Getting Started Guide

Red Hat JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 7.1

For Use with Red Hat JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 7.1

Red Hat Customer Content Services

Abstract

This guide provides the basic information to help users get started with Red Hat JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 7.1.

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1. About Red Hat JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 7

Red Hat JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 7 (JBoss EAP) is a middleware platform built on open standards and compliant with the Java Enterprise Edition 7 specification.

JBoss EAP includes a modular structure that allows service enabling only when required, improving startup speed.

The management console and management command-line interface (CLI) make editing XML configuration files unnecessary and add the ability to script and automate tasks.

JBoss EAP provides two operating modes for JBoss EAP instances: standalone server or managed domain. The standalone server operating mode represents running JBoss EAP as a single server instance. The managed domain operating mode allows for the management of multiple JBoss EAP instances from a single control point.

In addition, JBoss EAP includes APIs and development frameworks for quickly developing secure and scalable Java EE applications.

1.2. About the Getting Started Guide

The purpose of this guide is to get you up and running with JBoss EAP quickly. It covers administrative tasks such as basic installation, management, and configuration for JBoss EAP. This guide also helps developers get started writing Java EE 7 applications by using the JBoss EAP quickstarts.

To learn more, see the entire JBoss EAP documentation suite.

Chapter 2. Administering JBoss EAP

2.1. Downloading and Installing JBoss EAP

This guide provides basic instructions for downloading and installing JBoss EAP using the ZIP installation, which is platform independent.

See the Installation Guide for additional details, including instructions for installing JBoss EAP using the graphical installer or RPM package installation methods.

2.1.1. Installation Prerequisites

Verify that the following prerequisites have been met before installing JBoss EAP.

Common Prerequisites

ZIP Installation Prerequisites

  • The user who will run JBoss EAP has read and write access for the installation directory.
  • The desired Java development kit has been installed.
  • For Hewlett-Packard HP-UX, an unzip utility has been installed.
  • For Windows Server, the JAVA_HOME and PATH environment variables have been set.

2.1.2. Download JBoss EAP

The JBoss EAP ZIP file is available from the Red Hat Customer Portal. The ZIP file installation is platform-independent.

  1. Log in to the Red Hat Customer Portal.
  2. Click Downloads.
  3. Click Red Hat JBoss Enterprise Application Platform in the Product Downloads list.
  4. In the Version drop-down menu, select 7.1.
  5. Find Red Hat JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 7.1.0 in the list and click the Download link.

2.1.3. Install JBoss EAP

Once the JBoss EAP ZIP installation file has been downloaded, it can be installed by extracting the package contents.

  1. If necessary, move the ZIP file to the server and location where JBoss EAP should be installed.

    Note

    The user who will be running JBoss EAP must have read and write access to this directory.

  2. Extract the ZIP archive.

    $ unzip jboss-eap-7.1.0.zip
    Note

    For Windows Server, right-click the ZIP file and select Extract All.

The directory created by extracting the ZIP archive is the top-level directory for the JBoss EAP installation. This is referred to as EAP_HOME.

2.2. Starting and Stopping JBoss EAP

2.2.1. Starting JBoss EAP

JBoss EAP is supported on Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Windows Server, Oracle Solaris, and Hewlett-Packard HP-UX, and runs in either a standalone server or managed domain operating mode. The specific command to start JBoss EAP depends on the underlying platform and the desired operating mode.

Servers are initially started in a suspended state and will not accept any requests until all required services have started, at which time the servers are placed into a normal running state and can start accepting requests.

Start JBoss EAP as a Standalone Server
$ EAP_HOME/bin/standalone.sh
Note

For Windows Server, use the EAP_HOME\bin\standalone.bat script.

This startup script uses the EAP_HOME/bin/standalone.conf file, or standalone.conf.bat for Windows Server, to set some default preferences, such as JVM options. You can customize the settings in this file.

JBoss EAP uses the standalone.xml configuration file by default, but can be started using a different one. For details on the available standalone configuration files and how to use them, see the Standalone Server Configuration Files section.

For a complete listing of all available startup script arguments and their purposes, use the --help argument or see the Server Runtime Arguments section.

Start JBoss EAP in a Managed Domain

The domain controller must be started before the servers in any of the server groups in the domain. Use this script to first start the domain controller, and then for each associated host controller.

$ EAP_HOME/bin/domain.sh
Note

For Windows Server, use the EAP_HOME\bin\domain.bat script.

This startup script uses the EAP_HOME/bin/domain.conf file, or domain.conf.bat for Windows Server, to set some default preferences, such as JVM options. You can customize the settings in this file.

JBoss EAP uses the host.xml host configuration file by default, but can be started using a different one. For details on the available managed domain configuration files and how to use them, see the Managed Domain Configuration Files section.

When setting up a managed domain, additional arguments will need to be passed into the startup script. For a complete listing of all available startup script arguments and their purposes, use the --help argument or see the Server Runtime Arguments section.

2.2.2. Stopping JBoss EAP

The way that you stop JBoss EAP depends on how it was started.

Stop an Interactive Instance of JBoss EAP

Press Ctrl+C in the terminal where JBoss EAP was started.

Stop a Background Instance of JBoss EAP

Use the management CLI to connect to the running instance and shut down the server.

  1. Launch the management CLI.

    $ EAP_HOME/bin/jboss-cli.sh --connect
  2. Issue the shutdown command.

    shutdown
Note

When running in a managed domain, you must specify the host name to shut down by using the --host argument with the shutdown command.

2.3. JBoss EAP Management

JBoss EAP uses a simplified configuration, with one configuration file per standalone server or managed domain. Default configuration for a standalone server is stored in the EAP_HOME/standalone/configuration/standalone.xml file and default configuration for a managed domain is stored in the EAP_HOME/domain/configuration/domain.xml file. Additionally, the default configuration for a host controller is stored in the EAP_HOME/domain/configuration/host.xml file.

JBoss EAP can be configured using the command-line management CLI, web-based management console, Java API, or HTTP API. Changes made using these management interfaces persist automatically, and the XML configuration files are overwritten by the Management API. The management CLI and management console are the preferred methods, and it is not recommended to edit the XML configuration files manually.

2.3.1. Management Users

The default JBoss EAP configuration provides local authentication so that a user can access the management CLI on the local host without requiring authentication.

However, you must add a management user if you want to access the management CLI remotely or use the management console, which is considered remote access even if the traffic originates on the local host. If you attempt to access the management console before adding a management user, you will receive an error message.

If JBoss EAP is installed using the graphical installer, then a management user is created during the installation process.

This guide covers simple user management for JBoss EAP using the add-user script, which is a utility for adding new users to the properties files for out-of-the-box authentication.

For more advanced authentication and authorization options, such as LDAP or Role-Based Access Control (RBAC), see the Core Management Authentication section of the JBoss EAP Security Architecture.

2.3.1.1. Adding a Management User

  1. Run the add-user utility script and follow the prompts.

    $ EAP_HOME/bin/add-user.sh
    Note

    For Windows Server, use the EAP_HOME\bin\add-user.bat script.

  2. Press ENTER to select the default option a to add a management user.

    This user will be added to the ManagementRealm and will be authorized to perform management operations using the management console or management CLI. The other choice, b, adds a user to the ApplicationRealm, which is used for applications and provides no particular permissions.

  3. Enter the desired username and password. You will be prompted to confirm the password.

    Note

    User names can only contain the following characters, in any number and in any order:

    • Alphanumeric characters (a-z, A-Z, 0-9)
    • Dashes (-), periods (.), commas (,), at sign (@)
    • Backslash (\)
    • Equals (=)

    By default, JBoss EAP allows weak passwords but will issue a warning.

    See the Setting Add-User Utility Password Restrictions section of the JBoss EAP Configuration Guide for details on changing this default behavior.

  4. Enter a comma-separated list of groups to which the user belongs. If you do not want the user to belong to any groups, press ENTER to leave it blank.
  5. Review the information and enter yes to confirm.
  6. Determine whether this user represents a remote JBoss EAP server instance. For a basic management user, enter no.

    One type of user that may need to be added to the ManagementRealm is a user representing another instance of JBoss EAP, which must be able to authenticate to join as a member of a cluster. If this is the case, then answer yes to this prompt and you will be given a hashed secret value representing the user’s password, which will need to be added to a different configuration file.

Users can also be created non-interactively by passing parameters to the add-user script. This approach is not recommended on shared systems, because the passwords will be visible in log and history files. For more information, see Running the Add-User Utility Non-Interactively.

2.3.1.2. Running the Add-User Utility Non-Interactively

You can run the add-user script non-interactively by passing in arguments on the command line. At a minimum, the username and password must be provided.

Warning

This approach is not recommended on shared systems, because the passwords will be visible in log and history files.

Create a User Belonging to Multiple Groups

The following command adds a management user, mgmtuser1, with the guest and mgmtgroup groups.

$ EAP_HOME/bin/add-user.sh -u 'mgmtuser1' -p 'password1!' -g 'guest,mgmtgroup'
Specify an Alternative Properties File

By default, user and group information created using the add-user script are stored in properties files located in the server configuration directory.

User information is stored in the following properties files:

  • EAP_HOME/standalone/configuration/mgmt-users.properties
  • EAP_HOME/domain/configuration/mgmt-users.properties

Group information is stored in the following properties files:

  • EAP_HOME/standalone/configuration/mgmt-groups.properties
  • EAP_HOME/domain/configuration/mgmt-groups.properties

These default directories and properties file names can be overridden. The following command adds a new user, specifying a different name and location for the user properties files.

$ EAP_HOME/bin/add-user.sh -u 'mgmtuser2' -p 'password1!' -sc '/path/to/standaloneconfig/' -dc '/path/to/domainconfig/' -up 'newname.properties'

The new user was added to the user properties files located at /path/to/standaloneconfig/newname.properties and /path/to/domainconfig/newname.properties. Note that these files must already exist or you will see an error.

For a complete listing of all available add-user arguments and their purposes, use the --help argument or see the Add-User Utility Arguments section.

2.3.2. Management Interfaces

2.3.2.1. Management CLI

The management command-line interface (CLI) is a command-line administration tool for JBoss EAP.

Use the management CLI to start and stop servers, deploy and undeploy applications, configure system settings, and perform other administrative tasks. Operations can be performed in batch mode, allowing multiple tasks to be run as a group.

Many common terminal commands are available, such as ls, cd, and pwd. The management CLI also supports tab completion.

For detailed information on using the management CLI, including commands and operations, syntax, and running in batch mode, see the JBoss EAP Management CLI Guide.

Launch the Management CLI
$ EAP_HOME/bin/jboss-cli.sh
Note

For Windows Server, use the EAP_HOME\bin\jboss-cli.bat script.

Connect to a Running Server
connect

Or you can launch the management CLI and connect in one step by using the EAP_HOME/bin/jboss-cli.sh --connect command.

Display Help

Use the following command for general help.

help

Use the --help flag on a command to receive instructions on using that specific command. For instance, to receive information on using deploy, the following command is executed.

deploy --help
Quit the Management CLI
quit
View System Settings

The following command uses the read-attribute operation to display whether the example datasource is enabled.

/subsystem=datasources/data-source=ExampleDS:read-attribute(name=enabled)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => true
}

When running in a managed domain, you must specify which profile to update by preceding the command with /profile=PROFILE_NAME.

/profile=default/subsystem=datasources/data-source=ExampleDS:read-attribute(name=enabled)
Update System Settings

The following command uses the write-attribute operation to disable the example datasource.

/subsystem=datasources/data-source=ExampleDS:write-attribute(name=enabled,value=false)
Start Servers

The management CLI can also be used to start and stop servers when running in a managed domain.

/host=HOST_NAME/server-config=server-one:start

2.3.2.2. Management Console

The management console is a web-based administration tool for JBoss EAP.

Use the management console to start and stop servers, deploy and undeploy applications, tune system settings, and make persistent modifications to the server configuration. The management console also has the ability to perform administrative tasks, with live notifications when any changes performed by the current user require the server instance to be restarted or reloaded.

In a managed domain, server instances and server groups in the same domain can be centrally managed from the management console of the domain controller.

For a JBoss EAP instance running on the local host using the default management port, the management console can be accessed through a web browser at http://localhost:9990/console/App.html. You will need to authenticate with a user that has permissions to access the management console.

The management console provides the following tabs for navigating and managing your JBoss EAP standalone server or managed domain.

Home
Learn how to accomplish several common configuration and management tasks. Take a tour to become familiar with the JBoss EAP management console.
Deployments
Add, remove, and enable deployments. In a managed domain, assign deployments to server groups.
Configuration
Configure available subsystems, which provide capabilities such as web services, messaging, or high availability. In a managed domain, manage the profiles that contain different subsystem configurations.
Runtime
View runtime information, such as server status, JVM usage, and server logs. In a managed domain, manage your hosts, server groups, and servers.
Access Control
Assign roles to users and groups when using Role-Based Access Control.
Patching
Apply patches to your JBoss EAP instances.
Note

To take a tour of the management console, click the Take a Tour! link on the management console home page.

2.3.3. Configuration Files

2.3.3.1. Standalone Server Configuration Files

The standalone configuration files are located in the EAP_HOME/standalone/configuration/ directory. A separate file exists for each of the five predefined profiles (default, ha, full, full-ha, load-balancer).

Table 2.1. Standalone Configuration Files

Configuration FilePurpose

standalone.xml

This standalone configuration file is the default configuration that is used when you start your standalone server. It contains all information about the server, including subsystems, networking, deployments, socket bindings, and other configurable details. It does not provide the subsystems necessary for messaging or high availability.

standalone-ha.xml

This standalone configuration file includes all of the default subsystems and adds the modcluster and jgroups subsystems for high availability. It does not provide the subsystems necessary for messaging.

standalone-full.xml

This standalone configuration file includes all of the default subsystems and adds the messaging-activemq and iiop-openjdk subsystems. It does not provide the subsystems necessary for high availability.

standalone-full-ha.xml

This standalone configuration file includes support for every possible subsystem, including those for messaging and high availability.

standalone-load-balancer.xml

This standalone configuration file includes the minimum subsystems necessary to use the built-in mod_cluster front-end load balancer to load balance other JBoss EAP instances.

By default, starting JBoss EAP as a standalone server uses the standalone.xml file. To start JBoss EAP with a different configuration, use the --server-config argument. For example,

$ EAP_HOME/bin/standalone.sh --server-config=standalone-full.xml

2.3.3.2. Managed Domain Configuration Files

The managed domain configuration files are located in the EAP_HOME/domain/configuration/ directory.

Table 2.2. Managed Domain Configuration Files

Configuration FilePurpose

domain.xml

This is the main configuration file for a managed domain. Only the domain master reads this file. This file contains the configurations for all of the profiles (default, ha, full, full-ha, load-balancer).

host.xml

This file includes configuration details specific to a physical host in a managed domain, such as network interfaces, socket bindings, the name of the host, and other host-specific details. The host.xml file includes all of the features of both host-master.xml and host-slave.xml, which are described below.

host-master.xml

This file includes only the configuration details necessary to run a server as the master domain controller.

host-slave.xml

This file includes only the configuration details necessary to run a server as a managed domain host controller.

By default, starting JBoss EAP in a managed domain uses the host.xml file. To start JBoss EAP with a different configuration, use the --host-config argument. For example,

$ EAP_HOME/bin/domain.sh --host-config=host-master.xml

2.3.3.3. Backing Up Configuration Data

In order to later restore the JBoss EAP server configuration, items in the following locations should be backed up:

  • EAP_HOME/standalone/configuration/

    • Back up the entire directory to save user data, server configuration, and logging settings for standalone servers.
  • EAP_HOME/domain/configuration/

    • Back up the entire directory to save user and profile data, domain and host configuration, and logging settings for managed domains.
  • EAP_HOME/modules/

    • Back up any custom modules.
  • EAP_HOME/welcome-content/

    • Back up any custom welcome content.
  • EAP_HOME/bin/

    • Back up any custom scripts or startup configuration files.

2.3.3.4. Configuration File Snapshots

To assist in the maintenance and management of the server, JBoss EAP creates a timestamped version of the original configuration file at the time of startup. Any additional configuration changes made by management operations will result in the original file being automatically backed up, and a working copy of the instance being preserved for reference and rollback. Additionally, configuration snapshots can be taken, which are point-in-time copies of the current server configuration. These snapshots can be saved and loaded by an administrator.

The following examples use the standalone.xml file, but the same process applies to the domain.xml and host.xml files.

Take a Snapshot

Use the management CLI to take a snapshot of the current configurations.

:take-snapshot
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => "EAP_HOME/standalone/configuration/standalone_xml_history/snapshot/20151022-133109702standalone.xml"
}
List Snapshots

Use the management CLI to list all snapshots that have been taken.

:list-snapshots
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "directory" => "EAP_HOME/standalone/configuration/standalone_xml_history/snapshot",
        "names" => [
            "20151022-133109702standalone.xml",
            "20151022-132715958standalone.xml"
        ]
    }
}
Delete a Snapshot

Use the management CLI to delete a snapshot.

:delete-snapshot(name=20151022-133109702standalone.xml)
Start the Server with a Snapshot

The server can be started using a snapshot or an automatically-saved version of the configuration.

  1. Navigate to the EAP_HOME/standalone/configuration/standalone_xml_history directory and identify the snapshot or saved configuration file to be loaded.
  2. Start the server and point to the selected configuration file. Pass in the file path relative to the configuration directory, EAP_HOME/standalone/configuration/.

    $ EAP_HOME/bin/standalone.sh --server-config=standalone_xml_history/snapshot/20151022-133109702standalone.xml
Note

When running in a managed domain, use the --host-config argument instead to specify the configuration file.

2.3.3.5. Property Replacement

JBoss EAP allows you to use expressions to define replaceable properties in place of literal values in the configuration. Expressions use the format ${PARAMETER:DEFAULT_VALUE}. If the specified parameter is set, then the parameter’s value will be used. Otherwise, the default value provided will be used.

The supported sources for resolving expressions are system properties, environment variables, and the vault. For deployments only, the source can be properties listed in a META-INF/jboss.properties file in the deployment archive. For deployment types that support subdeployments, the resolution is scoped to all subdeployments if the properties file is in the outer deployment, for example the EAR. If the properties file is in the subdeployment, then the resolution is scoped just to that subdeployment.

The example below from the standalone.xml configuration file sets the inet-address for the public interface to 127.0.0.1 unless the jboss.bind.address parameter is set.

<interface name="public">
    <inet-address value="${jboss.bind.address:127.0.0.1}"/>
</interface>

The jboss.bind.address parameter can be set when starting EAP as a standalone server with the following command:

$ EAP_HOME/bin/standalone.sh -Djboss.bind.address=IP_ADDRESS
Nested Expressions

Expressions can be nested, which allows for more advanced use of expressions in place of fixed values. The format of a nested expression is like that of a normal expression, but one expression is embedded in the other, for example:

${SYSTEM_VALUE_1${SYSTEM_VALUE_2}}

Nested expressions are evaluated recursively, so the inner expression is first evaluated, then the outer expression is evaluated. Expressions may also be recursive, where an expression resolves to another expression, which is then resolved. Nested expressions are permitted anywhere that expressions are permitted, with the exception of management CLI commands.

An example of where a nested expression might be used is if the password used in a datasource definition is masked. The configuration for the datasource might have the following line:

<password>${VAULT::ds_ExampleDS::password::1}</password>

The value of ds_ExampleDS could be replaced with a system property (datasource_name) using a nested expression. The configuration for the datasource could instead have the following line:

<password>${VAULT::${datasource_name}::password::1}</password>

JBoss EAP would first evaluate the expression ${datasource_name}, then input this to the larger expression and evaluate the resulting expression. The advantage of this configuration is that the name of the datasource is abstracted from the fixed configuration.

Descriptor-Based Property Replacement

Application configuration, such as datasource connection parameters, typically varies between development, testing, and production environments. This variance is sometimes accommodated by build system scripts, as the Java EE specification does not contain a method to externalize these configurations. With JBoss EAP, you can use descriptor-based property replacement to manage configuration externally.

Descriptor-based property replacement substitutes properties based on descriptors, allowing you to remove assumptions about the environment from the application and the build chain. Environment-specific configurations can be specified in deployment descriptors rather than annotations or build system scripts. You can provide configuration in files or as parameters at the command line.

There are several flags in the ee subsystem that control whether property replacement is applied.

JBoss-specific descriptor replacement is controlled by the jboss-descriptor-property-replacement flag and is enabled by default. When enabled, properties can be replaced in the following deployment descriptors:

  • jboss-ejb3.xml
  • jboss-app.xml
  • jboss-web.xml
  • *-jms.xml
  • *-ds.xml

The following management CLI command can be used to enable or disable property replacement in JBoss-specific descriptors:

/subsystem=ee:write-attribute(name="jboss-descriptor-property-replacement",value=VALUE)

Java EE descriptor replacement controlled by the spec-descriptor-property-replacement flag and is disabled by default. When enabled, properties can be replaced in the following deployment descriptors:

  • ejb-jar.xml
  • persistence.xml
  • application.xml
  • web.xml

The following management CLI command can be used to enable or disable property replacement in Java EE descriptors:

/subsystem=ee:write-attribute(name="spec-descriptor-property-replacement",value=VALUE)

2.4. Network and Port Configuration

2.4.1. Interfaces

JBoss EAP references named interfaces throughout the configuration. This allows the configuration to reference individual interface declarations with logical names, rather than requiring the full details of the interface at each use.

This also allows for easier configuration in a managed domain, where network interface details can vary across multiple machines. Each server instance can correspond to a logical name group.

The standalone.xml, domain.xml, and host.xml files all include interface declarations. There are several preconfigured interface names, depending on which default configuration is used. The management interface can be used for all components and services that require the management layer, including the HTTP management endpoint. The public interface can be used for all application-related network communications. The unsecure interface is used for IIOP sockets in the standard configuration. The private interface is used for JGroups sockets in the standard configuration.

2.4.1.1. Default Interface Configurations

<interfaces>
  <interface name="management">
    <inet-address value="${jboss.bind.address.management:127.0.0.1}"/>
  </interface>
  <interface name="public">
    <inet-address value="${jboss.bind.address:127.0.0.1}"/>
  </interface>
  <interface name="private">
    <inet-address value="${jboss.bind.address.private:127.0.0.1}"/>
  </interface>
  <interface name="unsecure">
    <inet-address value="${jboss.bind.address.unsecure:127.0.0.1}"/>
  </interface>
</interfaces>

By default, JBoss EAP binds these interfaces to 127.0.0.1, but these values can be overridden at runtime by setting the appropriate property. For example, the inet-address of the public interface can be set when starting JBoss EAP as a standalone server with the following command.

$ EAP_HOME/bin/standalone.sh -Djboss.bind.address=IP_ADDRESS

Alternatively, you can use the -b switch on the server start command line. For more information about server start options, see Server Runtime Arguments.

Important

If you modify the default network interfaces or ports that JBoss EAP uses, you must also remember to change any scripts that use the modified interfaces or ports. These include JBoss EAP service scripts, as well as remembering to specify the correct interface and port when accessing the management console or management CLI.

2.4.1.2. Configuring Interfaces

Network interfaces are declared by specifying a logical name and selection criteria for the physical interface. The selection criteria can reference a wildcard address or specify a set of one or more characteristics that an interface or address must have in order to be a valid match. For a listing of all available interface selection criteria, see the Interface Attributes section.

Interfaces can be configured using the management console or the management CLI. Below are several examples of adding and updating interfaces. The management CLI command is shown first, followed by the corresponding configuration XML.

Add an Interface with a NIC Value

Add a new interface with a NIC value of eth0.

/interface=external:add(nic=eth0)
<interface name="external">
   <nic name="eth0"/>
</interface>
Add an Interface with Several Conditional Values

Add a new interface that matches any interface/address on the correct subnet if it is up, supports multicast, and is not point-to-point.

/interface=default:add(subnet-match=192.168.0.0/16,up=true,multicast=true,not={point-to-point=true})
<interface name="default">
   <subnet-match value="192.168.0.0/16"/>
   <up/>
   <multicast/>
   <not>
      <point-to-point/>
   </not>
</interface>
Update an Interface Attribute

Update the public interface’s default inet-address value, keeping the jboss.bind.address property to allow for this value to be set at runtime.

/interface=public:write-attribute(name=inet-address,value="${jboss.bind.address:192.168.0.0}")
<interface name="public">
    <inet-address value="${jboss.bind.address:192.168.0.0}"/>
</interface>
Add an Interface to a Server in a Managed Domain
/host=HOST_NAME/server-config=SERVER_NAME/interface=INTERFACE_NAME:add(inet-address=127.0.0.1)
<servers>
   <server name="SERVER_NAME" group="main-server-group">
      <interfaces>
         <interface name="INTERFACE_NAME">
            <inet-address value="127.0.0.1"/>
         </interface>
      </interfaces>
   </server>
</servers>

2.4.2. Socket Bindings

Socket bindings and socket binding groups allow you to define network ports and their relationship to the networking interfaces required for your JBoss EAP configuration. A socket binding is a named configuration for a socket. A socket binding group is a collection of socket binding declarations that are grouped under a logical name.

This allows other sections of the configuration to reference socket bindings by their logical name, rather than requiring the full details of the socket configuration at each use.

The declarations for these named configurations can be found in the standalone.xml and domain.xml configuration files. A standalone server contains only one socket binding group, while a managed domain can contain multiple groups. You can create a socket binding group for each server group in the managed domain, or share a socket binding group between multiple server groups.

The ports JBoss EAP uses by default depend on which socket binding groups are used and the requirements of your individual deployments.

There are three types of socket bindings that can be defined in a socket binding group in the JBoss EAP configuration:

Inbound Socket Bindings

The socket-binding element is used to configure inbound socket bindings for the JBoss EAP server. The default JBoss EAP configurations provide several preconfigured socket-binding elements, for example, for HTTP and HTTPS traffic. Another example can be found in the Broadcast Groups section of Configuring Messaging for JBoss EAP.

Attributes for this element can be found in the Inbound Socket Binding Attributes table.

Remote Outbound Socket Bindings

The remote-destination-outbound-socket-binding element is used to configure outbound socket bindings for destinations that are remote to the JBoss EAP server. The default JBoss EAP configurations provide an example remote destination socket binding that can be used for a mail server. Another example can be found in the Using the Integrated Artemis Resource Adapter for Remote Connections section of Configuring Messaging for JBoss EAP.

Attributes for this element can be found in the Remote Outbound Socket Binding Attributes table.

Local Outbound Socket Bindings

The local-destination-outbound-socket-binding element is used to configure outbound socket bindings for destinations that are local to the JBoss EAP server. This type of socket binding is not expected to be commonly used.

Attributes for this element can be found in the Local Outbound Socket Binding Attributes table.

2.4.2.1. Management Ports

Management ports were consolidated in JBoss EAP 7. By default, JBoss EAP 7 uses port 9990 for both native management, used by the management CLI, and HTTP management, used by the web-based management console. Port 9999, which was used as the native management port in JBoss EAP 6, is no longer used but can still be enabled if desired.

If HTTPS is enabled for the management console, then port 9993 is used by default.

2.4.2.2. Default Socket Bindings

JBoss EAP ships with a socket binding group for each of the five predefined profiles (default, ha, full, full-ha, load-balancer).

For detailed information about the default socket bindings, such as default ports and descriptions, see the Default Socket Bindings section.

Important

If you modify the default network interfaces or ports that JBoss EAP uses, you must also remember to change any scripts that use the modified interfaces or ports. These include JBoss EAP service scripts, as well as remembering to specify the correct interface and port when accessing the management console or management CLI.

Standalone Server

When running as a standalone server, only one socket binding group is defined per configuration file. Each standalone configuration file (standalone.xml, standalone-ha.xml, standalone-full.xml, standalone-full-ha.xml, standalone-load-balancer.xml) defines socket bindings for the technologies used by its corresponding profile.

For example, the default standalone configuration file (standalone.xml) specifies the below socket bindings.

<socket-binding-group name="standard-sockets" default-interface="public" port-offset="${jboss.socket.binding.port-offset:0}">
    <socket-binding name="management-http" interface="management" port="${jboss.management.http.port:9990}"/>
    <socket-binding name="management-https" interface="management" port="${jboss.management.https.port:9993}"/>
    <socket-binding name="ajp" port="${jboss.ajp.port:8009}"/>
    <socket-binding name="http" port="${jboss.http.port:8080}"/>
    <socket-binding name="https" port="${jboss.https.port:8443}"/>
    <socket-binding name="txn-recovery-environment" port="4712"/>
    <socket-binding name="txn-status-manager" port="4713"/>
    <outbound-socket-binding name="mail-smtp">
        <remote-destination host="localhost" port="25"/>
    </outbound-socket-binding>
</socket-binding-group>
Managed Domain

When running in a managed domain, all socket binding groups are defined in the domain.xml file. There are five predefined socket binding groups:

  • standard-sockets
  • ha-sockets
  • full-sockets
  • full-ha-sockets
  • load-balancer-sockets

Each socket binding group specifies socket bindings for the technologies used by its corresponding profile. For example, the full-ha-sockets socket binding group defines several jgroups socket bindings, which are used by the full-ha profile for high availability.

<socket-binding-groups>
  <socket-binding-group name="standard-sockets" default-interface="public">
    <!-- Needed for server groups using the 'default' profile  -->
    <socket-binding name="ajp" port="${jboss.ajp.port:8009}"/>
    <socket-binding name="http" port="${jboss.http.port:8080}"/>
    <socket-binding name="https" port="${jboss.https.port:8443}"/>
    <socket-binding name="txn-recovery-environment" port="4712"/>
    <socket-binding name="txn-status-manager" port="4713"/>
    <outbound-socket-binding name="mail-smtp">
      <remote-destination host="localhost" port="25"/>
    </outbound-socket-binding>
  </socket-binding-group>
  <socket-binding-group name="ha-sockets" default-interface="public">
    <!-- Needed for server groups using the 'ha' profile  -->
    ...
  </socket-binding-group>
  <socket-binding-group name="full-sockets" default-interface="public">
    <!-- Needed for server groups using the 'full' profile  -->
    ...
  </socket-binding-group>
  <socket-binding-group name="full-ha-sockets" default-interface="public">
    <!-- Needed for server groups using the 'full-ha' profile  -->
    <socket-binding name="ajp" port="${jboss.ajp.port:8009}"/>
    <socket-binding name="http" port="${jboss.http.port:8080}"/>
    <socket-binding name="https" port="${jboss.https.port:8443}"/>
    <socket-binding name="iiop" interface="unsecure" port="3528"/>
    <socket-binding name="iiop-ssl" interface="unsecure" port="3529"/>
    <socket-binding name="jgroups-mping" interface="private" port="0" multicast-address="${jboss.default.multicast.address:230.0.0.4}" multicast-port="45700"/>
    <socket-binding name="jgroups-tcp" interface="private" port="7600"/>
    <socket-binding name="jgroups-udp" interface="private" port="55200" multicast-address="${jboss.default.multicast.address:230.0.0.4}" multicast-port="45688"/>
    <socket-binding name="modcluster" port="0" multicast-address="224.0.1.105" multicast-port="23364"/>
    <socket-binding name="txn-recovery-environment" port="4712"/>
    <socket-binding name="txn-status-manager" port="4713"/>
    <outbound-socket-binding name="mail-smtp">
      <remote-destination host="localhost" port="25"/>
    </outbound-socket-binding>
  </socket-binding-group>
  <socket-binding-group name="load-balancer-sockets" default-interface="public">
    <!-- Needed for server groups using the 'load-balancer' profile  -->
    ...
  </socket-binding-group>
</socket-binding-groups>
Note

The socket configuration for the management interfaces is defined in the domain controller’s host.xml file.

2.4.2.3. Configuring Socket Bindings

When defining a socket binding, you can configure the port and interface attributes, as well as multicast settings such as multicast-address and multicast-port. For details on all available socket bindings attributes, see the Socket Binding Attributes section.

Socket bindings can be configured using the management console or the management CLI. The following steps go through adding a socket binding group, adding a socket binding, and configuring socket binding settings using the management CLI.

  1. Add a new socket binding group. Note that this step cannot be performed when running as a standalone server.

    /socket-binding-group=new-sockets:add(default-interface=public)
  2. Add a socket binding.

    /socket-binding-group=new-sockets/socket-binding=new-socket-binding:add(port=1234)
  3. Change the socket binding to use an interface other than the default, which is set by the socket binding group.

    /socket-binding-group=new-sockets/socket-binding=new-socket-binding:write-attribute(name=interface,value=unsecure)

The following example shows how the XML configuration may look after the above steps have been completed.

<socket-binding-groups>
    ...
    <socket-binding-group name="new-sockets" default-interface="public">
        <socket-binding name="new-socket-binding" interface="unsecure" port="1234"/>
    </socket-binding-group>
</socket-binding-groups>

2.4.2.4. Port Offsets

A port offset is a numeric offset value added to all port values specified in the socket binding group for that server. This allows the server to inherit the port values defined in its socket binding group, with an offset to ensure that it does not conflict with any other servers on the same host. For instance, if the HTTP port of the socket binding group is 8080, and a server uses a port offset of 100, then its HTTP port is 8180.

Below is an example of setting a port offset of 250 for a server in a managed domain using the management CLI.

/host=master/server-config=server-two/:write-attribute(name=socket-binding-port-offset,value=250)

Port offsets can be used for servers in a managed domain and for running multiple standalone servers on the same host.

You can pass in a port offset when starting a standalone server using the jboss.socket.binding.port-offset property.

$ EAP_HOME/bin/standalone.sh -Djboss.socket.binding.port-offset=100

2.4.3. IPv6 Addresses

By default, JBoss EAP is configured to run using IPv4 addresses. The steps below show how to configure JBoss EAP to run using IPv6 addresses.

Configure the JVM Stack for IPv6 Addresses

Update the startup configuration to prefer IPv6 addresses.

  1. Open the startup configuration file.

    • When running as a standalone server, edit the EAP_HOME/bin/standalone.conf file (or standalone.conf.bat for Windows Server).
    • When running in a managed domain, edit the EAP_HOME/bin/domain.conf file (or domain.conf.bat for Windows Server).
  2. Set the java.net.preferIPv4Stack property to false.

    -Djava.net.preferIPv4Stack=false
  3. Append the java.net.preferIPv6Addresses property and set it to true.

    -Djava.net.preferIPv6Addresses=true

The following example shows how the JVM options in the startup configuration file may look after making the above changes.

# Specify options to pass to the Java VM.
#
if [ "x$JAVA_OPTS" = "x" ]; then
   JAVA_OPTS="-Xms1303m -Xmx1303m -Djava.net.preferIPv4Stack=false"
   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Djboss.modules.system.pkgs=$JBOSS_MODULES_SYSTEM_PKGS -Djava.awt.headless=true"
   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Djava.net.preferIPv6Addresses=true"
else
Update Interface Declarations for IPv6 Addresses

The default interface values in the configuration can be changed to IPv6 addresses. For example, the below management CLI command sets the management interface to the IPv6 loopback address (::1).

/interface=management:write-attribute(name=inet-address,value="${jboss.bind.address.management:[::1]}")

The following example shows how the XML configuration may look after running the above command.

<interfaces>
    <interface name="management">
        <inet-address value="${jboss.bind.address.management:[::1]}"/>
    </interface>
    ....
</interfaces>

2.5. Optimizing the JBoss EAP Server Configuration

Once you have installed the JBoss EAP server, and you have created a management user, Red Hat recommends that you optimize your server configuration.

Make sure you review information in the Performance Tuning Guide for information about how to optimize the server configuration to avoid common problems when deploying applications in a production environment. Common optimizations include setting ulimits, enabling garbage collection, creating Java heap dumps, and adjusting the thread pool size.

It is also a good idea to apply any existing patches for your release of the product. Each patch for EAP contains numerous bug fixes. For more information, see Patching JBoss EAP in the Patching and Upgrading Guide for JBoss EAP.

Chapter 3. Developing Applications Using JBoss EAP

3.1. Overview

This guide provides information on getting started developing applications by using Red Hat JBoss Developer Studio and the JBoss EAP 7 quickstart examples.

Red Hat JBoss Developer Studio is an Eclipse-based integrated development environment (IDE) that integrates JBoss application development plug-ins. JBoss Developer Studio can assist with your application development with the availability of JBoss-specific wizards and the ability to deploy applications to JBoss EAP servers. Many quickstart code examples are provided with JBoss EAP 7 to help users get started writing applications using different Java EE 7 technologies.

3.2. Setting up the Development Environment

It is recommended to use JBoss Developer Studio 11.0 or later with JBoss EAP 7.1.

  1. Download and install JBoss Developer Studio.

    For instructions, see Installing JBoss Developer Studio Stand-alone Using the Installer in the JBoss Developer Studio Installation Guide.

  2. Set up the JBoss EAP server in JBoss Developer Studio.

    For instructions, see Using Runtime Detection to Set Up JBoss EAP from within the IDE in the Getting Started with JBoss Developer Studio Tools guide.

3.3. Using the Quickstart Examples

The quickstart examples provided with JBoss EAP are Maven projects.

3.3.1. About Maven

Apache Maven is a distributed build automation tool used in Java application development to create, manage, and build software projects. Maven uses standard configuration files called Project Object Model (POM) files to define projects and manage the build process. POMs describe the module and component dependencies, build order, and targets for the resulting project packaging and output using an XML file. This ensures that the project is built in a correct and uniform manner.

Maven achieves this by using a repository. A Maven repository stores Java libraries, plug-ins, and other build artifacts. The default public repository is the Maven 2 Central Repository, but repositories can be private and internal within a company with a goal to share common artifacts among development teams. Repositories are also available from third-parties. For more information, see the Apache Maven project and the Introduction to Repositories guide.

JBoss EAP includes a Maven repository that contains many of the requirements that Java EE developers typically use to build applications on JBoss EAP.

For more information about how to use Maven with JBoss EAP, see Using Maven with JBoss EAP in the JBoss EAP Development Guide.

3.3.2. Using Maven with the Quickstarts

The artifacts and dependencies needed to build and deploy applications to JBoss EAP 7 are hosted on a public repository. Starting with the JBoss EAP 7 quickstarts, it is no longer necessary to configure your Maven settings.xml file to use these repositories when building the quickstarts. The Maven repositories are now configured in the quickstart project POM files. This method of configuration is provided to make it easier to get started with the quickstarts, however, is generally not recommended for production projects because it can slow down your build.

Red Hat JBoss Developer Studio includes Maven, so there is no need to download and install it separately. It is recommended to use JBoss Developer Studio version 11.0 or later.

If you plan to use the Maven command line to build and deploy your applications, then you must first download Maven from the Apache Maven project and install it using the instructions provided in the Maven documentation.

3.3.3. Download and Run the Quickstarts

3.3.3.1. Download the Quickstarts

JBoss EAP comes with a comprehensive set of quickstart code examples designed to help users begin writing applications using various Java EE 7 technologies. The quickstarts can be downloaded from the Red Hat Customer Portal.

  1. Log in to the Red Hat Customer Portal.
  2. Click Downloads.
  3. In the Product Downloads list, click Red Hat JBoss Enterprise Application Platform.
  4. Select 7.1 in the Version drop-down menu.
  5. Find the Red Hat JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 7.1.0 Quickstarts entry in the table and click Download.
  6. Save the ZIP file to the desired directory.
  7. Extract the ZIP file.

3.3.3.2. Run the Quickstarts in JBoss Developer Studio

Once the quickstarts have been downloaded, they can be imported into JBoss Developer Studio and deployed to JBoss EAP.

Import a Quickstart into JBoss Developer Studio

Each quickstart ships with a POM file that contains its project and configuration information. Use this POM file to easily import the quickstart into JBoss Developer Studio.

Important

If your quickstart project folder is located within the IDE workspace when you import it into JBoss Developer Studio, the IDE generates an invalid project name and WAR archive name. Be sure your quickstart project folder is located outside the IDE workspace before you begin.

  1. Start JBoss Developer Studio.
  2. Select FileImport.
  3. Choose MavenExisting Maven Projects, then click Next.

    Figure 3.1. Import Existing Maven Projects

    The *Import* window.
  4. Browse to the desired quickstart’s directory (for example the helloworld quickstart), and click OK. The Projects list box is populated with the pom.xml file of the selected quickstart project.

    Figure 3.2. Select Maven Projects

    The *Maven Projects* selection window.
  5. Click Finish.

Run the helloworld Quickstart

Running the helloworld quickstart is a simple way to verify that the JBoss EAP server is configured and running correctly.

  1. If you have not yet defined a server, add the JBoss EAP server to JBoss Developer Studio. See Using Runtime Detection to Set Up JBoss EAP from within the IDE in the Getting Started with JBoss Developer Studio Tools guide.
  2. Right-click the helloworld project in the Project Explorer tab and select Run AsRun on Server.

    Figure 3.3. Run As - Run on Server

    The *Run As* -> *Run on Server* screen capture.
  3. Select the JBoss EAP 7.1 server from the server list and click Next.

    Figure 3.4. Run on Server

    The *Run on Server* window.
  4. The helloworld quickstart is already listed to be configured on the server. Click Finish to deploy the quickstart.

    Figure 3.5. Modify Resources Configured on the Server

    The *Add and Remove Resources* window.
  5. Verify the results.

    • In the Server tab, the JBoss EAP 7.1 server status changes to Started .
    • The Console tab shows messages detailing the JBoss EAP server start and the helloworld quickstart deployment.

      WFLYUT0021: Registered web context: /helloworld
      WFLYSRV0010: Deployed "helloworld.war" (runtime-name : "helloworld.war")
    • The helloworld application is available at http://localhost:8080/helloworld and displays the text Hello World!.

For further details on the helloworld quickstart, see Explore the helloworld Quickstart.

Run the bean-validation Quickstart

Some quickstarts, such as the bean-validation quickstart, do not provide a user interface layer and instead provide Arquillian tests to demonstrate functionality.

  1. Import the bean-validation quickstart into JBoss Developer Studio.
  2. In the Servers tab, right-click on the server and choose Start to start the JBoss EAP server. If you do not see a Servers tab or have not yet defined a server, add the JBoss EAP server to JBoss Developer Studio. See Using Runtime Detection to Set Up JBoss EAP from within the IDE in the Getting Started with JBoss Developer Studio Tools guide.
  3. Right-click on the bean-validation project in the Project Explorer tab and select Run AsMaven Build.
  4. Enter the following in the Goals input field and then click Run.

    clean verify -Parq-remote

    Figure 3.6. Edit Configuration

    The *Edit Configuration* window.
  5. Verify the results.

    The Console tab shows the results of the bean-validation Arquillian tests:

    -------------------------------------------------------
     T E S T S
    -------------------------------------------------------
    Running org.jboss.as.quickstarts.bean_validation.test.MemberValidationTest
    Tests run: 5, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0, Time elapsed: 2.189 sec
    
    Results :
    
    Tests run: 5, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0
    
    [INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    [INFO] BUILD SUCCESS
    [INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3.3.3. Run the Quickstarts from the Command Line

You can easily build and deploy the quickstarts from the command line using Maven. If you do not yet have Maven installed, see the Apache Maven project to download and install it.

A README.md file is provided at the root directory of the quickstarts that contains general information about system requirements, configuring Maven, adding users, and running the quickstarts.

Each quickstart also contains its own README.md file that provides the specific instructions and Maven commands to run that quickstart.

Run the helloworld Quickstart from the Command Line

  1. Review the README.md file in the root directory of the helloworld quickstart.
  2. Start the JBoss EAP server.

    $ EAP_HOME/bin/standalone.sh
  3. Navigate to the helloworld quickstart directory.
  4. Build and deploy the quickstart using the Maven command provided in the quickstart’s README.md file.

    $ mvn clean install wildfly:deploy
  5. The helloworld application is now available at http://localhost:8080/helloworld and displays the text Hello World!.

3.4. Review the Quickstart Examples

3.4.1. Explore the helloworld Quickstart

The helloworld quickstart shows you how to deploy a simple servlet to JBoss EAP. The business logic is encapsulated in a service, which is provided as a Contexts and Dependency Injection (CDI) bean and injected into the Servlet. This quickstart is a starting point to be sure you have configured and started your server properly.

Detailed instructions to build and deploy this quickstart using the command line can be found in the README.html file at the root of the helloworld quickstart directory. This topic shows you how to use Red Hat JBoss Developer Studio to run the quickstart and assumes you have installed Red Hat JBoss Developer Studio, configured Maven, and imported and successfully run the helloworld quickstart.

Prerequisites
Examine the Directory Structure

The code for the helloworld quickstart can be found in the QUICKSTART_HOME/helloworld/ directory. The helloworld quickstart is comprised of a Servlet and a CDI bean. It also contains a beans.xml file in the application’s WEB-INF/ directory that has a version number of 1.1 and a bean-discovery-mode of all. This marker file identifies the WAR as a bean archive and tells JBoss EAP to look for beans in this application and to activate the CDI.

The src/main/webapp/ directory contains the files for the quickstart. All the configuration files for this example are located in the WEB-INF/ directory within src/main/webapp/, including the beans.xml file. The src/main/webapp/ directory also includes an index.html file, which uses a simple meta refresh to redirect the user’s browser to the Servlet, which is located at http://localhost:8080/helloworld/HelloWorld. The quickstart does not require a web.xml file.

Examine the Code

The package declaration and imports have been excluded from these listings. The complete listing is available in the quickstart source code.

  1. Review the HelloWorldServlet code.

    The HelloWorldServlet.java file is located in the src/main/java/org/jboss/as/quickstarts/helloworld/ directory. This servlet sends the information to the browser.

    Example: HelloWorldServlet Class Code

    42 @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    43 @WebServlet("/HelloWorld")
    44 public class HelloWorldServlet extends HttpServlet {
    45
    46     static String PAGE_HEADER = "<html><head><title>helloworld</title></head><body>";
    47
    48     static String PAGE_FOOTER = "</body></html>";
    49
    50     @Inject
    51	   HelloService helloService;
    52
    53     @Override
    54     protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, IOException {
    55         resp.setContentType("text/html");
    56         PrintWriter writer = resp.getWriter();
    57         writer.println(PAGE_HEADER);
    58         writer.println("<h1>" + helloService.createHelloMessage("World") + "</h1>");
    59         writer.println(PAGE_FOOTER);
    60         writer.close();
    61     }
    62
    63 }

    Table 3.1. HelloWorldServlet Details

    LineNote

    43

    All you need to do is add the @WebServlet annotation and provide a mapping to a URL used to access the servlet.

    46-48

    Every web page needs correctly formed HTML. This quickstart uses static Strings to write the minimum header and footer output.

    50-51

    These lines inject the HelloService CDI bean which generates the actual message. As long as we don’t alter the API of HelloService, this approach allows us to alter the implementation of HelloService at a later date without changing the view layer.

    58

    This line calls into the service to generate the message "Hello World", and write it out to the HTTP request.

  2. Review the HelloService code.

    The HelloService.java file is located in the src/main/java/org/jboss/as/quickstarts/helloworld/ directory. This service simply returns a message. No XML or annotation registration is required.

    Example: HelloService Class Code

    public class HelloService {
    
        String createHelloMessage(String name) {
            return "Hello " + name + "!";
        }
    }

3.4.2. Explore the numberguess Quickstart

The numberguess quickstart shows you how to create and deploy a simple non-persistant application to JBoss EAP. Information is displayed using a JSF view and business logic is encapsulated in two CDI beans. In the numberguess quickstart, you have ten attempts to guess a number between 1 and 100. After each attempt, you’re told whether your guess was too high or too low.

The code for the numberguess quickstart can be found in the QUICKSTART_HOME/numberguess/ directory where QUICKSTART_HOME is the directory where you downloaded and unzipped the JBoss EAP quickstarts. The numberguess quickstart is comprised of a number of beans, configuration files, and Facelets (JSF) views, and is packaged as a WAR module.

Detailed instructions to build and deploy this quickstart using the command line can be found in the README.html file at the root of the numberguess quickstart directory. The following examples use Red Hat JBoss Developer Studio to run the quickstart.

Prerequisites
Examine the Configuration Files

All the configuration files for this example are located in the QUICKSTART_HOME/numberguess/src/main/webapp/WEB-INF/ directory of the quickstart.

  1. Examine the faces-config.xml file.

    This quickstart uses the JSF 2.2 version of faces-config.xml filename. A standardized version of Facelets is the default view handler in JSF 2.2 so it requires no configuration. This file consists of only the root element and is simply a marker file to indicate JSF should be enabled in the application.

    <faces-config version="2.2"
       xmlns="http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee"
       xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
       xsi:schemaLocation="
          http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee
          http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee/web-facesconfig_2_2.xsd">
    
    </faces-config>
  2. Examine the beans.xml file.

    The beans.xml file contains a version number of 1.1 and a bean-discovery-mode of all. This file is a marker file that identifies the WAR as a bean archive and tells JBoss EAP to look for beans in this application and to activate the CDI.

    <beans xmlns="http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xsi:schemaLocation="
          http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee
          http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee/beans_1_1.xsd"
        bean-discovery-mode="all">
    </beans>
Note

This quickstart does not need a web.xml file.

3.4.2.1. Examine the JSF Code

JSF uses the .xhtml file extension for source files, but delivers the rendered views with the .jsf extension. The home.xhtml file is located in the src/main/webapp/ directory.

Example: JSF Source Code

19<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
20	xmlns:ui="http://java.sun.com/jsf/facelets"
21	xmlns:h="http://java.sun.com/jsf/html"
22	xmlns:f="http://java.sun.com/jsf/core">
23
24	<head>
25	<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
26	<title>Numberguess</title>
27	</head>
28
29	<body>
30	<div id="content">
31		<h1>Guess a number...</h1>
32		<h:form id="numberGuess">
33
34		<!-- Feedback for the user on their guess -->
35	<div style="color: red">
36		<h:messages id="messages" globalOnly="false" />
37		<h:outputText id="Higher" value="Higher!"
38 		  rendered="#{game.number gt game.guess and game.guess ne 0}" />
39		<h:outputText id="Lower" value="Lower!"
40		   rendered="#{game.number lt game.guess and game.guess ne 0}" />
41	</div>
42
43	<!-- Instructions for the user -->
44	<div>
45	I'm thinking of a number between <span
46	id="numberGuess:smallest">#{game.smallest}</span> and <span
47	id="numberGuess:biggest">#{game.biggest}</span>. You have
48	#{game.remainingGuesses} guesses remaining.
49	</div>
50
51	<!-- Input box for the users guess, plus a button to submit, and reset -->
52	<!-- These are bound using EL to our CDI beans -->
53	<div>
54	Your guess:
55	<h:inputText id="inputGuess" value="#{game.guess}"
56		required="true" size="3"
57		disabled="#{game.number eq game.guess}"
58		validator="#{game.validateNumberRange}" />
59		<h:commandButton id="guessButton" value="Guess"
60			action="#{game.check}"
61			disabled="#{game.number eq game.guess}" />
62	</div>
63	<div>
64	<h:commandButton id="restartButton" value="Reset"
65	action="#{game.reset}" immediate="true" />
66	</div>
67	</h:form>
68
69	</div>
70
71	<br style="clear: both" />
72
73	</body>
74</html>

The following line numbers correspond to those seen when viewing the file in JBoss Developer Studio.

Table 3.2. JSF Details

LineNote

36-40

These are the messages which can be sent to the user: "Higher!" and "Lower!"

45-48

As the user guesses, the range of numbers they can guess gets smaller. This sentence changes to make sure they know the number range of a valid guess.

55-58

This input field is bound to a bean property using a value expression.

58

A validator binding is used to make sure the user does not accidentally input a number outside of the range in which they can guess. If the validator was not here, the user might use up a guess on an out of bounds number.

59-61

There must be a way for the user to send their guess to the server. Here we bind to an action method on the bean.

3.4.2.2. Examine the Class Files

All of the numberguess quickstart source files can be found in the QUICKSTART_HOME/numberguess/src/main/java/org/jboss/as/quickstarts/numberguess/ directory. The package declaration and imports have been excluded from these listings. The complete listing is available in the quickstart source code.

  1. Review the Random.java Qualifier Code

    A qualifier is used to remove ambiguity between two beans, both of which are eligible for injection based on their type. For more information on qualifiers, see Use a Qualifier to Resolve an Ambiguous Injection in the JBoss EAP Development Guide. The @Random qualifier is used for injecting a random number.

    @Target({ TYPE, METHOD, PARAMETER, FIELD })
    @Retention(RUNTIME)
    @Documented
    @Qualifier
    public @interface Random {
    
    }
  2. Review the MaxNumber.java Qualifier Code

    The @MaxNumber qualifier is used for injecting the maximum number allowed.

    @Target({ TYPE, METHOD, PARAMETER, FIELD })
    @Retention(RUNTIME)
    @Documented
    @Qualifier
    public @interface MaxNumber {
    }
  3. Review the Generator.java Code

    The Generator class creates the random number via a producer method, exposing the maximum possible number via the same. This class is application-scoped, so you don’t get a different random each time.

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    @ApplicationScoped
    public class Generator implements Serializable {
    
        private java.util.Random random = new java.util.Random(System.currentTimeMillis());
    
        private int maxNumber = 100;
    
        java.util.Random getRandom() {
            return random;
        }
    
        @Produces
        @Random
        int next() {
            // a number between 1 and 100
            return getRandom().nextInt(maxNumber - 1) + 1;
        }
    
        @Produces
        @MaxNumber
        int getMaxNumber() {
            return maxNumber;
        }
    }
  4. Review the Game.java Code

    The session-scoped Game class is the primary entry point of the application. It is responsible for setting up or resetting the game, capturing and validating the user’s guess, and providing feedback to the user with a FacesMessage. It uses the post-construct lifecycle method to initialize the game by retrieving a random number from the @Random Instance<Integer> bean.

    Notice the @Named annotation in the class. This annotation is only required when you want to make the bean accessible to a JSF view by using Expression Language (EL), in this case #{game}.

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    @Named
    @SessionScoped
    public class Game implements Serializable {
    
        /**
         * The number that the user needs to guess
         */
        private int number;
    
        /**
         * The users latest guess
         */
        private int guess;
    
        /**
         * The smallest number guessed so far (so we can track the valid guess range).
         */
        private int smallest;
    
        /**
         * The largest number guessed so far
         */
        private int biggest;
    
        /**
         * The number of guesses remaining
         */
        private int remainingGuesses;
    
        /**
         * The maximum number we should ask them to guess
         */
        @Inject
        @MaxNumber
        private int maxNumber;
    
        /**
         * The random number to guess
         */
        @Inject
        @Random
        Instance<Integer> randomNumber;
    
        public Game() {
        }
    
        public int getNumber() {
            return number;
        }
    
        public int getGuess() {
            return guess;
        }
    
        public void setGuess(int guess) {
            this.guess = guess;
        }
    
        public int getSmallest() {
            return smallest;
        }
    
        public int getBiggest() {
            return biggest;
        }
    
        public int getRemainingGuesses() {
            return remainingGuesses;
        }
    
        /**
         * Check whether the current guess is correct, and update the biggest/smallest guesses as needed. Give feedback to the user
         * if they are correct.
         */
        public void check() {
            if (guess > number) {
                biggest = guess - 1;
            } else if (guess < number) {
                smallest = guess + 1;
            } else if (guess == number) {
                FacesContext.getCurrentInstance().addMessage(null, new FacesMessage("Correct!"));
            }
            remainingGuesses--;
        }
    
        /**
         * Reset the game, by putting all values back to their defaults, and getting a new random number. We also call this method
         * when the user starts playing for the first time using {@linkplain PostConstruct @PostConstruct} to set the initial
         * values.
         */
        @PostConstruct
        public void reset() {
            this.smallest = 0;
            this.guess = 0;
            this.remainingGuesses = 10;
            this.biggest = maxNumber;
            this.number = randomNumber.get();
        }
    
        /**
         * A JSF validation method which checks whether the guess is valid. It might not be valid because there are no guesses left,
         * or because the guess is not in range.
         *
         */
        public void validateNumberRange(FacesContext context, UIComponent toValidate, Object value) {
            if (remainingGuesses <= 0) {
                FacesMessage message = new FacesMessage("No guesses left!");
                context.addMessage(toValidate.getClientId(context), message);
                ((UIInput) toValidate).setValid(false);
                return;
            }
            int input = (Integer) value;
    
            if (input < smallest || input > biggest) {
                ((UIInput) toValidate).setValid(false);
    
                FacesMessage message = new FacesMessage("Invalid guess");
                context.addMessage(toValidate.getClientId(context), message);
            }
        }
    }

Appendix A. Reference Material

A.1. Server Runtime Arguments

The application server startup script accepts arguments and switches at runtime. This allows the server to start under alternative configurations to those defined in the standalone.xml, domain.xml, and host.xml configuration files.

Alternative configurations might include starting the server with an alternative socket bindings set or a secondary configuration.

The available parameters list can be accessed by passing the help switch -h or --help at startup.

Table A.1. Runtime Switches and Arguments

Argument or SwitchOperating ModeDescription

--admin-only

Standalone

Set the server’s running type to ADMIN_ONLY. This will cause it to open administrative interfaces and accept management requests, but not start other runtime services or accept end user requests. Note that it is recommended to use --start-mode=admin-only instead.

--admin-only

Domain

Set the host controller’s running type to ADMIN_ONLY causing it to open administrative interfaces and accept management requests but not start servers or, if this host controller is the master for the domain, accept incoming connections from slave host controllers.

-b=<value>, -b <value>

Standalone, Domain

Set system property jboss.bind.address, which is used in configuring the bind address for the public interface. This defaults to 127.0.0.1 if no value is specified. See the -b<interface>=<value> entry for setting the bind address for other interfaces.

-b<interface>=<value>

Standalone, Domain

Set system property jboss.bind.address.<interface> to the given value. For example, -bmanagement=IP_ADDRESS

--backup

Domain

Keep a copy of the persistent domain configuration even if this host is not the domain controller.

-c=<config>, -c <config>

Standalone

Name of the server configuration file to use. The default is standalone.xml.

-c=<config>, -c <config>

Domain

Name of the server configuration file to use. The default is domain.xml.

--cached-dc

Domain

If the host is not the domain controller and cannot contact the domain controller at boot, boot using a locally cached copy of the domain configuration.

--debug [<port>]

Standalone

Activate debug mode with an optional argument to specify the port. Only works if the launch script supports it.

-D<name>[=<value>]

Standalone, Domain

Set a system property.

--domain-config=<config>

Domain

Name of the server configuration file to use. The default is domain.xml.

-h, --help

Standalone, Domain

Display the help message and exit.

--host-config=<config>

Domain

Name of the host configuration file to use. The default is host.xml.

--interprocess-hc-address=<address>

Domain

Address on which the host controller should listen for communication from the process controller.

--interprocess-hc-port=<port>

Domain

Port on which the host controller should listen for communication from the process controller.

--master-address=<address>

Domain

Set system property jboss.domain.master.address to the given value. In a default slave host controller configuration, this is used to configure the address of the master host controller.

--master-port=<port>

Domain

Set system property jboss.domain.master.port to the given value. In a default slave host controller configuration, this is used to configure the port used for native management communication by the master host controller.

--read-only-server-config=<config>

Standalone

Name of the server configuration file to use. This differs from --server-config and -c in that the original file is never overwritten.

--read-only-domain-config=<config>

Domain

Name of the domain configuration file to use. This differs from --domain-config and -c in that the initial file is never overwritten.

--read-only-host-config=<config>

Domain

Name of the host configuration file to use. This differs from --host-config in that the initial file is never overwritten.

-P=<url>, -P <url>, --properties=<url>

Standalone, Domain

Load system properties from the given URL.

--pc-address=<address>

Domain

Address on which the process controller listens for communication from processes it controls.

--pc-port=<port>

Domain

Port on which the process controller listens for communication from processes it controls.

-S<name>[=<value>]

Standalone

Set a security property.

-secmgr

Standalone, Domain

Runs the server with a security manager installed.

--server-config=<config>

Standalone

Name of the server configuration file to use. The default is standalone.xml.

--start-mode=<mode>

Standalone

Set the start mode of the server. This option cannot be used in conjunction with --admin-only. Valid values are:

  • normal: The server will start normally.
  • admin-only: The server will only open administrative interfaces and accept management requests but not start other runtime services or accept end user requests.
  • suspend: The server will start in suspended mode and will not service requests until it has been resumed.

-u=<value>, -u <value>

Standalone, Domain

Set system property jboss.default.multicast.address, which is used in configuring the multicast address in the socket-binding elements in the configuration files. This defaults to 230.0.0.4 if no value is specified.

-v, -V, --version

Standalone, Domain

Display the application server version and exit.

Warning

The configuration files that ship with JBoss EAP are set up to handle the behavior of the switches, for example, -b and -u. If you change your configuration files to no longer use the system property controlled by the switch, then adding it to the launch command will have no effect.

A.2. Add-User Utility Arguments

The following table describes the arguments available for the add-user.sh or add-user.bat script, which is a utility for adding new users to the properties file for out-of-the-box authentication.

Table A.2. Add-User Command Arguments

Command Line ArgumentDescription

-a

Create a user in the application realm. If omitted, the default is to create a user in the management realm.

-dc <value>

The domain configuration directory that will contain the properties files. If it is omitted, the default directory is EAP_HOME/domain/configuration/.

-sc <value>

An alternative standalone server configuration directory that will contain the properties files. If omitted, the default directory is EAP_HOME/standalone/configuration/.

-up, --user-properties <value>

The name of the alternative user properties file. It can be an absolute path or it can be a file name used in conjunction with the -sc or -dc argument that specifies the alternative configuration directory.

-g, --group <value>

A comma-separated list of groups to assign to this user.

-gp, --group-properties <value>

The name of the alternative group properties file. It can be an absolute path or it can be a file name used in conjunction with the -sc or -dc argument that specifies the alternative configuration directory.

-p, --password <value>

The password of the user.

-u, --user <value>

The name of the user. User names can only contain the following characters, in any number and in any order:

  • Alphanumeric characters (a-z, A-Z, 0-9)
  • Dashes (-), periods (.), commas (,), at sign (@)
  • Backslash (\)
  • Equals (=)

-r, --realm <value>

The name of the realm used to secure the management interfaces. If omitted, the default is ManagementRealm.

-s, --silent

Run the add-user script with no output to the console.

-e, --enable

Enable the user.

-d, --disable

Disable the user.

-cw, --confirm-warning

Automatically confirm warning in interactive mode.

-h, --help

Display usage information for the add-user script.

-ds, --display-secret

Print the secret value in non-interactive mode.

A.3. Interface Attributes

Note

Attribute names in this table are listed as they appear in the management model, for example, when using the management CLI. See the schema definition file located at EAP_HOME/docs/schema/wildfly-config_5_0.xsd to view the elements as they appear in the XML, as there may be differences from the management model.

Table A.3. Interface Attributes and Values

Interface ElementDescription

any

Element indicating that part of the selection criteria for an interface should be that it meets at least one, but not necessarily all, of the nested set of criteria.

any-address

Empty element indicating that sockets using this interface should be bound to a wildcard address. The IPv6 wildcard address (::) will be used unless the java.net.preferIPv4Stack system property is set to true, in which case the IPv4 wildcard address (0.0.0.0) will be used. If a socket is bound to an IPv6 anylocal address on a dual-stack machine, it can accept both IPv6 and IPv4 traffic; if it is bound to an IPv4 (IPv4-mapped) anylocal address, it can only accept IPv4 traffic.

inet-address

Either an IP address in IPv6 or IPv4 dotted decimal notation, or a host name that can be resolved to an IP address.

link-local-address

Empty element indicating that part of the selection criteria for an interface should be whether or not an address associated with it is link-local.

loopback

Empty element indicating that part of the selection criteria for an interface should be whether or not it is a loopback interface.

loopback-address

A loopback address that may not actually be configured on the machine’s loopback interface. Differs from inet-address type in that the given value will be used even if no NIC can be found that has the IP address associated with it.

multicast

Empty element indicating that part of the selection criteria for an interface should be whether or not it supports multicast.

name

The name of the interface.

nic

The name of a network interface (e.g. eth0, eth1, lo).

nic-match

A regular expression against which the names of the network interfaces available on the machine can be matched to find an acceptable interface.

not

Element indicating that part of the selection criteria for an interface should be that it does not meet any of the nested set of criteria.

point-to-point

Empty element indicating that part of the selection criteria for an interface should be whether or not it is a point-to-point interface.

public-address

Empty element indicating that part of the selection criteria for an interface should be whether or not it has a publicly routable address.

site-local-address

Empty element indicating that part of the selection criteria for an interface should be whether or not an address associated with it is site-local.

subnet-match

A network IP address and the number of bits in the address' network prefix, written in slash notation, for example, 192.168.0.0/16.

up

Empty element indicating that part of the selection criteria for an interface should be whether or not it is currently up.

virtual

Empty element indicating that part of the selection criteria for an interface should be whether or not it is a virtual interface.

A.4. Socket Binding Attributes

Note

Attribute names in these tables are listed as they appear in the management model, for example, when using the management CLI. See the schema definition file located at EAP_HOME/docs/schema/wildfly-config_5_0.xsd to view the elements as they appear in the XML, as there may be differences from the management model.

The following tables show the attributes that can be configured for each of the three types of socket bindings.

Table A.4. Inbound Socket Binding (socket-binding) Attributes

AttributeDescription

client-mappings

Specifies the client mappings for this socket binding. A client connecting to this socket should use the destination address specified in the mapping that matches its desired outbound interface. This allows for advanced network topologies that use either network address translation, or have bindings on multiple network interfaces to function. Each mapping should be evaluated in declared order, with the first successful match used to determine the destination.

fixed-port

Whether the port value should remain fixed even if numeric offsets are applied to the other sockets in the socket group.

interface

Name of the interface to which the socket should be bound, or, for multicast sockets, the interface on which it should listen. This should be one of the declared interfaces. If not defined, the value of the default-interface attribute from the enclosing socket binding group will be used.

multicast-address

Multicast address on which the socket should receive multicast traffic. If unspecified, the socket will not be configured to receive multicast.

multicast-port

Port on which the socket should receive multicast traffic. Must be configured if multicast-address is configured.

name

The name of the socket. Services needing to access the socket configuration information will find it using this name. This attribute is required.

port

Number of the port to which the socket should be bound. Note that this value can be overridden if servers apply a port-offset to increment or decrement all port values.

Table A.5. Remote Outbound Socket Binding (remote-destination-outbound-socket-binding) Attributes

AttributeDescription

fixed-source-port

Whether the port value should remain fixed even if numeric offsets are applied to the other outbound sockets in the socket group.

host

The host name or IP address of the remote destination to which this outbound socket will connect.

port

The port number of the remote destination to which the outbound socket should connect.

source-interface

The name of the interface that will be used for the source address of the outbound socket.

source-port

The port number that will be used as the source port of the outbound socket.

Table A.6. Local Outbound Socket Binding (local-destination-outbound-socket-binding) Attributes

AttributeDescription

fixed-source-port

Whether the port value should remain fixed even if numeric offsets are applied to the other outbound sockets in the socket group.

socket-binding-ref

The name of the local socket binding that will be used to determine the port to which this outbound socket connects.

source-interface

The name of the interface that will be used for the source address of the outbound socket.

source-port

The port number that will be used as the source port of the outbound socket.

A.5. Default Socket Bindings

The following tables show the default socket bindings for each socket binding group.

Table A.7. standard-sockets

Socket BindingPortDescription

ajp

8009

Apache JServ Protocol. Used for HTTP clustering and load balancing.

http

8080

The default port for deployed web applications.

https

8443

SSL-encrypted connection between deployed web applications and clients.

management-http

9990

Used for HTTP communication with the management layer.

management-https

9993

Used for HTTPS communication with the management layer.

txn-recovery-environment

4712

The JTA transaction recovery manager.

txn-status-manager

4713

The JTA / JTS transaction manager.

Table A.8. ha-sockets

Socket BindingPortMulticast PortDescription

ajp

8009

 

Apache JServ Protocol. Used for HTTP clustering and load balancing.

http

8080

 

The default port for deployed web applications.

https

8443

 

SSL-encrypted connection between deployed web applications and clients.

jgroups-mping

 

45700

Multicast. Used to discover initial membership in a HA cluster.

jgroups-tcp

7600

 

Unicast peer discovery in HA clusters using TCP.

jgroups-udp

55200

45688

Multicast peer discovery in HA clusters using UDP.

management-http

9990

 

Used for HTTP communication with the management layer.

management-https

9993

 

Used for HTTPS communication with the management layer.

modcluster

 

23364

Multicast port for communication between JBoss EAP and the HTTP load balancer.

txn-recovery-environment

4712

 

The JTA transaction recovery manager.

txn-status-manager

4713

 

The JTA / JTS transaction manager.

Table A.9. full-sockets

Socket BindingPortDescription

ajp

8009

Apache JServ Protocol. Used for HTTP clustering and load balancing.

http

8080

The default port for deployed web applications.

https

8443

SSL-encrypted connection between deployed web applications and clients.

iiop

3528

CORBA services for JTS transactions and other ORB-dependent services.

iiop-ssl

3529

SSL-encrypted CORBA services.

management-http

9990

Used for HTTP communication with the management layer.

management-https

9993

Used for HTTPS communication with the management layer.

txn-recovery-environment

4712

The JTA transaction recovery manager.

txn-status-manager

4713

The JTA / JTS transaction manager.

Table A.10. full-ha-sockets

NamePortMulticast PortDescription

ajp

8009

 

Apache JServ Protocol. Used for HTTP clustering and load balancing.

http

8080

 

The default port for deployed web applications.

https

8443

 

SSL-encrypted connection between deployed web applications and clients.

iiop

3528

 

CORBA services for JTS transactions and other ORB-dependent services.

iiop-ssl

3529

 

SSL-encrypted CORBA services.

jgroups-mping

 

45700

Multicast. Used to discover initial membership in a HA cluster.

jgroups-tcp

7600

 

Unicast peer discovery in HA clusters using TCP.

jgroups-udp

55200

45688

Multicast peer discovery in HA clusters using UDP.

management-http

9990

 

Used for HTTP communication with the management layer.

management-https

9993

 

Used for HTTPS communication with the management layer.

modcluster

 

23364

Multicast port for communication between JBoss EAP and the HTTP load balancer.

txn-recovery-environment

4712

 

The JTA transaction recovery manager.

txn-status-manager

4713

 

The JTA / JTS transaction manager.

Table A.11. load-balancer-sockets

NamePortMulticast PortDescription

http

8080

 

The default port for deployed web applications.

https

8443

 

SSL-encrypted connection between deployed web applications and clients.

management-http

9990

 

Used for HTTP communication with the management layer.

management-https

9993

 

Used for HTTPS communication with the management layer.

mcmp-management

8090

 

The port for the Mod-Cluster Management Protocol (MCMP) connection to transmit lifecycle events.

modcluster

 

23364

Multicast port for communication between JBoss EAP and the HTTP load balancer.





Revised on 2018-05-25 08:21:05 EDT

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