- Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) - all versions
UTF-8 characters to
ASCII results in '?' characters, for example:
[test@box ~]$ iconv -f UTF-8 -t ASCII//TRANSLIT <<< 'I❤️ASCII ЯRавсде áčďéěíňóřšťú' I?ASCII ?R????? acdeeinorstu
Translate the most specific characters first manually, e.g. using
sed, then translate by
iconvthose characters which are recognized by the tool. See following examples:
[test@box ~]$ echo 'I❤️ASCII ЯRавсде áčďéěíňóřšťú' | sed 'y/авсд/avsd/; s/❤️/(heart)/g; s/Я/JA/g; s/е/je/g; ' | iconv -f UTF-8 -t ASCII//TRANSLIT I(heart)ASCII JARavsdje acdeeinorstu
More readable version of the above solution, easier to maintain:
[test@box ~]$ cat conversion.sed # transliteration 1:1 y/авсд/avsd/ # transliteration 1:n s/❤️/(heart)/g s/Я/JA/g s/е/je/g # ... # ... # ... [test@box ~]$ echo 'I❤️ASCII ЯRавсде áčďéěíňóřšťú' | sed -f conversion.sed | iconv -f UTF-8 -t ASCII//TRANSLIT I(heart)ASCII JARavsdje acdeeinorstu
iconv command converts those characters for which the transliteration is defined, as per
iconv man page:
- If the string
//TRANSLITis appended to to-encoding, characters being converted are transliterated when needed and possible. This means that when a character cannot be represented in the target character set, it can be approximated through one or several similar looking characters. Characters that are outside of the target character set and cannot be transliterated are replaced with a question mark (
?) in the output.
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