contains the main KEK to a security hardened location, and then back up the barbican database.

Important

The procedure includes steps to generate a test secret and key. If you already generated a key for your secrets, skip the test key steps and use the key that you generated.

Prerequisites

  • OpenStack Key Manager is installed and running
  • You have a security hardened location for the KEK backup

Procedure

  1. On the overcloud, generate a new 256-bit key and store it in barbican:

    (overcloud) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ openstack secret order create --name swift_key --algorithm aes --mode ctr --bit-length 256 --payload-content-type=application/octet-stream key
    +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Field          | Value                                                                 |
    +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Order href     | http://10.0.0.104:9311/v1/orders/2a11584d-851c-4bc2-83b7-35d04d3bae86 |
    | Type           | Key                                                                   |
    | Container href | N/A                                                                   |
    | Secret href    | None                                                                  |
    | Created        | None                                                                  |
    | Status         | None                                                                  |
    | Error code     | None                                                                  |
    | Error message  | None                                                                  |
    +----------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
  2. Create a test secret:

    (overcloud) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ openstack secret store --name testSecret --payload 'TestPayload'
    +---------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Field         | Value                                                                  |
    +---------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Secret href   | http://10.0.0.104:9311/v1/secrets/93f62cfd-e008-401f-be74-bf057c88b04a |
    | Name          | testSecret                                                             |
    | Created       | None                                                                   |
    | Status        | None                                                                   |
    | Content types | None                                                                   |
    | Algorithm     | aes                                                                    |
    | Bit length    | 256                                                                    |
    | Secret type   | opaque                                                                 |
    | Mode          | cbc                                                                    |
    | Expiration    | None                                                                   |
    +---------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------+
  3. Confirm that the test secret is created:

    (overcloud) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ openstack secret list
    +------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------+---------------------------+--------+-------------------------------------------+-----------+------------+-------------+------+------------+
    | Secret href                                                            | Name       | Created                   | Status | Content types                             | Algorithm | Bit length | Secret type | Mode | Expiration |
    +------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------+---------------------------+--------+-------------------------------------------+-----------+------------+-------------+------+------------+
    | http://10.0.0.104:9311/v1/secrets/93f62cfd-e008-401f-be74-bf057c88b04a | testSecret | 2018-06-19T18:25:25+00:00 | ACTIVE | {u'default': u'text/plain'}               | aes       |        256 | opaque      | cbc  | None       |
    | http://10.0.0.104:9311/v1/secrets/f664b5cf-5221-47e5-9887-608972a5fefb | swift_key  | 2018-06-19T18:24:40+00:00 | ACTIVE | {u'default': u'application/octet-stream'} | aes       |        256 | symmetric   | ctr  | None       |
    +------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------+---------------------------+--------+-------------------------------------------+-----------+------------+-------------+------+------------+
  4. Copy the barbican.conf file that contains the main KEK to a security hardened location.
  5. Log in to the controller-0 node and retrieve barbican user password:

    [heat-admin@controller-0 ~]$ sudo grep -r "barbican::db::mysql::password" /etc/puppet/hieradata
    /etc/puppet/hieradata/service_configs.json:    "barbican::db::mysql::password": "seDJRsMNRrBdFryCmNUEFPPev",
    Note

    Only the user barbican has access to the barbican database. So the barbican user password is required to backup or restore the database.

  6. Back up the barbican database:

    [heat-admin@controller-0 ~]$ mysqldump -u barbican -p"seDJRsMNRrBdFryCmNUEFPPev" barbican > barbican_db_backup.sql
  7. Check that the database backup is stored in /home/heat-admin:

    [heat-admin@controller-0 ~]$ ll
    total 36
    -rw-rw-r--. 1 heat-admin heat-admin 36715 Jun 19 18:31 barbican_db_backup.sql
  8. On the overcloud, delete the secrets you created previously and verify that they no longer exist:

    (overcloud) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ openstack secret delete http://10.0.0.104:9311/v1/secrets/93f62cfd-e008-401f-be74-bf057c88b04a
    (overcloud) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ openstack secret delete http://10.0.0.104:9311/v1/secrets/f664b5cf-5221-47e5-9887-608972a5fefb
    (overcloud) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ openstack secret list
    
    (overcloud) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$

2.7. Restoring simple crypto encryption keys from a backup

To restore the barbican database from a backup, log in to the Controller node with barbican permissions and restore the barbican database. To restore the KEK from a backup, override the barbican.conf file with the backup file.

Prerequisites

  • OpenStack Key Manager is installed and running
  • You have an existing backup of the barbican.conf file and the barbican database

Procedure

  1. Log in to the controller-0 node and check that you have the barbican database on the controller that grants access to the barbican user to restore the database:

    [heat-admin@controller-0 ~]$ mysql -u barbican -p"seDJRsMNRrBdFryCmNUEFPPev"
    Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
    Your MariaDB connection id is 3799
    Server version: 10.1.20-MariaDB MariaDB Server
    
    Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.
    
    Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
    
    MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW DATABASES;
    +--------------------+
    | Database           |
    +--------------------+
    | barbican           |
    | information_schema |
    +--------------------+
    2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
    
    MariaDB [(none)]> exit
    Bye
    [heat-admin@controller-0 ~]$
  2. Restore the backup file to the barbican database:

    [heat-admin@controller-0 ~]$ sudo mysql -u barbican -p"seDJRsMNRrBdFryCmNUEFPPev" barbican < barbican_db_backup.sql
    [heat-admin@controller-0 ~]$
  3. Override the barbican.conf file with the file that you previously backed up.

Verification

  • On the overcloud, verify that the test secrets were restored successfully:

    (overcloud) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ openstack secret list
    +------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------+---------------------------+--------+-------------------------------------------+-----------+------------+-------------+------+------------+
    | Secret href                                                            | Name       | Created                   | Status | Content types                             | Algorithm | Bit length | Secret type | Mode | Expiration |
    +------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------+---------------------------+--------+-------------------------------------------+-----------+------------+-------------+------+------------+
    | http://10.0.0.104:9311/v1/secrets/93f62cfd-e008-401f-be74-bf057c88b04a | testSecret | 2018-06-19T18:25:25+00:00 | ACTIVE | {u'default': u'text/plain'}               | aes       |        256 | opaque      | cbc  | None       |
    | http://10.0.0.104:9311/v1/secrets/f664b5cf-5221-47e5-9887-608972a5fefb | swift_key  | 2018-06-19T18:24:40+00:00 | ACTIVE | {u'default': u'application/octet-stream'} | aes       |        256 | symmetric   | ctr  | None       |
    +------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------+---------------------------+--------+-------------------------------------------+-----------+------------+-------------+------+------------+
    (overcloud) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$