Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

Cluster Administration

Configuring and Managing the High Availability Add-On

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Abstract

Configuring and Managing the High Availability Add-On describes the configuration and management of the High Availability Add-On for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
Introduction
1. Document Conventions
1.1. Typographic Conventions
1.2. Pull-quote Conventions
1.3. Notes and Warnings
2. Feedback
1. Red Hat High Availability Add-On Configuration and Management Overview
1.1. New and Changed Features
1.1.1. New and Changed Features for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1
1.1.2. New and Changed Features for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2
1.1.3. New and Changed Features for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3
1.1.4. New and Changed Features for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4
1.1.5. New and Changed Features for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.5
1.2. Configuration Basics
1.3. Setting Up Hardware
1.4. Installing Red Hat High Availability Add-On software
1.5. Configuring Red Hat High Availability Add-On Software
2. Before Configuring the Red Hat High Availability Add-On
2.1. General Configuration Considerations
2.2. Compatible Hardware
2.3. Enabling IP Ports
2.3.1. Enabling IP Ports on Cluster Nodes
2.3.2. Enabling the IP Port for luci
2.3.3. Configuring the iptables Firewall to Allow Cluster Components
2.4. Configuring luci with /etc/sysconfig/luci
2.5. Configuring ACPI For Use with Integrated Fence Devices
2.5.1. Disabling ACPI Soft-Off with chkconfig Management
2.5.2. Disabling ACPI Soft-Off with the BIOS
2.5.3. Disabling ACPI Completely in the grub.conf File
2.6. Considerations for Configuring HA Services
2.7. Configuration Validation
2.8. Considerations for NetworkManager
2.9. Considerations for Using Quorum Disk
2.10. Red Hat High Availability Add-On and SELinux
2.11. Multicast Addresses
2.12. UDP Unicast Traffic
2.13. Considerations for ricci
2.14. Configuring Virtual Machines in a Clustered Environment
3. Configuring Red Hat High Availability Add-On With Conga
3.1. Configuration Tasks
3.2. Starting luci
3.3. Controlling Access to luci
3.4. Creating a Cluster
3.5. Global Cluster Properties
3.5.1. Configuring General Properties
3.5.2. Configuring Fence Daemon Properties
3.5.3. Network Configuration
3.5.4. Configuring Redundant Ring Protocol
3.5.5. Quorum Disk Configuration
3.5.6. Logging Configuration
3.6. Configuring Fence Devices
3.6.1. Creating a Fence Device
3.6.2. Modifying a Fence Device
3.6.3. Deleting a Fence Device
3.7. Configuring Fencing for Cluster Members
3.7.1. Configuring a Single Fence Device for a Node
3.7.2. Configuring a Backup Fence Device
3.7.3. Configuring a Node with Redundant Power
3.8. Configuring a Failover Domain
3.8.1. Adding a Failover Domain
3.8.2. Modifying a Failover Domain
3.8.3. Deleting a Failover Domain
3.9. Configuring Global Cluster Resources
3.10. Adding a Cluster Service to the Cluster
4. Managing Red Hat High Availability Add-On With Conga
4.1. Adding an Existing Cluster to the luci Interface
4.2. Removing a Cluster from the luci Interface
4.3. Managing Cluster Nodes
4.3.1. Rebooting a Cluster Node
4.3.2. Causing a Node to Leave or Join a Cluster
4.3.3. Adding a Member to a Running Cluster
4.3.4. Deleting a Member from a Cluster
4.4. Starting, Stopping, Restarting, and Deleting Clusters
4.5. Managing High-Availability Services
4.6. Backing Up and Restoring the luci Configuration
5. Configuring Red Hat High Availability Add-On With the ccs Command
5.1. Operational Overview
5.1.1. Creating the Cluster Configuration File on a Local System
5.1.2. Viewing the Current Cluster Configuration
5.1.3. Specifying ricci Passwords with the ccs Command
5.1.4. Modifying Cluster Configuration Components
5.1.5. Commands that Overwrite Previous Settings
5.1.6. Configuration Validation
5.2. Configuration Tasks
5.3. Starting ricci
5.4. Creating A Cluster
5.5. Configuring Fence Devices
5.6. Listing Fence Devices and Fence Device Options
5.7. Configuring Fencing for Cluster Members
5.7.1. Configuring a Single Power-Based Fence Device for a Node
5.7.2. Configuring a Single Storage-Based Fence Device for a Node
5.7.3. Configuring a Backup Fence Device
5.7.4. Configuring a Node with Redundant Power
5.7.5. Removing Fence Methods and Fence Instances
5.8. Configuring a Failover Domain
5.9. Configuring Global Cluster Resources
5.10. Adding a Cluster Service to the Cluster
5.11. Listing Available Cluster Services and Resources
5.12. Virtual Machine Resources
5.13. Configuring a Quorum Disk
5.14. Miscellaneous Cluster Configuration
5.14.1. Cluster Configuration Version
5.14.2. Multicast Configuration
5.14.3. Configuring a Two-Node Cluster
5.14.4. Logging
5.14.5. Configuring Redundant Ring Protocol
5.15. Propagating the Configuration File to the Cluster Nodes
6. Managing Red Hat High Availability Add-On With ccs
6.1. Managing Cluster Nodes
6.1.1. Causing a Node to Leave or Join a Cluster
6.1.2. Adding a Member to a Running Cluster
6.2. Starting and Stopping a Cluster
6.3. Diagnosing and Correcting Problems in a Cluster
7. Configuring Red Hat High Availability Manually
7.1. Configuration Tasks
7.2. Creating a Basic Cluster Configuration File
7.3. Configuring Fencing
7.4. Configuring Failover Domains
7.5. Configuring HA Services
7.5.1. Adding Cluster Resources
7.5.2. Adding a Cluster Service to the Cluster
7.6. Configuring Redundant Ring Protocol
7.7. Configuring Debug Options
7.8. Configuring nfsexport and nfsserver Resources
7.9. Verifying a Configuration
8. Managing Red Hat High Availability Add-On With Command Line Tools
8.1. Starting and Stopping the Cluster Software
8.1.1. Starting Cluster Software
8.1.2. Stopping Cluster Software
8.2. Deleting or Adding a Node
8.2.1. Deleting a Node from a Cluster
8.2.2. Adding a Node to a Cluster
8.2.3. Examples of Three-Node and Two-Node Configurations
8.3. Managing High-Availability Services
8.3.1. Displaying HA Service Status with clustat
8.3.2. Managing HA Services with clusvcadm
8.4. Updating a Configuration
8.4.1. Updating a Configuration Using cman_tool version -r
8.4.2. Updating a Configuration Using scp
9. Diagnosing and Correcting Problems in a Cluster
9.1. Configuration Changes Do Not Take Effect
9.2. Cluster Does Not Form
9.3. Nodes Unable to Rejoin Cluster after Fence or Reboot
9.4. Cluster Daemon crashes
9.4.1. Capturing the rgmanager Core at Runtime
9.4.2. Capturing the Core When the Daemon Crashes
9.4.3. Recording a gdb Backtrace Session
9.5. Cluster Services Hang
9.6. Cluster Service Will Not Start
9.7. Cluster-Controlled Services Fails to Migrate
9.8. Each Node in a Two-Node Cluster Reports Second Node Down
9.9. Nodes are Fenced on LUN Path Failure
9.10. Quorum Disk Does Not Appear as Cluster Member
9.11. Unusual Failover Behavior
9.12. Fencing Occurs at Random
9.13. Debug Logging for Distributed Lock Manager (DLM) Needs to be Enabled
10. SNMP Configuration with the Red Hat High Availability Add-On
10.1. SNMP and the Red Hat High Availability Add-On
10.2. Configuring SNMP with the Red Hat High Availability Add-On
10.3. Forwarding SNMP traps
10.4. SNMP Traps Produced by Red Hat High Availability Add-On
11. Clustered Samba Configuration
11.1. CTDB Overview
11.2. Required Packages
11.3. GFS2 Configuration
11.4. CTDB Configuration
11.5. Samba Configuration
11.6. Starting CTDB and Samba Services
11.7. Using the Clustered Samba Server
A. Fence Device Parameters
B. HA Resource Parameters
C. HA Resource Behavior
C.1. Parent, Child, and Sibling Relationships Among Resources
C.2. Sibling Start Ordering and Resource Child Ordering
C.2.1. Typed Child Resource Start and Stop Ordering
C.2.2. Non-typed Child Resource Start and Stop Ordering
C.3. Inheritance, the <resources> Block, and Reusing Resources
C.4. Failure Recovery and Independent Subtrees
C.5. Debugging and Testing Services and Resource Ordering
D. Cluster Service Resource Check and Failover Timeout
D.1. Modifying the Resource Status Check Interval
D.2. Enforcing Resource Timeouts
E. Command Line Tools Summary
F. High Availability LVM (HA-LVM)
F.1. Configuring HA-LVM Failover with CLVM (preferred)
F.2. Configuring HA-LVM Failover with Tagging
G. Revision History
Index

Introduction

This document provides information about installing, configuring and managing Red Hat High Availability Add-On components. Red Hat High Availability Add-On components allow you to connect a group of computers (called nodes or members) to work together as a cluster. In this document, the use of the word cluster or clusters is used to refer to a group of computers running the Red Hat High Availability Add-On.
The audience of this document should have advanced working knowledge of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and understand the concepts of clusters, storage, and server computing.
For more information about Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, refer to the following resources:
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide — Provides information regarding installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide — Provides information regarding the deployment, configuration and administration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
For more information about the High Availability Add-On and related products for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, refer to the following resources:
  • High Availability Add-On Overview — Provides a high-level overview of the Red Hat High Availability Add-On.
  • Logical Volume Manager Administration — Provides a description of the Logical Volume Manager (LVM), including information on running LVM in a clustered environment.
  • Global File System 2: Configuration and Administration — Provides information about installing, configuring, and maintaining Red Hat GFS2 (Red Hat Global File System 2), which is included in the Resilient Storage Add-On.
  • DM Multipath — Provides information about using the Device-Mapper Multipath feature of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
  • Load Balancer Administration — Provides information on configuring high-performance systems and services with the Load Balancer Add-On, a set of integrated software components that provide Linux Virtual Servers (LVS) for balancing IP load across a set of real servers.
  • Release Notes — Provides information about the current release of Red Hat products.
Red Hat Cluster Suite documentation and other Red Hat documents are available in HTML, PDF, and RPM versions on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Documentation CD and online at https://access.redhat.com/site/documentation/.

1. Document Conventions

This manual uses several conventions to highlight certain words and phrases and draw attention to specific pieces of information.
In PDF and paper editions, this manual uses typefaces drawn from the Liberation Fonts set. The Liberation Fonts set is also used in HTML editions if the set is installed on your system. If not, alternative but equivalent typefaces are displayed. Note: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and later include the Liberation Fonts set by default.

1.1. Typographic Conventions

Four typographic conventions are used to call attention to specific words and phrases. These conventions, and the circumstances they apply to, are as follows.
Mono-spaced Bold
Used to highlight system input, including shell commands, file names and paths. Also used to highlight keys and key combinations. For example:
To see the contents of the file my_next_bestselling_novel in your current working directory, enter the cat my_next_bestselling_novel command at the shell prompt and press Enter to execute the command.
The above includes a file name, a shell command and a key, all presented in mono-spaced bold and all distinguishable thanks to context.
Key combinations can be distinguished from an individual key by the plus sign that connects each part of a key combination. For example:
Press Enter to execute the command.
Press Ctrl+Alt+F2 to switch to a virtual terminal.
The first example highlights a particular key to press. The second example highlights a key combination: a set of three keys pressed simultaneously.
If source code is discussed, class names, methods, functions, variable names and returned values mentioned within a paragraph will be presented as above, in mono-spaced bold. For example:
File-related classes include filesystem for file systems, file for files, and dir for directories. Each class has its own associated set of permissions.
Proportional Bold
This denotes words or phrases encountered on a system, including application names; dialog-box text; labeled buttons; check-box and radio-button labels; menu titles and submenu titles. For example:
Choose SystemPreferencesMouse from the main menu bar to launch Mouse Preferences. In the Buttons tab, select the Left-handed mouse check box and click Close to switch the primary mouse button from the left to the right (making the mouse suitable for use in the left hand).
To insert a special character into a gedit file, choose ApplicationsAccessoriesCharacter Map from the main menu bar. Next, choose SearchFind… from the Character Map menu bar, type the name of the character in the Search field and click Next. The character you sought will be highlighted in the Character Table. Double-click this highlighted character to place it in the Text to copy field and then click the Copy button. Now switch back to your document and choose EditPaste from the gedit menu bar.
The above text includes application names; system-wide menu names and items; application-specific menu names; and buttons and text found within a GUI interface, all presented in proportional bold and all distinguishable by context.
Mono-spaced Bold Italic or Proportional Bold Italic
Whether mono-spaced bold or proportional bold, the addition of italics indicates replaceable or variable text. Italics denotes text you do not input literally or displayed text that changes depending on circumstance. For example:
To connect to a remote machine using ssh, type ssh username@domain.name at a shell prompt. If the remote machine is example.com and your username on that machine is john, type ssh john@example.com.
The mount -o remount file-system command remounts the named file system. For example, to remount the /home file system, the command is mount -o remount /home.
To see the version of a currently installed package, use the rpm -q package command. It will return a result as follows: package-version-release.
Note the words in bold italics above: username, domain.name, file-system, package, version and release. Each word is a placeholder, either for text you enter when issuing a command or for text displayed by the system.
Aside from standard usage for presenting the title of a work, italics denotes the first use of a new and important term. For example:
Publican is a DocBook publishing system.

1.2. Pull-quote Conventions

Terminal output and source code listings are set off visually from the surrounding text.
Output sent to a terminal is set in mono-spaced roman and presented thus:
books        Desktop   documentation  drafts  mss    photos   stuff  svn
books_tests  Desktop1  downloads      images  notes  scripts  svgs
Source-code listings are also set in mono-spaced roman but add syntax highlighting as follows:
static int kvm_vm_ioctl_deassign_device(struct kvm *kvm,
                 struct kvm_assigned_pci_dev *assigned_dev)
{
         int r = 0;
         struct kvm_assigned_dev_kernel *match;

         mutex_lock(&kvm->lock);

         match = kvm_find_assigned_dev(&kvm->arch.assigned_dev_head,
                                       assigned_dev->assigned_dev_id);
         if (!match) {
                 printk(KERN_INFO "%s: device hasn't been assigned before, "
                   "so cannot be deassigned\n", __func__);
                 r = -EINVAL;
                 goto out;
         }

         kvm_deassign_device(kvm, match);

         kvm_free_assigned_device(kvm, match);

out:
         mutex_unlock(&kvm->lock);
         return r;
}

1.3. Notes and Warnings

Finally, we use three visual styles to draw attention to information that might otherwise be overlooked.

Note

Notes are tips, shortcuts or alternative approaches to the task at hand. Ignoring a note should have no negative consequences, but you might miss out on a trick that makes your life easier.

Important

Important boxes detail things that are easily missed: configuration changes that only apply to the current session, or services that need restarting before an update will apply. Ignoring a box labeled “Important” will not cause data loss but may cause irritation and frustration.

Warning

Warnings should not be ignored. Ignoring warnings will most likely cause data loss.

2. Feedback

If you spot a typo, or if you have thought of a way to make this manual better, we would love to hear from you. Please submit a report in Bugzilla: http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/. File the bug against the product Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 and the component doc-Cluster_Administration.
Be sure to mention the manual identifier:
Cluster_Administration(EN)-6 (2013-11-13T16:26)
By mentioning this manual's identifier, we know exactly which version of the guide you have.
If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation, try to be as specific as possible. If you have found an error, please include the section number and some of the surrounding text so we can find it easily.

Chapter 1. Red Hat High Availability Add-On Configuration and Management Overview

Red Hat High Availability Add-On allows you to connect a group of computers (called nodes or members) to work together as a cluster. You can use Red Hat High Availability Add-On to suit your clustering needs (for example, setting up a cluster for sharing files on a GFS2 file system or setting up service failover).

Note

For information on best practices for deploying and upgrading Red Hat Enterprise Linux clusters using the High Availability Add-On and Red Hat Global File System 2 (GFS2) refer to the article "Red Hat Enterprise Linux Cluster, High Availability, and GFS Deployment Best Practices" on Red Hat Customer Portal at https://access.redhat.com/site/articles/40051.
This chapter provides a summary of documentation features and updates that have been added to the Red Hat High Availability Add-On since the initial release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, followed by an overview of configuring and managing the Red Hat High Availability Add-On.

1.1. New and Changed Features

This section lists new and changed features of the Red Hat High Availability Add-On documentation that have been added since the initial release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.

1.1.1. New and Changed Features for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1 includes the following documentation and feature updates and changes.
In addition, small corrections and clarifications have been made throughout the document.

1.1.2. New and Changed Features for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 includes the following documentation and feature updates and changes.
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux now provides support for running Clustered Samba in an active/active configuration. For information on clustered Samba configuration, refer to Chapter 11, Clustered Samba Configuration.
  • Although any user able to authenticate on the system that is hosting luci can log in to luci, as of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 only the root user on the system that is running luci can access any of the luci components until an administrator (the root user or a user with administrator permission) sets permissions for that user. For information on setting luci permissions for users, refer to Section 3.3, “Controlling Access to luci”.
  • The nodes in a cluster can communicate with each other using the UDP unicast transport mechanism. For information on configuring UDP unicast, refer to Section 2.12, “UDP Unicast Traffic”.
  • You can now configure some aspects of luci's behavior by means of the /etc/sysconfig/luci file. For example, you can specifically configure the only IP address luci is being served at. For information on configuring the only IP address luci is being served at, refer to Table 2.2, “Enabled IP Port on a Computer That Runs luci. For information on the /etc/sysconfig/luci file in general, refer to Section 2.4, “Configuring luci with /etc/sysconfig/luci.
  • The ccs command now includes the --lsfenceopts option, which prints a list of available fence devices, and the --lsfenceopts fence_type option, which prints each available fence type. For information on these options, refer to Section 5.6, “Listing Fence Devices and Fence Device Options”.
  • The ccs command now includes the --lsserviceopts option, which prints a list of cluster services currently available for your cluster, and the --lsserviceopts service_type option, which prints a list of the options you can specify for a particular service type. For information on these options, refer to Section 5.11, “Listing Available Cluster Services and Resources”.
  • The Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 release provides support for the VMware (SOAP Interface) fence agent. For information on fence device parameters, refer to Appendix A, Fence Device Parameters.
  • The Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 release provides support for the RHEV-M REST API fence agent, against RHEV 3.0 and later. For information on fence device parameters, refer to Appendix A, Fence Device Parameters.
  • As of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 release, when you configure a virtual machine in a cluster with the ccs command you can use the --addvm option (rather than the addservice option). This ensures that the vm resource is defined directly under the rm configuration node in the cluster configuration file. For information on configuring virtual machine resources with the ccs command, refer to Section 5.12, “Virtual Machine Resources”.
  • This document includes a new appendix, Appendix D, Cluster Service Resource Check and Failover Timeout. This appendix describes how rgmanager monitors the status of cluster resources, and how to modify the status check interval. The appendix also describes the __enforce_timeouts service parameter, which indicates that a timeout for an operation should cause a service to fail.
  • This document includes a new section, Section 2.3.3, “Configuring the iptables Firewall to Allow Cluster Components”. This section shows the filtering you can use to allow multicast traffic through the iptables firewall for the various cluster components.
In addition, small corrections and clarifications have been made throughout the document.

1.1.3. New and Changed Features for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3 includes the following documentation and feature updates and changes.
In addition, small corrections and clarifications have been made throughout the document.

1.1.4. New and Changed Features for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4 includes the following documentation and feature updates and changes.
In addition, small corrections and clarifications have been made throughout the document.

1.1.5. New and Changed Features for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.5

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.5 includes the following documentation and feature updates and changes.
In addition, many small corrections and clarifications have been made throughout the document.

1.2. Configuration Basics

To set up a cluster, you must connect the nodes to certain cluster hardware and configure the nodes into the cluster environment. Configuring and managing the Red Hat High Availability Add-On consists of the following basic steps:
  1. Setting up hardware. Refer to Section 1.3, “Setting Up Hardware”.
  2. Installing Red Hat High Availability Add-On software. Refer to Section 1.4, “Installing Red Hat High Availability Add-On software”.
  3. Configuring Red Hat High Availability Add-On Software. Refer to Section 1.5, “Configuring Red Hat High Availability Add-On Software”.

1.3. Setting Up Hardware

Setting up hardware consists of connecting cluster nodes to other hardware required to run the Red Hat High Availability Add-On. The amount and type of hardware varies according to the purpose and availability requirements of the cluster. Typically, an enterprise-level cluster requires the following type of hardware (refer to Figure 1.1, “Red Hat High Availability Add-On Hardware Overview”). For considerations about hardware and other cluster configuration concerns, refer to Chapter 2, Before Configuring the Red Hat High Availability Add-On or check with an authorized Red Hat representative.
  • Cluster nodes — Computers that are capable of running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 software, with at least 1GB of RAM.
  • Network switches for public network — This is required for client access to the cluster.
  • Network switches for private network — This is required for communication among the cluster nodes and other cluster hardware such as network power switches and Fibre Channel switches.
  • Fencing device — A fencing device is required. A network power switch is recommended to perform fencing in an enterprise-level cluster. For information about supported fencing devices, see Appendix A, Fence Device Parameters.
  • Storage — Some type of storage is required for a cluster. Figure 1.1, “Red Hat High Availability Add-On Hardware Overview” shows shared storage, but shared storage may not be required for your specific use.
Red Hat High Availability Add-On Hardware Overview

Figure 1.1. Red Hat High Availability Add-On Hardware Overview


1.4. Installing Red Hat High Availability Add-On software

To install Red Hat High Availability Add-On software, you must have entitlements for the software. If you are using the luci configuration GUI, you can let it install the cluster software. If you are using other tools to configure the cluster, secure and install the software as you would with Red Hat Enterprise Linux software.
You can use the following yum install command to install the Red Hat High Availability Add-On software packages:
# yum install rgmanager lvm2-cluster gfs2-utils
Note that installing only the rgmanager will pull in all necessary dependencies to create an HA cluster from the HighAvailability channel. The lvm2-cluster and gfs2-utils packages are part of ResilientStorage channel and may not be needed by your site.

Upgrading Red Hat High Availability Add-On Software

It is possible to upgrade the cluster software on a given major release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux without taking the cluster out of production. Doing so requires disabling the cluster software on one host at a time, upgrading the software, and restarting the cluster software on that host.
  1. Shut down all cluster services on a single cluster node. For instructions on stopping cluster software on a node, refer to Section 8.1.2, “Stopping Cluster Software”. It may be desirable to manually relocate cluster-managed services and virtual machines off of the host prior to stopping rgmanager.
  2. Execute the yum update command to update installed packages.
  3. Reboot the cluster node or restart the cluster services manually. For instructions on starting cluster software on a node, refer to Section 8.1.1, “Starting Cluster Software”.

1.5. Configuring Red Hat High Availability Add-On Software

Configuring Red Hat High Availability Add-On software consists of using configuration tools to specify the relationship among the cluster components. The following cluster configuration tools are available with Red Hat High Availability Add-On:

Note

system-config-cluster is not available in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.

Chapter 2. Before Configuring the Red Hat High Availability Add-On

This chapter describes tasks to perform and considerations to make before installing and configuring the Red Hat High Availability Add-On, and consists of the following sections.

Important

Make sure that your deployment of Red Hat High Availability Add-On meets your needs and can be supported. Consult with an authorized Red Hat representative to verify your configuration prior to deployment. In addition, allow time for a configuration burn-in period to test failure modes.

2.1. General Configuration Considerations

You can configure the Red Hat High Availability Add-On in a variety of ways to suit your needs. Take into account the following general considerations when you plan, configure, and implement your deployment.
Number of cluster nodes supported
The maximum number of cluster nodes supported by the High Availability Add-On is 16.
Single site clusters
Only single site clusters are fully supported at this time. Clusters spread across multiple physical locations are not formally supported. For more details and to discuss multi-site clusters, please speak to your Red Hat sales or support representative.
GFS2
Although a GFS2 file system can be implemented in a standalone system or as part of a cluster configuration, Red Hat does not support the use of GFS2 as a single-node file system. Red Hat does support a number of high-performance single-node file systems that are optimized for single node, and thus have generally lower overhead than a cluster file system. Red Hat recommends using those file systems in preference to GFS2 in cases where only a single node needs to mount the file system. Red Hat will continue to support single-node GFS2 file systems for existing customers.
When you configure a GFS2 file system as a cluster file system, you must ensure that all nodes in the cluster have access to the shared file system. Asymmetric cluster configurations in which some nodes have access to the file system and others do not are not supported.This does not require that all nodes actually mount the GFS2 file system itself.
No-single-point-of-failure hardware configuration
Clusters can include a dual-controller RAID array, multiple bonded network channels, multiple paths between cluster members and storage, and redundant un-interruptible power supply (UPS) systems to ensure that no single failure results in application down time or loss of data.
Alternatively, a low-cost cluster can be set up to provide less availability than a no-single-point-of-failure cluster. For example, you can set up a cluster with a single-controller RAID array and only a single Ethernet channel.
Certain low-cost alternatives, such as host RAID controllers, software RAID without cluster support, and multi-initiator parallel SCSI configurations are not compatible or appropriate for use as shared cluster storage.
Data integrity assurance
To ensure data integrity, only one node can run a cluster service and access cluster-service data at a time. The use of power switches in the cluster hardware configuration enables a node to power-cycle another node before restarting that node's HA services during a failover process. This prevents two nodes from simultaneously accessing the same data and corrupting it. Fence devices (hardware or software solutions that remotely power, shutdown, and reboot cluster nodes) are used to guarantee data integrity under all failure conditions.
Ethernet channel bonding
Cluster quorum and node health is determined by communication of messages among cluster nodes via Ethernet. In addition, cluster nodes use Ethernet for a variety of other critical cluster functions (for example, fencing). With Ethernet channel bonding, multiple Ethernet interfaces are configured to behave as one, reducing the risk of a single-point-of-failure in the typical switched Ethernet connection among cluster nodes and other cluster hardware.
As of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4, bonding modes 0, 1, and 2 are supported.
IPv4 and IPv6
The High Availability Add-On supports both IPv4 and IPv6 Internet Protocols. Support of IPv6 in the High Availability Add-On is new for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.

2.2. Compatible Hardware

Before configuring Red Hat High Availability Add-On software, make sure that your cluster uses appropriate hardware (for example, supported fence devices, storage devices, and Fibre Channel switches). Refer to the Red Hat Hardware Catalog at https://hardware.redhat.com/ for the most current hardware compatibility information.

2.3. Enabling IP Ports

Before deploying the Red Hat High Availability Add-On, you must enable certain IP ports on the cluster nodes and on computers that run luci (the Conga user interface server). The following sections identify the IP ports to be enabled:
The following section provides the iptables rules for enabling IP ports needed by the Red Hat High Availability Add-On:

2.3.1. Enabling IP Ports on Cluster Nodes

To allow the nodes in a cluster to communicate with each other, you must enable the IP ports assigned to certain Red Hat High Availability Add-On components. Table 2.1, “Enabled IP Ports on Red Hat High Availability Add-On Nodes” lists the IP port numbers, their respective protocols, and the components to which the port numbers are assigned. At each cluster node, enable IP ports according to Table 2.1, “Enabled IP Ports on Red Hat High Availability Add-On Nodes”. You can use system-config-firewall to enable the IP ports.

Table 2.1. Enabled IP Ports on Red Hat High Availability Add-On Nodes

IP Port Number Protocol Component
5404, 5405 UDP corosync/cman (Cluster Manager)
11111 TCP ricci (propagates updated cluster information)
21064 TCP dlm (Distributed Lock Manager)
16851 TCP modclusterd

2.3.2. Enabling the IP Port for luci

To allow client computers to communicate with a computer that runs luci (the Conga user interface server), you must enable the IP port assigned to luci. At each computer that runs luci, enable the IP port according to Table 2.2, “Enabled IP Port on a Computer That Runs luci.

Note

If a cluster node is running luci, port 11111 should already have been enabled.

Table 2.2. Enabled IP Port on a Computer That Runs luci

IP Port Number Protocol Component
8084 TCP luci (Conga user interface server)

As of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1 release, which enabled configuration by means of the /etc/sysconfig/luci file, you can specifically configure the only IP address luci is being served at. You can use this capability if your server infrastructure incorporates more than one network and you want to access luci from the internal network only. To do this, uncomment and edit the line in the file that specifies host. For example, to change the host setting in the file to 10.10.10.10, edit the host line as follows:
host = 10.10.10.10
For more information on the /etc/sysconfig/luci file, refer to Section 2.4, “Configuring luci with /etc/sysconfig/luci.

2.3.3. Configuring the iptables Firewall to Allow Cluster Components

Listed below are example iptable rules for enabling IP ports needed by Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 (with High Availability Add-on). Please note that these examples use 192.168.1.0/24 as a subnet, but you will need to replace 192.168.1.0/24 with the appropriate subnet if you use these rules.
For cman (Cluster Manager), use the following filtering.
$ iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -m multiport -p udp -s 192.168.1.0/24 -d 192.168.1.0/24 --dports 5404,5405 -j ACCEPT
$ iptables -I INPUT -m addrtype --dst-type MULTICAST -m state --state NEW -m multiport -p udp -s 192.168.1.0/24 --dports 5404,5405 -j ACCEPT
For dlm (Distributed Lock Manager):
$ iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp -s 192.168.1.0/24 -d 192.168.1.0/24 --dport 21064 -j ACCEPT 
For ricci (part of Conga remote agent):
$ iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp -s 192.168.1.0/24 -d 192.168.1.0/24 --dport 11111 -j ACCEPT
For modclusterd (part of Conga remote agent):
$ iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp -s 192.168.1.0/24 -d 192.168.1.0/24 --dport 16851 -j ACCEPT
For luci (Conga User Interface server):
$ iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp -s 192.168.1.0/24 -d 192.168.1.0/24 --dport 8084 -j ACCEPT
For igmp (Internet Group Management Protocol):
$ iptables -I INPUT -p igmp -j ACCEPT
After executing these commands, run the following command to save the current configuration for the changes to be persistent during reboot.
$ service iptables save ; service iptables restart

2.4. Configuring luci with /etc/sysconfig/luci

As of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1 release, you can configure some aspects of luci's behavior by means of the /etc/sysconfig/luci file. The parameters you can change with this file include auxiliary settings of the running environment used by the init script as well as server configuration. In addition, you can edit this file to modify some application configuration parameters. There are instructions within the file itself describing which configuration parameters you can change by editing this file.
In order to protect the intended format, you should not change the non-configuration lines of the /etc/sysconfig/luci file when you edit the file. Additionally, you should take care to follow the required syntax for this file, particularly for the INITSCRIPT section which does not allow for white spaces around the equal sign and requires that you use quotation marks to enclose strings containing white spaces.
The following example shows how to change the port at which luci is being served by editing the /etc/sysconfig/luci file.
  1. Uncomment the following line in the /etc/sysconfig/luci file:
    #port = 4443
    
  2. Replace 4443 with the desired port number, which must be higher than or equal to 1024 (not a privileged port). For example, you can edit that line of the file as follows to set the port at which luci is being served to 8084.
    port = 8084
    
  3. Restart the luci service for the changes to take effect.

Important

When you modify a configuration parameter in the /etc/sysconfig/luci file to redefine a default value, you should take care to use the new value in place of the documented default value. For example, when you modify the port at which luci is being served, make sure that you specify the modified value when you enable an IP port for luci, as described in Section 2.3.2, “Enabling the IP Port for luci.
Modified port and host parameters will automatically be reflected in the URL displayed when the luci service starts, as described in Section 3.2, “Starting luci. You should use this URL to access luci.
For more complete information on the parameters you can configure with the /etc/sysconfig/luci file, refer to the documentation within the file itself.

2.5. Configuring ACPI For Use with Integrated Fence Devices

If your cluster uses integrated fence devices, you must configure ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) to ensure immediate and complete fencing.

Note

For the most current information about integrated fence devices supported by Red Hat High Availability Add-On, refer to http://www.redhat.com/cluster_suite/hardware/.
If a cluster node is configured to be fenced by an integrated fence device, disable ACPI Soft-Off for that node. Disabling ACPI Soft-Off allows an integrated fence device to turn off a node immediately and completely rather than attempting a clean shutdown (for example, shutdown -h now). Otherwise, if ACPI Soft-Off is enabled, an integrated fence device can take four or more seconds to turn off a node (refer to note that follows). In addition, if ACPI Soft-Off is enabled and a node panics or freezes during shutdown, an integrated fence device may not be able to turn off the node. Under those circumstances, fencing is delayed or unsuccessful. Consequently, when a node is fenced with an integrated fence device and ACPI Soft-Off is enabled, a cluster recovers slowly or requires administrative intervention to recover.

Note

The amount of time required to fence a node depends on the integrated fence device used. Some integrated fence devices perform the equivalent of pressing and holding the power button; therefore, the fence device turns off the node in four to five seconds. Other integrated fence devices perform the equivalent of pressing the power button momentarily, relying on the operating system to turn off the node; therefore, the fence device turns off the node in a time span much longer than four to five seconds.
To disable ACPI Soft-Off, use chkconfig management and verify that the node turns off immediately when fenced. The preferred way to disable ACPI Soft-Off is with chkconfig management: however, if that method is not satisfactory for your cluster, you can disable ACPI Soft-Off with one of the following alternate methods:
  • Changing the BIOS setting to "instant-off" or an equivalent setting that turns off the node without delay

    Note

    Disabling ACPI Soft-Off with the BIOS may not be possible with some computers.
  • Appending acpi=off to the kernel boot command line of the /boot/grub/grub.conf file

    Important

    This method completely disables ACPI; some computers do not boot correctly if ACPI is completely disabled. Use this method only if the other methods are not effective for your cluster.
The following sections provide procedures for the preferred method and alternate methods of disabling ACPI Soft-Off:

2.5.1. Disabling ACPI Soft-Off with chkconfig Management

You can use chkconfig management to disable ACPI Soft-Off either by removing the ACPI daemon (acpid) from chkconfig management or by turning off acpid.

Note

This is the preferred method of disabling ACPI Soft-Off.
Disable ACPI Soft-Off with chkconfig management at each cluster node as follows:
  1. Run either of the following commands:
    • chkconfig --del acpid — This command removes acpid from chkconfig management.
      — OR —
    • chkconfig --level 345 acpid off — This command turns off acpid.
  2. Reboot the node.
  3. When the cluster is configured and running, verify that the node turns off immediately when fenced.

    Note

    You can fence the node with the fence_node command or Conga.

2.5.2. Disabling ACPI Soft-Off with the BIOS

The preferred method of disabling ACPI Soft-Off is with chkconfig management (Section 2.5.1, “Disabling ACPI Soft-Off with chkconfig Management”). However, if the preferred method is not effective for your cluster, follow the procedure in this section.

Note

Disabling ACPI Soft-Off with the BIOS may not be possible with some computers.
You can disable ACPI Soft-Off by configuring the BIOS of each cluster node as follows:
  1. Reboot the node and start the BIOS CMOS Setup Utility program.
  2. Navigate to the Power menu (or equivalent power management menu).
  3. At the Power menu, set the Soft-Off by PWR-BTTN function (or equivalent) to Instant-Off (or the equivalent setting that turns off the node via the power button without delay). Example 2.1, “BIOS CMOS Setup Utility: Soft-Off by PWR-BTTN set to Instant-Off shows a Power menu with ACPI Function set to Enabled and Soft-Off by PWR-BTTN set to Instant-Off.

    Note

    The equivalents to ACPI Function, Soft-Off by PWR-BTTN, and Instant-Off may vary among computers. However, the objective of this procedure is to configure the BIOS so that the computer is turned off via the power button without delay.
  4. Exit the BIOS CMOS Setup Utility program, saving the BIOS configuration.
  5. When the cluster is configured and running, verify that the node turns off immediately when fenced.

    Note

    You can fence the node with the fence_node command or Conga.

Example 2.1. BIOS CMOS Setup Utility: Soft-Off by PWR-BTTN set to Instant-Off

+---------------------------------------------|-------------------+
|    ACPI Function             [Enabled]      |    Item Help      |
|    ACPI Suspend Type         [S1(POS)]      |-------------------|
|  x Run VGABIOS if S3 Resume   Auto          |   Menu Level   *  |
|    Suspend Mode              [Disabled]     |                   |
|    HDD Power Down            [Disabled]     |                   |
|    Soft-Off by PWR-BTTN      [Instant-Off   |                   |
|    CPU THRM-Throttling       [50.0%]        |                   |
|    Wake-Up by PCI card       [Enabled]      |                   |
|    Power On by Ring          [Enabled]      |                   |
|    Wake Up On LAN            [Enabled]      |                   |
|  x USB KB Wake-Up From S3     Disabled      |                   |
|    Resume by Alarm           [Disabled]     |                   |
|  x  Date(of Month) Alarm       0            |                   |
|  x  Time(hh:mm:ss) Alarm       0 :  0 :     |                   |
|    POWER ON Function         [BUTTON ONLY   |                   |
|  x KB Power ON Password       Enter         |                   |
|  x Hot Key Power ON           Ctrl-F1       |                   |
|                                             |                   |
|                                             |                   |
+---------------------------------------------|-------------------+
This example shows ACPI Function set to Enabled, and Soft-Off by PWR-BTTN set to Instant-Off.

2.5.3. Disabling ACPI Completely in the grub.conf File

The preferred method of disabling ACPI Soft-Off is with chkconfig management (Section 2.5.1, “Disabling ACPI Soft-Off with chkconfig Management”). If the preferred method is not effective for your cluster, you can disable ACPI Soft-Off with the BIOS power management (Section 2.5.2, “Disabling ACPI Soft-Off with the BIOS”). If neither of those methods is effective for your cluster, you can disable ACPI completely by appending acpi=off to the kernel boot command line in the grub.conf file.

Important

This method completely disables ACPI; some computers do not boot correctly if ACPI is completely disabled. Use this method only if the other methods are not effective for your cluster.
You can disable ACPI completely by editing the grub.conf file of each cluster node as follows:
  1. Open /boot/grub/grub.conf with a text editor.
  2. Append acpi=off to the kernel boot command line in /boot/grub/grub.conf (refer to Example 2.2, “Kernel Boot Command Line with acpi=off Appended to It”).
  3. Reboot the node.
  4. When the cluster is configured and running, verify that the node turns off immediately when fenced.

    Note

    You can fence the node with the fence_node command or Conga.

Example 2.2. Kernel Boot Command Line with acpi=off Appended to It

# grub.conf generated by anaconda
#
# Note that you do not have to rerun grub after making changes to this file
# NOTICE:  You have a /boot partition.  This means that
#          all kernel and initrd paths are relative to /boot/, eg.
#          root (hd0,0)
#          kernel /vmlinuz-version ro root=/dev/mapper/vg_doc01-lv_root 
#          initrd /initrd-[generic-]version.img
#boot=/dev/hda
default=0
timeout=5
serial --unit=0 --speed=115200
terminal --timeout=5 serial console
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.32-193.el6.x86_64)
        root (hd0,0)
        kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.32-193.el6.x86_64 ro root=/dev/mapper/vg_doc01-lv_root console=ttyS0,115200n8 acpi=off
        initrd /initramrs-2.6.32-131.0.15.el6.x86_64.img
In this example, acpi=off has been appended to the kernel boot command line — the line starting with "kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.32-193.el6.x86_64.img".

2.6. Considerations for Configuring HA Services

You can create a cluster to suit your needs for high availability by configuring HA (high-availability) services. The key component for HA service management in the Red Hat High Availability Add-On, rgmanager, implements cold failover for off-the-shelf applications. In the Red Hat High Availability Add-On, an application is configured with other cluster resources to form an HA service that can fail over from one cluster node to another with no apparent interruption to cluster clients. HA-service failover can occur if a cluster node fails or if a cluster system administrator moves the service from one cluster node to another (for example, for a planned outage of a cluster node).
To create an HA service, you must configure it in the cluster configuration file. An HA service comprises cluster resources. Cluster resources are building blocks that you create and manage in the cluster configuration file — for example, an IP address, an application initialization script, or a Red Hat GFS2 shared partition.
An HA service can run on only one cluster node at a time to maintain data integrity. You can specify failover priority in a failover domain. Specifying failover priority consists of assigning a priority level to each node in a failover domain. The priority level determines the failover order — determining which node that an HA service should fail over to. If you do not specify failover priority, an HA service can fail over to any node in its failover domain. Also, you can specify if an HA service is restricted to run only on nodes of its associated failover domain. (When associated with an unrestricted failover domain, an HA service can start on any cluster node in the event no member of the failover domain is available.)
Figure 2.1, “Web Server Cluster Service Example” shows an example of an HA service that is a web server named "content-webserver". It is running in cluster node B and is in a failover domain that consists of nodes A, B, and D. In addition, the failover domain is configured with a failover priority to fail over to node D before node A and to restrict failover to nodes only in that failover domain. The HA service comprises these cluster resources:
  • IP address resource — IP address 10.10.10.201.
  • An application resource named "httpd-content" — a web server application init script /etc/init.d/httpd (specifying httpd).
  • A file system resource — Red Hat GFS2 named "gfs2-content-webserver".
Web Server Cluster Service Example

Figure 2.1. Web Server Cluster Service Example


Clients access the HA service through the IP address 10.10.10.201, enabling interaction with the web server application, httpd-content. The httpd-content application uses the gfs2-content-webserver file system. If node B were to fail, the content-webserver HA service would fail over to node D. If node D were not available or also failed, the service would fail over to node A. Failover would occur with minimal service interruption to the cluster clients. For example, in an HTTP service, certain state information may be lost (like session data). The HA service would be accessible from another cluster node via the same IP address as it was before failover.

Note

For more information about HA services and failover domains, refer to the High Availability Add-On Overview. For information about configuring failover domains, refer to Chapter 3, Configuring Red Hat High Availability Add-On With Conga(using Conga) or Chapter 7, Configuring Red Hat High Availability Manually (using command line utilities).
An HA service is a group of cluster resources configured into a coherent entity that provides specialized services to clients. An HA service is represented as a resource tree in the cluster configuration file, /etc/cluster/cluster.conf (in each cluster node). In the cluster configuration file, each resource tree is an XML representation that specifies each resource, its attributes, and its relationship among other resources in the resource tree (parent, child, and sibling relationships).

Note

Because an HA service consists of resources organized into a hierarchical tree, a service is sometimes referred to as a resource tree or resource group. Both phrases are synonymous with HA service.
At the root of each resource tree is a special type of resource — a service resource. Other types of resources comprise the rest of a service, determining its characteristics. Configuring an HA service consists of creating a service resource, creating subordinate cluster resources, and organizing them into a coherent entity that conforms to hierarchical restrictions of the service.
There are two major considerations to take into account when configuring an HA service:
  • The types of resources needed to create a service
  • Parent, child, and sibling relationships among resources
The types of resources and the hierarchy of resources depend on the type of service you are configuring.
The types of cluster resources are listed in Appendix B, HA Resource Parameters. Information about parent, child, and sibling relationships among resources is described in Appendix C, HA Resource Behavior.

2.7. Configuration Validation

The cluster configuration is automatically validated according to the cluster schema at /usr/share/cluster/cluster.rng during startup time and when a configuration is reloaded. Also, you can validate a cluster configuration any time by using the ccs_config_validate command. For information on configuration validation when using the ccs command, see Section 5.1.6, “Configuration Validation”.
An annotated schema is available for viewing at /usr/share/doc/cman-X.Y.ZZ /cluster_conf.html (for example /usr/share/doc/cman-3.0.12/cluster_conf.html).
Configuration validation checks for the following basic errors:
  • XML validity — Checks that the configuration file is a valid XML file.
  • Configuration options — Checks to make sure that options (XML elements and attributes) are valid.
  • Option values — Checks that the options contain valid data (limited).
The following examples show a valid configuration and invalid configurations that illustrate the validation checks:

Example 2.3. cluster.conf Sample Configuration: Valid File


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="1">
  <logging debug="off"/>
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-03.example.com" nodeid="3">
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
   </rm>
</cluster>



Example 2.4. cluster.conf Sample Configuration: Invalid XML


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="1">
  <logging debug="off"/>
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-03.example.com" nodeid="3">
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
   </rm>
<cluster>         <----------------INVALID


In this example, the last line of the configuration (annotated as "INVALID" here) is missing a slash — it is <cluster> instead of </cluster> .

Example 2.5. cluster.conf Sample Configuration: Invalid Option


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="1">
  <loging debug="off"/>         <----------------INVALID
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-03.example.com" nodeid="3">
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
   </rm>
<cluster>


In this example, the second line of the configuration (annotated as "INVALID" here) contains an invalid XML element — it is loging instead of logging .

Example 2.6. cluster.conf Sample Configuration: Invalid Option Value


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="1">
  <loging debug="off"/>
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="-1">  <--------INVALID
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-03.example.com" nodeid="3">
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
   </rm>
<cluster>


In this example, the fourth line of the configuration (annotated as "INVALID" here) contains an invalid value for the XML attribute, nodeid in the clusternode line for node-01.example.com. The value is a negative value ("-1") instead of a positive value ("1"). For the nodeid attribute, the value must be a positive value.

2.8. Considerations for NetworkManager

The use of NetworkManager is not supported on cluster nodes. If you have installed NetworkManager on your cluster nodes, you should either remove it or disable it.

Note

The cman service will not start if NetworkManager is either running or has been configured to run with the chkconfig command.

2.9. Considerations for Using Quorum Disk

Quorum Disk is a disk-based quorum daemon, qdiskd, that provides supplemental heuristics to determine node fitness. With heuristics you can determine factors that are important to the operation of the node in the event of a network partition. For example, in a four-node cluster with a 3:1 split, ordinarily, the three nodes automatically "win" because of the three-to-one majority. Under those circumstances, the one node is fenced. With qdiskd however, you can set up heuristics that allow the one node to win based on access to a critical resource (for example, a critical network path). If your cluster requires additional methods of determining node health, then you should configure qdiskd to meet those needs.

Note

Configuring qdiskd is not required unless you have special requirements for node health. An example of a special requirement is an "all-but-one" configuration. In an all-but-one configuration, qdiskd is configured to provide enough quorum votes to maintain quorum even though only one node is working.

Important

Overall, heuristics and other qdiskd parameters for your deployment depend on the site environment and special requirements needed. To understand the use of heuristics and other qdiskd parameters, refer to the qdisk(5) man page. If you require assistance understanding and using qdiskd for your site, contact an authorized Red Hat support representative.
If you need to use qdiskd, you should take into account the following considerations:
Cluster node votes
When using Quorum Disk, each cluster node must have one vote.
CMAN membership timeout value
The qdiskd membership timeout value is automatically configured based on the CMAN membership timeout value (the time a node needs to be unresponsive before CMAN considers that node to be dead, and not a member). qdiskd also performs extra sanity checks to guarantee that it can operate within the CMAN timeout. If you find that you need to reset this value, you must take the following into account:
The CMAN membership timeout value should be at least two times that of the qdiskd membership timeout value. The reason is because the quorum daemon must detect failed nodes on its own, and can take much longer to do so than CMAN. Other site-specific conditions may affect the relationship between the membership timeout values of CMAN and qdiskd. For assistance with adjusting the CMAN membership timeout value, contact an authorized Red Hat support representative.
Fencing
To ensure reliable fencing when using qdiskd, use power fencing. While other types of fencing can be reliable for clusters not configured with qdiskd, they are not reliable for a cluster configured with qdiskd.
Maximum nodes
A cluster configured with qdiskd supports a maximum of 16 nodes. The reason for the limit is because of scalability; increasing the node count increases the amount of synchronous I/O contention on the shared quorum disk device.
Quorum disk device
A quorum disk device should be a shared block device with concurrent read/write access by all nodes in a cluster. The minimum size of the block device is 10 Megabytes. Examples of shared block devices that can be used by qdiskd are a multi-port SCSI RAID array, a Fibre Channel RAID SAN, or a RAID-configured iSCSI target. You can create a quorum disk device with mkqdisk, the Cluster Quorum Disk Utility. For information about using the utility refer to the mkqdisk(8) man page.

Note

Using JBOD as a quorum disk is not recommended. A JBOD cannot provide dependable performance and therefore may not allow a node to write to it quickly enough. If a node is unable to write to a quorum disk device quickly enough, the node is falsely evicted from a cluster.

2.10. Red Hat High Availability Add-On and SELinux

The High Availability Add-On for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports SELinux in the enforcing state with the SELinux policy type set to targeted.

Note

When using SELinux with the High Availability Add-On in a VM environment, you should ensure that the SELinux boolean fenced_can_network_connect is persistently set to on. This allows the fence_xvm fencing agent to work properly, enabling the system to fence virtual machines.
For more information about SELinux, refer to Deployment Guide for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.

2.11. Multicast Addresses

The nodes in a cluster communicate among each other using multicast addresses. Therefore, each network switch and associated networking equipment in the Red Hat High Availability Add-On must be configured to enable multicast addresses and support IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol). Ensure that each network switch and associated networking equipment in the Red Hat High Availability Add-On are capable of supporting multicast addresses and IGMP; if they are, ensure that multicast addressing and IGMP are enabled. Without multicast and IGMP, not all nodes can participate in a cluster, causing the cluster to fail; use UDP unicast in these environments, as described in Section 2.12, “UDP Unicast Traffic”.

Note

Procedures for configuring network switches and associated networking equipment vary according each product. Refer to the appropriate vendor documentation or other information about configuring network switches and associated networking equipment to enable multicast addresses and IGMP.

2.12. UDP Unicast Traffic

As of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 release, the nodes in a cluster can communicate with each other using the UDP Unicast transport mechanism. It is recommended, however, that you use IP multicasting for the cluster network. UDP unicast is an alternative that can be used when IP multicasting is not available.
You can configure the Red Hat High-Availability Add-On to use UDP unicast by setting the cman transport="udpu" parameter in the cluster.conf configuration file. You can also specify Unicast from the Network Configuration page of the Conga user interface, as described in Section 3.5.3, “Network Configuration”.

2.13. Considerations for ricci

For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, ricci replaces ccsd. Therefore, it is necessary that ricci is running in each cluster node to be able to propagate updated cluster configuration whether it is via the cman_tool version -r command, the ccs command, or the luci user interface server. You can start ricci by using service ricci start or by enabling it to start at boot time via chkconfig. For information on enabling IP ports for ricci, refer to Section 2.3.1, “Enabling IP Ports on Cluster Nodes”.
For the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1 release and later, using ricci requires a password the first time you propagate updated cluster configuration from any particular node. You set the ricci password as root after you install ricci on your system with the passwd ricci command, for user ricci.

2.14. Configuring Virtual Machines in a Clustered Environment

When you configure your cluster with virtual machine resources, you should use the rgmanager tools to start and stop the virtual machines. Using virsh to start the machine can result in the virtual machine running in more than one place, which can cause data corruption in the virtual machine.
To reduce the chances of administrators accidentally "double-starting" virtual machines by using both cluster and non-cluster tools in a clustered environment, you can configure your system by storing the virtual machine configuration files in a non-default location. Storing the virtual machine configuration files somewhere other than their default location makes it more difficult to accidentally start a virtual machine using virsh, as the configuration file will be unknown out of the box to virsh.
The non-default location for virtual machine configuration files may be anywhere. The advantage of using an NFS share or a shared GFS2 file system is that the administrator does not need to keep the configuration files in sync across the cluster members. However, it is also permissible to use a local directory as long as the administrator keeps the contents synchronized somehow cluster-wide.
In the cluster configuration, virtual machines may reference this non-default location by using the path attribute of a virtual machine resource. Note that the path attribute is a directory or set of directories separated by the colon ':' character, not a path to a specific file.

Warning

The libvirt-guests service should be disabled on all the nodes that are running rgmanager. If a virtual machine autostarts or resumes, this can result in the virtual machine running in more than one place, which can cause data corruption in the virtual machine.
For more information on the attributes of a virtual machine resources, refer to Table B.24, “Virtual Machine (vm Resource)”.

Chapter 3. Configuring Red Hat High Availability Add-On With Conga

This chapter describes how to configure Red Hat High Availability Add-On software using Conga. For information on using Conga to manage a running cluster, see Chapter 4, Managing Red Hat High Availability Add-On With Conga.

Note

Conga is a graphical user interface that you can use to administer the Red Hat High Availability Add-On. Note, however, that in order to use this interface effectively you need to have a good and clear understanding of the underlying concepts. Learning about cluster configuration by exploring the available features in the user interface is not recommended, as it may result in a system that is not robust enough to keep all services running when components fail.
This chapter consists of the following sections:

3.1. Configuration Tasks

Configuring Red Hat High Availability Add-On software with Conga consists of the following steps:
  1. Configuring and running the Conga configuration user interface — the luci server. Refer to Section 3.2, “Starting luci.
  2. Creating a cluster. Refer to Section 3.4, “Creating a Cluster”.
  3. Configuring global cluster properties. Refer to Section 3.5, “Global Cluster Properties”.
  4. Configuring fence devices. Refer to Section 3.6, “Configuring Fence Devices”.
  5. Configuring fencing for cluster members. Refer to Section 3.7, “Configuring Fencing for Cluster Members”.
  6. Creating failover domains. Refer to Section 3.8, “Configuring a Failover Domain”.

3.2. Starting luci

Installing ricci

Using luci to configure a cluster requires that ricci be installed and running on the cluster nodes, as described in Section 2.13, “Considerations for ricci. As noted in that section, using ricci requires a password which luci requires you to enter for each cluster node when you create a cluster, as described in Section 3.4, “Creating a Cluster”.
Before starting luci, ensure that the IP ports on your cluster nodes allow connections to port 11111 from the luci server on any nodes that luci will be communicating with. For information on enabling IP ports on cluster nodes, see Section 2.3.1, “Enabling IP Ports on Cluster Nodes”.
To administer Red Hat High Availability Add-On with Conga, install and run luci as follows:
  1. Select a computer to host luci and install the luci software on that computer. For example:
    # yum install luci

    Note

    Typically, a computer in a server cage or a data center hosts luci; however, a cluster computer can host luci.
  2. Start luci using service luci start. For example:
    # service luci start
    Starting luci: generating https SSL certificates...  done
                                                               [  OK  ]
    
    Please, point your web browser to https://nano-01:8084 to access luci
    

    Note

    As of Red Hat Enterprise Linux release 6.1, you can configure some aspects of luci's behavior by means of the /etc/sysconfig/luci file, including the port and host parameters, as described in Section 2.4, “Configuring luci with /etc/sysconfig/luci. Modified port and host parameters will automatically be reflected in the URL displayed when the luci service starts.
  3. At a Web browser, place the URL of the luci server into the URL address box and click Go (or the equivalent). The URL syntax for the luci server is https://luci_server_hostname:luci_server_port. The default value of luci_server_port is 8084.
    The first time you access luci, a web browser specific prompt regarding the self-signed SSL certificate (of the luci server) is displayed. Upon acknowledging the dialog box or boxes, your Web browser displays the luci login page.
  4. Although any user able to authenticate on the system that is hosting luci can log in to luci, as of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 only the root user on the system that is running luci can access any of the luci components until an administrator (the root user or a user with administrator permission) sets permissions for that user. For information on setting luci permissions for users, refer to Section 3.3, “Controlling Access to luci”.
    Logging in to luci displays the luci Homebase page, as shown in Figure 3.1, “luci Homebase page”.
    luci Homebase page

    Figure 3.1. luci Homebase page


Note

There is an idle timeout for luci that logs you out after 15 minutes of inactivity.

3.3. Controlling Access to luci

Since the initial release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, the following features have been added to the Users and Permisions page.
  • As of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2, the root user or a user who has been granted luci administrator permissions on a system running luci can control access to the various luci components by setting permissions for the individual users on a system.
  • As of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3, the root user or a user who has been granted luci administrator permissions can add users to the luci interface and then set the user permissions for that user. You will still need to add that user to the system and set up a password for that user, but this feature allows you to configure permissions for the user before the user has logged in to luci for the first time.
  • As of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4, the root user or a user who has been granted luci administrator permissions can also use the luci interface to delete users from the luci interface, which resets any permissions you have configured for that user.

Note

You can modify the way in which luci performs authentication by editing the /etc/pam.d/luci file on the system. For information on using Linux-PAM, see the pam(8) man page.
To add users, delete users, or set the user permissions, log in to luci as root or as a user who has previously been granted administrator permissions and click the Admin selection in the upper right corner of the luci screen. This brings up the Users and Permissions page, which displays the existing users.
To add a user to the luci interface, click on Add a User and enter the name of the user to add. You can then set permissions for that user, although you will still need to set up a password for that user.
To delete users from the luci interface, resetting any permissions you have configured for that user, select the user or users and click on Delete Selected.
To set or change permissions for a user, select the user from the dropdown menu under User Permissions. This allows you to set the following permissions:
Luci Administrator
Grants the user the same permissions as the root user, with full permissions on all clusters and the ability to set or remove permissions on all other users except root, whose permissions cannot be restricted.
Can Create Clusters
Allows the user to create new clusters, as described in Section 3.4, “Creating a Cluster”.
Can Import Existing Clusters
Allows the user to add an existing cluster to the luci interface, as described in Section 4.1, “Adding an Existing Cluster to the luci Interface”.
For each cluster that has been created or imported to luci, you can set the following permissions for the indicated user:
Can View This Cluster
Allows the user to view the specified cluster.
Can Change the Cluster Configuration
Allows the user to modify the configuration for the specified cluster, with the exception of adding and removing cluster nodes.
Can Enable, Disable, Relocate, and Migrate Service Groups
Allows the user to manage high-availability services, as described in Section 4.5, “Managing High-Availability Services”.
Can Stop, Start, and Reboot Cluster Nodes
Allows the user to manage the individual nodes of a cluster, as described in Section 4.3, “Managing Cluster Nodes”.
Can Add and Delete Nodes
Allows the user to add and delete nodes from a cluster, as described in Section 3.4, “Creating a Cluster”.
Can Remove This Cluster from Luci
Allows the user to remove a cluster from the luci interface, as described in Section 4.4, “Starting, Stopping, Restarting, and Deleting Clusters”.
Click Submit for the permissions to take affect, or click Reset to return to the initial values.

3.4. Creating a Cluster

Creating a cluster with luci consists of naming a cluster, adding cluster nodes to the cluster, entering the ricci passwords for each node, and submitting the request to create a cluster. If the node information and passwords are correct, Conga automatically installs software into the cluster nodes (if the appropriate software packages are not currently installed) and starts the cluster. Create a cluster as follows:
  1. Click Manage Clusters from the menu on the left side of the luci Homebase page. The Clusters screen appears, as shown in Figure 3.2, “luci cluster management page”.
    luci cluster management page

    Figure 3.2. luci cluster management page


  2. Click Create. The Create New Cluster dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 3.3, “luci cluster creation dialog box”.
    luci cluster creation dialog box

    Figure 3.3. luci cluster creation dialog box


  3. Enter the following parameters on the Create New Cluster dialog box, as necessary:
    • At the Cluster Name text box, enter a cluster name. The cluster name cannot exceed 15 characters.
    • If each node in the cluster has the same ricci password, you can check Use the same password for all nodes to autofill the password field as you add nodes.
    • Enter the node name for a node in the cluster in the Node Name column and enter the ricci password for the node in the Password column. A node name can be up to 255 bytes in length.
    • If your system is configured with a dedicated private network that is used only for cluster traffic, you may want to configure luci to communicate with ricci on an address that is different from the address to which the cluster node name resolves. You can do this by entering that address as the Ricci Hostname.
    • If you are using a different port for the ricci agent than the default of 11111, you can change that parameter.
    • Click on Add Another Node and enter the node name and ricci password for each additional node in the cluster.
    • If you do not want to upgrade the cluster software packages that are already installed on the nodes when you create the cluster, leave the Use locally installed packages option selected. If you want to upgrade all cluster software packages, select the Download Packages option.

      Note

      Whether you select the Use locally installed packages or the Download Packages option, if any of the base cluster components are missing (cman, rgmanager, modcluster and all their dependencies), they will be installed. If they cannot be installed, the node creation will fail.
    • Select Reboot nodes before joining cluster if desired.
    • Select Enable shared storage support if clustered storage is required; this downloads the packages that support clustered storage and enables clustered LVM. You should select this only when you have access to the Resilient Storage Add-On or the Scalable File System Add-On.
  4. Click Create Cluster. Clicking Create Cluster causes the following actions:
    1. If you have selected Download Packages, the cluster software packages are downloaded onto the nodes.
    2. Cluster software is installed onto the nodes (or it is verified that the appropriate software packages are installed).
    3. The cluster configuration file is updated and propagated to each node in the cluster.
    4. The added nodes join the cluster.
    A message is displayed indicating that the cluster is being created. When the cluster is ready, the display shows the status of the newly created cluster, as shown in Figure 3.4, “Cluster node display”. Note that if ricci is not running on any of the nodes, the cluster creation will fail.
    Cluster node display

    Figure 3.4. Cluster node display


  5. After clicking Create Cluster to create the cluster, you can add or delete nodes from the cluster by clicking the Add or Delete function from the menu at the top of the cluster node display page. Unless you are deleting an entire cluster, nodes must be stopped before being deleted. For information on deleting a node from an existing cluster that is currently in operation, see Section 4.3.4, “Deleting a Member from a Cluster”.

    Note

    Removing a cluster node from the cluster is a destructive operation that cannot be undone.

3.5. Global Cluster Properties

When you select a cluster to configure, a cluster-specific page is displayed. The page provides an interface for configuring cluster-wide properties. You can configure cluster-wide properties by clicking on Configure along the top of the cluster display. This yields a tabbed interface which provides the following tabs: General, Fence Daemon, Network, Redundant Ring, QDisk and Logging. To configure the parameters in those tabs, follow the steps in the following sections. If you do not need to configure parameters in a tab, skip the section for that tab.

3.5.1. Configuring General Properties

Clicking on the General tab displays the General Properties page, which provides an interface for modifying the configuration version.
  • The Cluster Name text box displays the cluster name; it does not accept a cluster name change. The only way to change the name of a cluster is to create a new cluster configuration with the new name.
  • The Configuration Version value is set to 1 at the time of cluster creation and is automatically incremented each time you modify your cluster configuration. However, if you need to set it to another value, you can specify it at the Configuration Version text box.
If you have changed the Configuration Version value, click Apply for this change to take effect.

3.5.2. Configuring Fence Daemon Properties

Clicking on the Fence Daemon tab displays the Fence Daemon Properties page, which provides an interface for configuring Post Fail Delay and Post Join Delay. The values you configure for these parameters are general fencing properties for the cluster. To configure specific fence devices for the nodes of the cluster, use the Fence Devices menu item of the cluster display, as described in Section 3.6, “Configuring Fence Devices”.
  • The Post Fail Delay parameter is the number of seconds the fence daemon (fenced) waits before fencing a node (a member of the fence domain) after the node has failed. The Post Fail Delay default value is 0. Its value may be varied to suit cluster and network performance.
  • The Post Join Delay parameter is the number of seconds the fence daemon (fenced) waits before fencing a node after the node joins the fence domain. luci sets the Post Join Delay value to 3. A typical setting for Post Join Delay is between 20 and 30 seconds, but can vary according to cluster and network performance.
Enter the values required and click Apply for changes to take effect.

Note

For more information about Post Join Delay and Post Fail Delay, refer to the fenced(8) man page.

3.5.3. Network Configuration

Clicking on the Network tab displays the Network Configuration page, which provides an interface for configuring the network transport type.
You can use this tab to select one of the following options:
  • UDP Multicast and Let Cluster Choose the Multicast Address
    This is the default setting. With this option selected, the Red Hat High Availability Add-On software creates a multicast address based on the cluster ID. It generates the lower 16 bits of the address and appends them to the upper portion of the address according to whether the IP protocol is IPv4 or IPv6:
    • For IPv4 — The address formed is 239.192. plus the lower 16 bits generated by Red Hat High Availability Add-On software.
    • For IPv6 — The address formed is FF15:: plus the lower 16 bits generated by Red Hat High Availability Add-On software.

    Note

    The cluster ID is a unique identifier that cman generates for each cluster. To view the cluster ID, run the cman_tool status command on a cluster node.
  • UDP Multicast and Specify the Multicast Address Manually
    If you need to use a specific multicast address, select this option enter a multicast address into the Multicast Address text box.
    If you do specify a multicast address, you should use the 239.192.x.x series (or FF15:: for IPv6) that cman uses. Otherwise, using a multicast address outside that range may cause unpredictable results. For example, using 224.0.0.x (which is "All hosts on the network") may not be routed correctly, or even routed at all by some hardware.
    If you specify or modify a multicast address, you must restart the cluster for this to take effect. For information on starting and stopping a cluster with Conga, refer to Section 4.4, “Starting, Stopping, Restarting, and Deleting Clusters”.

    Note

    If you specify a multicast address, make sure that you check the configuration of routers that cluster packets pass through. Some routers may take a long time to learn addresses, seriously impacting cluster performance.
  • UDP Unicast (UDPU)
    As of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 release, the nodes in a cluster can communicate with each other using the UDP Unicast transport mechanism. It is recommended, however, that you use IP multicasting for the cluster network. UDP Unicast is an alternative that can be used when IP multicasting is not available. For GFS2 deployments using UDP Unicast is not recommended.
Click Apply. When changing the transport type, a cluster restart is necessary for the changes to take effect.

3.5.4. Configuring Redundant Ring Protocol

As of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4, the Red Hat High Availability Add-On supports the configuration of redundant ring protocol. When using redundant ring protocol, there are a variety of considerations you must take into account, as described in Section 7.6, “Configuring Redundant Ring Protocol”.
Clicking on the Redundant Ring tab displays the Redundant Ring Protocol Configuration page. This page displays all of the nodes that are currently configured for the cluster. If you are configuring a system to use redundant ring protocol, you must specify the Alternate Name for each node for the second ring.
The Redundant Ring Protocol Configuration page optionally allows you to specify the Alternate Ring Multicast Address, the Alternate Ring CMAN Port, and the Alternate Ring Multicast Packet TTL for the second ring.
If you specify a multicast address for the second ring, either the alternate multicast address or the alternate port must be different from the multicast address for the first ring. If you specify an alternate port, the port numbers of the first ring and the second ring must differ by at least two, since the system itself uses port and port-1 to perform operations. If you do not specify an alternate multicast address, the system will automatically use a different multicast address for the second ring.

3.5.5. Quorum Disk Configuration

Clicking on the QDisk tab displays the Quorum Disk Configuration page, which provides an interface for configuring quorum disk parameters to configure if you need to use a quorum disk.

Important

Quorum disk parameters and heuristics depend on the site environment and the special requirements needed. To understand the use of quorum disk parameters and heuristics, refer to the qdisk(5) man page. If you require assistance understanding and using quorum disk, contact an authorized Red Hat support representative.
The Do Not Use a Quorum Disk parameter is enabled by default. If you need to use a quorum disk, click Use a Quorum Disk, enter quorum disk parameters, click Apply, and restart the cluster for the changes to take effect.
Table 3.1, “Quorum-Disk Parameters” describes the quorum disk parameters.

Table 3.1. Quorum-Disk Parameters

Parameter Description
Specify Physical Device: By Device Label Specifies the quorum disk label created by the mkqdisk utility. If this field is used, the quorum daemon reads the /proc/partitions file and checks for qdisk signatures on every block device found, comparing the label against the specified label. This is useful in configurations where the quorum device name differs among nodes.
Heuristics
Path to Program — The program used to determine if this heuristic is available. This can be anything that can be executed by /bin/sh -c. A return value of 0 indicates success; anything else indicates failure. This field is required.
Interval — The frequency (in seconds) at which the heuristic is polled. The default interval for every heuristic is 2 seconds.
Score — The weight of this heuristic. Be careful when determining scores for heuristics. The default score for each heuristic is 1.
TKO — The number of consecutive failures required before this heuristic is declared unavailable.
Minimum Total Score The minimum score for a node to be considered "alive". If omitted or set to 0, the default function, floor((n+1)/2), is used, where n is the sum of the heuristics scores. The Minimum Total Score value must never exceed the sum of the heuristic scores; otherwise, the quorum disk cannot be available.

Note

Clicking Apply on the QDisk Configuration tab propagates changes to the cluster configuration file (/etc/cluster/cluster.conf) in each cluster node. However, for the quorum disk to operate or for any modifications you have made to the quorum disk parameters to take effect, you must restart the cluster (refer to Section 4.4, “Starting, Stopping, Restarting, and Deleting Clusters”), ensuring that you have restarted the qdiskd daemon on each node.

3.5.6. Logging Configuration

Clicking on the Logging tab displays the Logging Configuration page, which provides an interface for configuring logging settings.
You can configure the following settings for global logging configuration:
  • Checking Log Debugging Messages enables debugging messages in the log file.
  • Checking Log Messages to Syslog enables messages to syslog. You can select the Syslog Message Facility and the Syslog Message Priority. The Syslog Message Priority setting indicates that messages at the selected level and higher are sent to syslog.
  • Checking Log Messages to Log File enables messages to the log file. You can specify the Log File Path name. The logfile message priority setting indicates that messages at the selected level and higher are written to the log file.
You can override the global logging settings for specific daemons by selecting one of the daemons listed beneath the Daemon-specific Logging Overrides heading at the bottom of the Logging Configuration page. After selecting the daemon, you can check whether to log the debugging messages for that particular daemon. You can also specify the syslog and log file settings for that daemon.
Click Apply for the logging configuration changes you have specified to take effect.

3.6. Configuring Fence Devices

Configuring fence devices consists of creating, updating, and deleting fence devices for the cluster. You must configure the fence devices in a cluster before you can configure fencing for the nodes in the cluster.
Creating a fence device consists of selecting a fence device type and entering parameters for that fence device (for example, name, IP address, login, and password). Updating a fence device consists of selecting an existing fence device and changing parameters for that fence device. Deleting a fence device consists of selecting an existing fence device and deleting it.

Note

It is recommended that you configure multiple fencing mechanisms for each node. A fencing device can fail due to network split, a power outage, or a problem in the fencing device itself. Configuring multiple fencing mechanisms can reduce the likelihood that the failure of a fencing device will have fatal results.
This section provides procedures for the following tasks:
From the cluster-specific page, you can configure fence devices for that cluster by clicking on Fence Devices along the top of the cluster display. This displays the fence devices for the cluster and displays the menu items for fence device configuration: Add and Delete. This is the starting point of each procedure described in the following sections.

Note

If this is an initial cluster configuration, no fence devices have been created, and therefore none are displayed.
Figure 3.5, “luci fence devices configuration page” shows the fence devices configuration screen before any fence devices have been created.
luci fence devices configuration page

Figure 3.5. luci fence devices configuration page


3.6.1. Creating a Fence Device

To create a fence device, follow these steps:
  1. From the Fence Devices configuration page, click Add. Clicking Add displays the Add Fence Device (Instance) dialog box. From this dialog box, select the type of fence device to configure.
  2. Specify the information in the Add Fence Device (Instance) dialog box according to the type of fence device. Refer to Appendix A, Fence Device Parameters for more information about fence device parameters. In some cases you will need to specify additional node-specific parameters for the fence device when you configure fencing for the individual nodes, as described in Section 3.7, “Configuring Fencing for Cluster Members”.
  3. Click Submit.
After the fence device has been added, it appears on the Fence Devices configuration page.

3.6.2. Modifying a Fence Device

To modify a fence device, follow these steps:
  1. From the Fence Devices configuration page, click on the name of the fence device to modify. This displays the dialog box for that fence device, with the values that have been configured for the device.
  2. To modify the fence device, enter changes to the parameters displayed. Refer to Appendix A, Fence Device Parameters for more information.
  3. Click Apply and wait for the configuration to be updated.

3.6.3. Deleting a Fence Device

Note

Fence devices that are in use cannot be deleted. To delete a fence device that a node is currently using, first update the node fence configuration for any node using the device and then delete the device.
To delete a fence device, follow these steps:
  1. From the Fence Devices configuration page, check the box to the left of the fence device or devices to select the devices to delete.
  2. Click Delete and wait for the configuration to be updated. A message appears indicating which devices are being deleted.
When the configuration has been updated, the deleted fence device no longer appears in the display.

3.7. Configuring Fencing for Cluster Members

Once you have completed the initial steps of creating a cluster and creating fence devices, you need to configure fencing for the cluster nodes. To configure fencing for the nodes after creating a new cluster and configuring the fencing devices for the cluster, follow the steps in this section. Note that you must configure fencing for each node in the cluster.
The following sections provide procedures for configuring a single fence device for a node, configuring a node with a backup fence device, and configuring a node with redundant power supplies:

3.7.1. Configuring a Single Fence Device for a Node

Use the following procedure to configure a node with a single fence device.
  1. From the cluster-specific page, you can configure fencing for the nodes in the cluster by clicking on Nodes along the top of the cluster display. This displays the nodes that constitute the cluster. This is also the default page that appears when you click on the cluster name beneath Manage Clusters from the menu on the left side of the luci Homebase page.
  2. Click on a node name. Clicking a link for a node causes a page to be displayed for that link showing how that node is configured.
    The node-specific page displays any services that are currently running on the node, as well as any failover domains of which this node is a member. You can modify an existing failover domain by clicking on its name. For information on configuring failover domains, see Section 3.8, “Configuring a Failover Domain”.
  3. On the node-specific page, under Fence Devices, click Add Fence Method. This displays the Add Fence Method to Node dialog box.
  4. Enter a Method Name for the fencing method that you are configuring for this node. This is an arbitrary name that will be used by Red Hat High Availability Add-On; it is not the same as the DNS name for the device.
  5. Click Submit. This displays the node-specific screen that now displays the method you have just added under Fence Devices.
  6. Configure a fence instance for this method by clicking the Add Fence Instance button that appears beneath the fence method. This displays the Add Fence Device (Instance) drop-down menu from which you can select a fence device you have previously configured, as described in Section 3.6.1, “Creating a Fence Device”.
  7. Select a fence device for this method. If this fence device requires that you configure node-specific parameters, the display shows the parameters to configure. For information on fencing parameters, refer to Appendix A, Fence Device Parameters.

    Note

    For non-power fence methods (that is, SAN/storage fencing), Unfencing is selected by default on the node-specific parameters display. This ensures that a fenced node's access to storage is not re-enabled until the node has been rebooted. When you configure a device that requires unfencing, the cluster must first be stopped and the full configuration including devices and unfencing must be added before the cluster is started. For information on unfencing a node, refer to the fence_node(8) man page.
  8. Click Submit. This returns you to the node-specific screen with the fence method and fence instance displayed.

3.7.2. Configuring a Backup Fence Device

You can define multiple fencing methods for a node. If fencing fails using the first method, the system will attempt to fence the node using the second method, followed by any additional methods you have configured.
Use the following procedure to configure a backup fence device for a node.
  1. Use the procedure provided in Section 3.7.1, “Configuring a Single Fence Device for a Node” to configure the primary fencing method for a node.
  2. Beneath the display of the primary method you defined, click Add Fence Method.
  3. Enter a name for the backup fencing method that you are configuring for this node and click Submit. This displays the node-specific screen that now displays the method you have just added, below the primary fence method.
  4. Configure a fence instance for this method by clicking Add Fence Instance. This displays a drop-down menu from which you can select a fence device you have previously configured, as described in Section 3.6.1, “Creating a Fence Device”.
  5. Select a fence device for this method. If this fence device requires that you configure node-specific parameters, the display shows the parameters to configure. For information on fencing parameters, refer to Appendix A, Fence Device Parameters.
  6. Click Submit. This returns you to the node-specific screen with the fence method and fence instance displayed.
You can continue to add fencing methods as needed. You can rearrange the order of fencing methods that will be used for this node by clicking on Move Up and Move Down.

3.7.3. Configuring a Node with Redundant Power

If your cluster is configured with redundant power supplies for your nodes, you must be sure to configure fencing so that your nodes fully shut down when they need to be fenced. If you configure each power supply as a separate fence method, each power supply will be fenced separately; the second power supply will allow the system to continue running when the first power supply is fenced and the system will not be fenced at all. To configure a system with dual power supplies, you must configure your fence devices so that both power supplies are shut off and the system is taken completely down. When configuring your system using Conga, this requires that you configure two instances within a single fencing method.
To configure fencing for a node with dual power supplies, follow the steps in this section.
  1. Before you can configure fencing for a node with redundant power, you must configure each of the power switches as a fence device for the cluster. For information on configuring fence devices, see Section 3.6, “Configuring Fence Devices”.
  2. From the cluster-specific page, click on Nodes along the top of the cluster display. This displays the nodes that constitute the cluster. This is also the default page that appears when you click on the cluster name beneath Manage Clusters from the menu on the left side of the luci Homebase page.
  3. Click on a node name. Clicking a link for a node causes a page to be displayed for that link showing how that node is configured.
  4. On the node-specific page, click Add Fence Method.
  5. Enter a name for the fencing method that you are configuring for this node.
  6. Click Submit. This displays the node-specific screen that now displays the method you have just added under Fence Devices.
  7. Configure the first power supply as a fence instance for this method by clicking Add Fence Instance. This displays a drop-down menu from which you can select one of the power fencing devices you have previously configured, as described in Section 3.6.1, “Creating a Fence Device”.
  8. Select one of the power fence devices for this method and enter the appropriate parameters for this device.
  9. Click Submit. This returns you to the node-specific screen with the fence method and fence instance displayed.
  10. Under the same fence method for which you have configured the first power fencing device, click Add Fence Instance. This displays a drop-down menu from which you can select the second power fencing devices you have previously configured, as described in Section 3.6.1, “Creating a Fence Device”.
  11. Select the second of the power fence devices for this method and enter the appropriate parameters for this device.
  12. Click Submit. This returns you to the node-specific screen with the fence methods and fence instances displayed, showing that each device will power the system off in sequence and power the system on in sequence. This is shown in Figure 3.6, “Dual-Power Fencing Configuration”.
    Dual-Power Fencing Configuration

    Figure 3.6. Dual-Power Fencing Configuration


3.8. Configuring a Failover Domain

A failover domain is a named subset of cluster nodes that are eligible to run a cluster service in the event of a node failure. A failover domain can have the following characteristics:
  • Unrestricted — Allows you to specify that a subset of members are preferred, but that a cluster service assigned to this domain can run on any available member.
  • Restricted — Allows you to restrict the members that can run a particular cluster service. If none of the members in a restricted failover domain are available, the cluster service cannot be started (either manually or by the cluster software).
  • Unordered — When a cluster service is assigned to an unordered failover domain, the member on which the cluster service runs is chosen from the available failover domain members with no priority ordering.
  • Ordered — Allows you to specify a preference order among the members of a failover domain. The member at the top of the list is the most preferred, followed by the second member in the list, and so on.
  • Failback — Allows you to specify whether a service in the failover domain should fail back to the node that it was originally running on before that node failed. Configuring this characteristic is useful in circumstances where a node repeatedly fails and is part of an ordered failover domain. In that circumstance, if a node is the preferred node in a failover domain, it is possible for a service to fail over and fail back repeatedly between the preferred node and another node, causing severe impact on performance.

    Note

    The failback characteristic is applicable only if ordered failover is configured.

Note

Changing a failover domain configuration has no effect on currently running services.

Note

Failover domains are not required for operation.
By default, failover domains are unrestricted and unordered.
In a cluster with several members, using a restricted failover domain can minimize the work to set up the cluster to run a cluster service (such as httpd), which requires you to set up the configuration identically on all members that run the cluster service. Instead of setting up the entire cluster to run the cluster service, you can set up only the members in the restricted failover domain that you associate with the cluster service.

Note

To configure a preferred member, you can create an unrestricted failover domain comprising only one cluster member. Doing that causes a cluster service to run on that cluster member primarily (the preferred member), but allows the cluster service to fail over to any of the other members.
The following sections describe adding, modifying, and deleting a failover domain:

3.8.1. Adding a Failover Domain

To add a failover domain, follow the steps in this section.
  1. From the cluster-specific page, you can configure failover domains for that cluster by clicking on Failover Domains along the top of the cluster display. This displays the failover domains that have been configured for this cluster.
  2. Click Add. Clicking Add causes the display of the Add Failover Domain to Cluster dialog box, as shown in Figure 3.7, “luci failover domain configuration dialog box”.
    luci failover domain configuration dialog box

    Figure 3.7. luci failover domain configuration dialog box


  3. In the Add Failover Domain to Cluster dialog box, specify a failover domain name at the Name text box.

    Note

    The name should be descriptive enough to distinguish its purpose relative to other names used in your cluster.
  4. To enable setting failover priority of the members in the failover domain, click the Prioritized checkbox. With Prioritized checked, you can set the priority value, Priority, for each node selected as members of the failover domain.
  5. To restrict failover to members in this failover domain, click the Restricted checkbox. With Restricted checked, services assigned to this failover domain fail over only to nodes in this failover domain.
  6. To specify that a node does not fail back in this failover domain, click the No Failback checkbox. With No Failback checked, if a service fails over from a preferred node, the service does not fail back to the original node once it has recovered.
  7. Configure members for this failover domain. Click the Member checkbox for each node that is to be a member of the failover domain. If Prioritized is checked, set the priority in the Priority text box for each member of the failover domain.
  8. Click Create. This displays the Failover Domains page with the newly-created failover domain displayed. A message indicates that the new domain is being created. Refresh the page for an updated status.

3.8.2. Modifying a Failover Domain

To modify a failover domain, follow the steps in this section.
  1. From the cluster-specific page, you can configure Failover Domains for that cluster by clicking on Failover Domains along the top of the cluster display. This displays the failover domains that have been configured for this cluster.
  2. Click on the name of a failover domain. This displays the configuration page for that failover domain.
  3. To modify the Prioritized, Restricted, or No Failback properties for the failover domain, click or unclick the checkbox next to the property and click Update Properties.
  4. To modify the failover domain membership, click or unclick the checkbox next to the cluster member. If the failover domain is prioritized, you can also modify the priority setting for the cluster member. Click Update Settings.

3.8.3. Deleting a Failover Domain

To delete a failover domain, follow the steps in this section.
  1. From the cluster-specific page, you can configure Failover Domains for that cluster by clicking on Failover Domains along the top of the cluster display. This displays the failover domains that have been configured for this cluster.
  2. Select the checkbox for the failover domain to delete.
  3. Click on Delete.

3.9. Configuring Global Cluster Resources

You can configure global resources that can be used by any service running in the cluster, and you can configure resources that are available only to a specific service.
To add a global cluster resource, follow the steps in this section. You can add a resource that is local to a particular service when you configure the service, as described in Section 3.10, “Adding a Cluster Service to the Cluster”.
  1. From the cluster-specific page, you can add resources to that cluster by clicking on Resources along the top of the cluster display. This displays the resources that have been configured for that cluster.
  2. Click Add. This displays the Add Resource to Cluster drop-down menu.
  3. Click the drop-down box under Add Resource to Cluster and select the type of resource to configure.
  4. Enter the resource parameters for the resource you are adding. Appendix B, HA Resource Parameters describes resource parameters.
  5. Click Submit. Clicking Submit returns to the resources page that displays the display of Resources, which displays the added resource (and other resources).
To modify an existing resource, perform the following steps.
  1. From the luci Resources page, click on the name of the resource to modify. This displays the parameters for that resource.
  2. Edit the resource parameters.
  3. Click Apply.
To delete an existing resource, perform the following steps.
  1. From the luci Resources page, click the checkbox for any resources to delete.
  2. Click Delete.

3.10. Adding a Cluster Service to the Cluster

To add a cluster service to the cluster, follow the steps in this section.
  1. From the cluster-specific page, you can add services to that cluster by clicking on Service Groups along the top of the cluster display. This displays the services that have been configured for that cluster. (From the Service Groups page, you can also start, restart, and disable a service, as described in Section 4.5, “Managing High-Availability Services”.)
  2. Click Add. This displays the Add Service Group to Cluster dialog box.
  3. On the Add Service Group to Cluster dialog box, at the Service Name text box, type the name of the service.

    Note

    Use a descriptive name that clearly distinguishes the service from other services in the cluster.
  4. Check the Automatically Start This Service checkbox if you want the service to start automatically when a cluster is started and running. If the checkbox is not checked, the service must be started manually any time the cluster comes up from the stopped state.
  5. Check the Run Exclusive checkbox to set a policy wherein the service only runs on nodes that have no other services running on them.
  6. If you have configured failover domains for the cluster, you can use the drop-down menu of the Failover Domain parameter to select a failover domain for this service. For information on configuring failover domains, see Section 3.8, “Configuring a Failover Domain”.
  7. Use the Recovery Policy drop-down box to select a recovery policy for the service. The options are to Relocate, Restart, Restart-Disable, or Disable the service.
    Selecting the Restart option indicates that the system should attempt to restart the failed service before relocating the service. Selecting the Relocate option indicates that the system should try to restart the service in a different node. Selecting the Disable option indicates that the system should disable the resource group if any component fails. Selecting the Restart-Disable option indicates that the system should attempt to restart the service in place if it fails, but if restarting the service fails the service will be disabled instead of being moved to another host in the cluster.
    If you select Restart or Restart-Disable as the recovery policy for the service, you can specify the maximum number of restart failures before relocating or disabling the service, and you can specify the length of time in seconds after which to forget a restart.
  8. To add a resource to the service, click Add Resource. Clicking Add Resource causes the display of the Add Resource To Service drop-down box that allows you to add an existing global resource or to add a new resource that is available only to this service.

    Note

    When configuring a cluster service that includes a floating IP address resource, you must configure the IP resource as the first entry.
    • To add an existing global resource, click on the name of the existing resource from the Add Resource To Service drop-down box. This displays the resource and its parameters on the Service Groups page for the service you are configuring. For information on adding or modifying global resources, see Section 3.9, “Configuring Global Cluster Resources”).
    • To add a new resource that is available only to this service, select the type of resource to configure from the Add Resource To Service drop-down box and enter the resource parameters for the resource you are adding. Appendix B, HA Resource Parameters describes resource parameters.
    • When adding a resource to a service, whether it is an existing global resource or a resource available only to this service, you can specify whether the resource is an Independent Subtree or a Non-Critical Resource.
      If you specify that a resource is an independent subtree, then if that resource fails only that resource is restarted (rather than the entire service) before the system attempting normal recovery. You can specify the maximum number of restarts to attempt for that resource on a node before implementing the recovery policy for the service. You can also specify the length of time in seconds after which the system will implement the recovery policy for the service.
      If you specify that the resource is a non-critical resource, then if that resource fails only that resource is restarted, and if the resource continues to fail then only that resource is disabled, rather than the entire service. You can specify the maximum number of restarts to attempt for that resource on a node before disabling that resource. You can also specify the length of time in seconds after which the system will disable that resource.
  9. If you want to add child resources to the resource you are defining, click Add Child Resource. Clicking Add Child Resource causes the display of the Add Resource To Service drop-down box, from which you can add an existing global resource or add a new resource that is available only to this service. You can continue adding children resources to the resource to suit your requirements.

    Note

    If you are adding a Samba-service resource, add it directly to the service, not as a child of another resource.

    Note

    When configuring a dependency tree for a cluster service that includes a floating IP address resource, you must configure the IP resource as the first entry and not as the child of another resource.
  10. When you have completed adding resources to the service, and have completed adding children resources to resources, click Submit. Clicking Submit returns to the Service Groups page displaying the added service (and other services).

Note

To verify the existence of the IP service resource used in a cluster service, you can use the /sbin/ip addr show command on a cluster node (rather than the obsoleted ifconfig command). The following output shows the /sbin/ip addr show command executed on a node running a cluster service:
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue 
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1356 qdisc pfifo_fast qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:05:5d:9a:d8:91 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 10.11.4.31/22 brd 10.11.7.255 scope global eth0
    inet6 fe80::205:5dff:fe9a:d891/64 scope link
    inet 10.11.4.240/22 scope global secondary eth0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
To modify an existing service, perform the following steps.
  1. From the Service Groups dialog box, click on the name of the service to modify. This displays the parameters and resources that have been configured for that service.
  2. Edit the service parameters.
  3. Click Submit.
To delete one or more existing services, perform the following steps.
  1. From the luci Service Groups page, click the checkbox for any services to delete.
  2. Click Delete.
  3. As of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3, before luci deletes any services a message appears asking you to confirm that you intend to delete the service groups or groups, which stops the resources that comprise it. Click Cancel to close the dialog box without deleting any services, or click Proceed to remove the selected service or services.

Chapter 4. Managing Red Hat High Availability Add-On With Conga

This chapter describes various administrative tasks for managing Red Hat High Availability Add-On and consists of the following sections:

4.1. Adding an Existing Cluster to the luci Interface

If you have previously created a High Availability Add-On cluster you can easily add the cluster to the luci interface so that you can manage the cluster with Conga.
To add an existing cluster to the luci interface, follow these steps:
  1. Click Manage Clusters from the menu on the left side of the luci Homebase page. The Clusters screen appears.
  2. Click Add. The Add Existing Cluster screen appears.
  3. Enter the node hostname and ricci password for any of the nodes in the existing cluster. Since each node in the cluster contains all of the configuration information for the cluster, this should provide enough information to add the cluster to the luci interface.
  4. Click Connect. The Add Existing Cluster screen then displays the cluster name and the remaining nodes in the cluster.
  5. Enter the individual ricci passwords for each node in the cluster, or enter one password and select Use same password for all nodes.
  6. Click Add Cluster. The previously-configured cluster now displays on the Manage Clusters screen.

4.2. Removing a Cluster from the luci Interface

You can remove a cluster from the luci management GUI without affecting the cluster services or cluster membership. If you remove a cluster, you can later add the cluster back, or you can add it to another luci instance, as described in Section 4.1, “Adding an Existing Cluster to the luci Interface”.
To remove a cluster from the luci management GUI without affecting the cluster services or cluster membership, follow these steps:
  1. Click Manage Clusters from the menu on the left side of the luci Homebase page. The Clusters screen appears.
  2. Select the cluster or clusters you wish to remove.
  3. Click Remove. The system will ask you to confirm whether to remove the cluster from the luci management GUI.
For information on deleting a cluster entirely, stopping all cluster services removing the cluster configuration information from the nodes themselves, refer to Section 4.4, “Starting, Stopping, Restarting, and Deleting Clusters”.

4.3. Managing Cluster Nodes

This section documents how to perform the following node-management functions through the luci server component of Conga:

4.3.1. Rebooting a Cluster Node

To reboot a node in a cluster, perform the following steps:
  1. From the cluster-specific page, click on Nodes along the top of the cluster display. This displays the nodes that constitute the cluster. This is also the default page that appears when you click on the cluster name beneath Manage Clusters from the menu on the left side of the luci Homebase page.
  2. Select the node to reboot by clicking the checkbox for that node.
  3. Select the Reboot function from the menu at the top of the page. This causes the selected node to reboot and a message appears at the top of the page indicating that the node is being rebooted.
  4. Refresh the page to see the updated status of the node.
It is also possible to reboot more than one node at a time by selecting all of the nodes that you wish to reboot before clicking on Reboot.

4.3.2. Causing a Node to Leave or Join a Cluster

You can use the luci server component of Conga to cause a node to leave an active cluster by stopping all cluster services on the node. You can also use the luci server component of Conga to cause a node that has left a cluster to rejoin the cluster.
Causing a node to leave a cluster does not remove the cluster configuration information from that node, and the node still appears in the cluster node display with a status of Not a cluster member. For information on deleting the node entirely from the cluster configuration, see Section 4.3.4, “Deleting a Member from a Cluster”.
To cause a node to leave a cluster, perform the following steps. This shuts down the cluster software in the node. Making a node leave a cluster prevents the node from automatically joining the cluster when it is rebooted.
  1. From the cluster-specific page, click on Nodes along the top of the cluster display. This displays the nodes that constitute the cluster. This is also the default page that appears when you click on the cluster name beneath Manage Clusters from the menu on the left side of the luci Homebase page.
  2. Select the node you want to leave the cluster by clicking the checkbox for that node.
  3. Select the Leave Cluster function from the menu at the top of the page. This causes a message to appear at the top of the page indicating that the node is being stopped.
  4. Refresh the page to see the updated status of the node.
It is also possible to cause more than one node at a time to leave the cluster by selecting all of the nodes to leave the cluster before clicking on Leave Cluster.
To cause a node to rejoin a cluster, select any nodes you want to have rejoin the cluster by clicking the checkbox for those nodes and selecting Join Cluster. This makes the selected nodes join the cluster, and allows the selected nodes to join the cluster when they are rebooted.

4.3.3. Adding a Member to a Running Cluster

To add a member to a running cluster, follow the steps in this section.
  1. From the cluster-specific page, click Nodes along the top of the cluster display. This displays the nodes that constitute the cluster. This is also the default page that appears when you click on the cluster name beneath Manage Clusters from the menu on the left side of the luci Homebase page.
  2. Click Add. Clicking Add causes the display of the Add Nodes To Cluster dialog box.
  3. Enter the node name in the Node Hostname text box; enter the ricci password in the Password text box. If you are using a different port for the ricci agent than the default of 11111, change this parameter to the port you are using.
  4. Check the Enable Shared Storage Support checkbox if clustered storage is required to download the packages that support clustered storage and enable clustered LVM; you should select this only when you have access to the Resilient Storage Add-On or the Scalable File System Add-On.
  5. If you want to add more nodes, click Add Another Node and enter the node name and password for the each additional node.
  6. Click Add Nodes. Clicking Add Nodes causes the following actions:
    1. If you have selected Download Packages, the cluster software packages are downloaded onto the nodes.
    2. Cluster software is installed onto the nodes (or it is verified that the appropriate software packages are installed).
    3. The cluster configuration file is updated and propagated to each node in the cluster — including the added node.
    4. The added node joins the cluster.
    The Nodes page appears with a message indicating that the node is being added to the cluster. Refresh the page to update the status.
  7. When the process of adding a node is complete, click on the node name for the newly-added node to configure fencing for this node, as described in Section 3.6, “Configuring Fence Devices”.

4.3.4. Deleting a Member from a Cluster

To delete a member from an existing cluster that is currently in operation, follow the steps in this section. Note that nodes must be stopped before being deleted unless you are deleting all of the nodes in the cluster at once.
  1. From the cluster-specific page, click Nodes along the top of the cluster display. This displays the nodes that constitute the cluster. This is also the default page that appears when you click on the cluster name beneath Manage Clusters from the menu on the left side of the luci Homebase page.

    Note

    To allow services running on a node to fail over when the node is deleted, skip the next step.
  2. Disable or relocate each service that is running on the node to be deleted. For information on disabling and relocating services, see Section 4.5, “Managing High-Availability Services”.
  3. Select the node or nodes to delete.
  4. Click Delete. The Nodes page indicates that the node is being removed. Refresh the page to see the current status.

Important

Removing a cluster node from the cluster is a destructive operation that cannot be undone.

4.4. Starting, Stopping, Restarting, and Deleting Clusters

You can start, stop, and restart a cluster by performing these actions on the individual nodes in the cluster. From the cluster-specific page, click on Nodes along the top of the cluster display. This displays the nodes that constitute the cluster.
The start and restart operations for cluster nodes or a whole cluster allow you to create short cluster service outages if a cluster service needs to be moved to another cluster member because it running on a node that is being stopped or restarted.
To stop a cluster, perform the following steps. This shuts down the cluster software in the nodes, but does not remove the cluster configuration information from the nodes and the nodes still appear in the cluster node display with a status of Not a cluster member.
  1. Select all of the nodes in the cluster by clicking on the checkbox next to each node.
  2. Select the Leave Cluster function from the menu at the top of the page. This causes a message to appear at the top of the page indicating that each node is being stopped.
  3. Refresh the page to see the updated status of the nodes.
To start a cluster, perform the following steps:
  1. Select all of the nodes in the cluster by clicking on the checkbox next to each node.
  2. Select the Join Cluster function from the menu at the top of the page.
  3. Refresh the page to see the updated status of the nodes.
To restart a running cluster, first stop all of the nodes in cluster, then start all of the nodes in the cluster, as described above.
To delete a cluster entirely, perform the following steps. This causes all cluster services to stop and removes the cluster configuration information from the nodes themselves as well as removing them from the cluster display. If you later try to add an existing cluster using any of the nodes you have deleted, luci will indicate that the node is not a member of any cluster.

Important

Deleting a cluster is a destructive operation that cannot be undone. To restore a cluster after you have deleted it requires that you recreate and redefine the cluster from scratch.
  1. Select all of the nodes in the cluster by clicking on the checkbox next to each node.
  2. Select the Delete function from the menu at the top of the page.
If you wish to remove a cluster from the luci interface without stopping any of the cluster services or changing the cluster membership, you can use the Remove option on the Manage Clusters page, as described in Section 4.2, “Removing a Cluster from the luci Interface”.

4.5. Managing High-Availability Services

In addition to adding and modifying a service, as described in Section 3.10, “Adding a Cluster Service to the Cluster”, you can perform the following management functions for high-availability services through the luci server component of Conga:
  • Start a service
  • Restart a service
  • Disable a service
  • Delete a service
  • Relocate a service
From the cluster-specific page, you can manage services for that cluster by clicking on Service Groups along the top of the cluster display. This displays the services that have been configured for that cluster.
  • Starting a service — To start any services that are not currently running, select any services you want to start by clicking the checkbox for that service and clicking Start.
  • Restarting a service — To restart any services that are currently running, select any services you want to restart by clicking the checkbox for that service and clicking Restart.
  • Disabling a service — To disable any service that is currently running, select any services you want to disable by clicking the checkbox for that service and clicking Disable.
  • Deleting a service — To delete any services that are not currently running, select any services you want to disable by clicking the checkbox for that service and clicking Delete.
  • Relocating a service — To relocate a running service, click on the name of the service in the services display. This causes the services configuration page for the service to be displayed, with a display indicating on which node the service is currently running.
    From the Start on node... drop-down box, select the node on which you want to relocate the service, and click on the Start icon. A message appears at the top of the screen indicating that the service is being started. You may need to refresh the screen to see the new display indicating that the service is running on the node you have selected.

    Note

    If the running service you have selected is a vm service, the drop-down box will show a migrate option instead of a relocate option.

Note

You can also start, restart, disable or delete an individual service by clicking on the name of the service on the Services page. This displays the service configuration page. At the top right corner of the service configuration page are the same icons for Start, Restart, Disable, and Delete.

4.6. Backing Up and Restoring the luci Configuration

As of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 release, you can use the following procedure to make a backup of the luci database, which is stored in the /var/lib/luci/data/luci.db file. This is not the cluster configuration itself, which is stored in the cluster.conf file. Instead, it contains the list of users and clusters and related properties that luci maintains. By default, the backup this procedure creates will be written to the same directory as the luci.db file.
  1. Execute service luci stop.
  2. Execute service luci backup-db.
    Optionally, you can specify a file name as a parameter for the backup-db command, which will write the luci database to that file. For example, to write the luci database to the file /root/luci.db.backup, you can execute the command service luci backup-db /root/luci.db.backup. Note, however, that backup files that are written to places other than /var/lib/luci/data/ (for backups whose filenames you specify when using service luci backup-db) will not show up in the output of the list-backups command.
  3. Execute service luci start.
Use the following procedure to restore a luci database.
  1. Execute service luci stop.
  2. Execute service luci list-backups and note the file name to restore.
  3. Execute service luci restore-db /var/lib/luci/data/lucibackupfile where lucibackupfile is the backup file to restore.
    For example, the following command restores the luci configuration information that was stored in the backup file luci-backup20110923062526.db:
    service luci restore-db /var/lib/luci/data/luci-backup20110923062526.db
    
  4. Execute service luci start.
If you need to restore a luci database but you have lost the host.pem file from the machine on which you created the backup because of a complete reinstallation, for example, you will need to add your clusters back to luci manually in order to re-authenticate the cluster nodes.
Use the following procedure to restore a luci database onto a different machine than the one on which the backup was created. Note that in addition to restoring the database itself, you also need to copy the SSL certificate file to ensure that luci has been authenticated to the ricci nodes. In this example, the backup is created on the machine luci1 and the backup is restored on the machine luci2.
  1. Execute the following sequence of commands to create a luci backup on luci1 and copy both the SSL certificate file and the luci backup onto luci2.
    [root@luci1 ~]# service luci stop
    [root@luci1 ~]# service luci backup-db
    [root@luci1 ~]# service luci list-backups
    /var/lib/luci/data/luci-backup20120504134051.db
    [root@luci1 ~]# scp /var/lib/luci/certs/host.pem /var/lib/luci/data/luci-backup20120504134051.db root@luci2:
  2. On the luci2 machine, ensure that luci has been installed and is not running. Install the package, if is not already installed.
  3. Execute the following sequence of commands to ensure that the authentications are in place and to restore the luci database from luci1 onto luci2.
    [root@luci2 ~]# cp host.pem /var/lib/luci/certs/
    [root@luci2 ~]# chown luci: /var/lib/luci/certs/host.pem
    [root@luci2 ~]# /etc/init.d/luci restore-db ~/luci-backup20120504134051.db
    [root@luci2 ~]# shred -u ~/host.pem ~/luci-backup20120504134051.db
    [root@luci2 ~]# service luci start

Chapter 5. Configuring Red Hat High Availability Add-On With the ccs Command

As of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1 release and later, the Red Hat High Availability Add-On provides support for the ccs cluster configuration command. The ccs command allows an administrator to create, modify and view the cluster.conf cluster configuration file. You can use the ccs command to configure a cluster configuration file on a local file system or on a remote node. Using the ccs command, an administrator can also start and stop the cluster services on one or all of the nodes in a configured cluster.
This chapter describes how to configure the Red Hat High Availability Add-On cluster configuration file using the ccs command. For information on using the ccs command to manage a running cluster, see Chapter 6, Managing Red Hat High Availability Add-On With ccs.
This chapter consists of the following sections:

Important

Make sure that your deployment of High Availability Add-On meets your needs and can be supported. Consult with an authorized Red Hat representative to verify your configuration prior to deployment. In addition, allow time for a configuration burn-in period to test failure modes.

Important

This chapter references commonly used cluster.conf elements and attributes. For a comprehensive list and description of cluster.conf elements and attributes, refer to the cluster schema at /usr/share/cluster/cluster.rng, and the annotated schema at /usr/share/doc/cman-X.Y.ZZ /cluster_conf.html (for example /usr/share/doc/cman-3.0.12/cluster_conf.html).

5.1. Operational Overview

This section describes the following general operational aspects of using the ccs command to configure a cluster:

5.1.1. Creating the Cluster Configuration File on a Local System

Using the ccs command, you can create a cluster configuration file on a cluster node, or you can create a cluster configuration file on a local file system and then send that file to a host in a cluster. This allows you to work on a file from a local machine, where you can maintain it under version control or otherwise tag the file according to your needs. Using the ccs command does not require root privilege.
When you create and edit a cluster configuration file on a cluster node with the ccs command, you use the -h option to specify the name of the host. This creates and edits the cluster.conf file on the host:
ccs -h host [options]
To create and edit a cluster configuration file on a local system, use the -f option of the ccs command to specify the name of the configuration file when you perform a cluster operation. You can name this file anything you want.
ccs -f file [options]
After you have created the file locally you can send it to a cluster node using the --setconf option of the ccs command. On a host machine in a cluster, the file you send will be named cluster.conf and it will be placed in the /etc/cluster directory.
ccs -h host -f file --setconf
For information on using the --setconf option of the ccs command, see Section 5.15, “Propagating the Configuration File to the Cluster Nodes”.

5.1.2. Viewing the Current Cluster Configuration

If at any time during the creation of a cluster configuration file you want to print the current file, use the following command, specifying a node in the cluster as the host:
ccs -h host --getconf
If you are creating your cluster configuration file on a local system you can specify the -f option instead of the -h option, as described in Section 5.1.1, “Creating the Cluster Configuration File on a Local System”.

5.1.3. Specifying ricci Passwords with the ccs Command

Executing ccs commands that distribute copies of the cluster.conf file to the nodes of a cluster requires that ricci be installed and running on the cluster nodes, as described in Section 2.13, “Considerations for ricci. Using ricci requires a password the first time you interact with ricci from any specific machine.
If you have not entered a password for an instance of ricci on a particular machine from the machine you are using, you will be prompted for that password when the ccs command requires it. Alternately, you can use the -p option to specify a ricci password on the command line.
ccs -h host -p password --sync --activate
When you propagate the cluster.conf file to all of the nodes in the cluster with the --sync option of the ccs command and you specify a ricci password for the command, the ccs command will use that password for each node in the cluster. If you need to set different passwords for ricci on individual nodes, you can use the --setconf option with the -p option to distribute the configuration file to one node at a time.

5.1.4. Modifying Cluster Configuration Components

You use the ccs command to configure cluster components and their attributes in the cluster configuration file. After you have added a cluster component to the file, in order to modify the attributes of that component you must remove the component you have defined and add the component again, with the modified attributes. Information on how to do this with each component is provided in the individual sections of this chapter.
The attributes of the cman cluster component provide an exception to this procedure for modifying cluster components. To modify these attributes, you execute the --setcman option of the ccs command, specifying the new attributes. Note that specifying this option resets all values that you do not explicitly specify to their default values, as described in Section 5.1.5, “Commands that Overwrite Previous Settings”.

5.1.5. Commands that Overwrite Previous Settings

There are several options of the ccs command that implement overwriting semantics when setting properties. This means that you can issue the ccs command with one of these options without specifying any settings, and it will reset all settings to their default values. These options are as follows:
  • --settotem
  • --setdlm
  • --setrm
  • --setcman
  • --setmulticast
  • --setaltmulticast
  • --setfencedaemon
  • --setlogging
  • --setquorumd
For example, to reset all of the fence deamon properties, you can run the following command.
# ccs -h hostname --setfencedaemon
Note, however, that if you use one of these commands to reset a property, then the other properties of the command will be reset to their default values. For example, you can use the following command to set the post_fail_delay property to 5:
# ccs -h hostname --setfencedaemon post_fail_delay=5
If, after running that command, you run the following command to reset the post_join_delay property to 10, the post_fail_delay property will be restored to its default value:
# ccs -h hostname --setfencedaemon post_join_delay=10
To reset both the post_fail_delay and the post_join_delay properties, you indicate them both on the same command, as in the following example:
# ccs -h hostname --setfencedaemon post_fail_delay=5 post_join_delay=10
For more information on configuring fence devices, refer to Section 5.5, “Configuring Fence Devices”.

5.1.6. Configuration Validation

When you use the ccs command to create and edit the cluster configuration file, the configuration is automatically validated according to the cluster schema. As of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3 release, the ccs command validates the configuration according to the cluster schema at /usr/share/cluster/cluster.rng on the node that you specify with the -h option. Previously the ccs command always used the cluster schema that was packaged with the ccs command itself, /usr/share/ccs/cluster.rng on the local system. When you use the -f option to specify the local system, the ccs command still uses the cluster schema /usr/share/ccs/cluster.rng that was packaged with the ccs command itself on that system.

5.2. Configuration Tasks

Configuring Red Hat High Availability Add-On software with the ccs consists of the following steps:
  1. Ensuring that ricci is running on all nodes in the cluster. Refer to Section 5.3, “Starting ricci.
  2. Creating a cluster. Refer to Section 5.4, “Creating A Cluster”.
  3. Configuring fence devices. Refer to Section 5.5, “Configuring Fence Devices”.
  4. Configuring fencing for cluster members. Refer to Section 5.7, “Configuring Fencing for Cluster Members”.
  5. Creating failover domains. Refer to Section 5.8, “Configuring a Failover Domain”.
  6. Configuring a quorum disk, if necessary. Refer to Section 5.13, “Configuring a Quorum Disk”.
  7. Configuring global cluster properties. Refer to Section 5.14, “Miscellaneous Cluster Configuration”.
  8. Propagating the cluster configuration file to all of the cluster nodes. Refer to Section 5.15, “Propagating the Configuration File to the Cluster Nodes”.

5.3. Starting ricci

In order to create and distribute cluster configuration files on the nodes of the cluster, the ricci service must be running on each node. Before starting ricci, you should ensure that you have configured your system as follows:
  1. The IP ports on your cluster nodes should be enabled for ricci. For information on enabling IP ports on cluster nodes, see Section 2.3.1, “Enabling IP Ports on Cluster Nodes”.
  2. The ricci service is installed on all nodes in the cluster and assigned a ricci password, as described in Section 2.13, “Considerations for ricci.
After ricci has been installed and configured on each node, start the ricci service on each node:
# service ricci start
Starting ricci:                                            [  OK  ]

5.4. Creating A Cluster

This section describes how to create, modify, and delete a skeleton cluster configuration with the ccs command without fencing, failover domains, and HA services. Subsequent sections describe how to configure those parts of the configuration.
To create a skeleton cluster configuration file, first create and name the cluster and then add the nodes to the cluster, as in the following procedure:
  1. Create a cluster configuration file on one of the nodes in the cluster by executing the ccs command using the -h parameter to specify the node on which to create the file and the createcluster option to specify a name for the cluster:
    ccs -h host --createcluster clustername
    For example, the following command creates a configuration file on node-01.example.com named mycluster:
    ccs -h node-01.example.com --createcluster mycluster
    
    The cluster name cannot exceed 15 characters.
    If a cluster.conf file already exists on the host that you specify, executing this command will replace that existing file.
    If you want to create a cluster configuration file on your local system you can specify the -f option instead of the -h option. For information on creating the file locally, refer to Section 5.1.1, “Creating the Cluster Configuration File on a Local System”.
  2. To configure the nodes that the cluster contains, execute the following command for each node in the cluster. A node name can be up to 255 bytes in length.
    ccs -h host --addnode node
    For example, the following three commands add the nodes node-01.example.com, node-02.example.com, and node-03.example.com to the configuration file on node-01.example.com:
    ccs -h node-01.example.com --addnode node-01.example.com
    ccs -h node-01.example.com --addnode node-02.example.com
    ccs -h node-01.example.com --addnode node-03.example.com
    
    To view a list of the nodes that have been configured for a cluster, execute the following command:
    ccs -h host --lsnodes
    
    Example 5.1, “cluster.conf File After Adding Three Nodes” shows a cluster.conf configuration file after you have created the cluster mycluster that contains the nodes node-01.example.com, node-02.example.com, and node-03.example.com.

    Example 5.1. cluster.conf File After Adding Three Nodes

    
    <cluster name="mycluster" config_version="2">
       <clusternodes>
         <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
             <fence>
             </fence>
         </clusternode>
         <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
             <fence>
             </fence>
         </clusternode>
         <clusternode name="node-03.example.com" nodeid="3">
             <fence>
             </fence>
         </clusternode>
       </clusternodes>
       <fencedevices>
       </fencedevices>
       <rm>
       </rm>
    </cluster>
    
    

    When you add a node to the cluster, you can specify the number of votes the node contributes to determine whether there is a quorum. To set the number of votes for a cluster node, use the following command:
    ccs -h host --addnode host --votes votes
    When you add a node, the ccs assigns the node a unique integer that is used as the node identifier. If you want to specify the node identifier manually when creating a node, use the following command:
    ccs -h host --addnode host --nodeid nodeid
    To remove a node from a cluster, execute the following command:
    ccs -h host --rmnode node
When you have finished configuring all of the components of your cluster, you will need to sync the cluster configuration file to all of the nodes, as described in Section 5.15, “Propagating the Configuration File to the Cluster Nodes”.

5.5. Configuring Fence Devices

Configuring fence devices consists of creating, updating, and deleting fence devices for the cluster. You must create and name the fence devices in a cluster before you can configure fencing for the nodes in the cluster. For information on configuring fencing for the individual nodes in the cluster, refer to Section 5.7, “Configuring Fencing for Cluster Members”.
Before configuring your fence devices, you may want to modify some of the fence daemon properties for your system from the default values. The values you configure for the fence daemon are general values for the cluster. The general fencing properties for the cluster you may want to modify are summarized as follows:
  • The post_fail_delay attribute is the number of seconds the fence daemon (fenced) waits before fencing a node (a member of the fence domain) after the node has failed. The post_fail_delay default value is 0. Its value may be varied to suit cluster and network performance.
  • The post-join_delay attribute is the number of seconds the fence daemon (fenced) waits before fencing a node after the node joins the fence domain. The post_join_delay default value is 6. A typical setting for post_join_delay is between 20 and 30 seconds, but can vary according to cluster and network performance.
You reset the values of the post_fail_delay and post_join_delay attributes with the --setfencedaemon option of the ccs command. Note, however, that executing the ccs --setfencedaemon command overwrites all existing fence daemon properties that have been explicitly set and restores them to their default values.
For example, to configure a value for the post_fail_delay attribute, execute the following command. This command will overwrite the values of all other existing fence daemon properties that you have set with this command and restore them to their default values.
ccs -h host --setfencedaemon post_fail_delay=value
To configure a value for the post_join_delay attribute, execute the following command. This command will overwrite the values of all other existing fence daemon properties that you have set with this command and restore them to their default values.
ccs -h host --setfencedaemon post_join_delay=value
To configure a value for both the the post_join_delay attribute and the post_fail_delay attribute, execute the following command:
ccs -h host --setfencedaemon post_fail_delay=value post_join_delay=value

Note

For more information about the post_join_delay and post_fail_delay attributes as well as the additional fence daemon properties you can modify, refer to the fenced(8) man page and refer to the cluster schema at /usr/share/cluster/cluster.rng, and the annotated schema at /usr/share/doc/cman-X.Y.ZZ /cluster_conf.html.
To configure a fence device for a cluster, execute the following command:
ccs -h host --addfencedev devicename [fencedeviceoptions]
For example, to configure an APC fence device in the configuration file on the cluster node node1 named my_apc with an IP address of apc_ip_example, a login of login_example, and a password of password_example, execute the following command:
ccs -h node1 --addfencedev myfence agent=fence_apc ipaddr=apc_ip_example login=login_example passwd=password_example
The following example shows the fencedevices section of the cluster.conf configuration file after you have added this APC fence device:

<fencedevices>
      <fencedevice agent="fence_apc" ipaddr="apc_ip_example" login="login_example" name="my_apc" passwd="password_example"/>
</fencedevices>

When configuring fence devices for a cluster, you may find it useful to see a listing of available devices for your cluster and the options available for each device. You may also find it useful to see a listing of fence devices currently configured for your cluster. For information on using the ccs command to print a list of available fence devices and options or to print a list of fence devices currently configured for your cluster, refer to Section 5.6, “Listing Fence Devices and Fence Device Options”.
To remove a fence device from your cluster configuration, execute the following command:
ccs -h host --rmfencedev fence_device_name
For example, to remove a fence device that you have named myfence from the cluster configuration file on cluster node node1, execute the following command:
ccs -h node1 --rmfencedev myfence
If you need to modify the attributes of a fence device you have already configured, you must first remove that fence device then add it again with the modified attributes.
Note that when you have finished configuring all of the components of your cluster, you will need to sync the cluster configuration file to all of the nodes, as described in Section 5.15, “Propagating the Configuration File to the Cluster Nodes”.

5.6. Listing Fence Devices and Fence Device Options

You can use the ccs command to print a list of available fence devices and to print a list of options for each available fence type. You can also use the ccs command to print a list of fence devices currently configured for your cluster.
To print a list of fence devices currently available for your cluster, execute the following command:
ccs -h host --lsfenceopts
For example, the following command lists the fence devices available on the cluster node node1, showing sample output.
[root@ask-03 ~]# ccs -h node1 --lsfenceopts
fence_rps10 - RPS10 Serial Switch
fence_vixel - No description available
fence_egenera - No description available
fence_xcat - No description available
fence_na - Node Assassin
fence_apc - Fence agent for APC over telnet/ssh
fence_apc_snmp - Fence agent for APC over SNMP
fence_bladecenter - Fence agent for IBM BladeCenter
fence_bladecenter_snmp - Fence agent for IBM BladeCenter over SNMP
fence_cisco_mds - Fence agent for Cisco MDS
fence_cisco_ucs - Fence agent for Cisco UCS
fence_drac5 - Fence agent for Dell DRAC CMC/5
fence_eps - Fence agent for ePowerSwitch
fence_ibmblade - Fence agent for IBM BladeCenter over SNMP
fence_ifmib - Fence agent for IF MIB
fence_ilo - Fence agent for HP iLO
fence_ilo_mp - Fence agent for HP iLO MP
fence_intelmodular - Fence agent for Intel Modular
fence_ipmilan - Fence agent for IPMI over LAN
fence_kdump - Fence agent for use with kdump
fence_rhevm - Fence agent for RHEV-M REST API
fence_rsa - Fence agent for IBM RSA
fence_sanbox2 - Fence agent for QLogic SANBox2 FC switches
fence_scsi - fence agent for SCSI-3 persistent reservations
fence_virsh - Fence agent for virsh
fence_virt - Fence agent for virtual machines
fence_vmware - Fence agent for VMware
fence_vmware_soap - Fence agent for VMware over SOAP API
fence_wti - Fence agent for WTI
fence_xvm - Fence agent for virtual machines
To print a list of the options you can specify for a particular fence type, execute the following command:
ccs -h host --lsfenceopts fence_type
For example, the following command lists the fence options for the fence_wti fence agent.
[root@ask-03 ~]# ccs -h node1 --lsfenceopts fence_wti
fence_wti - Fence agent for WTI
  Required Options:
  Optional Options:
    option: No description available
    action: Fencing Action
    ipaddr: IP Address or Hostname
    login: Login Name
    passwd: Login password or passphrase
    passwd_script: Script to retrieve password
    cmd_prompt: Force command prompt
    secure: SSH connection
    identity_file: Identity file for ssh
    port: Physical plug number or name of virtual machine
    inet4_only: Forces agent to use IPv4 addresses only
    inet6_only: Forces agent to use IPv6 addresses only
    ipport: TCP port to use for connection with device
    verbose: Verbose mode
    debug: Write debug information to given file
    version: Display version information and exit
    help: Display help and exit
    separator: Separator for CSV created by operation list
    power_timeout: Test X seconds for status change after ON/OFF
    shell_timeout: Wait X seconds for cmd prompt after issuing command
    login_timeout: Wait X seconds for cmd prompt after login
    power_wait: Wait X seconds after issuing ON/OFF
    delay: Wait X seconds before fencing is started
    retry_on: Count of attempts to retry power on
To print a list of fence devices currently configured for your cluster, execute the following command:
ccs -h host --lsfencedev

5.7. Configuring Fencing for Cluster Members

Once you have completed the initial steps of creating a cluster and creating fence devices, you need to configure fencing for the cluster nodes. To configure fencing for the nodes after creating a new cluster and configuring the fencing devices for the cluster, follow the steps in this section. Note that you must configure fencing for each node in the cluster.

Note

It is recommended that you configure multiple fencing mechanisms for each node. A fencing device can fail due to network split, a power outage, or a problem in the fencing device itself. Configuring multiple fencing mechanisms can reduce the likelihood that the failure of a fencing device will have fatal results.
This section documents the following procedures:

5.7.1. Configuring a Single Power-Based Fence Device for a Node

Use the following procedure to configure a node with a single power-based fence device that uses the fence device named my_apc, which uses the fence_apc fencing agent. In this example, the device named my_apc was previously configured with the --addfencedev option, as described in Section 5.5, “Configuring Fence Devices”.
  1. Add a fence method for the node, providing a name for the fence method.
    ccs -h host --addmethod method node
    For example, to configure a fence method named APC for the node node-01.example.com in the configuration file on the cluster node node-01.example.com, execute the following command:
    ccs -h node01.example.com --addmethod APC node01.example.com
    
  2. Add a fence instance for the method. You must specify the fence device to use for the node, the node this instance applies to, the name of the method, and any options for this method that are specific to this node:
    ccs -h host --addfenceinst fencedevicename node method [options]
    
    For example, to configure a fence instance in the configuration file on the cluster node node-01.example.com that uses the APC switch power port 1 on the fence device named my_apc to fence cluster node node-01.example.com using the method named APC, execute the following command:
    ccs -h node01.example.com --addfenceinst my_apc node01.example.com APC port=1
    
You will need to add a fence method for each node in the cluster. The following commands configure a fence method for each node with the method name APC. The device for the fence method specifies my_apc as the device name, which is a device previously configured with the --addfencedev option, as described in Section 5.5, “Configuring Fence Devices”. Each node is configured with a unique APC switch power port number: The port number for node-01.example.com is 1, the port number for node-02.example.com is 2, and the port number for node-03.example.com is 3.
ccs -h node01.example.com --addmethod APC node01.example.com
ccs -h node01.example.com --addmethod APC node02.example.com
ccs -h node01.example.com --addmethod APC node03.example.com
ccs -h node01.example.com --addfenceinst my_apc node01.example.com APC port=1
ccs -h node01.example.com --addfenceinst my_apc node02.example.com APC port=2
ccs -h node01.example.com --addfenceinst my_apc node03.example.com APC port=3
Example 5.2, “cluster.conf After Adding Power-Based Fence Methods ” shows a cluster.conf configuration file after you have added these fencing methods and instances to each node in the cluster.

Example 5.2. cluster.conf After Adding Power-Based Fence Methods


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="3">
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="my_apc" port="1"/>
             </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="my_apc" port="2"/>
            </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-03.example.com" nodeid="3">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="my_apc" port="3"/>
            </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
         <fencedevice agent="fence_apc" ipaddr="apc_ip_example" login="login_example" name="my_apc" passwd="password_example"/>
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
   </rm>
</cluster>


Note that when you have finished configuring all of the components of your cluster, you will need to sync the cluster configuration file to all of the nodes, as described in Section 5.15, “Propagating the Configuration File to the Cluster Nodes”.

5.7.2. Configuring a Single Storage-Based Fence Device for a Node

When using non-power fencing methods (that is, SAN/storage fencing) to fence a node, you must configure unfencing for the fence device. This ensures that a fenced node is not re-enabled until the node has been rebooted. When you configure a device that requires unfencing, the cluster must first be stopped and the full configuration including devices and unfencing must be added before the cluster is started.
When you configure unfencing for a node, you specify a device that mirrors the corresponding fence device you have configured for the node with the notable addition of the explicit action of on or enable.
For more information about unfencing a node, refer to the fence_node(8) man page.
Use the following procedure to configure a node with a single storage-based fence device that uses a fence device named sanswitch1, which uses the fence_sanbox2 fencing agent.
  1. Add a fence method for the node, providing a name for the fence method.
    ccs -h host --addmethod method node
    For example, to configure a fence method named SAN for the node node-01.example.com in the configuration file on the cluster node node-01.example.com, execute the following command:
    ccs -h node01.example.com --addmethod SAN  node01.example.com
    
  2. Add a fence instance for the method. You must specify the fence device to use for the node, the node this instance applies to, the name of the method, and any options for this method that are specific to this node:
    ccs -h host --addfenceinst fencedevicename node method [options]
    
    For example, to configure a fence instance in the configuration file on the cluster node node-01.example.com that uses the SAN switch power port 11 on the fence device named sanswitch1 to fence cluster node node-01.example.com using the method named SAN, execute the following command:
    ccs -h node01.example.com --addfenceinst sanswitch1 node01.example.com SAN port=11
    
  3. To configure unfencing for the storage-based fence device on this node, execute the following command:
    ccs -h host --addunfence fencedevicename node action=on|off
    
You will need to add a fence method for each node in the cluster. The following commands configure a fence method for each node with the method name SAN. The device for the fence method specifies sanswitch as the device name, which is a device previously configured with the --addfencedev option, as described in Section 5.5, “Configuring Fence Devices”. Each node is configured with a unique SAN physical port number: The port number for node-01.example.com is 11, the port number for node-02.example.com is 12, and the port number for node-03.example.com is 13.
ccs -h node01.example.com --addmethod SAN node01.example.com
ccs -h node01.example.com --addmethod SAN node02.example.com
ccs -h node01.example.com --addmethod SAN node03.example.com
ccs -h node01.example.com --addfenceinst sanswitch1 node01.example.com SAN port=11
ccs -h node01.example.com --addfenceinst sanswitch1 node02.example.com SAN port=12
ccs -h node01.example.com --addfenceinst sanswitch1 node03.example.com SAN port=13
ccs -h node01.example.com --addunfence sanswitch1 node01.example.com port=11 action=on
ccs -h node01.example.com --addunfence sanswitch1 node02.example.com port=12 action=on
ccs -h node01.example.com --addunfence sanswitch1 node03.example.com port=13 action=on
Example 5.3, “cluster.conf After Adding Storage-Based Fence Methods ” shows a cluster.conf configuration file after you have added fencing methods, fencing instances, and unfencing to each node in the cluster.

Example 5.3. cluster.conf After Adding Storage-Based Fence Methods


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="3">
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
         <fence>
            <method name="SAN">
	      <device name="sanswitch1" port="11"/>
             </method>
         </fence>
         <unfence>
             <device name="sanswitch1" port="11" action="on"/> 
         </unfence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
            <method name="SAN">
	      <device name="sanswitch1" port="12"/>
             </method>
         </fence>
         <unfence>
             <device name="sanswitch1" port="12" action="on"/> 
         </unfence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-03.example.com" nodeid="3">
         <fence>
            <method name="SAN">
	      <device name="sanswitch1" port="13"/>
             </method>
         </fence>
         <unfence>
             <device name="sanswitch1" port="13" action="on"/> 
         </unfence>
     </clusternode>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
        <fencedevice agent="fence_sanbox2" ipaddr="san_ip_example"
login="login_example" name="sanswitch1" passwd="password_example"/>
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
   </rm>
</cluster>


Note that when you have finished configuring all of the components of your cluster, you will need to sync the cluster configuration file to all of the nodes, as described in Section 5.15, “Propagating the Configuration File to the Cluster Nodes”.

5.7.3. Configuring a Backup Fence Device

You can define multiple fencing methods for a node. If fencing fails using the first method, the system will attempt to fence the node using the second method, followed by any additional methods you have configured. To configure a backup fencing method for a node, you configure two methods for a node, configuring a fence instance for each method.

Note

The order in which the system will use the fencing methods you have configured follows their order in the cluster configuration file. The first method you configure with the ccs command is the primary fencing method, and the second method you configure is the backup fencing method. To change the order, you can remove the primary fencing method from the configuration file, then add that method back.
Note that at any time you can print a list of fence methods and instances currently configured for a node by executing the following command. If you do not specify a node, this command will list the fence methods and instances currently configured for all nodes.
ccs -h host --lsfenceinst [node]
Use the following procedure to configure a node with a primary fencing method that uses a fence device named my_apc, which uses the fence_apc fencing agent, and a backup fencing device that uses a fence device named sanswitch1, which uses the fence_sanbox2 fencing agent. Since the sanswitch1 device is a storage-based fencing agent, you will need to configure unfencing for that device as well.
  1. Add a primary fence method for the node, providing a name for the fence method.
    ccs -h host --addmethod method node
    For example, to configure a fence method named APC as the primary method for the node node-01.example.com in the configuration file on the cluster node node-01.example.com, execute the following command:
    ccs -h node01.example.com --addmethod APC node01.example.com
    
  2. Add a fence instance for the primary method. You must specify the fence device to use for the node, the node this instance applies to, the name of the method, and any options for this method that are specific to this node:
    ccs -h host --addfenceinst fencedevicename node method [options]
    
    For example, to configure a fence instance in the configuration file on the cluster node node-01.example.com that uses the APC switch power port 1 on the fence device named my_apc to fence cluster node node-01.example.com using the method named APC, execute the following command:
    ccs -h node01.example.com --addfenceinst my_apc node01.example.com APC port=1
    
  3. Add a backup fence method for the node, providing a name for the fence method.
    ccs -h host --addmethod method node
    For example, to configure a backup fence method named SAN for the node node-01.example.com in the configuration file on the cluster node node-01.example.com, execute the following command:
    ccs -h node01.example.com --addmethod SAN  node01.example.com
    
  4. Add a fence instance for the backup method. You must specify the fence device to use for the node, the node this instance applies to, the name of the method, and any options for this method that are specific to this node:
    ccs -h host --addfenceinst fencedevicename node method [options]
    
    For example, to configure a fence instance in the configuration file on the cluster node node-01.example.com that uses the SAN switch power port 11 on the fence device named sanswitch1 to fence cluster node node-01.example.com using the method named SAN, execute the following command:
    ccs -h node01.example.com --addfenceinst sanswitch1 node01.example.com SAN port=11
    
  5. Since the sanswitch1 device is a storage-based device, you must configure unfencing for this device.
    ccs -h node01.example.com --addunfence sanswitch1 node01.example.com port=11 action=on
    
You can continue to add fencing methods as needed.
This procedure configures a fence device and a backup fence device for one node in the cluster. You will need to configure fencing for the other nodes in the cluster as well.
Example 5.4, “cluster.conf After Adding Backup Fence Methods ” shows a cluster.conf configuration file after you have added a power-based primary fencing method and a storage-based backup fencing method to each node in the cluster.

Example 5.4. cluster.conf After Adding Backup Fence Methods


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="3">
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="my_apc" port="1"/>
             </method>
            <method name="SAN">
	      <device name="sanswitch1" port="11"/>
             </method>
         </fence>
         <unfence>
             <device name="sanswitch1" port="11" action="on"/> 
         </unfence
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="my_apc" port="2"/>
            </method>
            <method name="SAN">
	      <device name="sanswitch1" port="12"/>
             </method>
         </fence>
         <unfence>
             <device name="sanswitch1" port="12" action="on"/> 
         </unfence
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-03.example.com" nodeid="3">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="my_apc" port="3"/>
            </method>
            <method name="SAN">
	      <device name="sanswitch1" port="13"/>
             </method>
         </fence>
         <unfence>
             <device name="sanswitch1" port="13" action="on"/> 
         </unfence
     </clusternode>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
        <fencedevice agent="fence_apc" ipaddr="apc_ip_example" login="login_example" name="my_apc" passwd="password_example"/>
        <fencedevice agent="fence_sanbox2" ipaddr="san_ip_example" login="login_example" name="sanswitch1" passwd="password_example"/>
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
   </rm>
</cluster>



Note that when you have finished configuring all of the components of your cluster, you will need to sync the cluster configuration file to all of the nodes, as described in Section 5.15, “Propagating the Configuration File to the Cluster Nodes”.

Note

The order in which the system will use the fencing methods you have configured follows their order in the cluster configuration file. The first method you configure is the primary fencing method, and the second method you configure is the backup fencing method. To change the order, you can remove the primary fencing method from the configuration file, then add that method back.

5.7.4. Configuring a Node with Redundant Power

If your cluster is configured with redundant power supplies for your nodes, you must be sure to configure fencing so that your nodes fully shut down when they need to be fenced. If you configure each power supply as a separate fence method, each power supply will be fenced separately; the second power supply will allow the system to continue running when the first power supply is fenced and the system will not be fenced at all. To configure a system with dual power supplies, you must configure your fence devices so that both power supplies are shut off and the system is taken completely down. This requires that you configure two instances within a single fencing method, and that for each instance you configure both fence devices with an action attribute of off before configuring each of the devices with an action attribute of on.
To configure fencing for a node with dual power supplies, follow the steps in this section.
  1. Before you can configure fencing for a node with redundant power, you must configure each of the power switches as a fence device for the cluster. For information on configuring fence devices, see Section 5.5, “Configuring Fence Devices”.
    To print a list of fence devices currently configured for your cluster, execute the following command:
    ccs -h host --lsfencedev
    
  2. Add a fence method for the node, providing a name for the fence method.
    ccs -h host --addmethod method node
    For example, to configure a fence method named APC-dual for the node node-01.example.com in the configuration file on the cluster node node-01.example.com, execute the following command:
    ccs -h node01.example.com --addmethod APC-dual node01.example.com
    
  3. Add a fence instance for the first power supply to the fence method. You must specify the fence device to use for the node, the node this instance applies to, the name of the method, and any options for this method that are specific to this node. At this point you configure the action attribute as off.
    ccs -h host --addfenceinst fencedevicename node method [options] action=off
    
    For example, to configure a fence instance in the configuration file on the cluster node node-01.example.com that uses the APC switch power port 1 on the fence device named apc1 to fence cluster node node-01.example.com using the method named APC-dual, and setting the action attribute to off, execute the following command:
    ccs -h node01.example.com --addfenceinst apc1 node01.example.com APC-dual port=1 action=off
    
  4. Add a fence instance for the second power supply to the fence method. You must specify the fence device to use for the node, the node this instance applies to, the name of the method, and any options for this method that are specific to this node. At this point you configure the action attribute as off for this instance as well:
    ccs -h host --addfenceinst fencedevicename node method [options] action=off
    
    For example, to configure a second fence instance in the configuration file on the cluster node node-01.example.com that uses the APC switch power port 1 on the fence device named apc2 to fence cluster node node-01.example.com using the same method as you specified for the first instance named APC-dual, and setting the action attribute to off, execute the following command:
    ccs -h node01.example.com --addfenceinst apc2 node01.example.com APC-dual port=1 action=off
    
  5. At this point, add another fence instance for the first power supply to the fence method, configuring the action attribute as on. You must specify the fence device to use for the node, the node this instance applies to, the name of the method, and any options for this method that are specific to this node, and specifying the action attribute as on:
    ccs -h host --addfenceinst fencedevicename node method [options] action=on
    
    For example, to configure a fence instance in the configuration file on the cluster node node-01.example.com that uses the APC switch power port 1 on the fence device named apc1 to fence cluster node node-01.example.com using the method named APC-dual, and setting the action attribute to on, execute the following command:
    ccs -h node01.example.com --addfenceinst apc1 node01.example.com APC-dual port=1 action=on
    
  6. Add another fence instance for second power supply to the fence method, specifying the action attribute as on for this instance. You must specify the fence device to use for the node, the node this instance applies to, the name of the method, and any options for this method that are specific to this node as well as the action attribute of on.
    ccs -h host --addfenceinst fencedevicename node method [options] action=on
    
    For example, to configure a second fence instance in the configuration file on the cluster node node-01.example.com that uses the APC switch power port 1 on the fence device named apc2 to fence cluster node node-01.example.com using the same method as you specified for the first instance named APC-dual and setting the action attribute to on, execute the following command:
    ccs -h node01.example.com --addfenceinst apc2 node01.example.com APC-dual port=1 action=on
    
Example 5.5, “cluster.conf After Adding Dual-Power Fencing ” shows a cluster.conf configuration file after you have added fencing for two power supplies for each node in a cluster.

Example 5.5. cluster.conf After Adding Dual-Power Fencing


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="3">
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC-dual">
              <device name="apc1" port="1"action="off"/>
              <device name="apc2" port="1"action="off"/>
              <device name="apc1" port="1"action="on"/>
              <device name="apc2" port="1"action="on"/>
             </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC-dual">
              <device name="apc1" port="2"action="off"/>
              <device name="apc2" port="2"action="off"/>
              <device name="apc1" port="2"action="on"/>
              <device name="apc2" port="2"action="on"/>
            </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-03.example.com" nodeid="3">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC-dual">
              <device name="apc1" port="3"action="off"/>
              <device name="apc2" port="3"action="off"/>
              <device name="apc1" port="3"action="on"/>
              <device name="apc2" port="3"action="on"/>
            </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
       <fencedevice agent="fence_apc" ipaddr="apc_ip_example" login="login_example" name="apc1" passwd="password_example"/>
       <fencedevice agent="fence_apc" ipaddr="apc_ip_example" login="login_example" name="apc2" passwd="password_example"/>
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
   </rm>
</cluster>



Note that when you have finished configuring all of the components of your cluster, you will need to sync the cluster configuration file to all of the nodes, as described in Section 5.15, “Propagating the Configuration File to the Cluster Nodes”.

5.7.5. Removing Fence Methods and Fence Instances

To remove a fence method from your cluster configuration, execute the following command:
ccs -h host --rmmethod method node
For example, to remove a fence method that you have named APC that you have configured for node01.example.com from the cluster configuration file on cluster node node01.example.com, execute the following command:
ccs -h node01.example.com  --rmmethod APC node01.example.com
To remove all fence instances of a fence device from a fence method, execute the following command:
ccs -h host --rmfenceinst fencedevicename node method
For example, to remove all instances of the fence device named apc1 from the method named APC-dual configured for node01.example.com from the cluster configuration file on cluster node node01.example.com, execute the following command:
ccs -h node01.example.com --rmfenceinst apc1 node01.example.com APC-dual

5.8. Configuring a Failover Domain

A failover domain is a named subset of cluster nodes that are eligible to run a cluster service in the event of a node failure. A failover domain can have the following characteristics:
  • Unrestricted — Allows you to specify that a subset of members are preferred, but that a cluster service assigned to this domain can run on any available member.
  • Restricted — Allows you to restrict the members that can run a particular cluster service. If none of the members in a restricted failover domain are available, the cluster service cannot be started (either manually or by the cluster software).
  • Unordered — When a cluster service is assigned to an unordered failover domain, the member on which the cluster service runs is chosen from the available failover domain members with no priority ordering.
  • Ordered — Allows you to specify a preference order among the members of a failover domain. The member at the top of the list is the most preferred, followed by the second member in the list, and so on.
  • Failback — Allows you to specify whether a service in the failover domain should fail back to the node that it was originally running on before that node failed. Configuring this characteristic is useful in circumstances where a node repeatedly fails and is part of an ordered failover domain. In that circumstance, if a node is the preferred node in a failover domain, it is possible for a service to fail over and fail back repeatedly between the preferred node and another node, causing severe impact on performance.

    Note

    The failback characteristic is applicable only if ordered failover is configured.

Note

Changing a failover domain configuration has no effect on currently running services.

Note

Failover domains are not required for operation.
By default, failover domains are unrestricted and unordered.
In a cluster with several members, using a restricted failover domain can minimize the work to set up the cluster to run a cluster service (such as httpd), which requires you to set up the configuration identically on all members that run the cluster service. Instead of setting up the entire cluster to run the cluster service, you can set up only the members in the restricted failover domain that you associate with the cluster service.

Note

To configure a preferred member, you can create an unrestricted failover domain comprising only one cluster member. Doing that causes a cluster service to run on that cluster member primarily (the preferred member), but allows the cluster service to fail over to any of the other members.
To configure a failover domain, perform the following procedure:
  1. To add a failover domain, execute the following command:
    ccs -h host --addfailoverdomain name [restricted] [ordered] [nofailback]
    

    Note

    The name should be descriptive enough to distinguish its purpose relative to other names used in your cluster.
    For example, the following command configures a failover domain named example_pri on node-01.example.com that is unrestricted, ordered, and allows failback:
    ccs -h node-01.example.com --addfailoverdomain example_pri ordered
    
  2. To add a node to a failover domain, execute the following command:
    ccs -h host --addfailoverdomainnode failoverdomain node priority
    For example, to configure the failover domain example_pri in the configuration file on node-01.example.com so that it contains node-01.example.com with a priority of 1, node-02.example.com with a priority of 2, and node-03.example.com with a priority of 3, execute the following commands:
    ccs -h node-01.example.com --addfailoverdomainnode example_pri node-01.example.com 1
    ccs -h node-01.example.com --addfailoverdomainnode example_pri node-02.example.com 2
    ccs -h node-01.example.com --addfailoverdomainnode example_pri node-03.example.com 3
    
You can list all of the failover domains and failover domain nodes configured in a cluster with the following command:
ccs -h host --lsfailoverdomain
To remove a failover domain, execute the following command:
ccs -h host --rmfailoverdomain name
To remove a node from a failover domain, execute the following command:
ccs -h host --rmfailoverdomainnode failoverdomain node
Note that when you have finished configuring all of the components of your cluster, you will need to sync the cluster configuration file to all of the nodes, as described in Section 5.15, “Propagating the Configuration File to the Cluster Nodes”.

5.9. Configuring Global Cluster Resources

You can configure two types of resources:
  • Global — Resources that are available to any service in the cluster.
  • Service-specific — Resources that are available to only one service.
To see a list of currently configured resources and services in the cluster, execute the following command:
ccs -h host --lsservices
To add a global cluster resource, execute the following command. You can add a resource that is local to a particular service when you configure the service, as described in Section 5.10, “Adding a Cluster Service to the Cluster”.
ccs -h host --addresource resourcetype [resource options]
For example, the following command adds a global file system resource to the cluster configuration file on node01.example.com. The name of the resource is web_fs, the file system device is /dev/sdd2, the file system mountpoint is /var/www, and the file system type is ext3.
ccs -h node01.example.com --addresource fs name=web_fs device=/dev/sdd2 mountpoint=/var/www fstype=ext3
For information about the available resource types and resource options, see Appendix B, HA Resource Parameters.
To remove a global resource, execute the following command:
ccs -h host --rmresource resourcetype [resource options]
If you need to modify the parameters of an existing global resource, you can remove the resource and configure it again.
Note that when you have finished configuring all of the components of your cluster, you will need to sync the cluster configuration file to all of the nodes, as described in Section 5.15, “Propagating the Configuration File to the Cluster Nodes”.

5.10. Adding a Cluster Service to the Cluster

To configure a cluster service in a cluster, perform the following steps:
  1. Add a service to the cluster with the following command:
    ccs -h host --addservice servicename [service options]
    

    Note

    Use a descriptive name that clearly distinguishes the service from other services in the cluster.
    When you add a service to the cluster configuration, you configure the following attributes:
    • autostart — Specifies whether to autostart the service when the cluster starts. Use "1" to enable and "0" to disable; the default is enabled.
    • domain — Specifies a failover domain (if required).
    • exclusive — Specifies a policy wherein the service only runs on nodes that have no other services running on them.
    • recovery — Specifies a recovery policy for the service. The options are to relocate, restart, disable, or restart-disable the service. The restart recovery policy indicates that the system should attempt to restart the failed service before trying to relocate the service to another node. The relocate policy indicates that the system should try to restart the service in a different node. The disable policy indicates that the system should disable the resource group if any component fails. The restart-disable policy indicates that the system should attempt to restart the service in place if it fails, but if restarting the service fails the service will be disabled instead of being moved to another host in the cluster.
      If you select Restart or Restart-Disable as the recovery policy for the service, you can specify the maximum number of restart failures before relocating or disabling the service, and you can specify the length of time in seconds after which to forget a restart.
    For example, to add a service to the configuration file on the cluster node node-01.example.com named example_apache that uses the failover domain example_pri, and that has recovery policy of relocate, execute the following command:
    ccs -h node-01.example.com --addservice example_apache domain=example_pri recovery=relocate
    
    When configuring services for a cluster, you may find it useful to see a listing of available services for your cluster and the options available for each service. For information on using the ccs command to print a list of available services and their options, refer to Section 5.11, “Listing Available Cluster Services and Resources”.
  2. Add resources to the service with the following command:
    ccs -h host --addsubservice servicename subservice [service options]
    
    Depending on the type of resources you want to use, populate the service with global or service-specific resources. To add a global resource, use the --addsubservice option of the ccs to add a resource. For example, to add the global file system resource named web_fs to the service named example_apache on the cluster configuration file on node-01.example.com, execute the following command:
    ccs -h node01.example.com --addsubservice example_apache fs ref=web_fs
    
    To add a service-specific resource to the service, you need to specify all of the service options. For example, if you had not previously defined web_fs as a global service, you could add it as a service-specific resource with the following command:
    ccs -h node01.example.com --addsubservice example_apache fs name=web_fs device=/dev/sdd2 mountpoint=/var/www fstype=ext3
    
  3. To add a child service to the service, you also use the --addsubservice option of the ccs command, specifying the service options.
    If you need to add services within a tree structure of dependencies, use a colon (":") to separate elements and brackets to identify subservices of the same type. The following example adds a third nfsclient service as a subservice of an nfsclient service which is in itself a subservice of an nfsclient service which is a subservice of a service named service_a:
    ccs -h node01.example.com --addsubservice service_a nfsclient[1]:nfsclient[2]:nfsclient
    

    Note

    If you are adding a Samba-service resource, add it directly to the service, not as a child of another resource.

    Note

    When configuring a dependency tree for a cluster service that includes a floating IP address resource, you must configure the IP resource as the first entry.

Note

To verify the existence of the IP service resource used in a cluster service, you can use the /sbin/ip addr show command on a cluster node (rather than the obsoleted ifconfig command). The following output shows the /sbin/ip addr show command executed on a node running a cluster service:
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue 
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1356 qdisc pfifo_fast qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:05:5d:9a:d8:91 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 10.11.4.31/22 brd 10.11.7.255 scope global eth0
    inet6 fe80::205:5dff:fe9a:d891/64 scope link
    inet 10.11.4.240/22 scope global secondary eth0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
To remove a service and all of its subservices, execute the following command:
ccs -h host --rmservice servicename
To remove a subservice, execute the following command:
ccs -h host --rmsubservice servicename subservice [service options]
Note that when you have finished configuring all of the components of your cluster, you will need to sync the cluster configuration file to all of the nodes, as described in Section 5.15, “Propagating the Configuration File to the Cluster Nodes”.

5.11. Listing Available Cluster Services and Resources

You can use the ccs command to print a list of resources and services that are available for a cluster. You can also use the ccs command to print a list of the options you can specify for a particular service or resource type.
To print a list of cluster services currently available for your cluster, execute either of the following commands (--lsresourceopts is an alias to --lsserviceopts):
ccs -h host --lsserviceopts
ccs -h host --lsresourceopts
For example, the following command lists the cluster services and resources available on the cluster node node1, showing sample output.
[root@ask-03 ~]# ccs -h node1 --lsserviceopts
service - Defines a service (resource group).
ASEHAagent - Sybase ASE Failover Instance
SAPDatabase - SAP database resource agent
SAPInstance - SAP instance resource agent
apache - Defines an Apache web server
clusterfs - Defines a cluster file system mount.
fs - Defines a file system mount.
ip - This is an IP address.
lvm - LVM Failover script
mysql - Defines a MySQL database server
named - Defines an instance of named server
netfs - Defines an NFS/CIFS file system mount.
nfsclient - Defines an NFS client.
nfsexport - This defines an NFS export.
nfsserver - This defines an NFS server resource.
openldap - Defines an Open LDAP server
oracledb - Oracle 10g Failover Instance
orainstance - Oracle 10g Failover Instance
oralistener - Oracle 10g Listener Instance
postgres-8 - Defines a PostgreSQL server
samba - Dynamic smbd/nmbd resource agent
script - LSB-compliant init script as a clustered resource.
tomcat-6 - Defines a Tomcat server
vm - Defines a Virtual Machine
action - Overrides resource action timings for a resource instance.
To print a list of the options you can specify for a particular service type, execute the following command:
ccs -h host --lsserviceopts service_type
For example, the following command lists the service options for the vm service.
[root@ask-03 ~]# ccs -f node1 --lsserviceopts vm
vm - Defines a Virtual Machine
  Required Options:
    name: Name
  Optional Options:
    domain: Cluster failover Domain
    autostart: Automatic start after quorum formation
    exclusive: Exclusive resource group
    recovery: Failure recovery policy
    migration_mapping: memberhost:targethost,memberhost:targethost ..
    use_virsh: If set to 1, vm.sh will use the virsh command to manage virtual machines instead of xm. This is required when using non-Xen virtual machines (e.g. qemu / KVM).
    xmlfile: Full path to libvirt XML file describing the domain.
    migrate: Migration type (live or pause, default = live).
    path: Path to virtual machine configuration files.
    snapshot: Path to the snapshot directory where the virtual machine image will be stored.
    depend: Top-level service this depends on, in service:name format.
    depend_mode: Service dependency mode (soft or hard).
    max_restarts: Maximum restarts for this service.
    restart_expire_time: Restart expiration time; amount of time before a restart is forgotten.
    status_program: Additional status check program
    hypervisor: Hypervisor
    hypervisor_uri: Hypervisor URI (normally automatic).
    migration_uri: Migration URI (normally automatic).
    __independent_subtree: Treat this and all children as an independent subtree.
    __enforce_timeouts: Consider a timeout for operations as fatal.
    __max_failures: Maximum number of failures before returning a failure to a status check.
    __failure_expire_time: Amount of time before a failure is forgotten.
    __max_restarts: Maximum number restarts for an independent subtree before giving up.
    __restart_expire_time: Amount of time before a failure is forgotten for an independent subtree.

5.12. Virtual Machine Resources

Virtual machine resources are configured differently than other cluster resources. In particular, they are not grouped into service definitions. As of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 release, when you configure a virtual machine in a cluster with the ccs command you can use the --addvm (rather than the addservice option). This ensures that the vm resource is defined directly under the rm configuration node in the cluster configuration file.
A virtual machine resource requires at least a name and a path attribute. The name attribute should match the name of the libvirt domain and the path attribute should specify the directory where the shared virtual machine definitions are stored.

Note

The path attribute in the cluster configuration file is a path specification or a directory name, not a path to an individual file.
If virtual machine definitions are stored on a shared directory named /mnt/vm_defs, the following command will define a virtual machine named guest1:
# ccs -h node1.example.com --addvm guest1 path=/mnt/vm_defs
Running this command adds the following line to the rm configuration node in the cluster.conf file:
<vm name="guest1" path="/mnt/vm_defs"/>

5.13. Configuring a Quorum Disk

Important

Quorum-disk parameters and heuristics depend on the site environment and the special requirements needed. To understand the use of quorum-disk parameters and heuristics, refer to the qdisk(5) man page. If you require assistance understanding and using quorum disk, contact an authorized Red Hat support representative.
Use the following command to configure your system for using a quorum disk:
ccs -h host --setquorumd [quorumd options]
Note that this command resets all other properties that you can set with the --setquorumd option to their default values, as described in Section 5.1.5, “Commands that Overwrite Previous Settings”.
Table 5.1, “Quorum Disk Options” summarizes the meaning of the quorum disk options you may need to set. For a complete list of quorum disk parameters, refer to the cluster schema at /usr/share/cluster/cluster.rng, and the annotated schema at /usr/share/doc/cman-X.Y.ZZ /cluster_conf.html.

Table 5.1. Quorum Disk Options

Parameter Description
interval The frequency of read/write cycles, in seconds.
votes The number of votes the quorum daemon advertises to cman when it has a high enough score.
tko The number of cycles a node must miss to be declared dead.
min_score The minimum score for a node to be considered "alive". If omitted or set to 0, the default function, floor((n+1)/2), is used, where n is the sum of the heuristics scores. The Minimum Score value must never exceed the sum of the heuristic scores; otherwise, the quorum disk cannot be available.
device The storage device the quorum daemon uses. The device must be the same on all nodes.
label Specifies the quorum disk label created by the mkqdisk utility. If this field contains an entry, the label overrides the Device field. If this field is used, the quorum daemon reads /proc/partitions and checks for qdisk signatures on every block device found, comparing the label against the specified label. This is useful in configurations where the quorum device name differs among nodes.

Use the following command to configure the heuristics for a quorum disk:
ccs -h host --addheuristic [heuristic options]
Table 5.2, “Quorum Disk Heuristics” summarizes the meaning of the quorum disk heuristics you may need to set.

Table 5.2. Quorum Disk Heuristics

Parameter Description
program The path to the program used to determine if this heuristic is available. This can be anything that can be executed by /bin/sh -c. A return value of 0 indicates success; anything else indicates failure. This parameter is required to use a quorum disk.
interval The frequency (in seconds) at which the heuristic is polled. The default interval for every heuristic is 2 seconds.
score The weight of this heuristic. Be careful when determining scores for heuristics. The default score for each heuristic is 1.
tko The number of consecutive failures required before this heuristic is declared unavailable.

To see a list of the quorum disk options and heuristics that are configured on a system, you can execute the following command:
ccs -h host --lsquorum
To remove a heuristic specified by a heuristic option, you can execute the following command:
ccs -h host rmheuristic [heuristic options]
Note that when you have finished configuring all of the components of your cluster, you will need to sync the cluster configuration file to all of the nodes, as described in Section 5.15, “Propagating the Configuration File to the Cluster Nodes”.

Note

Syncing and activating propagates and activates the updated cluster configuration file. However, for the quorum disk to operate, you must restart the cluster (refer to Section 6.2, “Starting and Stopping a Cluster”), ensuring that you have restarted the qdiskd daemon on each node.

5.14. Miscellaneous Cluster Configuration

This section describes using the ccs command to configure the following:
You can also use the ccs command to set advanced cluster configuration parameters, including totem options, dlm options, rm options and cman options. For information on setting these parameters see the ccs(8) man page and the annotated cluster configuration file schema at /usr/share/doc/cman-X.Y.ZZ /cluster_conf.html.
To view a list of the miscellaneous cluster attributes that have been configured for a cluster, execute the following command:
ccs -h host --lsmisc

5.14.1. Cluster Configuration Version

A cluster configuration file includes a cluster configuration version value. The configuration version value is set to 1 by default when you create a cluster configuration file and it is automatically incremented each time you modify your cluster configuration. However, if you need to set it to another value, you can specify it with the following command:
ccs -h host --setversion n
You can get the current configuration version value on an existing cluster configuration file with the following command:
ccs -h host --getversion
To increment the current configuration version value by 1 in the cluster configuration file on every node in the cluster, execute the following command:
ccs -h host --incversion

5.14.2. Multicast Configuration

If you do not specify a multicast address in the cluster configuration file, the Red Hat High Availability Add-On software creates one based on the cluster ID. It generates the lower 16 bits of the address and appends them to the upper portion of the address according to whether the IP protocol is IPv4 or IPv6:
  • For IPv4 — The address formed is 239.192. plus the lower 16 bits generated by Red Hat High Availability Add-On software.
  • For IPv6 — The address formed is FF15:: plus the lower 16 bits generated by Red Hat High Availability Add-On software.

Note

The cluster ID is a unique identifier that cman generates for each cluster. To view the cluster ID, run the cman_tool status command on a cluster node.
You can manually specify a multicast address in the cluster configuration file with the following command:
ccs -h host --setmulticast multicastaddress
Note that this command resets all other properties that you can set with the --setmulticast option to their default values, as described in Section 5.1.5, “Commands that Overwrite Previous Settings”.
If you specify a multicast address, you should use the 239.192.x.x series (or FF15:: for IPv6) that cman uses. Otherwise, using a multicast address outside that range may cause unpredictable results. For example, using 224.0.0.x (which is "All hosts on the network") may not be routed correctly, or even routed at all by some hardware.
If you specify or modify a multicast address, you must restart the cluster for this to take effect. For information on starting and stopping a cluster with the ccs command, refer to Section 6.2, “Starting and Stopping a Cluster”.

Note

If you specify a multicast address, make sure that you check the configuration of routers that cluster packets pass through. Some routers may take a long time to learn addresses, seriously impacting cluster performance.
To remove a multicast address from a configuration file, use the --setmulticast option of the ccs but do not specify a multicast address:
ccs -h host --setmulticast

5.14.3. Configuring a Two-Node Cluster

If you are configuring a two-node cluster, you can execute the following command to allow a single node to maintain quorum (for example, if one node fails):
ccs -h host --setcman two_node=1 expected_votes=1
Note that this command resets all other properties that you can set with the --setcman option to their default values, as described in Section 5.1.5, “Commands that Overwrite Previous Settings”.
When you use the ccs --setcman command to add, remove, or modify the two_node option, you must restart the cluster for this change to take effect. For information on starting and stopping a cluster with the ccs command, refer to Section 6.2, “Starting and Stopping a Cluster”.

5.14.4. Logging

You can enable debugging for all daemons in a cluster, or you can enable logging for specific cluster processing.
To enable debugging for all daemons, execute the following command. By default, logging is directed to the /var/log/cluster/daemon.log file.
ccs -h host --setlogging [logging options]
For example, the following command enables debugging for all daemons.
# ccs -h node1.example.com --setlogging debug=on
Note that this command resets all other properties that you can set with the --setlogging option to their default values, as described in Section 5.1.5, “Commands that Overwrite Previous Settings”.
To enable debugging for an individual cluster process, execute the following command. Per-daemon logging configuration overrides the global settings.
ccs -h host --addlogging [logging daemon options]
For example, the following commands enable debugging for the corosync and fenced daemons.
# ccs -h node1.example.com --addlogging name=corosync debug=on
# ccs -h node1.example.com --addlogging name=fenced debug=on
To remove the log settings for individual daemons, use the following command.
ccs -h host --rmlogging name=clusterprocess
For example, the following command removes the daemon-specific log settings for the fenced daemaon
ccs -h host --rmlogging name=fenced
For a list of the logging daemons for which you can enable logging as well as the additional logging options you can configure for both global and per-daemon logging, refer to the cluster.conf(5) man page.
Note that when you have finished configuring all of the components of your cluster, you will need to sync the cluster configuration file to all of the nodes, as described in Section 5.15, “Propagating the Configuration File to the Cluster Nodes”.

5.14.5. Configuring Redundant Ring Protocol

As of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4, the Red Hat High Availability Add-On supports the configuration of redundant ring protocol. When using redundant ring protocol, there are a variety of considerations you must take into account, as described in Section 7.6, “Configuring Redundant Ring Protocol”.
To specify a second network interface to use for redundant ring protocol, you add an alternate name for the node using the --addalt option of the ccs command:
ccs -h host --addalt node_name alt_name
For example, the following command configures the alternate name clusternet-node1-eth2 for the cluster node clusternet-node1-eth1:
# ccs -h clusternet-node1-eth1 --addalt clusternet-node1-eth1 clusternet-node1-eth2
Optionally, you can manually specify a multicast address, a port, and a TTL for the second ring. If you specify a multicast for the second ring, either the alternate multicast address or the alternate port must be different from the multicast address for the first ring. If you specify an alternate port, the port numbers of the first ring and the second ring must differ by at least two, since the system itself uses port and port-1 to perform operations. If you do not specify an alternate multicast address, the system will automatically use a different multicast address for the second ring.
To specify an alternate multicast address, port, or TTL for the second ring, you use the --setaltmulticast option of the ccs command:
ccs -h host --setaltmulticast [alt_multicast_address] [alt_multicast_options].
For example, the following command sets an alternate multicast address of 239.192.99.88, a port of 888, and a TTL of 3 for the cluster defined in the cluster.conf file on node clusternet-node1-eth1:
ccs -h clusternet-node1-eth1 --setaltmulticast 239.192.99.88 port=888 ttl=3
To remove an alternate multicast address, specify the --setaltmulticast option of the ccs command but do not specify a multicast address. Note that executing this command resets all other properties that you can set with the --setaltmulticast option to their default values, as described in Section 5.1.5, “Commands that Overwrite Previous Settings”.
When you have finished configuring all of the components of your cluster, you will need to sync the cluster configuration file to all of the nodes, as described in Section 5.15, “Propagating the Configuration File to the Cluster Nodes”.

5.15. Propagating the Configuration File to the Cluster Nodes

After you have created or edited a cluster configuration file on one of the nodes in the cluster, you need to propagate that same file to all of the cluster nodes and activate the configuration.
Use the following command to propagate and activate a cluster configuration file:
ccs -h host --sync --activate
To verify that all of the nodes specified in the hosts cluster configuration file have the identical cluster configuration file, execute the following command:
ccs -h host --checkconf
If you have created or edited a configuration file on a local node, use the following command to send that file to one of the nodes in the cluster:
ccs -f file -h host --setconf
To verify that all of the nodes specified in the local file have the identical cluster configuration file, execute the following command:
ccs -f file --checkconf

Chapter 6. Managing Red Hat High Availability Add-On With ccs

This chapter describes various administrative tasks for managing the Red Hat High Availability Add-On by means of the ccs command, which is supported as of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1 release and later. This chapter consists of the following sections:

6.1. Managing Cluster Nodes

This section documents how to perform the following node-management functions with the ccs command:

6.1.1. Causing a Node to Leave or Join a Cluster

You can use the ccs command to cause a node to leave a cluster by stopping cluster services on that node. Causing a node to leave a cluster does not remove the cluster configuration information from that node. Making a node leave a cluster prevents the node from automatically joining the cluster when it is rebooted.
To cause a node to leave a cluster, execute the following command, which stops cluster services on the node specified with the -h option:
ccs -h host --stop
When you stop cluster services on a node, any service that is running on that node will fail over.
To delete a node entirely from the cluster configuration, use the --rmnode option of the ccs command, as described in Section 5.4, “Creating A Cluster”.
To cause a node to rejoin a cluster execute the following command, which starts cluster services on the node specified with the -h option:
ccs -h host --start

6.1.2. Adding a Member to a Running Cluster

To add a member to a running cluster, add a node to the cluster as described in Section 5.4, “Creating A Cluster”. After updating the configuration file, propagate the file to all nodes in the cluster and be sure to activate the new cluster configuration file, as described in Section 5.15, “Propagating the Configuration File to the Cluster Nodes”.

6.2. Starting and Stopping a Cluster

You can use the ccs command to stop a cluster by using the following command to stop cluster services on all nodes in the cluster:
ccs -h host --stopall
You can use the ccs command to start a cluster that is not running by using the following command to start cluster services on all nodes in the cluster:
ccs -h host --startall

6.3. Diagnosing and Correcting Problems in a Cluster

For information about diagnosing and correcting problems in a cluster, see Chapter 9, Diagnosing and Correcting Problems in a Cluster. There are a few simple checks that you can perform with the ccs command, however.
To verify that all of the nodes specified in the host's cluster configuration file have identical cluster configuration files, execute the following command:
ccs -h host --checkconf
If you have created or edited a configuration file on a local node, you can verify that all of the nodes specified in the local file have identical cluster configuration files with the following command:
ccs -f file --checkconf

Chapter 7. Configuring Red Hat High Availability Manually

This chapter describes how to configure Red Hat High Availability Add-On software by directly editing the cluster configuration file (/etc/cluster/cluster.conf) and using command-line tools. The chapter provides procedures about building a configuration file one section at a time, starting with a sample file provided in the chapter. As an alternative to starting with a sample file provided here, you could copy a skeleton configuration file from the cluster.conf man page. However, doing so would not necessarily align with information provided in subsequent procedures in this chapter. There are other ways to create and configure a cluster configuration file; this chapter provides procedures about building a configuration file one section at a time. Also, keep in mind that this is just a starting point for developing a configuration file to suit your clustering needs.
This chapter consists of the following sections:

Important

Make sure that your deployment of High Availability Add-On meets your needs and can be supported. Consult with an authorized Red Hat representative to verify your configuration prior to deployment. In addition, allow time for a configuration burn-in period to test failure modes.

Important

This chapter references commonly used cluster.conf elements and attributes. For a comprehensive list and description of cluster.conf elements and attributes, refer to the cluster schema at /usr/share/cluster/cluster.rng, and the annotated schema at /usr/share/doc/cman-X.Y.ZZ /cluster_conf.html (for example /usr/share/doc/cman-3.0.12/cluster_conf.html).

Important

Certain procedure in this chapter call for using the cman_tool version -r command to propagate a cluster configuration throughout a cluster. Using that command requires that ricci is running. Using ricci requires a password the first time you interact with ricci from any specific machine. For information on the ricci service, refer to Section 2.13, “Considerations for ricci.

Note

Procedures in this chapter may include specific commands for some of the command-line tools listed in Appendix E, Command Line Tools Summary. For more information about all commands and variables, refer to the man page for each command-line tool.

7.1. Configuration Tasks

Configuring Red Hat High Availability Add-On software with command-line tools consists of the following steps:
  1. Configuring fencing. Refer to Section 7.3, “Configuring Fencing”.
  2. Configuring failover domains. Refer to Section 7.4, “Configuring Failover Domains”.
  3. Configuring HA services. Refer to Section 7.5, “Configuring HA Services”.
  4. Verifying a configuration. Refer to Section 7.9, “Verifying a Configuration”.

7.2. Creating a Basic Cluster Configuration File

Provided that cluster hardware, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and High Availability Add-On software are installed, you can create a cluster configuration file (/etc/cluster/cluster.conf) and start running the High Availability Add-On. As a starting point only, this section describes how to create a skeleton cluster configuration file without fencing, failover domains, and HA services. Subsequent sections describe how to configure those parts of the configuration file.

Important

This is just an interim step to create a cluster configuration file; the resultant file does not have any fencing and is not considered to be a supported configuration.
The following steps describe how to create and configure a skeleton cluster configuration file. Ultimately, the configuration file for your cluster will vary according to the number of nodes, the type of fencing, the type and number of HA services, and other site-specific requirements.
  1. At any node in the cluster, create /etc/cluster/cluster.conf, using the template of the example in Example 7.1, “cluster.conf Sample: Basic Configuration”.
  2. (Optional) If you are configuring a two-node cluster, you can add the following line to the configuration file to allow a single node to maintain quorum (for example, if one node fails):
    <cman two_node="1" expected_votes="1"/>
    When you add or remove the two_node option from the cluster.conf file, you must restart the cluster for this change to take effect when you update the configuration. For information on updating a cluster configuration, refer to Section 8.4, “Updating a Configuration”. For an example of specifying the two_node option, refer to Example 7.2, “cluster.conf Sample: Basic Two-Node Configuration”.
  3. Specify the cluster name and the configuration version number using the cluster attributes: name and config_version (refer to Example 7.1, “cluster.conf Sample: Basic Configuration” or Example 7.2, “cluster.conf Sample: Basic Two-Node Configuration”).
  4. In the clusternodes section, specify the node name and the node ID of each node using the clusternode attributes: name and nodeid. The node name can be up to 255 bytes in length.
  5. Save /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  6. Validate the file against the cluster schema (cluster.rng) by running the ccs_config_validate command. For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]# ccs_config_validate 
    Configuration validates
    
  7. Propagate the configuration file to /etc/cluster/ in each cluster node. For example, you could propagate the file to other cluster nodes using the scp command.

    Note

    Propagating the cluster configuration file this way is necessary the first time a cluster is created. Once a cluster is installed and running, the cluster configuration file can be propagated using the cman_tool version -r command. It is possible to use the scp command to propagate an updated configuration file; however, the cluster software must be stopped on all nodes while using the scp command.In addition, you should run the ccs_config_validate if you propagate an updated configuration file via the scp.

    Note

    While there are other elements and attributes present in the sample configuration file (for example, fence and fencedevices), there is no need to populate them now. Subsequent procedures in this chapter provide information about specifying other elements and attributes.
  8. Start the cluster. At each cluster node run the following command:
    service cman start
    For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]# service cman start
    Starting cluster: 
       Checking Network Manager...                             [  OK  ]
       Global setup...                                         [  OK  ]
       Loading kernel modules...                               [  OK  ]
       Mounting configfs...                                    [  OK  ]
       Starting cman...                                        [  OK  ]
       Waiting for quorum...                                   [  OK  ]
       Starting fenced...                                      [  OK  ]
       Starting dlm_controld...                                [  OK  ]
       Starting gfs_controld...                                [  OK  ]
       Unfencing self...                                       [  OK  ]
       Joining fence domain...                                 [  OK  ]
    
  9. At any cluster node, run cman_tool nodes to verify that the nodes are functioning as members in the cluster (signified as "M" in the status column, "Sts"). For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]# cman_tool nodes
    Node  Sts   Inc   Joined               Name
       1   M    548   2010-09-28 10:52:21  node-01.example.com
       2   M    548   2010-09-28 10:52:21  node-02.example.com
       3   M    544   2010-09-28 10:52:21  node-03.example.com
    
  10. If the cluster is running, proceed to Section 7.3, “Configuring Fencing”.

Basic Configuration Examples

Example 7.1, “cluster.conf Sample: Basic Configuration” and Example 7.2, “cluster.conf Sample: Basic Two-Node Configuration” (for a two-node cluster) each provide a very basic sample cluster configuration file as a starting point. Subsequent procedures in this chapter provide information about configuring fencing and HA services.

Example 7.1. cluster.conf Sample: Basic Configuration


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="2">
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-03.example.com" nodeid="3">
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
   </rm>
</cluster>


Example 7.2. cluster.conf Sample: Basic Two-Node Configuration


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="2">
   <cman two_node="1" expected_votes="1"/>
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
   </rm>
</cluster>


The consensus Value for totem in a Two-Node Cluster

When you create a two-node cluster and you do not intend to add additional nodes to the cluster at a later time, then you should omit the consensus value in the totem tag in the cluster.conf file so that the consensus value is calculated automatically. When the consensus value is calculated automatically, the following rules are used:
  • If there are two nodes or fewer, the consensus value will be (token * 0.2), with a ceiling of 2000 msec and a floor of 200 msec.
  • If there are three or more nodes, the consensus value will be (token + 2000 msec)
If you let the cman utility configure your consensus timeout in this fashion, then moving at a later time from two to three (or more) nodes will require a cluster restart, since the consensus timeout will need to change to the larger value based on the token timeout.
If you are configuring a two-node cluster and intend to upgrade in the future to more than two nodes, you can override the consensus timeout so that a cluster restart is not required when moving from two to three (or more) nodes. This can be done in the cluster.conf as follows:

<totem token="X" consensus="X + 2000" />

Note that the configuration parser does not calculate X + 2000 automatically. An integer value must be used rather than an equation.
The advantage of using the optimized consensus timeout for two-node clusters is that overall failover time is reduced for the two-node case, since consensus is not a function of the token timeout.
Note that for two-node autodetection in cman, the number of physical nodes is what matters and not the presence of the two_node=1 directive in the cluster.conf file.

7.3. Configuring Fencing

Configuring fencing consists of (a) specifying one or more fence devices in a cluster and (b) specifying one or more fence methods for each node (using a fence device or fence devices specified).

Note

It is recommended that you configure multiple fencing mechanisms for each node. A fencing device can fail due to network split, a power outage, or a problem in the fencing device itself. Configuring multiple fencing mechanisms can reduce the likelihood that the failure of a fencing device will have fatal results.
Based on the type of fence devices and fence methods required for your configuration, configure cluster.conf as follows:
  1. In the fencedevices section, specify each fence device, using a fencedevice element and fence-device dependent attributes. Example 7.3, “APC Fence Device Added to cluster.conf shows an example of a configuration file with an APC fence device added to it.
  2. At the clusternodes section, within the fence element of each clusternode section, specify each fence method of the node. Specify the fence method name, using the method attribute, name. Specify the fence device for each fence method, using the device element and its attributes, name and fence-device-specific parameters. Example 7.4, “Fence Methods Added to cluster.conf shows an example of a fence method with one fence device for each node in the cluster.
  3. For non-power fence methods (that is, SAN/storage fencing), at the clusternodes section, add an unfence section. This ensures that a fenced node is not re-enabled until the node has been rebooted. When you configure a device that requires unfencing, the cluster must first be stopped and the full configuration including devices and unfencing must be added before the cluster is started. For more information about unfencing a node, refer to the fence_node(8) man page.
    The unfence section does not contain method sections like the fence section does. It contains device references directly, which mirror the corresponding device sections for fence, with the notable addition of the explicit action (action) of "on" or "enable". The same fencedevice is referenced by both fence and unfence device lines, and the same per-node arguments should be repeated.
    Specifying the action attribute as "on" or "enable" enables the node when rebooted. Example 7.4, “Fence Methods Added to cluster.conf and Example 7.5, “cluster.conf: Multiple Fence Methods per Node” include examples of the unfence elements and attributed.
    For more information about unfence refer to the fence_node man page.
  4. Update the config_version attribute by incrementing its value (for example, changing from config_version="2" to config_version="3"> ).
  5. Save /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  6. (Optional) Validate the updated file against the cluster schema (cluster.rng) by running the ccs_config_validate command. For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]# ccs_config_validate 
    Configuration validates
    
  7. Run the cman_tool version -r command to propagate the configuration to the rest of the cluster nodes. This will also run additional validation. It is necessary that ricci be running in each cluster node to be able to propagate updated cluster configuration information.
  8. Verify that the updated configuration file has been propagated.
If required, you can configure complex configurations with multiple fence methods per node and with multiple fence devices per fence method. When specifying multiple fence methods per node, if fencing fails using the first method, fenced, the fence daemon, tries the next method, and continues to cycle through methods until one succeeds.
Sometimes, fencing a node requires disabling two I/O paths or two power ports. This is done by specifying two or more devices within a fence method. fenced runs the fence agent once for each fence-device line; all must succeed for fencing to be considered successful.
More complex configurations are shown in the section called “Fencing Configuration Examples”.
You can find more information about configuring specific fence devices from a fence-device agent man page (for example, the man page for fence_apc). In addition, you can get more information about fencing parameters from Appendix A, Fence Device Parameters, the fence agents in /usr/sbin/, the cluster schema at /usr/share/cluster/cluster.rng, and the annotated schema at /usr/share/doc/cman-X.Y.ZZ /cluster_conf.html (for example, /usr/share/doc/cman-3.0.12/cluster_conf.html).

Fencing Configuration Examples

The following examples show a simple configuration with one fence method per node and one fence device per fence method:
The following examples show more complex configurations:

Note

The examples in this section are not exhaustive; that is, there may be other ways to configure fencing depending on your requirements.

Example 7.3. APC Fence Device Added to cluster.conf


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="3">
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-03.example.com" nodeid="3">
         <fence>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
         <fencedevice agent="fence_apc" ipaddr="apc_ip_example" login="login_example" name="apc" passwd="password_example"/>
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
   </rm>
</cluster>

In this example, a fence device (fencedevice) has been added to the fencedevices element, specifying the fence agent (agent) as fence_apc, the IP address (ipaddr) as apc_ip_example, the login (login) as login_example, the name of the fence device (name) as apc, and the password (passwd) as password_example.

Example 7.4. Fence Methods Added to cluster.conf


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="3">
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="1"/>
             </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="2"/>
            </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-03.example.com" nodeid="3">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="3"/>
            </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
         <fencedevice agent="fence_apc" ipaddr="apc_ip_example" login="login_example" name="apc" passwd="password_example"/>
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
   </rm>
</cluster>

In this example, a fence method (method) has been added to each node. The name of the fence method (name) for each node is APC. The device (device) for the fence method in each node specifies the name (name) as apc and a unique APC switch power port number (port) for each node. For example, the port number for node-01.example.com is 1 (port="1"). The device name for each node (device name="apc") points to the fence device by the name (name) of apc in this line of the fencedevices element: fencedevice agent="fence_apc" ipaddr="apc_ip_example" login="login_example" name="apc" passwd="password_example".

Example 7.5. cluster.conf: Multiple Fence Methods per Node


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="3">
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="1"/>
             </method>
            <method name="SAN">
	      <device name="sanswitch1" port="11"/>
             </method>
         </fence>
         <unfence>
             <device name="sanswitch1" port="11" action="on"/> 
         </unfence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="2"/>
            </method>
            <method name="SAN">
	      <device name="sanswitch1" port="12"/>
             </method>
         </fence>
         <unfence>
             <device name="sanswitch1" port="12" action="on"/> 
         </unfence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-03.example.com" nodeid="3">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="3"/>
            </method>
            <method name="SAN">
	      <device name="sanswitch1" port="13"/>
             </method>
         </fence>
         <unfence>
             <device name="sanswitch1" port="13" action="on"/> 
         </unfence>
     </clusternode>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
        <fencedevice agent="fence_apc" ipaddr="apc_ip_example" login="login_example" name="apc" passwd="password_example"/>
        <fencedevice agent="fence_sanbox2" ipaddr="san_ip_example"
login="login_example" name="sanswitch1" passwd="password_example"/>
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
   </rm>
</cluster>



Example 7.6. cluster.conf: Fencing, Multipath Multiple Ports


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="3">
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
         <fence>
            <method name="SAN-multi">
	      <device name="sanswitch1" port="11"/>
	      <device name="sanswitch2" port="11"/>
	    </method>
         </fence>
         <unfence>
             <device name="sanswitch1" port="11" action="on"/>
             <device name="sanswitch2" port="11" action="on"/>
         </unfence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
            <method name="SAN-multi">
	      <device name="sanswitch1" port="12"/>
	      <device name="sanswitch2" port="12"/>
            </method>
         </fence>
         <unfence>
             <device name="sanswitch1" port="12" action="on"/>
             <device name="sanswitch2" port="12" action="on"/>
         </unfence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-03.example.com" nodeid="3">
         <fence>
            <method name="SAN-multi">
	      <device name="sanswitch1" port="13"/>
	      <device name="sanswitch2" port="13"/>
            </method>
         </fence>
         <unfence>
             <device name="sanswitch1" port="13" action="on"/>
             <device name="sanswitch2" port="13" action="on"/>
         </unfence>
     </clusternode>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
        <fencedevice agent="fence_sanbox2" ipaddr="san_ip_example"
login="login_example" name="sanswitch1" passwd="password_example"/> 
        <fencedevice agent="fence_sanbox2" ipaddr="san_ip_example"
login="login_example" name="sanswitch2" passwd="password_example"/> 
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
   </rm>
</cluster>



Example 7.7. cluster.conf: Fencing Nodes with Dual Power Supplies


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="3">
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC-dual">
              <device name="apc1" port="1"action="off"/>
              <device name="apc2" port="1"action="off"/>
              <device name="apc1" port="1"action="on"/>
              <device name="apc2" port="1"action="on"/>
             </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC-dual">
              <device name="apc1" port="2"action="off"/>
              <device name="apc2" port="2"action="off"/>
              <device name="apc1" port="2"action="on"/>
              <device name="apc2" port="2"action="on"/>
            </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-03.example.com" nodeid="3">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC-dual">
              <device name="apc1" port="3"action="off"/>
              <device name="apc2" port="3"action="off"/>
              <device name="apc1" port="3"action="on"/>
              <device name="apc2" port="3"action="on"/>
            </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
       <fencedevice agent="fence_apc" ipaddr="apc_ip_example" login="login_example" name="apc1" passwd="password_example"/>
       <fencedevice agent="fence_apc" ipaddr="apc_ip_example" login="login_example" name="apc2" passwd="password_example"/>
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
   </rm>
</cluster>


When using power switches to fence nodes with dual power supplies, the agents must be told to turn off both power ports before restoring power to either port. The default off-on behavior of the agent could result in the power never being fully disabled to the node.

7.4. Configuring Failover Domains

A failover domain is a named subset of cluster nodes that are eligible to run a cluster service in the event of a node failure. A failover domain can have the following characteristics:
  • Unrestricted — Allows you to specify that a subset of members are preferred, but that a cluster service assigned to this domain can run on any available member.
  • Restricted — Allows you to restrict the members that can run a particular cluster service. If none of the members in a restricted failover domain are available, the cluster service cannot be started (either manually or by the cluster software).
  • Unordered — When a cluster service is assigned to an unordered failover domain, the member on which the cluster service runs is chosen from the available failover domain members with no priority ordering.
  • Ordered — Allows you to specify a preference order among the members of a failover domain. Ordered failover domains select the node with the lowest priority number first. That is, the node in a failover domain with a priority number of "1" specifies the highest priority, and therefore is the most preferred node in a failover domain. After that node, the next preferred node would be the node with the next highest priority number, and so on.
  • Failback — Allows you to specify whether a service in the failover domain should fail back to the node that it was originally running on before that node failed. Configuring this characteristic is useful in circumstances where a node repeatedly fails and is part of an ordered failover domain. In that circumstance, if a node is the preferred node in a failover domain, it is possible for a service to fail over and fail back repeatedly between the preferred node and another node, causing severe impact on performance.

    Note

    The failback characteristic is applicable only if ordered failover is configured.

Note

Changing a failover domain configuration has no effect on currently running services.

Note

Failover domains are not required for operation.
By default, failover domains are unrestricted and unordered.
In a cluster with several members, using a restricted failover domain can minimize the work to set up the cluster to run a cluster service (such as httpd), which requires you to set up the configuration identically on all members that run the cluster service. Instead of setting up the entire cluster to run the cluster service, you can set up only the members in the restricted failover domain that you associate with the cluster service.

Note

To configure a preferred member, you can create an unrestricted failover domain comprising only one cluster member. Doing that causes a cluster service to run on that cluster member primarily (the preferred member), but allows the cluster service to fail over to any of the other members.
To configure a failover domain, use the following procedures:
  1. Open /etc/cluster/cluster.conf at any node in the cluster.
  2. Add the following skeleton section within the rm element for each failover domain to be used:
    
            <failoverdomains>
                <failoverdomain name="" nofailback="" ordered="" restricted="">
                    <failoverdomainnode name="" priority=""/>
                    <failoverdomainnode name="" priority=""/>
                    <failoverdomainnode name="" priority=""/>
                </failoverdomain>
            </failoverdomains>
    
    

    Note

    The number of failoverdomainnode attributes depends on the number of nodes in the failover domain. The skeleton failoverdomain section in preceding text shows three failoverdomainnode elements (with no node names specified), signifying that there are three nodes in the failover domain.
  3. In the failoverdomain section, provide the values for the elements and attributes. For descriptions of the elements and attributes, refer to the failoverdomain section of the annotated cluster schema. The annotated cluster schema is available at /usr/share/doc/cman-X.Y.ZZ /cluster_conf.html (for example /usr/share/doc/cman-3.0.12/cluster_conf.html) in any of the cluster nodes. For an example of a failoverdomains section, refer to Example 7.8, “A Failover Domain Added to cluster.conf.
  4. Update the config_version attribute by incrementing its value (for example, changing from config_version="2" to config_version="3"> ).
  5. Save /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  6. (Optional) Validate the file against the cluster schema (cluster.rng) by running the ccs_config_validate command. For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]# ccs_config_validate 
    Configuration validates
    
  7. Run the cman_tool version -r command to propagate the configuration to the rest of the cluster nodes.
Example 7.8, “A Failover Domain Added to cluster.conf shows an example of a configuration with an ordered, unrestricted failover domain.

Example 7.8. A Failover Domain Added to cluster.conf


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="3">
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="1"/>
             </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="2"/>
            </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-03.example.com" nodeid="3">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="3"/>
            </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
         <fencedevice agent="fence_apc" ipaddr="apc_ip_example" login="login_example" name="apc" passwd="password_example"/>
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
       <failoverdomains>
           <failoverdomain name="example_pri" nofailback="0" ordered="1" restricted="0">
               <failoverdomainnode name="node-01.example.com" priority="1"/>
               <failoverdomainnode name="node-02.example.com" priority="2"/>
               <failoverdomainnode name="node-03.example.com" priority="3"/>
           </failoverdomain>
       </failoverdomains>
   </rm>
</cluster>

The failoverdomains section contains a failoverdomain section for each failover domain in the cluster. This example has one failover domain. In the failoverdomain line, the name (name) is specified as example_pri. In addition, it specifies no failback (failback="0"), that failover is ordered (ordered="1"), and that the failover domain is unrestricted (restricted="0").

7.5. Configuring HA Services

Configuring HA (High Availability) services consists of configuring resources and assigning them to services.
The following sections describe how to edit /etc/cluster/cluster.conf to add resources and services.

Important

There can be a wide range of configurations possible with High Availability resources and services. For a better understanding about resource parameters and resource behavior, refer to Appendix B, HA Resource Parameters and Appendix C, HA Resource Behavior. For optimal performance and to ensure that your configuration can be supported, contact an authorized Red Hat support representative.

7.5.1. Adding Cluster Resources

You can configure two types of resources:
  • Global — Resources that are available to any service in the cluster. These are configured in the resources section of the configuration file (within the rm element).
  • Service-specific — Resources that are available to only one service. These are configured in each service section of the configuration file (within the rm element).
This section describes how to add a global resource. For procedures about configuring service-specific resources, refer to Section 7.5.2, “Adding a Cluster Service to the Cluster”.
To add a global cluster resource, follow the steps in this section.
  1. Open /etc/cluster/cluster.conf at any node in the cluster.
  2. Add a resources section within the rm element. For example:
    
        <rm>
            <resources>
    
            </resources>
        </rm>
    
    
  3. Populate it with resources according to the services you want to create. For example, here are resources that are to be used in an Apache service. They consist of a file system (fs) resource, an IP (ip) resource, and an Apache (apache) resource.
    
        <rm>
            <resources>
               <fs name="web_fs" device="/dev/sdd2" mountpoint="/var/www" fstype="ext3"/>
               <ip address="127.143.131.100" monitor_link="yes" sleeptime="10"/>
               <apache config_file="conf/httpd.conf" name="example_server" server_root="/etc/httpd" shutdown_wait="0"/>
            </resources>
        </rm>
    
    
    Example 7.9, “cluster.conf File with Resources Added ” shows an example of a cluster.conf file with the resources section added.
  4. Update the config_version attribute by incrementing its value (for example, changing from config_version="2" to config_version="3").
  5. Save /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  6. (Optional) Validate the file against the cluster schema (cluster.rng) by running the ccs_config_validate command. For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]# ccs_config_validate 
    Configuration validates
    
  7. Run the cman_tool version -r command to propagate the configuration to the rest of the cluster nodes.
  8. Verify that the updated configuration file has been propagated.

Example 7.9. cluster.conf File with Resources Added


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="3">
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="1"/>
             </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="2"/>
            </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-03.example.com" nodeid="3">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="3"/>
            </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
         <fencedevice agent="fence_apc" ipaddr="apc_ip_example" login="login_example" name="apc" passwd="password_example"/>
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
       <failoverdomains>
           <failoverdomain name="example_pri" nofailback="0" ordered="1" restricted="0">
               <failoverdomainnode name="node-01.example.com" priority="1"/>
               <failoverdomainnode name="node-02.example.com" priority="2"/>
               <failoverdomainnode name="node-03.example.com" priority="3"/>
           </failoverdomain>
       </failoverdomains>
       <resources>
           <fs name="web_fs" device="/dev/sdd2" mountpoint="/var/www" fstype="ext3"/>
           <ip address="127.143.131.100" monitor_link="yes" sleeptime="10"/>
           <apache config_file="conf/httpd.conf" name="example_server" server_root="/etc/httpd" shutdown_wait="0"/>
        </resources>

   </rm>
</cluster>


7.5.2. Adding a Cluster Service to the Cluster

To add a cluster service to the cluster, follow the steps in this section.

Note

The examples provided in this section show a cluster service in which all of the resources are at the same level. For information on defining a service in which there is a dependency chain in a resource hierarchy, as well as the rules that govern the behavior of parent and child resources, see Appendix C, HA Resource Behavior.
  1. Open /etc/cluster/cluster.conf at any node in the cluster.
  2. Add a service section within the rm element for each service. For example:
    
        <rm>
            <service autostart="1" domain="" exclusive="0" name="" recovery="restart">
    
            </service>
        </rm>
    
    
  3. Configure the following parameters (attributes) in the service element:
    • autostart — Specifies whether to autostart the service when the cluster starts. Use '1' to enable and '0' to disable; the default is enabled.
    • domain — Specifies a failover domain (if required).
    • exclusive — Specifies a policy wherein the service only runs on nodes that have no other services running on them.
    • recovery — Specifies a recovery policy for the service. The options are to relocate, restart, disable, or restart-disable the service.
  4. Depending on the type of resources you want to use, populate the service with global or service-specific resources
    For example, here is an Apache service that uses global resources:
    
        <rm>
            <resources>
                    <fs name="web_fs" device="/dev/sdd2" mountpoint="/var/www" fstype="ext3"/>
                    <ip address="127.143.131.100" monitor_link="yes" sleeptime="10"/>
                    <apache config_file="conf/httpd.conf" name="example_server" server_root="/etc/httpd" shutdown_wait="0"/>
            </resources>
            <service autostart="1" domain="example_pri" exclusive="0" name="example_apache" recovery="relocate">
                    <fs ref="web_fs"/>
                    <ip ref="127.143.131.100"/>
                    <apache ref="example_server"/>
            </service>
        </rm>
    
    
    For example, here is an Apache service that uses service-specific resources:
    
        <rm>
            <service autostart="0" domain="example_pri" exclusive="0" name="example_apache2" recovery="relocate">
                    <fs name="web_fs2" device="/dev/sdd3" mountpoint="/var/www2" fstype="ext3"/>
                    <ip address="127.143.131.101" monitor_link="yes" sleeptime="10"/>
                    <apache config_file="conf/httpd.conf" name="example_server2" server_root="/etc/httpd" shutdown_wait="0"/>
            </service>
        </rm>
    
    
    • example_apache — This service uses global resources web_fs, 127.143.131.100, and example_server.
    • example_apache2 — This service uses service-specific resources web_fs2, 127.143.131.101, and example_server2.
  5. Update the config_version attribute by incrementing its value (for example, changing from config_version="2" to config_version="3"> ).
  6. Save /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  7. (Optional) Validate the updated file against the cluster schema (cluster.rng) by running the ccs_config_validate command. For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]# ccs_config_validate 
    Configuration validates
    
  8. Run the cman_tool version -r command to propagate the configuration to the rest of the cluster nodes.
  9. Verify that the updated configuration file has been propagated.

Example 7.10. cluster.conf with Services Added: One Using Global Resources and One Using Service-Specific Resources


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="3">
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="1"/>
             </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="2"/>
            </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-03.example.com" nodeid="3">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="3"/>
            </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
         <fencedevice agent="fence_apc" ipaddr="apc_ip_example" login="login_example" name="apc" passwd="password_example"/>
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
       <failoverdomains>
           <failoverdomain name="example_pri" nofailback="0" ordered="1" restricted="0">
               <failoverdomainnode name="node-01.example.com" priority="1"/>
               <failoverdomainnode name="node-02.example.com" priority="2"/>
               <failoverdomainnode name="node-03.example.com" priority="3"/>
           </failoverdomain>
       </failoverdomains>
       <resources>
           <fs name="web_fs" device="/dev/sdd2" mountpoint="/var/www" fstype="ext3"/>
           <ip address="127.143.131.100" monitor_link="yes" sleeptime="10"/>
           <apache config_file="conf/httpd.conf" name="example_server" server_root="/etc/httpd" shutdown_wait="0"/>
       </resources>
       <service autostart="1" domain="example_pri" exclusive="0" name="example_apache" recovery="relocate">
           <fs ref="web_fs"/>
           <ip ref="127.143.131.100"/>
           <apache ref="example_server"/>
       </service>
       <service autostart="0" domain="example_pri" exclusive="0" name="example_apache2" recovery="relocate">
           <fs name="web_fs2" device="/dev/sdd3" mountpoint="/var/www2" fstype="ext3"/>
           <ip address="127.143.131.101" monitor_link="yes" sleeptime="10"/>
           <apache config_file="conf/httpd.conf" name="example_server2" server_root="/etc/httpd" shutdown_wait="0"/>
       </service>
   </rm>
</cluster>


7.6. Configuring Redundant Ring Protocol

As of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4, the Red Hat High Availability Add-On supports the configuration of redundant ring protocol.
When configuring a system to use redundant ring protocol, you must take the following considerations into account:
  • Do not specify more than two rings.
  • Each ring must use the same protocol; do not mix IPv4 and IPv6.
  • If necessary, you can manually specify a multicast address for the second ring. If you specify a multicast address for the second ring, either the alternate multicast address or the alternate port must be different from the multicast address for the first ring. If you do not specify an alternate multicast address, the system will automatically use a different multicast address for the second ring.
    If you specify an alternate port, the port numbers of the first ring and the second ring must differ by at least two, since the system itself uses port and port-1 to perform operations.
  • Do not use two different interfaces on the same subnet.
  • In general, it is a good practice to configure redundant ring protocol on two different NICs and two different switches, in case one NIC or one switch fails.
  • Do not use the ifdown command or the service network stop command to simulate network failure. This destroys the whole cluster and requires that you restart all of the nodes in the cluster to recover.
  • Do not use NetworkManager, since it will execute the ifdown command if the cable is unplugged.
  • When one node of a NIC fails, the entire ring is marked as failed.
  • No manual intervention is required to recover a failed ring. To recover, you only need to fix the original reason for the failure, such as a failed NIC or switch.
To specify a second network interface to use for redundant ring protocol, you add an altname component to the clusternode section of the cluster.conf configuration file. When specifying altname, you must specify a name attribute to indicate a second host name or IP address for the node.
The following example specifies clusternet-node1-eth2 as the alternate name for cluster node clusternet-node1-eth1.

<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="3" >
  <logging debug="on"/>
  <clusternodes>
    <clusternode name="clusternet-node1-eth1" votes="1" nodeid="1">
      <fence>
        <method name="single">
          <device name="xvm" domain="clusternet-node1"/>
        </method>
      </fence>
      <altname name="clusternet-node1-eth2"/>
    </clusternode>

The altname section within the clusternode block is not position dependent. It can come before or after the fence section. Do not specify more than one altname component for a cluster node or the system will fail to start.
Optionally, you can manually specify a multicast address, a port, and a TTL for the second ring by including an altmulticast component in the cman section of the cluster.conf configuration file. The altmulticast component accepts an addr, a port, and a ttl parameter.
The following example shows the cman section of a cluster configuration file that sets a multicast address, port, and TTL for the second ring.

<cman>
   <multicast addr="239.192.99.73" port="666" ttl="2"/>
   <altmulticast addr="239.192.99.88" port="888" ttl="3"/>
</cman>

7.7. Configuring Debug Options

You can enable debugging for all daemons in a cluster, or you can enable logging for specific cluster processing.
To enable debugging for all daemons, add the following to the /etc/cluster/cluster.conf. By default, logging is directed to the /var/log/cluster/daemon.log file.

<cluster config_version="7" name="rh6cluster">    
  <logging debug="on"/>
   ...  
</cluster> 

To enable debugging for individual cluster processes, add the following lines to the the /etc/cluster/cluster.conf file. Per-daemon logging configuration overrides the global settings.

<cluster config_version="7" name="rh6cluster">
   ...
  <logging>
       <!-- turning on per-subsystem debug logging --> 
       <logging_daemon name="corosync" debug="on" />  
       <logging_daemon name="fenced" debug="on" /> 
       <logging_daemon name="qdiskd" debug="on" /> 
       <logging_daemon name="rgmanager" debug="on" />   
       <logging_daemon name="dlm_controld" debug="on" /> 
       <logging_daemon name="gfs_controld" debug="on" />
  </logging> 
   ...
</cluster>

For a list of the logging daemons for which you can enable logging as well as the additional logging options you can configure for both global and per-daemon logging, refer to the cluster.conf(5) man page.

7.8. Configuring nfsexport and nfsserver Resources

This section describes the issues and considerations to take into account when configuring an nfsexport or an nfsserver resource.
The nfsexport resource agent works with NFSv2 and NFSv3 clients. When using nfsexport, you must do the following:
  • Ensure that nfs and nfslock are enabled at boot.
  • Add RPCNFSDARGS="-N 4" to the /etc/sysconfig/nfs file on all cluster nodes.
  • Add nfslock="1" to the service component in the cluster.conf file.
  • Structure your service as follows:
    
       <service nfslock="1" ... >
         <fs name="myfs" ... >
           <nfsexport name="exports">
             <nfsclient ref="client1" />
             <nfsclient ref="client2" />
             ...
           </nfsexport>
         </fs>
         <ip address="10.1.1.2" />
         ...
       </service>
    
    
The nfsserver resource agent works with NFSv3 and NFSv4 clients. When using nfsserver, you must do the following:
  • Ensure that nfs and nfslock are disabled at boot
  • Ensure that nfslock="1" is not set for the service.
  • Structure your service as follows:
    
       <service ... >
         <fs name="myfs" ... >
           <nfsserver name="server">
             <nfsclient ref="client1" />
             <nfsclient ref="client2" />
             ...
           </nfsexport>
         </fs>
         <ip address="10.1.1.2" />
         ...
       </service>
    
    
When configuring a system to use the nfsserver resource agent for use with NFSv3 and NFSv4, you must account for the following limitations:
  • Configure only one nfsserver resource per cluster. If you require more, you must use restricted failover domains to ensure that the two services in question can never start on the same host.
  • Do not reference a globally-configured nfsserver resource in more than one service.
  • Do not mix old-style NFS services with the new nfsserver in the same cluster. Older NFS services required the NFS daemons to be running; nfsserver requires the daemons to be stopped when the service is started.
  • When using multiple file systems, you will be unable to use inheritance for the exports; thus reuse of nfsclient resources in services with multiple file systems is limited. You may, however, explicitly define target and path attributes for as many nfsclients as you like.

7.9. Verifying a Configuration

Once you have created your cluster configuration file, verify that it is running correctly by performing the following steps:
  1. At each node, restart the cluster software. That action ensures that any configuration additions that are checked only at startup time are included in the running configuration. You can restart the cluster software by running service cman restart. For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]# service cman restart
    Stopping cluster: 
       Leaving fence domain...                                 [  OK  ]
       Stopping gfs_controld...                                [  OK  ]
       Stopping dlm_controld...                                [  OK  ]
       Stopping fenced...                                      [  OK  ]
       Stopping cman...                                        [  OK  ]
       Waiting for corosync to shutdown:                       [  OK  ]
       Unloading kernel modules...                             [  OK  ]
       Unmounting configfs...                                  [  OK  ]
    Starting cluster: 
       Checking Network Manager...                             [  OK  ]
       Global setup...                                         [  OK  ]
       Loading kernel modules...                               [  OK  ]
       Mounting configfs...                                    [  OK  ]
       Starting cman...                                        [  OK  ]
       Waiting for quorum...                                   [  OK  ]
       Starting fenced...                                      [  OK  ]
       Starting dlm_controld...                                [  OK  ]
       Starting gfs_controld...                                [  OK  ]
       Unfencing self...                                       [  OK  ]
       Joining fence domain...                                 [  OK  ]
    
  2. Run service clvmd start, if CLVM is being used to create clustered volumes. For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]# service clvmd start
    Activating VGs:                                            [  OK  ]
    
  3. Run service gfs2 start, if you are using Red Hat GFS2. For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]# service gfs2 start
    Mounting GFS2 filesystem (/mnt/gfsA):                      [  OK  ]
    Mounting GFS2 filesystem (/mnt/gfsB):                      [  OK  ]
    
  4. Run service rgmanager start, if you using high-availability (HA) services. For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]# service rgmanager start
    Starting Cluster Service Manager:                          [  OK  ]
    
  5. At any cluster node, run cman_tool nodes to verify that the nodes are functioning as members in the cluster (signified as "M" in the status column, "Sts"). For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]# cman_tool nodes
    Node  Sts   Inc   Joined               Name
       1   M    548   2010-09-28 10:52:21  node-01.example.com
       2   M    548   2010-09-28 10:52:21  node-02.example.com
       3   M    544   2010-09-28 10:52:21  node-03.example.com
    
  6. At any node, using the clustat utility, verify that the HA services are running as expected. In addition, clustat displays status of the cluster nodes. For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]#clustat
    Cluster Status for mycluster @ Wed Nov 17 05:40:00 2010
    Member Status: Quorate
    
     Member Name                             ID   Status
     ------ ----                             ---- ------
     node-03.example.com                         3 Online, rgmanager
     node-02.example.com                         2 Online, rgmanager
     node-01.example.com                         1 Online, Local, rgmanager
    
     Service Name                   Owner (Last)                   State         
     ------- ----                   ----- ------                   -----           
     service:example_apache         node-01.example.com            started       
     service:example_apache2        (none)                         disabled
    
  7. If the cluster is running as expected, you are done with creating a configuration file. You can manage the cluster with command-line tools described in Chapter 8, Managing Red Hat High Availability Add-On With Command Line Tools.

Chapter 8. Managing Red Hat High Availability Add-On With Command Line Tools

This chapter describes various administrative tasks for managing Red Hat High Availability Add-On and consists of the following sections:

Important

Make sure that your deployment of Red Hat High Availability Add-On meets your needs and can be supported. Consult with an authorized Red Hat representative to verify your configuration prior to deployment. In addition, allow time for a configuration burn-in period to test failure modes.

Important

This chapter references commonly used cluster.conf elements and attributes. For a comprehensive list and description of cluster.conf elements and attributes, refer to the cluster schema at /usr/share/cluster/cluster.rng, and the annotated schema at /usr/share/doc/cman-X.Y.ZZ /cluster_conf.html (for example /usr/share/doc/cman-3.0.12/cluster_conf.html).

Important

Certain procedure in this chapter call for using the cman_tool version -r command to propagate a cluster configuration throughout a cluster. Using that command requires that ricci is running.

Note

Procedures in this chapter, may include specific commands for some of the command-line tools listed in Appendix E, Command Line Tools Summary. For more information about all commands and variables, refer to the man page for each command-line tool.

8.1. Starting and Stopping the Cluster Software

You can start or stop cluster software on a node according to Section 8.1.1, “Starting Cluster Software” and Section 8.1.2, “Stopping Cluster Software”. Starting cluster software on a node causes it to join the cluster; stopping the cluster software on a node causes it to leave the cluster.

8.1.1. Starting Cluster Software

To start the cluster software on a node, type the following commands in this order:
  1. service cman start
  2. service clvmd start, if CLVM has been used to create clustered volumes
  3. service gfs2 start, if you are using Red Hat GFS2
  4. service rgmanager start, if you using high-availability (HA) services (rgmanager).
For example:
[root@example-01 ~]# service cman start
Starting cluster: 
   Checking Network Manager...                             [  OK  ]
   Global setup...                                         [  OK  ]
   Loading kernel modules...                               [  OK  ]
   Mounting configfs...                                    [  OK  ]
   Starting cman...                                        [  OK  ]
   Waiting for quorum...                                   [  OK  ]
   Starting fenced...                                      [  OK  ]
   Starting dlm_controld...                                [  OK  ]
   Starting gfs_controld...                                [  OK  ]
   Unfencing self...                                       [  OK  ]
   Joining fence domain...                                 [  OK  ]
[root@example-01 ~]# service clvmd start
Starting clvmd:                                            [  OK  ]
Activating VG(s):   2 logical volume(s) in volume group "vg_example" now active
                                                           [  OK  ]
[root@example-01 ~]# service gfs2 start
Mounting GFS2 filesystem (/mnt/gfsA):                      [  OK  ]
Mounting GFS2 filesystem (/mnt/gfsB):                      [  OK  ]
[root@example-01 ~]# service rgmanager start
Starting Cluster Service Manager:                          [  OK  ]
[root@example-01 ~]#

8.1.2. Stopping Cluster Software

To stop the cluster software on a node, type the following commands in this order:
  1. service rgmanager stop, if you using high-availability (HA) services (rgmanager).
  2. service gfs2 stop, if you are using Red Hat GFS2
  3. umount -at gfs2, if you are using Red Hat GFS2 in conjunction with rgmanager, to ensure that any GFS2 files mounted during rgmanager startup (but not unmounted during shutdown) were also unmounted.
  4. service clvmd stop, if CLVM has been used to create clustered volumes
  5. service cman stop
For example:
[root@example-01 ~]# service rgmanager stop
Stopping Cluster Service Manager:                          [  OK  ]
[root@example-01 ~]# service gfs2 stop
Unmounting GFS2 filesystem (/mnt/gfsA):                    [  OK  ]
Unmounting GFS2 filesystem (/mnt/gfsB):                    [  OK  ]
[root@example-01 ~]# umount -at gfs2
[root@example-01 ~]# service clvmd stop
Signaling clvmd to exit                                    [  OK  ]
clvmd terminated                                           [  OK  ]
[root@example-01 ~]# service cman stop
Stopping cluster: 
   Leaving fence domain...                                 [  OK  ]
   Stopping gfs_controld...                                [  OK  ]
   Stopping dlm_controld...                                [  OK  ]
   Stopping fenced...                                      [  OK  ]
   Stopping cman...                                        [  OK  ]
   Waiting for corosync to shutdown:                       [  OK  ]
   Unloading kernel modules...                             [  OK  ]
   Unmounting configfs...                                  [  OK  ]
[root@example-01 ~]#

Note

Stopping cluster software on a node causes its HA services to fail over to another node. As an alternative to that, consider relocating or migrating HA services to another node before stopping cluster software. For information about managing HA services, refer to Section 8.3, “Managing High-Availability Services”.

8.2. Deleting or Adding a Node

This section describes how to delete a node from a cluster and add a node to a cluster. You can delete a node from a cluster according to Section 8.2.1, “Deleting a Node from a Cluster”; you can add a node to a cluster according to Section 8.2.2, “Adding a Node to a Cluster”.

8.2.1. Deleting a Node from a Cluster

Deleting a node from a cluster consists of shutting down the cluster software on the node to be deleted and updating the cluster configuration to reflect the change.

Important

If deleting a node from the cluster causes a transition from greater than two nodes to two nodes, you must restart the cluster software at each node after updating the cluster configuration file.
To delete a node from a cluster, perform the following steps:
  1. At any node, use the clusvcadm utility to relocate, migrate, or stop each HA service running on the node that is being deleted from the cluster. For information about using clusvcadm, refer to Section 8.3, “Managing High-Availability Services”.
  2. At the node to be deleted from the cluster, stop the cluster software according to Section 8.1.2, “Stopping Cluster Software”. For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]# service rgmanager stop
    Stopping Cluster Service Manager:                          [  OK  ]
    [root@example-01 ~]# service gfs2 stop
    Unmounting GFS2 filesystem (/mnt/gfsA):                    [  OK  ]
    Unmounting GFS2 filesystem (/mnt/gfsB):                    [  OK  ]
    [root@example-01 ~]# service clvmd stop
    Signaling clvmd to exit                                    [  OK  ]
    clvmd terminated                                           [  OK  ]
    [root@example-01 ~]# service cman stop
    Stopping cluster: 
       Leaving fence domain...                                 [  OK  ]
       Stopping gfs_controld...                                [  OK  ]
       Stopping dlm_controld...                                [  OK  ]
       Stopping fenced...                                      [  OK  ]
       Stopping cman...                                        [  OK  ]
       Waiting for corosync to shutdown:                       [  OK  ]
       Unloading kernel modules...                             [  OK  ]
       Unmounting configfs...                                  [  OK  ]
    [root@example-01 ~]#
    
  3. At any node in the cluster, edit the /etc/cluster/cluster.conf to remove the clusternode section of the node that is to be deleted. For example, in Example 8.1, “Three-node Cluster Configuration”, if node-03.example.com is supposed to be removed, then delete the clusternode section for that node. If removing a node (or nodes) causes the cluster to be a two-node cluster, you can add the following line to the configuration file to allow a single node to maintain quorum (for example, if one node fails):
    <cman two_node="1" expected_votes="1"/>
    Refer to Section 8.2.3, “Examples of Three-Node and Two-Node Configurations” for comparison between a three-node and a two-node configuration.
  4. Update the config_version attribute by incrementing its value (for example, changing from config_version="2" to config_version="3"> ).
  5. Save /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  6. (Optional) Validate the updated file against the cluster schema (cluster.rng) by running the ccs_config_validate command. For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]# ccs_config_validate 
    Configuration validates
    
  7. Run the cman_tool version -r command to propagate the configuration to the rest of the cluster nodes.
  8. Verify that the updated configuration file has been propagated.
  9. If the node count of the cluster has transitioned from greater than two nodes to two nodes, you must restart the cluster software as follows:
    1. At each node, stop the cluster software according to Section 8.1.2, “Stopping Cluster Software”. For example:
      [root@example-01 ~]# service rgmanager stop
      Stopping Cluster Service Manager:                          [  OK  ]
      [root@example-01 ~]# service gfs2 stop
      Unmounting GFS2 filesystem (/mnt/gfsA):                    [  OK  ]
      Unmounting GFS2 filesystem (/mnt/gfsB):                    [  OK  ]
      [root@example-01 ~]# service clvmd stop
      Signaling clvmd to exit                                    [  OK  ]
      clvmd terminated                                           [  OK  ]
      [root@example-01 ~]# service cman stop
      Stopping cluster: 
         Leaving fence domain...                                 [  OK  ]
         Stopping gfs_controld...                                [  OK  ]
         Stopping dlm_controld...                                [  OK  ]
         Stopping fenced...                                      [  OK  ]
         Stopping cman...                                        [  OK  ]
         Waiting for corosync to shutdown:                       [  OK  ]
         Unloading kernel modules...                             [  OK  ]
         Unmounting configfs...                                  [  OK  ]
      [root@example-01 ~]#
      
    2. At each node, start the cluster software according to Section 8.1.1, “Starting Cluster Software”. For example:
      [root@example-01 ~]# service cman start
      Starting cluster: 
         Checking Network Manager...                             [  OK  ]
         Global setup...                                         [  OK  ]
         Loading kernel modules...                               [  OK  ]
         Mounting configfs...                                    [  OK  ]
         Starting cman...                                        [  OK  ]
         Waiting for quorum...                                   [  OK  ]
         Starting fenced...                                      [  OK  ]
         Starting dlm_controld...                                [  OK  ]
         Starting gfs_controld...                                [  OK  ]
         Unfencing self...                                       [  OK  ]
         Joining fence domain...                                 [  OK  ]
      [root@example-01 ~]# service clvmd start
      Starting clvmd:                                            [  OK  ]
      Activating VG(s):   2 logical volume(s) in volume group "vg_example" now active
                                                                 [  OK  ]
      [root@example-01 ~]# service gfs2 start
      Mounting GFS2 filesystem (/mnt/gfsA):                      [  OK  ]
      Mounting GFS2 filesystem (/mnt/gfsB):                      [  OK  ]
      [root@example-01 ~]# service rgmanager start
      Starting Cluster Service Manager:                          [  OK  ]
      [root@example-01 ~]#
      
    3. At any cluster node, run cman_tool nodes to verify that the nodes are functioning as members in the cluster (signified as "M" in the status column, "Sts"). For example:
      [root@example-01 ~]# cman_tool nodes
      Node  Sts   Inc   Joined               Name
         1   M    548   2010-09-28 10:52:21  node-01.example.com
         2   M    548   2010-09-28 10:52:21  node-02.example.com
      
    4. At any node, using the clustat utility, verify that the HA services are running as expected. In addition, clustat displays status of the cluster nodes. For example:
      [root@example-01 ~]#clustat
      Cluster Status for mycluster @ Wed Nov 17 05:40:00 2010
      Member Status: Quorate
      
       Member Name                             ID   Status
       ------ ----                             ---- ------
       node-02.example.com                         2 Online, rgmanager
       node-01.example.com                         1 Online, Local, rgmanager
      
       Service Name                   Owner (Last)                   State         
       ------- ----                   ----- ------                   -----           
       service:example_apache         node-01.example.com            started       
       service:example_apache2        (none)                         disabled
      

8.2.2. Adding a Node to a Cluster

Adding a node to a cluster consists of updating the cluster configuration, propagating the updated configuration to the node to be added, and starting the cluster software on that node. To add a node to a cluster, perform the following steps:
  1. At any node in the cluster, edit the /etc/cluster/cluster.conf to add a clusternode section for the node that is to be added. For example, in Example 8.2, “Two-node Cluster Configuration”, if node-03.example.com is supposed to be added, then add a clusternode section for that node. If adding a node (or nodes) causes the cluster to transition from a two-node cluster to a cluster with three or more nodes, remove the following cman attributes from /etc/cluster/cluster.conf:
    • cman two_node="1"
    • expected_votes="1"
    Refer to Section 8.2.3, “Examples of Three-Node and Two-Node Configurations” for comparison between a three-node and a two-node configuration.
  2. Update the config_version attribute by incrementing its value (for example, changing from config_version="2" to config_version="3"> ).
  3. Save /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  4. (Optional) Validate the updated file against the cluster schema (cluster.rng) by running the ccs_config_validate command. For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]# ccs_config_validate 
    Configuration validates
    
  5. Run the cman_tool version -r command to propagate the configuration to the rest of the cluster nodes.
  6. Verify that the updated configuration file has been propagated.
  7. Propagate the updated configuration file to /etc/cluster/ in each node to be added to the cluster. For example, use the scp command to send the updated configuration file to each node to be added to the cluster.
  8. If the node count of the cluster has transitioned from two nodes to greater than two nodes, you must restart the cluster software in the existing cluster nodes as follows:
    1. At each node, stop the cluster software according to Section 8.1.2, “Stopping Cluster Software”. For example:
      [root@example-01 ~]# service rgmanager stop
      Stopping Cluster Service Manager:                          [  OK  ]
      [root@example-01 ~]# service gfs2 stop
      Unmounting GFS2 filesystem (/mnt/gfsA):                    [  OK  ]
      Unmounting GFS2 filesystem (/mnt/gfsB):                    [  OK  ]
      [root@example-01 ~]# service clvmd stop
      Signaling clvmd to exit                                    [  OK  ]
      clvmd terminated                                           [  OK  ]
      [root@example-01 ~]# service cman stop
      Stopping cluster: 
         Leaving fence domain...                                 [  OK  ]
         Stopping gfs_controld...                                [  OK  ]
         Stopping dlm_controld...                                [  OK  ]
         Stopping fenced...                                      [  OK  ]
         Stopping cman...                                        [  OK  ]
         Waiting for corosync to shutdown:                       [  OK  ]
         Unloading kernel modules...                             [  OK  ]
         Unmounting configfs...                                  [  OK  ]
      [root@example-01 ~]#
      
    2. At each node, start the cluster software according to Section 8.1.1, “Starting Cluster Software”. For example:
      [root@example-01 ~]# service cman start
      Starting cluster: 
         Checking Network Manager...                             [  OK  ]
         Global setup...                                         [  OK  ]
         Loading kernel modules...                               [  OK  ]
         Mounting configfs...                                    [  OK  ]
         Starting cman...                                        [  OK  ]
         Waiting for quorum...                                   [  OK  ]
         Starting fenced...                                      [  OK  ]
         Starting dlm_controld...                                [  OK  ]
         Starting gfs_controld...                                [  OK  ]
         Unfencing self...                                       [  OK  ]
         Joining fence domain...                                 [  OK  ]
      [root@example-01 ~]# service clvmd start
      Starting clvmd:                                            [  OK  ]
      Activating VG(s):   2 logical volume(s) in volume group "vg_example" now active
                                                                 [  OK  ]
      [root@example-01 ~]# service gfs2 start
      Mounting GFS2 filesystem (/mnt/gfsA):                      [  OK  ]
      Mounting GFS2 filesystem (/mnt/gfsB):                      [  OK  ]
      [root@example-01 ~]# service rgmanager start
      Starting Cluster Service Manager:                          [  OK  ]
      [root@example-01 ~]#
      
  9. At each node to be added to the cluster, start the cluster software according to Section 8.1.1, “Starting Cluster Software”. For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]# service cman start
    Starting cluster: 
       Checking Network Manager...                             [  OK  ]
       Global setup...                                         [  OK  ]
       Loading kernel modules...                               [  OK  ]
       Mounting configfs...                                    [  OK  ]
       Starting cman...                                        [  OK  ]
       Waiting for quorum...                                   [  OK  ]
       Starting fenced...                                      [  OK  ]
       Starting dlm_controld...                                [  OK  ]
       Starting gfs_controld...                                [  OK  ]
       Unfencing self...                                       [  OK  ]
       Joining fence domain...                                 [  OK  ]
    [root@example-01 ~]# service clvmd start
    Starting clvmd:                                            [  OK  ]
    Activating VG(s):   2 logical volume(s) in volume group "vg_example" now active
                                                               [  OK  ]
    [root@example-01 ~]# service gfs2 start
    Mounting GFS2 filesystem (/mnt/gfsA):                      [  OK  ]
    Mounting GFS2 filesystem (/mnt/gfsB):                      [  OK  ]
    
    [root@example-01 ~]# service rgmanager start
    Starting Cluster Service Manager:                          [  OK  ]
    [root@example-01 ~]#
    
  10. At any node, using the clustat utility, verify that each added node is running and part of the cluster. For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]#clustat
    Cluster Status for mycluster @ Wed Nov 17 05:40:00 2010
    Member Status: Quorate
    
     Member Name                             ID   Status
     ------ ----                             ---- ------
     node-03.example.com                         3 Online, rgmanager
     node-02.example.com                         2 Online, rgmanager
     node-01.example.com                         1 Online, Local, rgmanager
    
     Service Name                   Owner (Last)                   State         
     ------- ----                   ----- ------                   -----           
     service:example_apache         node-01.example.com            started       
     service:example_apache2        (none)                         disabled
    
    For information about using clustat, refer to Section 8.3, “Managing High-Availability Services”.
    In addition, you can use cman_tool status to verify node votes, node count, and quorum count. For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]#cman_tool status
    Version: 6.2.0
    Config Version: 19
    Cluster Name: mycluster 
    Cluster Id: 3794
    Cluster Member: Yes
    Cluster Generation: 548
    Membership state: Cluster-Member
    Nodes: 3
    Expected votes: 3
    Total votes: 3
    Node votes: 1
    Quorum: 2  
    Active subsystems: 9
    Flags: 
    Ports Bound: 0 11 177  
    Node name: node-01.example.com
    Node ID: 3
    Multicast addresses: 239.192.14.224 
    Node addresses: 10.15.90.58
    
  11. At any node, you can use the clusvcadm utility to migrate or relocate a running service to the newly joined node. Also, you can enable any disabled services. For information about using clusvcadm, refer to Section 8.3, “Managing High-Availability Services”

8.2.3. Examples of Three-Node and Two-Node Configurations

Refer to the examples that follow for comparison between a three-node and a two-node configuration.

Example 8.1. Three-node Cluster Configuration


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="3">
   <cman/>
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="1"/>
             </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="2"/>
            </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-03.example.com" nodeid="3">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="3"/>
            </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
         <fencedevice agent="fence_apc" ipaddr="apc_ip_example" login="login_example" name="apc" passwd="password_example"/>
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
       <failoverdomains>
           <failoverdomain name="example_pri" nofailback="0" ordered="1" restricted="0">
               <failoverdomainnode name="node-01.example.com" priority="1"/>
               <failoverdomainnode name="node-02.example.com" priority="2"/>
               <failoverdomainnode name="node-03.example.com" priority="3"/>
           </failoverdomain>
       </failoverdomains>
       <resources>
           <ip address="127.143.131.100" monitor_link="yes" sleeptime="10">
              <fs name="web_fs" device="/dev/sdd2" mountpoint="/var/www" fstype="ext3">
                 <apache config_file="conf/httpd.conf" name="example_server" server_root="/etc/httpd" shutdown_wait="0"/>
              </fs>
           </ip>
       </resources>
       <service autostart="0" domain="example_pri" exclusive="0" name="example_apache" recovery="relocate">
           <fs ref="web_fs"/>
           <ip ref="127.143.131.100"/>
           <apache ref="example_server"/>
       </service>
       <service autostart="0" domain="example_pri" exclusive="0" name="example_apache2" recovery="relocate">
           <fs name="web_fs2" device="/dev/sdd3" mountpoint="/var/www" fstype="ext3"/>
           <ip address="127.143.131.101" monitor_link="yes" sleeptime="10"/>
           <apache config_file="conf/httpd.conf" name="example_server2" server_root="/etc/httpd" shutdown_wait="0"/>
       </service>
   </rm>
</cluster>


Example 8.2. Two-node Cluster Configuration


<cluster name="mycluster" config_version="3">
   <cman two_node="1" expected_votes="1"/>
   <clusternodes>
     <clusternode name="node-01.example.com" nodeid="1">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="1"/>
             </method>
         </fence>
     </clusternode>
     <clusternode name="node-02.example.com" nodeid="2">
         <fence>
            <method name="APC">
              <device name="apc" port="2"/>
            </method>
         </fence>
   </clusternodes>
   <fencedevices>
         <fencedevice agent="fence_apc" ipaddr="apc_ip_example" login="login_example" name="apc" passwd="password_example"/>
   </fencedevices>
   <rm>
       <failoverdomains>
           <failoverdomain name="example_pri" nofailback="0" ordered="1" restricted="0">
               <failoverdomainnode name="node-01.example.com" priority="1"/>
               <failoverdomainnode name="node-02.example.com" priority="2"/>
           </failoverdomain>
       </failoverdomains>
       <resources>
           <ip address="127.143.131.100" monitor_link="yes" sleeptime="10">
              <fs name="web_fs" device="/dev/sdd2" mountpoint="/var/www" fstype="ext3">
                 <apache config_file="conf/httpd.conf" name="example_server" server_root="/etc/httpd" shutdown_wait="0"/>
              </fs>
           </ip>
       </resources>
       <service autostart="0" domain="example_pri" exclusive="0" name="example_apache" recovery="relocate">
           <fs ref="web_fs"/>
           <ip ref="127.143.131.100"/>
           <apache ref="example_server"/>
       </service>
       <service autostart="0" domain="example_pri" exclusive="0" name="example_apache2" recovery="relocate">
           <fs name="web_fs2" device="/dev/sdd3" mountpoint="/var/www" fstype="ext3"/>
           <ip address="127.143.131.101" monitor_link="yes" sleeptime="10"/>
           <apache config_file="conf/httpd.conf" name="example_server2" server_root="/etc/httpd" shutdown_wait="0"/>
       </service>
   </rm>
</cluster>


8.3. Managing High-Availability Services

You can manage high-availability services using the Cluster Status Utility, clustat, and the Cluster User Service Administration Utility, clusvcadm. clustat displays the status of a cluster and clusvcadm provides the means to manage high-availability services.
This section provides basic information about managing HA services using the clustat and clusvcadm commands. It consists of the following subsections:

8.3.1. Displaying HA Service Status with clustat

clustat displays cluster-wide status. It shows membership information, quorum view, the state of all high-availability services, and indicates which node the clustat command is being run at (Local). Table 8.1, “Services Status” describes the states that services can be in and are displayed when running clustat. Example 8.3, “clustat Display” shows an example of a clustat display. For more detailed information about running the clustat command refer to the clustat man page.

Table 8.1. Services Status

Services Status Description
Started The service resources are configured and available on the cluster system that owns the service.
Recovering The service is pending start on another node.
Disabled The service has been disabled, and does not have an assigned owner. A disabled service is never restarted automatically by the cluster.
Stopped In the stopped state, the service will be evaluated for starting after the next service or node transition. This is a temporary state. You may disable or enable the service from this state.
Failed The service is presumed dead. A service is placed into this state whenever a resource's stop operation fails. After a service is placed into this state, you must verify that there are no resources allocated (mounted file systems, for example) prior to issuing a disable request. The only operation that can take place when a service has entered this state is disable.
Uninitialized This state can appear in certain cases during startup and running clustat -f.

Example 8.3. clustat Display

[root@example-01 ~]#clustat
Cluster Status for mycluster @ Wed Nov 17 05:40:15 2010
Member Status: Quorate

 Member Name                             ID   Status
 ------ ----                             ---- ------
 node-03.example.com                         3 Online, rgmanager
 node-02.example.com                         2 Online, rgmanager
 node-01.example.com                         1 Online, Local, rgmanager

 Service Name                   Owner (Last)                   State         
 ------- ----                   ----- ------                   -----           
 service:example_apache         node-01.example.com            started       
 service:example_apache2        (none)                         disabled

8.3.2. Managing HA Services with clusvcadm

You can manage HA services using the clusvcadm command. With it you can perform the following operations:
  • Enable and start a service.
  • Disable a service.
  • Stop a service.
  • Freeze a service
  • Unfreeze a service
  • Migrate a service (for virtual machine services only)
  • Relocate a service.
  • Restart a service.
Table 8.2, “Service Operations” describes the operations in more detail. For a complete description on how to perform those operations, refer to the clusvcadm utility man page.

Table 8.2. Service Operations

Service Operation Description Command Syntax
Enable Start the service, optionally on a preferred target and optionally according to failover domain rules. In the absence of either a preferred target or failover domain rules, the local host where clusvcadm is run will start the service. If the original start fails, the service behaves as though a relocate operation was requested (refer to Relocate in this table). If the operation succeeds, the service is placed in the started state. clusvcadm -e <service_name> or clusvcadm -e <service_name> -m <member> (Using the -m option specifies the preferred target member on which to start the service.)
Disable Stop the service and place into the disabled state. This is the only permissible operation when a service is in the failed state. clusvcadm -d <service_name>
Relocate Move the service to another node. Optionally, you may specify a preferred node to receive the service, but the inability of the service to run on that host (for example, if the service fails to start or the host is offline) does not prevent relocation, and another node is chosen. rgmanager attempts to start the service on every permissible node in the cluster. If no permissible target node in the cluster successfully starts the service, the relocation fails and the service is attempted to be restarted on the original owner. If the original owner cannot restart the service, the service is placed in the stopped state. clusvcadm -r <service_name> or clusvcadm -r <service_name> -m <member> (Using the -m option specifies the preferred target member on which to start the service.)
Stop Stop the service and place into the stopped state. clusvcadm -s <service_name>
Freeze Freeze a service on the node where it is currently running. This prevents status checks of the service as well as failover in the event the node fails or rgmanager is stopped. This can be used to suspend a service to allow maintenance of underlying resources. Refer to the section called “Considerations for Using the Freeze and Unfreeze Operations” for important information about using the freeze and unfreeze operations. clusvcadm -Z <service_name>
Unfreeze Unfreeze takes a service out of the freeze state. This re-enables status checks. Refer to the section called “Considerations for Using the Freeze and Unfreeze Operations” for important information about using the freeze and unfreeze operations. clusvcadm -U <service_name>
Migrate Migrate a virtual machine to another node. You must specify a target node. Depending on the failure, a failure to migrate may result with the virtual machine in the failed state or in the started state on the original owner. clusvcadm -M <service_name> -m <member>

Important

For the migrate operation, you must specify a target node using the -m <member> option.
Restart Restart a service on the node where it is currently running. clusvcadm -R <service_name>

Considerations for Using the Freeze and Unfreeze Operations

Using the freeze operation allows maintenance of parts of rgmanager services. For example, if you have a database and a web server in one rgmanager service, you may freeze the rgmanager service, stop the database, perform maintenance, restart the database, and unfreeze the service.
When a service is frozen, it behaves as follows:
  • Status checks are disabled.
  • Start operations are disabled.
  • Stop operations are disabled.
  • Failover will not occur (even if you power off the service owner).

Important

Failure to follow these guidelines may result in resources being allocated on multiple hosts:
  • You must not stop all instances of rgmanager when a service is frozen unless you plan to reboot the hosts prior to restarting rgmanager.
  • You must not unfreeze a service until the reported owner of the service rejoins the cluster and restarts rgmanager.

8.4. Updating a Configuration

Updating the cluster configuration consists of editing the cluster configuration file (/etc/cluster/cluster.conf) and propagating it to each node in the cluster. You can update the configuration using either of the following procedures:

8.4.1. Updating a Configuration Using cman_tool version -r

To update the configuration using the cman_tool version -r command, perform the following steps:
  1. At any node in the cluster, edit the /etc/cluster/cluster.conf file.
  2. Update the config_version attribute by incrementing its value (for example, changing from config_version="2" to config_version="3").
  3. Save /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  4. Run the cman_tool version -r command to propagate the configuration to the rest of the cluster nodes. It is necessary that ricci be running in each cluster node to be able to propagate updated cluster configuration information.
  5. Verify that the updated cluster.conf configuration file has been propagated. If not, use the scp command to propagate it to /etc/cluster/ in each cluster node.
  6. You may skip this step (restarting cluster software) if you have made only the following configuration changes:
    • Deleting a node from the cluster configuration—except where the node count changes from greater than two nodes to two nodes. For information about deleting a node from a cluster and transitioning from greater than two nodes to two nodes, refer to Section 8.2, “Deleting or Adding a Node”.
    • Adding a node to the cluster configuration—except where the node count changes from two nodes to greater than two nodes. For information about adding a node to a cluster and transitioning from two nodes to greater than two nodes, refer to Section 8.2.2, “Adding a Node to a Cluster”.
    • Changes to how daemons log information.
    • HA service/VM maintenance (adding, editing, or deleting).
    • Resource maintenance (adding, editing, or deleting).
    • Failover domain maintenance (adding, editing, or deleting).
    Otherwise, you must restart the cluster software as follows:
    1. At each node, stop the cluster software according to Section 8.1.2, “Stopping Cluster Software”.
    2. At each node, start the cluster software according to Section 8.1.1, “Starting Cluster Software”.
    Stopping and starting the cluster software ensures that any configuration changes that are checked only at startup time are included in the running configuration.
  7. At any cluster node, run cman_tool nodes to verify that the nodes are functioning as members in the cluster (signified as "M" in the status column, "Sts"). For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]# cman_tool nodes
    Node  Sts   Inc   Joined               Name
       1   M    548   2010-09-28 10:52:21  node-01.example.com
       2   M    548   2010-09-28 10:52:21  node-02.example.com
       3   M    544   2010-09-28 10:52:21  node-03.example.com
    
  8. At any node, using the clustat utility, verify that the HA services are running as expected. In addition, clustat displays status of the cluster nodes. For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]#clustat
    Cluster Status for mycluster @ Wed Nov 17 05:40:00 2010
    Member Status: Quorate
    
     Member Name                             ID   Status
     ------ ----                             ---- ------
     node-03.example.com                         3 Online, rgmanager
     node-02.example.com                         2 Online, rgmanager
     node-01.example.com                         1 Online, Local, rgmanager
    
     Service Name                   Owner (Last)                   State         
     ------- ----                   ----- ------                   -----           
     service:example_apache         node-01.example.com            started       
     service:example_apache2        (none)                         disabled
    
  9. If the cluster is running as expected, you are done updating the configuration.

8.4.2. Updating a Configuration Using scp

To update the configuration using the scp command, perform the following steps:
  1. At any node in the cluster, edit the /etc/cluster/cluster.conf file.
  2. Update the config_version attribute by incrementing its value (for example, changing from config_version="2" to config_version="3"> ).
  3. Save /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  4. Validate the updated file against the cluster schema (cluster.rng) by running the ccs_config_validate command. For example:
    [root@example-01 ~]# ccs_config_validate 
    Configuration validates
    
  5. If the updated file is valid, use the scp command to propagate it to /etc/cluster/ in each cluster node.
  6. Verify that the updated configuration file has been propagated.
  7. To reload the new configuration, execute the following command on one of the cluster nodes:
    cman_tool version -r
    
    If you do not have ricci installed, you can use the following command:
    cman_tool version -s
    
  8. You may skip this step (restarting cluster software) if you have made only the following configuration changes:
    • Deleting a node from the cluster configuration—except where the node count changes from greater than two nodes to two nodes. For information about deleting a node from a cluster and transitioning from greater than two nodes to two nodes, refer to Section 8.2, “Deleting or Adding a Node”.
    • Adding a node to the cluster configuration—except where the node count changes from two nodes to greater than two nodes. For information about adding a node to a cluster and transitioning from two nodes to greater than two nodes, refer to Section 8.2.2, “Adding a Node to a Cluster”.
    • Changes to how daemons log information.
    • HA service/VM maintenance (adding, editing, or deleting).
    • Resource maintenance (adding, editing, or deleting).
    • Failover domain maintenance (adding, editing, or deleting).
    Otherwise, you must restart the cluster software as follows:
    1. At each node, stop the cluster software according to Section 8.1.2, “Stopping Cluster Software”.
    2. At each node, start the cluster software according to Section 8.1.1, “Starting Cluster Software”.
    Stopping and starting the cluster software ensures that any configuration changes that are checked only at startup time are included in the running configuration.
  9. Verify that that the nodes are functioning as members in the cluster and that the HA services are running as expected.
    1. At any cluster node, run cman_tool nodes to verify that the nodes are functioning as members in the cluster (signified as "M" in the status column, "Sts"). For example:
      [root@example-01 ~]# cman_tool nodes
      Node  Sts   Inc   Joined               Name
         1   M    548   2010-09-28 10:52:21  node-01.example.com
         2   M    548   2010-09-28 10:52:21  node-02.example.com
         3   M    544   2010-09-28 10:52:21  node-03.example.com
      
    2. At any node, using the clustat utility, verify that the HA services are running as expected. In addition, clustat displays status of the cluster nodes. For example:
      [root@example-01 ~]#clustat
      Cluster Status for mycluster @ Wed Nov 17 05:40:00 2010
      Member Status: Quorate
      
       Member Name                             ID   Status
       ------ ----                             ---- ------
       node-03.example.com                         3 Online, rgmanager
       node-02.example.com                         2 Online, rgmanager
       node-01.example.com                         1 Online, Local, rgmanager
      
       Service Name                   Owner (Last)                   State         
       ------- ----                   ----- ------                   -----           
       service:example_apache         node-01.example.com            started       
       service:example_apache2        (none)                         disabled
      
    If the cluster is running as expected, you are done updating the configuration.

Chapter 9. Diagnosing and Correcting Problems in a Cluster

Clusters problems, by nature, can be difficult to troubleshoot. This is due to the increased complexity that a cluster of systems introduces as opposed to diagnosing issues on a single system. However, there are common issues that system administrators are more likely to encounter when deploying or administering a cluster. Understanding how to tackle those common issues can help make deploying and administering a cluster much easier.
This chapter provides information about some common cluster issues and how to troubleshoot them. Additional help can be found in our knowledge base and by contacting an authorized Red Hat support representative. If your issue is related to the GFS2 file system specifically, you can find information about troubleshooting common GFS2 issues in the Global File System 2 document.

9.1. Configuration Changes Do Not Take Effect

When you make changes to a cluster configuration, you must propagate those changes to every node in the cluster.
If you make any of the following configuration changes to your cluster, it is not necessary to restart the cluster after propagating those changes the changes to take effect.
  • Deleting a node from the cluster configuration—except where the node count changes from greater than two nodes to two nodes.
  • Adding a node to the cluster configuration—except where the node count changes from two nodes to greater than two nodes.
  • Changing the logging settings.
  • Adding, editing, or deleting HA services or VM components.
  • Adding, editing, or deleting cluster resources.
  • Adding, editing, or deleting failover domains.
If you make any other configuration changes to your cluster, however, you must restart the cluster to implement those changes. The following cluster configuration changes require a cluster restart to take effect:
  • Adding or removing the two_node option from the cluster configuration file.
  • Renaming the cluster.
  • Changing any corosync or openais timers.
  • Adding, changing, or deleting heuristics for quorum disk, changing any quorum disk timers, or changing the quorum disk device. For these changes to take effect, a global restart of the qdiskd daemon is required.
  • Changing the central_processing mode for rgmanager. For this change to take effect, a global restart of rgmanager is required.
  • Changing the multicast address.
  • Switching the transport mode from UDP multicast to UDP unicast, or switching from UDP unicast to UDP multicast.
You can restart the cluster using Conga, the ccs command, or command line tools,

9.2. Cluster Does Not Form

If you find you are having trouble getting a new cluster to form, check for the following things:
  • Make sure you have name resolution set up correctly. The cluster node name in the cluster.conf file should correspond to the name used to resolve that cluster's address over the network that cluster will be using to communicate. For example, if your cluster's node names are nodea and nodeb make sure both nodes have entries in the /etc/cluster/cluster.conf file and /etc/hosts file that match those names.
  • If the cluster uses multicast for communication between nodes, make sure that multicast traffic is not being blocked, delayed, or otherwise interfered with on the network that the cluster is using to communicate. Note that some Cisco switches have features that may cause delays in multicast traffic.
  • Use telnet or SSH to verify whether you can reach remote nodes.
  • Execute the ethtool eth1 | grep link command to check whether the ethernet link is up.
  • Use the tcpdump command at each node to check the network traffic.
  • Ensure that you do not have firewall rules blocking communication between your nodes.
  • Ensure that the interfaces the cluster uses for inter-node communication are not using any bonding mode other than 0, 1, or 2. (Bonding modes 0 and 2 are supported as of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4.)

9.3. Nodes Unable to Rejoin Cluster after Fence or Reboot

If your nodes do not rejoin the cluster after a fence or reboot, check for the following things:
  • Clusters that are passing their traffic through a Cisco Catalyst switch may experience this problem.
  • Ensure that all cluster nodes have the same version of the cluster.conf file. If the cluster.conf file is different on any of the nodes, then nodes may be unable to join the cluster post fence.
    As of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1, you can use the following command to verify that all of the nodes specified in the host's cluster configuration file have the identical cluster configuration file:
    ccs -h host --checkconf
    
  • Make sure that you have configured chkconfig on for cluster services in the node that is attempting to join the cluster.
  • Ensure that no firewall rules are blocking the node from communicating with other nodes in the cluster.

9.4. Cluster Daemon crashes

RGManager has a watchdog process that reboots the host if the main rgmanager process fails unexpectedly. This causes the cluster node to get fenced and rgmanager to recover the service on another host. When the watchdog daemon detects that the main rgmanager process has crashed then it will reboot the cluster node, and the active cluster nodes will detect that the cluster node has left and evict it from the cluster.
The lower number process ID (PID) is the watchdog process that takes action if its child (the process with the higher PID number) crashes. Capturing the core of the process with the higher PID number using gcore can aid in troubleshooting a crashed daemon.
Install the packages that are required to capture and view the core, and ensure that both the rgmanager and rgmanager-debuginfo are the same version or the captured application core might be unusable.
$ yum -y --enablerepo=rhel-debuginfo install gdb rgmanager-debuginfo

9.4.1. Capturing the rgmanager Core at Runtime

There are two rgmanager processes that are running as it is started. You must capture the core for the rgmanager process with the higher PID.
The following is an example output from the ps command showing two processes for rgmanager.

$ ps aux | grep rgmanager | grep -v grep 

root    22482  0.0  0.5  23544  5136 ?        S<Ls Dec01   0:00 rgmanager 
root    22483  0.0  0.2  78372  2060 ?        S<l  Dec01   0:47 rgmanager 

In the following example, the pidof program is used to automatically determine the higher-numbered pid, which is the appropriate pid to create the core. The full command captures the application core for the process 22483 which has the higher pid number.
$ gcore -o /tmp/rgmanager-$(date '+%F_%s').core $(pidof -s rgmanager)

9.4.2. Capturing the Core When the Daemon Crashes

By default, the /etc/init.d/functions script blocks core files from daemons called by /etc/init.d/rgmanager. For the daemon to create application cores, you must enable that option. This procedure must be done on all cluster nodes that need an application core caught.
For creating a core file when the rgmanager daemon crashes, edit the /etc/sysconfig/cluster file. The DAEMONCOREFILELIMIT parameter allows the daemon to create core files if the process crashes. There is a -w option that prevents the watchdog process from running. The watchdog daemon is responsible for rebooting the cluster node if rgmanager crashes and, in some cases, if the watchdog daemon is running then the core file will not be generated, so it must be disabled to capture core files.
DAEMONCOREFILELIMIT="unlimited"
RGMGR_OPTS="-w"
Restart rgmanager to activate the new configuration options:
service rgmanager restart

Note

If cluster services are running on this cluster node, then it could leave the running services in a bad state.
The core file will be written when it is generated from a crash of the rgmanager process.
ls /core*
The output should appear similar to the following:
/core.11926
Move or delete any old cores files under the / directory before restarting rgmanager to capture the application core. The cluster node that experienced the rgmanager crash should be rebooted or fenced after the core is captured to ensure that the watchdog process was not running.

9.4.3. Recording a gdb Backtrace Session

Once you have captured the core file, you can view its contents by using gdb, the GNU Debugger. To record a script session of gdb on the core file from the affected system, run the following:
$ script /tmp/gdb-rgmanager.txt
$ gdb /usr/sbin/rgmanager /tmp/rgmanager-.core.
This will start a gdb session, while script records it to the appropriate text file. While in gdb, run the following commands:
(gdb) thread apply all bt full
(gdb) quit
Press ctrl-D to stop the script session and save it to the text file.

9.5. Cluster Services Hang

When the cluster services attempt to fence a node, the cluster services stop until the fence operation has successfully completed. Therefore, if your cluster-controlled storage or services hang and the cluster nodes show different views of cluster membership or if your cluster hangs when you try to fence a node and you need to reboot nodes to recover, check for the following conditions:
  • The cluster may have attempted to fence a node and the fence operation may have failed.
  • Look through the /var/log/messages file on all nodes and see if there are any failed fence messages. If so, then reboot the nodes in the cluster and configure fencing correctly.
  • Verify that a network partition did not occur, as described in Section 9.8, “Each Node in a Two-Node Cluster Reports Second Node Down”. and verify that communication between nodes is still possible and that the network is up.
  • If nodes leave the cluster the remaining nodes may be inquorate. The cluster needs to be quorate to operate. If nodes are removed such that the cluster is no longer quorate then services and storage will hang. Either adjust the expected votes or return the required amount of nodes to the cluster.

Note

You can fence a node manually with the fence_node command or with Conga. For information, see the fence_node man page and Section 4.3.2, “Causing a Node to Leave or Join a Cluster”.

9.6. Cluster Service Will Not Start

If a cluster-controlled service will not start, check for the following conditions.
  • There may be a syntax error in the service configuration in the cluster.conf file. You can use the rg_test command to validate the syntax in your configuration. If there are any configuration or syntax faults, the rg_test will inform you what the problem is.
    $ rg_test test /etc/cluster/cluster.conf start service servicename 
    For more information on the rg_test command, see Section C.5, “Debugging and Testing Services and Resource Ordering”.
    If the configuration is valid, then increase the resource group manager's logging and then read the messages logs to determine what is causing the service start to fail. You can increase the log level by adding the loglevel="7" parameter to the rm tag in the cluster.conf file. You will then get increased verbosity in your messages logs with regards to starting, stopping, and migrating clustered services.

9.7. Cluster-Controlled Services Fails to Migrate

If a cluster-controlled service fails to migrate to another node but the service will start on some specific node, check for the following conditions.
  • Ensure that the resources required to run a given service are present on all nodes in the cluster that may be required to run that service. For example, if your clustered service assumes a script file in a specific location or a file system mounted at a specific mount point then you must ensure that those resources are available in the expected places on all nodes in the cluster.
  • Ensure that failover domains, service dependency, and service exclusivity are not configured in such a way that you are unable to migrate services to nodes as you'd expect.
  • If the service in question is a virtual machine resource, check the documentation to ensure that all of the correct configuration work has been completed.
  • Increase the resource group manager's logging, as described in Section 9.6, “Cluster Service Will Not Start”, and then read the messages logs to determine what is causing the service start to fail to migrate.

9.8. Each Node in a Two-Node Cluster Reports Second Node Down

If your cluster is a two-node cluster and each node reports that it is up but that the other node is down, this indicates that your cluster nodes are unable to communicate with each other via multicast over the cluster heartbeat network. This is known as "split brain" or a "network partition." To address this, check the conditions outlined in Section 9.2, “Cluster Does Not Form”.

9.9. Nodes are Fenced on LUN Path Failure

If a node or nodes in your cluster get fenced whenever you have a LUN path failure, this may be a result of the use of a quorum disk over multipathed storage. If you are using a quorum disk, and your quorum disk is over multipathed storage, ensure that you have all of the correct timings set up to tolerate a path failure.

9.10. Quorum Disk Does Not Appear as Cluster Member

If you have configured your system to use a quorum disk but the quorum disk does not appear as a member of your cluster, check for the following conditions.
  • Ensure that you have set chkconfig on for the qdisk service.
  • Ensure that you have started the qdisk service.
  • Note that it may take multiple minutes for the quorum disk to register with the cluster. This is normal and expected behavior.

9.11. Unusual Failover Behavior

A common problem with cluster servers is unusual failover behavior. Services will stop when other services start or services will refuse to start on failover. This can be due to having complex systems of failover consisting of failover domains, service dependency, and service exclusivity. Try scaling back to a simpler service or failover domain configuration and see if the issue persists. Avoid features like service exclusivity and dependency unless you fully understand how those features may effect failover under all conditions.

9.12. Fencing Occurs at Random

If you find that a node is being fenced at random, check for the following conditions.
  • The root cause of fences is always a node losing token, meaning that it lost communication with the rest of the cluster and stopped returning heartbeat.
  • Any situation that results in a system not returning heartbeat within the specified token interval could lead to a fence. By default the token interval is 10 seconds. It can be specified by adding the desired value (in milliseconds) to the token parameter of the totem tag in the cluster.conf file (for example, setting totem token="30000" for 30 seconds).
  • Ensure that the network is sound and working as expected.
  • Ensure that the interfaces the cluster uses for inter-node communication are not using any bonding mode other than 0, 1, or 2. (Bonding modes 0 and 2 are supported as of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4.)
  • Take measures to determine if the system is "freezing" or kernel panicking. Set up the kdump utility and see if you get a core during one of these fences.
  • Make sure some situation is not arising that you are wrongly attributing to a fence, for example the quorum disk ejecting a node due to a storage failure or a third party product like Oracle RAC rebooting a node due to some outside condition. The messages logs are often very helpful in determining such problems. Whenever fences or node reboots occur it should be standard practice to inspect the messages logs of all nodes in the cluster from the time the reboot/fence occurred.
  • Thoroughly inspect the system for hardware faults that may lead to the system not responding to heartbeat when expected.

9.13. Debug Logging for Distributed Lock Manager (DLM) Needs to be Enabled

There are two debug options for the Distributed Lock Manager (DLM) that you can enable, if necessary: DLM kernel debugging, and POSIX lock debugging.
To enable DLM debugging, edit the /etc/cluster/cluster.conf file to add configuration options to the dlm tag. The log_debug option enables DLM kernel debugging messages, and the plock_debug option enables POSIX lock debugging messages.
The following example section of a /etc/cluster/cluster.conf file shows the dlm tag that enables both DLM debug options:

<cluster config_version="42" name="cluster1">
  ...
  <dlm log_debug="1" plock_debug="1"/>
  ...
</cluster>

After editing the /etc/cluster/cluster.conf file, run the cman_tool version -r command to propagate the configuration to the rest of the cluster nodes.

Chapter 10. SNMP Configuration with the Red Hat High Availability Add-On

As of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1 release and later, the Red Hat High Availability Add-On provides support for SNMP traps. This chapter describes how to configure your system for SNMP followed by a summary of the traps that the Red Hat High Availability Add-On emits for specific cluster events.

10.1. SNMP and the Red Hat High Availability Add-On

The Red Hat High Availability Add-On SNMP subagent is foghorn, which emits the SNMP traps. The foghorn subagent talks to the snmpd daemon by means of the AgentX Protocol. The foghorn subagent only creates SNMP traps; it does not support other SNMP operations such as get or set.
There are currently no config options for the foghorn subagent. It cannot be configured to use a specific socket; only the default AgentX socket is currently supported.

10.2. Configuring SNMP with the Red Hat High Availability Add-On

To configure SNMP with the Red Hat High Availability Add-On, perform the following steps on each node in the cluster to ensure that the necessary services are enabled and running.
  1. To use SNMP traps with the Red Hat High Availability Add-On, the snmpd service is required and acts as the master agent. Since the foghorn service is the subagent and uses the AgentX protocol, you must add the following line to the /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf file to enable AgentX support:
    master agentx
    
  2. To specify the host where the SNMP trap notifications should be sent, add the following line to the to the /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf file:
    trap2sink host
    For more information on notification handling, see the snmpd.conf man page.
  3. Make sure that the snmpd daemon is enabled and running by executing the following commands:
    # chkconfig snmpd on
    # service snmpd start
  4. If the messagebus daemon is not already enabled and running, execute the following commands:
    # chkconfig messagebus on
    # service messagebus start
  5. Make sure that the foghorn daemon is enabled and running by executing the following commands:
    # chkconfig foghorn on
    # service foghorn start
  6. Execute the following command to configure your system so that the COROSYNC-MIB generates SNMP traps and to ensure that the corosync-notifyd daemon is enabled and running:
    # echo "OPTIONS=\"-d\" " > /etc/sysconfig/corosync-notifyd
    # chkconfig corosync-notifyd on
    # service corosync-notifyd start
After you have configured each node in the cluster for SNMP and ensured that the necessary services are running, D-bus signals will be received by the foghorn service and translated into SNMPv2 traps. These traps are then passed to the host that you defined with the trapsink entry to receive SNMPv2 traps.

10.3. Forwarding SNMP traps

It is possible to forward SNMP traps to a machine that is not part of the cluster where you can use the snmptrapd daemon on the external machine and customize how to respond to the notifications.
Perform the following steps to forward SNMP traps in a cluster to a machine that is not one of the cluster nodes:
  1. For each node in the cluster, follow the procedure described in Section 10.2, “Configuring SNMP with the Red Hat High Availability Add-On”, setting the trap2sink host entry in the /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf file to specify the external host that will be running the snmptrapd daemon.
  2. On the external host that will receive the traps, edit the /etc/snmp/snmptrapd.conf configuration file to specify your community strings. For example, you can use the following entry to allow the snmptrapd daemon to process notifications using the public community string.
    authCommunity log,execute,net public
    
  3. On the external host that will receive the traps, make sure that the snmptrapd daemon is enabled and running by executing the following commands:
    # chkconfig snmptrapd on
    # service snmptrapd start
For further information on processing SNMP notifications, see the snmptrapd.conf man page.

10.4. SNMP Traps Produced by Red Hat High Availability Add-On

The foghorn daemon generates the following traps:
  • fenceNotifyFenceNode
    This trap occurs whenever a fenced node attempts to fence another node. Note that this trap is only generated on one node - the node that attempted to perform the fence operation. The notification includes the following fields:
    • fenceNodeName - name of the fenced node
    • fenceNodeID - node id of the fenced node
    • fenceResult - the result of the fence operation (0 for success, -1 for something went wrong, -2 for no fencing methods defined)
  • rgmanagerServiceStateChange
    This trap occurs when the state of a cluster service changes. The notification includes the following fields:
    • rgmanagerServiceName - the name of the service, which includes the service type (for example, service:foo or vm:foo).
    • rgmanagerServiceState - the state of the service. This excludes transitional states such as starting and stopping to reduce clutter in the traps.
    • rgmanagerServiceFlags - the service flags. There are currently two supported flags: frozen, indicating a service which has been frozen using clusvcadm -Z, and partial, indicating a service in which a failed resource has been flagged as non-critical so that the resource may fail and its components manually restarted without the entire service being affected.
    • rgmanagerServiceCurrentOwner - the service owner. If the service is not running, this will be (none).
    • rgmanagerServicePreviousOwner - the last service owner, if known. If the last owner is not known, this may indicate (none).
The corosync-nodifyd daemon generates the following traps:
  • corosyncNoticesNodeStatus
    This trap occurs when a node joins or leaves the cluster. The notification includes the following fields:
    • corosyncObjectsNodeName - node name
    • corosyncObjectsNodeID - node id
    • corosyncObjectsNodeAddress - node IP address
    • corosyncObjectsNodeStatus - node status (joined or left)
  • corosyncNoticesQuorumStatus
    This trap occurs when the quorum state changes. The notification includes the following fields:
    • corosyncObjectsNodeName - node name
    • corosyncObjectsNodeID - node id
    • corosyncObjectsQuorumStatus - new state of the quorum (quorate or NOT quorate)
  • corosyncNoticesAppStatus
    This trap occurs when a client application connects or disconnects from Corosync.
    • corosyncObjectsNodeName - node name
    • corosyncObjectsNodeID - node id
    • corosyncObjectsAppName - application name
    • corosyncObjectsAppStatus - new state of the application (connected or disconnected)

Chapter 11. Clustered Samba Configuration

As of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 release, the Red Hat High Availability Add-On provides support for running Clustered Samba in an active/active configuration. This requires that you install and configure CTDB on all nodes in a cluster, which you use in conjunction with GFS2 clustered file systems.

Note

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports a maximum of four nodes running clustered Samba.
This chapter describes the procedure for configuring CTDB by configuring an example system. For information on configuring GFS2 file systems, refer to Global File System 2. For information on configuring logical volumes, refer to Logical Volume Manager Administration.

Note

Simultaneous access to the data in the Samba share from outside of Samba is not supported.

11.1. CTDB Overview

CTDB is a cluster implementation of the TDB database used by Samba. To use CTDB, a clustered file system must be available and shared on all nodes in the cluster. CTDB provides clustered features on top of this clustered file system. As of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 release, CTDB also runs a cluster stack in parallel to the one provided by Red Hat Enterprise Linux clustering. CTDB manages node membership, recovery/failover, IP relocation and Samba services.

11.2. Required Packages

In addition to the standard packages required to run the Red Hat High Availability Add-On and the Red Hat Resilient Storage Add-On, running Samba with Red Hat Enterprise Linux clustering requires the following packages:
  • ctdb
  • samba
  • samba-common
  • samba-winbind-clients

11.3. GFS2 Configuration

Configuring Samba with the Red Hat Enterprise Linux clustering requires two GFS2 file systems: One small file system for CTDB, and a second file system for the Samba share. This example shows how to create the two GFS2 file systems.
Before creating the GFS2 file systems, first create an LVM logical volume for each of the file systems. For information on creating LVM logical volumes, refer to Logical Volume Manager Administration. This example uses the following logical volumes:
  • /dev/csmb_vg/csmb_lv, which will hold the user data that will be exported via a Samba share and should be sized accordingly. This example creates a logical volume that is 100GB in size.
  • /dev/csmb_vg/ctdb_lv, which will store the shared CTDB state information and needs to be 1GB in size.
You create clustered volume groups and logical volumes on one node of the cluster only.
To create a GFS2 file system on a logical volume, run the mkfs.gfs2 command. You run this command on one cluster node only.
To create the file system to host the Samba share on the logical volume /dev/csmb_vg/csmb_lv, execute the following command:
[root@clusmb-01 ~]# mkfs.gfs2 -j3 -p lock_dlm -t csmb:gfs2 /dev/csmb_vg/csmb_lv
The meaning of the parameters is as follows:
-j
Specifies the number of journals to create in the filesystem. This example uses a cluster with three nodes, so we create one journal per node.
-p
Specifies the locking protocol. lock_dlm is the locking protocol GFS2 uses for inter-node communication.
-t
Specifies the lock table name and is of the format cluster_name:fs_name. In this example, the cluster name as specified in the cluster.conf file is csmb, and we use gfs2 as the name for the file system.
The output of this command appears as follows:
This will destroy any data on /dev/csmb_vg/csmb_lv.
  It appears to contain a gfs2 filesystem.

Are you sure you want to proceed? [y/n] y

Device:
/dev/csmb_vg/csmb_lv
Blocksize:		4096
Device Size		100.00 GB (26214400 blocks)
Filesystem Size:	100.00 GB (26214398 blocks)
Journals:		3
Resource Groups: 	400
Locking Protocol:  	"lock_dlm"
Lock Table: 		"csmb:gfs2"
UUID:
  94297529-ABG3-7285-4B19-182F4F2DF2D7
In this example, the /dev/csmb_vg/csmb_lv file system will be mounted at /mnt/gfs2 on all nodes. This mount point must match the value that you specify as the location of the share directory with the path = option in the /etc/samba/smb.conf file, as described in Section 11.5, “Samba Configuration”.
To create the file system to host the CTDB state information on the logical volume /dev/csmb_vg/ctdb_lv, execute the following command:
[root@clusmb-01 ~]# mkfs.gfs2 -j3 -p lock_dlm -t csmb:ctdb_state /dev/csmb_vg/ctdb_lv
Note that this command specifies a different lock table name than the lock table in the example that created the filesystem on /dev/csmb_vg/csmb_lv. This distinguishes the lock table names for the different devices used for the file systems.
The output of the mkfs.gfs2 appears as follows:
This will destroy any data on /dev/csmb_vg/ctdb_lv.
  It appears to contain a gfs2 filesystem.

Are you sure you want to proceed? [y/n] y

Device:
/dev/csmb_vg/ctdb_lv
Blocksize:  		4096
Device Size 		1.00 GB (262144 blocks)
Filesystem Size: 	1.00 GB (262142 blocks)
Journals:		3
Resource Groups: 	4
Locking Protocol: 	"lock_dlm"
Lock Table: 		"csmb:ctdb_state"
UUID:
  BCDA8025-CAF3-85BB-B062-CC0AB8849A03
In this example, the /dev/csmb_vg/ctdb_lv file system will be mounted at /mnt/ctdb on all nodes. This mount point must match the value that you specify as the location of the .ctdb.lock file with the CTDB_RECOVERY_LOCK option in the /etc/sysconfig/ctdb file, as described in Section 11.4, “CTDB Configuration”.

11.4. CTDB Configuration

The CTDB configuration file is located at /etc/sysconfig/ctdb. The mandatory fields that must be configured for CTDB operation are as follows:
  • CTDB_NODES
  • CTDB_PUBLIC_ADDRESSES
  • CTDB_RECOVERY_LOCK
  • CTDB_MANAGES_SAMBA (must be enabled)
  • CTDB_MANAGES_WINBIND (must be enabled if running on a member server)
The following example shows a configuration file with the mandatory fields for CTDB operation set with example parameters:
CTDB_NODES=/etc/ctdb/nodes
CTDB_PUBLIC_ADDRESSES=/etc/ctdb/public_addresses
CTDB_RECOVERY_LOCK="/mnt/ctdb/.ctdb.lock"
CTDB_MANAGES_SAMBA=yes
CTDB_MANAGES_WINBIND=yes
The meaning of these parameters is as follows.
CTDB_NODES
Specifies the location of the file which contains the cluster node list.
The /etc/ctdb/nodes file that CTDB_NODES references simply lists the IP addresses of the cluster nodes, as in the following example:
192.168.1.151
192.168.1.152
192.168.1.153
In this example, there is only one interface/IP on each node that is used for both cluster/CTDB communication and serving clients. However, it is highly recommended that each cluster node have two network interfaces so that one set of interfaces can be dedicated to cluster/CTDB communication and another set of interfaces can be dedicated to public client access. Use the appropriate IP addresses of the cluster network here and make sure the hostnames/IP addresses used in the cluster.conf file are the same. Similarly, use the appropriate interfaces of the public network for client access in the public_addresses file.
It is critical that the /etc/ctdb/nodes file is identical on all nodes because the ordering is important and CTDB will fail if it finds different information on different nodes.
CTDB_PUBLIC_ADDRESSES
Specifies the location of the file that lists the IP addresses that can be used to access the Samba shares exported by this cluster. These are the IP addresses that you should configure in DNS for the name of the clustered Samba server and are the addresses that CIFS clients will connect to. Configure the name of the clustered Samba server as one DNS type A record with multiple IP addresses and let round-robin DNS distribute the clients across the nodes of the cluster.
For this example, we have configured a round-robin DNS entry csmb-server with all the addresses listed in the /etc/ctdb/public_addresses file. DNS will distribute the clients that use this entry across the cluster in a round-robin fashion.
The contents of the /etc/ctdb/public_addresses file on each node are as follows:
192.168.1.201/0 eth0
192.168.1.202/0 eth0
192.168.1.203/0 eth0
This example uses three addresses that are currently unused on the network. In your own configuration, choose addresses that can be accessed by the intended clients.
Alternately, this example shows the contents of the /etc/ctdb/public_addresses files in a cluster in which there are three nodes but a total of four public addresses. In this example, IP address 198.162.2.1 can be hosted by either node 0 or node 1 and will be available to clients as long as at least one of these nodes is available. Only if both nodes 0 and 1 fail does this public address become unavailable to clients. All other public addresses can only be served by one single node respectively and will therefore only be available if the respective node is also available.
The /etc/ctdb/public_addresses file on node 0 includes the following contents:
198.162.1.1/24 eth0
198.162.2.1/24 eth1
The /etc/ctdb/public_addresses file on node 1 includes the following contents:
198.162.2.1/24 eth1
198.162.3.1/24 eth2
The /etc/ctdb/public_addresses file on node 2 includes the following contents:
198.162.3.2/24 eth2
CTDB_RECOVERY_LOCK
Specifies a lock file that CTDB uses internally for recovery. This file must reside on shared storage such that all the cluster nodes have access to it. The example in this section uses the GFS2 file system that will be mounted at /mnt/ctdb on all nodes. This is different from the GFS2 file system that will host the Samba share that will be exported. This recovery lock file is used to prevent split-brain scenarios. With newer versions of CTDB (1.0.112 and later), specifying this file is optional as long as it is substituted with another split-brain prevention mechanism.
CTDB_MANAGES_SAMBA
When enabling by setting it to yes, specifies that CTDB is allowed to start and stop the Samba service as it deems necessary to provide service migration/failover.
When CTDB_MANAGES_SAMBA is enabled, you should disable automatic init startup of the smb and nmb daemons by executing the following commands:
[root@clusmb-01 ~]# chkconfig snb off
[root@clusmb-01 ~]# chkconfig nmb off
CTDB_MANAGES_WINBIND
When enabling by setting it to yes, specifies that CTDB is allowed to start and stop the winbind daemon as required. This should be enabled when you are using CTDB in a Windows domain or in active directory security mode.
When CTDB_MANAGES_WINBIND is enabled, you should disable automatic init startup of the winbind daemon by executing the following command:
[root@clusmb-01 ~]# chkconfig windinbd off

11.5. Samba Configuration

The Samba configuration file smb.conf is located at /etc/samba/smb.conf in this example. It contains the following parameters:
[global]
	guest ok = yes
	clustering = yes
	netbios name = csmb-server
[csmb]
	comment = Clustered Samba
 	public = yes
	path = /mnt/gfs2/share
	writeable = yes
	ea support = yes
This example exports a share with name csmb located at /mnt/gfs2/share. This is different from the GFS2 shared filesystem at /mnt/ctdb/.ctdb.lock that we specified as the CTDB_RECOVERY_LOCK parameter in the CTDB configuration file at /etc/sysconfig/ctdb.
In this example, we will create the share directory in /mnt/gfs2 when we mount it for the first time. The clustering = yes entry instructs Samba to use CTDB. The netbios name = csmb-server entry explicitly sets all the nodes to have a common NetBIOS name. The ea support parameter is required if you plan to use extended attributes.
The smb.conf configuration file must be identical on all of the cluster nodes.
Samba also offers registry-based configuration using the net conf command to automatically keep configuration in sync between cluster members without having to manually copy configuration files among the cluster nodes. For information on the net conf command, refer to the net(8) man page.

11.6. Starting CTDB and Samba Services

After starting up the cluster, you must mount the GFS2 file systems that you created, as described in Section 11.3, “GFS2 Configuration”. The permissions on the Samba share directory and user accounts on the cluster nodes should be set up for client access.
Execute the following command on all of the nodes to start up the ctdbd daemon. Since this example configured CTDB with CTDB_MANAGES_SAMBA=yes, CTDB will also start up the Samba service on all nodes and export all configured Samba shares.
[root@clusmb-01 ~]# service ctdb start
It can take a couple of minutes for CTDB to start Samba, export the shares, and stabilize. Executing ctdb status shows the status of CTDB, as in the following example:
[root@clusmb-01 ~]# ctdb status
Number of nodes:3
pnn:0 192.168.1.151     OK (THIS NODE)
pnn:1 192.168.1.152     OK
pnn:2 192.168.1.153     OK
Generation:1410259202
Size:3
hash:0 lmaster:0
hash:1 lmaster:1
hash:2 lmaster:2
Recovery mode:NORMAL (0)
Recovery master:0
When you see that all nodes are "OK", it is safe to move on to use the clustered Samba server, as described in Section 11.7, “Using the Clustered Samba Server”.

11.7. Using the Clustered Samba Server

Clients can connect to the Samba share that was exported by connecting to one of the IP addresses specified in the /etc/ctdb/public_addresses file, or using the csmb-server DNS entry we configured earlier, as shown below:
[root@clusmb-01 ~]# mount -t cifs //csmb-server/csmb /mnt/sambashare -o user=testmonkey
or
[user@clusmb-01 ~]$ smbclient //csmb-server/csmb

Fence Device Parameters

This appendix provides tables with parameter descriptions of fence devices. You can configure the parameters with luci, by using the ccs command, or by editing the etc/cluster/cluster.conf file. For a comprehensive list and description of the fence device parameters for each fence agent, refer to the man page for that agent.

Note

The Name parameter for a fence device specifies an arbitrary name for the device that will be used by Red Hat High Availability Add-On. This is not the same as the DNS name for the device.

Note

Certain fence devices have an optional Password Script parameter. The Password Script parameter allows you to specify that a fence-device password is supplied from a script rather than from the Password parameter. Using the Password Script parameter supersedes the Password parameter, allowing passwords to not be visible in the cluster configuration file (/etc/cluster/cluster.conf).
Table A.1, “Fence Device Summary” lists the fence devices, the fence device agents associated with the fence devices, and provides a reference to the table documenting the parameters for the fence devices.

Table A.1. Fence Device Summary

Fence Device Fence Agent Reference to Parameter Description
APC Power Switch (telnet/SSH) fence_apc Table A.2, “APC Power Switch (telnet/SSH)”
APC Power Switch over SNMP fence_apc_snmp Table A.3, “APC Power Switch over SNMP”
Brocade Fabrid Switch fence_brocade Table A.4, “Brocade Fabric Switch”
Cisco MDS fence_cisco_mds Table A.5, “Cisco MDS”
Cisco UCS fence_cisco_ucs Table A.6, “Cisco UCS”
Dell DRAC 5 fence_drac5 Table A.7, “Dell DRAC 5”
Eaton Network Power Switch (SNMP Interface) fence_eaton_snmp Table A.8, “Eaton Network Power Controller (SNMP Interface) (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4 and later)”
Egenera SAN Controller fence_egenera Table A.9, “Egenera SAN Controller”
ePowerSwitch fence_eps Table A.10, “ePowerSwitch”
Fence virt fence_virt Table A.11, “Fence virt”
Fujitsu Siemens Remoteview Service Board (RSB) fence_rsb Table A.12, “Fujitsu Siemens Remoteview Service Board (RSB)”
HP BladeSystem fence_hpblade Table A.13, “HP BladeSystem (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4 and later)”
HP iLO (Integrated Lights Out), HP iLO2 fence_ilo, fence_ilo2 Table A.14, “HP iLO (Integrated Lights Out) and HP iLO2”
HP iLO (Integrated Lights Out) MP fence_ilo_mp Table A.15, “HP iLO (Integrated Lights Out) MP”
IBM BladeCenter fence_bladecenter Table A.16, “IBM BladeCenter”
IBM BladeCenter SNMP fence_ibmblade Table A.17, “IBM BladeCenter SNMP”
IBM iPDU fence_ipdu Table A.18, “IBM iPDU (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4 and later)”
IF MIB fence_ifmib Table A.19, “IF MIB”
Intel Modular fence_intelmodular Table A.20, “Intel Modular”
IPMI (Intelligent Platform Management Interface) LAN, IBM Integrated Management Module, Dell iDRAC, HPiLO3, HPiLO4. fence_ipmilan, fence_imm, fence_idrac, fence_ilo3, fence_ilo4 Table A.21, “IPMI (Intelligent Platform Management Interface) LAN, Dell iDrac, IBM Integrated Management Module, HPiLO3, HPiLO4”
RHEV-M REST API fence_rhevm Table A.22, “RHEV-M REST API (RHEL 6.2 and later against RHEV 3.0 and later)”
SCSI Fencing fence_scsi Table A.23, “SCSI Reservation Fencing”
VMware Fencing (SOAP Interface) fence_vmware_soap Table A.24, “VMware Fencing (SOAP Interface) (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 and later)”
WTI Power Switch fence_wti Table A.25, “WTI Power Switch”

Table A.2, “APC Power Switch (telnet/SSH)” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_apc, the fence agent for APC over telnet/SSH.

Table A.2. APC Power Switch (telnet/SSH)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the APC device connected to the cluster into which the fence daemon logs via telnet/ssh.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP address or hostname assigned to the device.
IP Port (optional) ipport The TCP port to use to connect to the device.
Login login The login name used to access the device.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the device.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
Power Wait (seconds) power_wait Number of seconds to wait after issuing a power off or power on command.
Power Timeout (seconds) power_timeout Number of seconds to wait before testing for a status change after issuing a power on or power on command. The default value is 20.
Shell Timeout (seconds) shell_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after issuing a command. The default value is 3.
Login Timeout (seconds) login_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after login. The default value is 5.
Times to Retry Power On Operation retry_on Number of attempts to retry a power on operation. The default value is 1.
Port port The port.
Switch (optional) switch The switch number for the APC switch that connects to the node when you have multiple daisy-chained switches.
Delay (optional) delay The number of seconds to wait before fencing is started. The default value is 0.
Use SSH secure Indicates that system will use SSH to access the device. When using SSH, you must specify either a password, a password script, or an identity file.
Path to SSH Identity File identity_file The identity file for SSH.

Table A.3, “APC Power Switch over SNMP” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_apc_snmp, the fence agent for APC that logs into the SNP device via the SNMP protocol.

Table A.3. APC Power Switch over SNMP

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the APC device connected to the cluster into which the fence daemon logs via the SNMP protocol.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP address or hostname assigned to the device.
UDP/TCP port udpport The UDP/TCP port to use for connection with the device; the default value is 161.
Login login The login name used to access the device.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the device.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
SNMP Version snmp_version The SNMP version to use (1, 2c, 3); the default value is 1.
SNMP Community community The SNMP community string; the default value is private.
SNMP Security Level snmp_sec_level The SNMP security level (noAuthNoPriv, authNoPriv, authPriv).
SNMP Authentication Protocol snmp_auth_prot The SNMP authentication protocol (MD5, SHA).
SNMP Privacy Protocol snmp_priv_prot The SNMP privacy protocol (DES, AES).
SNMP Privacy Protocol Password snmp_priv_passwd The SNMP privacy protocol password.
SNMP Privacy Protocol Script snmp_priv_passwd_script The script that supplies a password for SNMP privacy protocol. Using this supersedes the SNMP privacy protocol password parameter.
Power Wait (seconds) power_wait Number of seconds to wait after issuing a power off or power on command.
Power Timeout (seconds) power_timeout Number of seconds to wait before testing for a status change after issuing a power on or power on command. The default value is 20.
Shell Timeout (seconds) shell_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after issuing a command. The default value is 3.
Login Timeout (seconds) login_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after login. The default value is 5.
Times to Retry Power On Operation retry_on Number of attempts to retry a power on operation. The default value is 1.
Port (Outlet) Number port The port.
Delay (optional) delay The number of seconds to wait before fencing is started. The default value is 0.

Table A.4, “Brocade Fabric Switch” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_brocade, the fence agent for Brocade FC switches.

Table A.4. Brocade Fabric Switch

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the Brocade device connected to the cluster.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP address assigned to the device.
Login login The login name used to access the device.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the device.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
Port port The switch outlet number.
Unfencing unfence section of the cluster configuration file When enabled, this ensures that a fenced node is not re-enabled until the node has been rebooted. This is necessary for non-power fence methods (that is, SAN/storage fencing). When you configure a device that requires unfencing, the cluster must first be stopped and the full configuration including devices and unfencing must be added before the cluster is started. For more information about unfencing a node, refer to the fence_node(8) man page. For information about configuring unfencing in the cluster configuration file, refer to Section 7.3, “Configuring Fencing”. For information about configuring unfencing with the ccs command, refer to Section 5.7.2, “Configuring a Single Storage-Based Fence Device for a Node”.

Table A.5, “Cisco MDS” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_cisco_mds, the fence agent for Cisco MDS.

Table A.5. Cisco MDS

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the Cisco MDS 9000 series device with SNMP enabled.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP address or hostname assigned to the device.
UDP/TCP port (optional) udpport The UDP/TCP port to use for connection with the device; the default value is 161.
Login login The login name used to access the device.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the device.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
SNMP Version snmp_version The SNMP version to use (1, 2c, 3).
SNMP Community community The SNMP community string.
SNMP Security Level snmp_sec_level The SNMP security level (noAuthNoPriv, authNoPriv, authPriv).
SNMP Authentication Protocol snmp_auth_prot The SNMP authentication protocol (MD5, SHA).
SNMP Privacy Protocol snmp_priv_prot The SNMP privacy protocol (DES, AES).
SNMP Privacy Protocol Password snmp_priv_passwd The SNMP privacy protocol password.
SNMP Privacy Protocol Script snmp_priv_passwd_script The script that supplies a password for SNMP privacy protocol. Using this supersedes the SNMP privacy protocol password parameter.
Power Wait (seconds) power_wait Number of seconds to wait after issuing a power off or power on command.
Power Timeout (seconds) power_timeout Number of seconds to wait before testing for a status change after issuing a power on or power on command. The default value is 20.
Shell Timeout (seconds) shell_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after issuing a command. The default value is 3.
Login Timeout (seconds) login_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after login. The default value is 5.
Times to Retry Power On Operation retry_on Number of attempts to retry a power on operation. The default value is 1.
Port (Outlet) Number port The port.
Delay (optional) delay The number of seconds to wait before fencing is started. The default value is 0.

Table A.6, “Cisco UCS” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_cisco_ucs, the fence agent for Cisco UCS.

Table A.6. Cisco UCS

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the Cisco UCS device.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP address or hostname assigned to the device.
IP port (optional) ipport The TCP port to use to connect to the device.
Login login The login name used to access the device.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the device.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
Use SSL ssl Use SSL connections to communicate with the device.
Sub-Organization suborg Additional path needed to access suborganization.
Power Wait (seconds) power_wait Number of seconds to wait after issuing a power off or power on command.
Power Timeout (seconds) power_timeout Number of seconds to wait before testing for a status change after issuing a power on or power on command. The default value is 20.
Shell Timeout (seconds) shell_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after issuing a command. The default value is 3.
Login Timeout (seconds) login_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after login. The default value is 5.
Times to Retry Power On Operation retry_on Number of attempts to retry a power on operation. The default value is 1.
Port (Outlet) Number port Name of virtual machine.
Delay (optional) delay The number of seconds to wait before fencing is started. The default value is 0.

Table A.7, “Dell DRAC 5” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_drac5, the fence agent for Dell DRAC 5.

Table A.7. Dell DRAC 5

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name The name assigned to the DRAC.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP address or hostname assigned to the DRAC.
IP Port (optional) ipport The TCP port to use to connect to the device.
Login login The login name used to access the DRAC.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the DRAC.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
Use SSH secure Indicates that the system will use SSH to access the device. When using SSH, you must specify either a password, a password script, or an identity file.
Path to SSH Identity File identity_file The identity file for SSH.
Module Name module_name (optional) The module name for the DRAC when you have multiple DRAC modules.
Force Command Prompt cmd_prompt The command prompt to use. The default value is ’\$’.
Power Wait (seconds) power_wait Number of seconds to wait after issuing a power off or power on command.
Delay (seconds) delay The number of seconds to wait before fencing is started. The default value is 0.
Power Timeout (seconds) power_timeout Number of seconds to wait before testing for a status change after issuing a power on or power on command. The default value is 20.
Shell Timeout (seconds) shell_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after issuing a command. The default value is 3.
Login Timeout (seconds) login_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after login. The default value is 5.
Times to Retry Power On Operation retry_on Number of attempts to retry a power on operation. The default value is 1.

Table A.8, “Eaton Network Power Controller (SNMP Interface) (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4 and later)” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_eaton_snmp, the fence agent for the Eaton over SNMP network power switch.

Table A.8. Eaton Network Power Controller (SNMP Interface) (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4 and later)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the Eaton network power switch connected to the cluster.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP address or hostname assigned to the device.
UDP/TCP Port (optional) udpport The UDP/TCP port to use for connection with the device; the default value is 161.
Login login The login name used to access the device.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the device.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
SNMP Version snmp_version The SNMP version to use (1, 2c, 3); the default value is 1.
SNMP Community community The SNMP community string; the default value is private.
SNMP Security Level snmp_sec_level The SNMP security level (noAuthNoPriv, authNoPriv, authPriv).
SNMP Authentication Protocol snmp_auth_prot The SNMP authentication protocol (MD5, SHA).
SNMP Privacy Protocol snmp_priv_prot The SNMP privacy protocol (DES, AES).
SNMP Privacy Protocol Password snmp_priv_passwd The SNMP privacy protocol password.
SNMP Privacy Protocol Script snmp_priv_passwd_script The script that supplies a password for SNMP privacy protocol. Using this supersedes the SNMP privacy protocol password parameter.
Power wait (seconds) power_wait Number of seconds to wait after issuing a power off or power on command.
Power Timeout (seconds) power_timeout Number of seconds to wait before testing for a status change after issuing a power on or power on command. The default value is 20.
Shell Timeout (seconds) shell_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after issuing a command. The default value is 3.
Login Timeout (seconds) login_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after login. The default value is 5.
Times to Retry Power On Operation retry_on Number of attempts to retry a power on operation. The default value is 1.
Port (Outlet) Number port Physical plug number or name of virtual machine. This parameter is always required.
Delay (optional) delay The number of seconds to wait before fencing is started. The default value is 0.

Table A.9, “Egenera SAN Controller” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_egenera, the fence agent for the Egenera BladeFrame.

Table A.9. Egenera SAN Controller

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the Egenera BladeFrame device connected to the cluster.
CServer cserver The hostname (and optionally the username in the form of username@hostname) assigned to the device. Refer to the fence_egenera(8) man page for more information.
ESH Path (optional) esh The path to the esh command on the cserver (default is /opt/panmgr/bin/esh)
Username user The login name. The default value is root.
lpan lpan The logical process area network (LPAN) of the device.
pserver pserver The processing blade (pserver) name of the device.
Delay (optional) delay The number of seconds to wait before fencing is started. The default value is 0.
Unfencing unfence section of the cluster configuration file When enabled, this ensures that a fenced node is not re-enabled until the node has been rebooted. This is necessary for non-power fence methods (that is, SAN/storage fencing). When you configure a device that requires unfencing, the cluster must first be stopped and the full configuration including devices and unfencing must be added before the cluster is started. For more information about unfencing a node, refer to the fence_node(8) man page. For information about configuring unfencing in the cluster configuration file, refer to Section 7.3, “Configuring Fencing”. For information about configuring unfencing with the ccs command, refer to Section 5.7.2, “Configuring a Single Storage-Based Fence Device for a Node”.

Table A.10, “ePowerSwitch” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_eps, the fence agent for ePowerSwitch.

Table A.10. ePowerSwitch

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the ePowerSwitch device connected to the cluster.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP address or hostname assigned to the device.
Login login The login name used to access the device.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the device.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
Name of Hidden Page hidden_page The name of the hidden page for the device.
Times to Retry Power On Operation retry_on Number of attempts to retry a power on operation. The default value is 1.
Port (Outlet) Number port Physical plug number or name of virtual machine.
Delay (optional) delay The number of seconds to wait before fencing is started. The default value is 0.

Table A.11, “Fence virt” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_virt, the fence agent for a Fence virt fence device.

Table A.11. Fence virt

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the Fence virt fence device.
Serial Device serial_device On the host, the serial device must be mapped in each domain's configuration file. For more information, see the fence_virt.conf man page. If this field is specified, it causes the fence_virt fencing agent to operate in serial mode. Not specifying a value causes the fence_virt fencing agent to operate in VM channel mode.
Serial Parameters serial_params The serial parameters. The default is 115200, 8N1.
VM Channel IP Address channel_address The channel IP. The default value is 10.0.2.179.
Port or Domain (deprecated) port Virtual machine (domain UUID or name) to fence.
ipport The channel port. The default value is 1229, which is the value used when configuring this fence device with luci.

Table A.12, “Fujitsu Siemens Remoteview Service Board (RSB)” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_rsb, the fence agent for Fujitsu-Siemens RSB.

Table A.12. Fujitsu Siemens Remoteview Service Board (RSB)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the RSB to use as a fence device.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The hostname assigned to the device.
Login login The login name used to access the device.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the device.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
TCP Port ipport The port number on which the telnet service listens. The default value is 3172.
Force Command Prompt cmd_prompt The command prompt to use. The default value is ’\$’.
Power Wait (seconds) power_wait Number of seconds to wait after issuing a power off or power on command.
Delay (seconds) delay The number of seconds to wait before fencing is started. The default value is 0.
Power Timeout (seconds) power_timeout Number of seconds to wait before testing for a status change after issuing a power on or power on command. The default value is 20.
Shell Timeout (seconds) shell_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after issuing a command. The default value is 3.
Login Timeout (seconds) login_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after login. The default value is 5.
Times to Retry Power On Operation retry_on Number of attempts to retry a power on operation. The default value is 1.

Table A.13, “HP BladeSystem (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4 and later)” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_hpblade, the fence agent for HP BladeSystem.

Table A.13. HP BladeSystem (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4 and later)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name The name assigned to the HP Bladesystem device connected to the cluster.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP address or hostname assigned to the HP BladeSystem device.
IP Port (optional) ipport The TCP port to use to connect to the device.
Login login The login name used to access the HP BladeSystem device. This parameter is required.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the fence device.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
Force Command Prompt cmd_prompt The command prompt to use. The default value is ’\$’.
Missing port returns OFF instead of failure missing_as_off Missing port returns OFF instead of failure.
Power Wait (seconds) power_wait Number of seconds to wait after issuing a power off or power on command.
Power Timeout (seconds) power_timeout Number of seconds to wait before testing for a status change after issuing a power on or power on command. The default value is 20.
Shell Timeout (seconds) shell_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after issuing a command. The default value is 3.
Login Timeout (seconds) login_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after login. The default value is 5.
Times to Retry Power On Operation retry_on Number of attempts to retry a power on operation. The default value is 1.
Use SSH secure Indicates that the system will use SSH to access the device. When using SSH, you must specify either a password, a password script, or an identity file.
Path to SSH Identity File identity_file The identity file for SSH.

The fence agents for HP iLO devices fence_ilo and HP iLO2 devices fence_ilo2. share the same implementation. Table A.14, “HP iLO (Integrated Lights Out) and HP iLO2” lists the fence device parameters used by these agents.

Table A.14. HP iLO (Integrated Lights Out) and HP iLO2

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the server with HP iLO support.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP address or hostname assigned to the device.
IP Port (optional) ipport TCP port to use for connection with the device.
Login login The login name used to access the device.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the device.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
Power Wait (seconds) power_wait Number of seconds to wait after issuing a power off or power on command.
Delay (seconds) delay The number of seconds to wait before fencing is started. The default value is 0.
Power Timeout (seconds) power_timeout Number of seconds to wait before testing for a status change after issuing a power on or power on command. The default value is 20.
Shell Timeout (seconds) shell_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after issuing a command. The default value is 3.
Login Timeout (seconds) login_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after login. The default value is 5.
Times to Retry Power On Operation retry_on Number of attempts to retry a power on operation. The default value is 1.

Table A.15, “HP iLO (Integrated Lights Out) MP” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_ilo_mp, the fence agent for HP iLO MP devices.

Table A.15. HP iLO (Integrated Lights Out) MP

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the server with HP iLO support.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP address or hostname assigned to the device.
IP Port (optional) ipport TCP port to use for connection with the device.
Login login The login name used to access the device.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the device.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
Use SSH secure Indicates that the system will use SSH to access the device. When using SSH, you must specify either a password, a password script, or an identity file.
Path to SSH Identity File identity_file The Identity file for SSH.
Force Command Prompt cmd_prompt The command prompt to use. The default value is ’MP>’, ’hpiLO->’.
Power Wait (seconds) power_wait Number of seconds to wait after issuing a power off or power on command.
Delay (seconds) delay The number of seconds to wait before fencing is started. The default value is 0.
Power Timeout (seconds) power_timeout Number of seconds to wait before testing for a status change after issuing a power on or power on command. The default value is 20.
Shell Timeout (seconds) shell_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after issuing a command. The default value is 3.
Login Timeout (seconds) login_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after login. The default value is 5.
Times to Retry Power On Operation retry_on Number of attempts to retry a power on operation. The default value is 1.

Table A.16, “IBM BladeCenter” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_bladecenter, the fence agent for IBM BladeCenter.

Table A.16. IBM BladeCenter

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the IBM BladeCenter device connected to the cluster.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP address or hostname assigned to the device.
IP port (optional) ipport TCP port to use for connection with the device.
Login login The login name used to access the device.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the device.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
Power Wait (seconds) power_wait Number of seconds to wait after issuing a power off or power on command.
Power Timeout (seconds) power_timeout Number of seconds to wait before testing for a status change after issuing a power on or power on command. The default value is 20.
Shell Timeout (seconds) shell_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after issuing a command. The default value is 3.
Login Timeout (seconds) login_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after login. The default value is 5.
Times to Retry Power On Operation retry_on Number of attempts to retry a power on operation. The default value is 1.
Use SSH secure Indicates that system will use SSH to access the device. When using SSH, you must specify either a password, a password script, or an identity file.
Path to SSH Identity File identity_file The identity file for SSH.

Table A.17, “IBM BladeCenter SNMP” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_ibmblade, the fence agent for IBM BladeCenter over SNMP.

Table A.17. IBM BladeCenter SNMP

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the IBM BladeCenter SNMP device connected to the cluster.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP address or hostname assigned to the device.
UDP/TCP Port (optional) udpport UDP/TCP port to use for connections with the device; the default value is 161.
Login login The login name used to access the device.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the device.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
SNMP Version snmp_version The SNMP version to use (1, 2c, 3); the default value is 1.
SNMP Community community The SNMP community string.
SNMP Security Level snmp_sec_level The SNMP security level (noAuthNoPriv, authNoPriv, authPriv).
SNMP Authentication Protocol snmp_auth_prot The SNMP authentication protocol (MD5, SHA).
SNMP Privacy Protocol snmp_priv_prot The SNMP privacy protocol (DES, AES).
SNMP privacy protocol password snmp_priv_passwd The SNMP Privacy Protocol Password.
SNMP Privacy Protocol Script snmp_priv_passwd_script The script that supplies a password for SNMP privacy protocol. Using this supersedes the SNMP privacy protocol password parameter.
Power Wait (seconds) power_wait Number of seconds to wait after issuing a power off or power on command.
Power Timeout (seconds) power_timeout Number of seconds to wait before testing for a status change after issuing a power on or power on command. The default value is 20.
Shell Timeout (seconds) shell_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after issuing a command. The default value is 3.
Login Timeout (seconds) login_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after login. The default value is 5.
Times to Retry Power On Operation retry_on Number of attempts to retry a power on operation. The default value is 1.
Port (Outlet) Number port Physical plug number or name of virtual machine.
Delay (optional) delay The number of seconds to wait before fencing is started. The default value is 0.

Table A.18, “IBM iPDU (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4 and later)” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_ipdu, the fence agent for iPDU over SNMP devices.

Table A.18. IBM iPDU (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4 and later)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the IBM iPDU device connected to the cluster into which the fence daemon logs via the SNMP protocol.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP address or hostname assigned to the device.
UDP/TCP Port udpport The UDP/TCP port to use for connection with the device; the default value is 161.
Login login The login name used to access the device.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the device.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
SNMP Version snmp_version The SNMP version to use (1, 2c, 3); the default value is 1.
SNMP Community community The SNMP community string; the default value is private.
SNMP Security Level snmp_sec_level The SNMP security level (noAuthNoPriv, authNoPriv, authPriv).
SNMP Authentication Protocol snmp_auth_prot The SNMP Authentication Protocol (MD5, SHA).
SNMP Privacy Protocol snmp_priv_prot The SNMP privacy protocol (DES, AES).
SNMP Privacy Protocol Password snmp_priv_passwd The SNMP privacy protocol password.
SNMP Privacy Protocol Script snmp_priv_passwd_script The script that supplies a password for SNMP privacy protocol. Using this supersedes the SNMP privacy protocol password parameter.
Power Wait (seconds) power_wait Number of seconds to wait after issuing a power off or power on command.
Power Timeout (seconds) power_timeout Number of seconds to wait before testing for a status change after issuing a power on or power on command. The default value is 20.
Shell Timeout (seconds) shell_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after issuing a command. The default value is 3.
Login Timeout (seconds) login_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after login. The default value is 5.
Times to Retry Power On Operation retry_on Number of attempts to retry a power on operation. The default value is 1.
Port (Outlet) Number port Physical plug number or name of virtual machine.
Delay (optional) delay The number of seconds to wait before fencing is started. The default value is 0.

Table A.19, “IF MIB” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_ifmib, the fence agent for IF-MIB devices.

Table A.19. IF MIB

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the IF MIB device connected to the cluster.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP address or hostname assigned to the device.
UDP/TCP Port (optional) udpport The UDP/TCP port to use for connection with the device; the default value is 161.
Login login The login name used to access the device.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the device.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
SNMP Version snmp_version The SNMP version to use (1, 2c, 3); the default value is 1.
SNMP Community community The SNMP community string.
SNMP Security Level snmp_sec_level The SNMP security level (noAuthNoPriv, authNoPriv, authPriv).
SNMP Authentication Protocol snmp_auth_prot The SNMP authentication protocol (MD5, SHA).
SNMP Privacy Protocol snmp_priv_prot The SNMP privacy protocol (DES, AES).
SNMP Privacy Protocol Password snmp_priv_passwd The SNMP privacy protocol password.
SNMP Privacy Protocol Script snmp_priv_passwd_script The script that supplies a password for SNMP privacy protocol. Using this supersedes the SNMP privacy protocol password parameter.
Power Wait (seconds) power_wait Number of seconds to wait after issuing a power off or power on command.
Power Timeout (seconds) power_timeout Number of seconds to wait before testing for a status change after issuing a power on or power on command. The default value is 20.
Shell Timeout (seconds) shell_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after issuing a command. The default value is 3.
Login Timeout (seconds) login_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after login. The default value is 5.
Times to Retry Power On Operation retry_on Number of attempts to retry a power on operation. The default value is 1.
Port (Outlet) Number port Physical plug number or name of virtual machine.
Delay (optional) delay The number of seconds to wait before fencing is started. The default value is 0.

Table A.20, “Intel Modular” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_intelmodular, the fence agent for Intel Modular.

Table A.20. Intel Modular

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the Intel Modular device connected to the cluster.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP address or hostname assigned to the device.
UDP/TCP Port (optional) udpport The UDP/TCP port to use for connection with the device; the default value is 161.
Login login The login name used to access the device.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the device.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
SNMP Version snmp_version The SNMP version to use (1, 2c, 3); the default value is 1.
SNMP Community community The SNMP community string; the default value is private.
SNMP Security Level snmp_sec_level The SNMP security level (noAuthNoPriv, authNoPriv, authPriv).
SNMP Authentication Protocol snmp_auth_prot The SNMP authentication protocol (MD5, SHA).
SNMP Privacy Protocol snmp_priv_prot The SNMP privacy protocol (DES, AES).
SNMP Privacy Protocol Password snmp_priv_passwd The SNMP privacy protocol password.
SNMP Privacy Protocol Script snmp_priv_passwd_script The script that supplies a password for SNMP privacy protocol. Using this supersedes the SNMP privacy protocol password parameter.
Power Wait (seconds) power_wait Number of seconds to wait after issuing a power off or power on command.
Power Timeout (seconds) power_timeout Number of seconds to wait before testing for a status change after issuing a power on or power on command. The default value is 20.
Shell Timeout (seconds) shell_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after issuing a command. The default value is 3.
Login Timeout (seconds) login_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after login. The default value is 5.
Times to Retry Power On Operation retry_on Number of attempts to retry a power on operation. The default value is 1.
Port (Outlet) Number port Physical plug number or name of virtual machine.
Delay (optional) delay The number of seconds to wait before fencing is started. The default value is 0.

The fence agents for IPMI over LAN (fence_ipmilan,) Dell iDRAC (fence_idrac), IBM Integrated Management Module (fence_imm), HP iLO3 devices fence_ilo3, and HP iLO4 devices fence_ilo4 share the same implementation. Table A.21, “IPMI (Intelligent Platform Management Interface) LAN, Dell iDrac, IBM Integrated Management Module, HPiLO3, HPiLO4” lists the fence device parameters used by these agents.

Table A.21. IPMI (Intelligent Platform Management Interface) LAN, Dell iDrac, IBM Integrated Management Module, HPiLO3, HPiLO4

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the fence device connected to the cluster.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP address or hostname assigned to the device.
Login login The login name of a user capable of issuing power on/off commands to the given port.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the port.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
Authentication Type auth Authentication type: none, password, or MD5.
Use Lanplus lanplus True or 1. If blank, then value is False. It is recommended that you enable Lanplus to improve the security of your connection if your hardware supports it.
Ciphersuite to use cipher The remote server authentication, integrity, and encryption algorithms to use for IPMIv2 lanplus connections.
Privilege level privlvl The privilege level on the device.
IPMI Operation Timeout timeout Timeout in seconds for IPMI operation.
Power Wait (seconds) power_wait Number of seconds to wait after issuing a power off or power on command.
Delay (optional) delay The number of seconds to wait before fencing is started. The default value is 0.

Table A.22, “RHEV-M REST API (RHEL 6.2 and later against RHEV 3.0 and later)” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_rhevm, the fence agent for RHEV-M REST API.

Table A.22. RHEV-M REST API (RHEL 6.2 and later against RHEV 3.0 and later)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name Name of the RHEV-M REST API fencing device.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP address or hostname assigned to the device.
IP Port (optional) ipport The TCP port to use for connection with the device.
Login login The login name used to access the device.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the device.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
Use SSL ssl Use SSL connections to communicate with the device.
Power Wait (seconds) power_wait Number of seconds to wait after issuing a power off or power on command.
Power Timeout (seconds) power_timeout Number of seconds to wait before testing for a status change after issuing a power on or power on command. The default value is 20.
Shell Timeout (seconds) shell_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after issuing a command. The default value is 3.
Login Timeout (seconds) login_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after login. The default value is 5.
Times to Retry Power On Operation retry_on Number of attempts to retry a power on operation. The default value is 1.
Port (Outlet) Number port Physical plug number or name of virtual machine.
Delay (optional) delay The number of seconds to wait before fencing is started. The default value is 0.

Table A.23, “SCSI Reservation Fencing” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_scsi, the fence agent for SCSI persistent reservations.

Note

Use of SCSI persistent reservations as a fence method is supported with the following limitations:
  • When using SCSI fencing, all nodes in the cluster must register with the same devices so that each node can remove another node's registration key from all the devices it is registered with.
  • Devices used for the cluster volumes should be a complete LUN, not partitions. SCSI persistent reservations work on an entire LUN, meaning that access is controlled to each LUN, not individual partitions.

Table A.23. SCSI Reservation Fencing

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the SCSI fence device.
Unfencing unfence section of the cluster configuration file When enabled, this ensures that a fenced node is not re-enabled until the node has been rebooted. This is necessary for non-power fence methods (that is, SAN/storage fencing). When you configure a device that requires unfencing, the cluster must first be stopped and the full configuration including devices and unfencing must be added before the cluster is started. For more information about unfencing a node, refer to the fence_node(8) man page. For information about configuring unfencing in the cluster configuration file, refer to Section 7.3, “Configuring Fencing”. For information about configuring unfencing with the ccs command, refer to Section 5.7.2, “Configuring a Single Storage-Based Fence Device for a Node”.
Node name nodename The node name is used to generate the key value used for the current operation.
Key for current action key (overrides node name) Key to use for the current operation. This key should be unique to a node. For the "on" action, the key specifies the key use to register the local node. For the "off" action,this key specifies the key to be removed from the device(s).
Delay (optional) delay The number of seconds to wait before fencing is started. The default value is 0.

Table A.24, “VMware Fencing (SOAP Interface) (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 and later)” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_vmware_soap, the fence agent for VMWare over SOAP API.

Table A.24. VMware Fencing (SOAP Interface) (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 and later)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name Name of the virtual machine fencing device.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP address or hostname assigned to the device.
IP Port (optional) ipport The TCP port to use for connection with the device.
Login login The login name used to access the device.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the device.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
Power Wait (seconds) power_wait Number of seconds to wait after issuing a power off or power on command.
Power Timeout (seconds) power_timeout Number of seconds to wait before testing for a status change after issuing a power on or power on command. The default value is 20.
Shell Timeout (seconds) shell_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after issuing a command. The default value is 3.
Login Timeout (seconds) login_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after login. The default value is 5.
Times to Retry Power On Operation retry_on Number of attempts to retry a power on operation. The default value is 1.
VM name port Name of virtual machine in inventory path format (e.g., /datacenter/vm/Discovered_virtual_machine/myMachine).
VM UUID uuid The UUID of the virtual machine to fence.
Delay (optional) delay The number of seconds to wait before fencing is started. The default value is 0.
Use SSL ssl Use SSL connections to communicate with the device.

Table A.25, “WTI Power Switch” lists the fence device parameters used by fence_wti, the fence agent for the WTI network power switch.

Table A.25. WTI Power Switch

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A name for the WTI power switch connected to the cluster.
IP Address or Hostname ipaddr The IP or hostname address assigned to the device.
IP Port (optional) ipport The TCP port to use to connect to the device.
Login login The login name used to access the device.
Password passwd The password used to authenticate the connection to the device.
Password Script (optional) passwd_script The script that supplies a password for access to the fence device. Using this supersedes the Password parameter.
Force command prompt cmd_prompt The command prompt to use. The default value is [’RSM>’, ’>MPC’, ’IPS>’, ’TPS>’, ’NBB>’, ’NPS>’, ’VMR>’]
Power Wait (seconds) power_wait Number of seconds to wait after issuing a power off or power on command.
Power Timeout (seconds) power_timeout Number of seconds to wait before testing for a status change after issuing a power on or power on command. The default value is 20.
Shell Timeout (seconds) shell_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after issuing a command. The default value is 3.
Login Timeout (seconds) login_timeout Number of seconds to wait for a command prompt after login. The default value is 5.
Times to Retry Power On Operation retry_on Number of attempts to retry a power on operation. The default value is 1.
Use SSH secure Indicates that system will use SSH to access the device. When using SSH, you must specify either a password, a password script, or an identity file.
Path to SSH Identity File identity_file The identity file for SSH.
Port port Physical plug number or name of virtual machine.

HA Resource Parameters

This appendix provides descriptions of HA resource parameters. You can configure the parameters with luci, by using the ccs command, or by editing the etc/cluster/cluster.conf file. Table B.1, “HA Resource Summary” lists the resources, their corresponding resource agents, and references to other tables containing parameter descriptions. To understand resource agents in more detail you can view them in /usr/share/cluster of any cluster node.
In addition to the resource agents described in this appendix, the /usr/share/cluster directory includes a dummy OCF script for a resource group, service.sh. For more information about the parameters included in this script, refer to the service.sh script itself.
For a more comprehensive list and description of cluster.conf elements and attributes, refer to the cluster schema at /usr/share/cluster/cluster.rng, and the annotated schema at /usr/share/doc/cman-X.Y.ZZ /cluster_conf.html (for example /usr/share/doc/cman-3.0.12/cluster_conf.html).

Table B.1. HA Resource Summary

Resource Resource Agent Reference to Parameter Description
Apache apache.sh Table B.2, “Apache (apache Resource)”
Condor Instance condor.sh Table B.3, “Condor Instance (condor Resource)”
Filesystem fs.sh Table B.4, “Filesystem (fs Resource”
GFS2 clusterfs.sh Table B.5, “GFS2 (clusterfs Resource)”
IP Address ip.sh Table B.6, “IP Address (ip Resource”
HA LVM lvm.sh Table B.7, “HA LVM (lvm Resource)”
MySQL mysql.sh Table B.8, “MySQL (mysql Resource)”
NFS/CIFS Mount netfs.sh Table B.9, “NFS/CIFS Mount (netfs resource)”
NFS Client nfsclient.sh Table B.10, “NFS Client (nfsclient Resource)”
NFS v3 Export nfsexport.sh Table B.11, “NFS v3 Export (nfsexport Resource)”
NFS Server nfsserver.sh Table B.12, “NFS Server (nfsserver Resource)”
Oracle 10g/11g Failover Instance oracledb.sh Table B.14, “Oracle 10g/11g Failover Instance (oracledb Resource)”
Oracle 10g/11g Instance orainstance.sh Table B.15, “Oracle 10g/11g Failover Instance (orainstance Resource)”
Oracle 10g/11g Listener oralistener.sh Table B.16, “Oracle 10g/11g Listener (oralistener Resource)”
Open LDAP openldap.sh Table B.13, “Open LDAP (openldap Resource)”
PostgreSQL 8 postgres-8.sh Table B.17, “PostgreSQL 8 (postgrest-8 Resource)”
SAP Database SAPDatabase Table B.18, “SAP Database (SAPDatabase Resource)”
SAP Instance SAPInstance Table B.19, “SAP Instance (SAPInstance Resource)”
Samba Server samba.sh Table B.20, “Samba Server (samba Resource)”
Script script.sh Table B.21, “Script (script Resource)”
Sybase ASE Failover Instance ASEHAagent.sh Table B.22, “Sybase ASE Failover Instance (ASEHAagent Resource)”
Tomcat 6 tomcat-6.sh Table B.23, “Tomcat 6 (tomcat-6 Resource)”
Virtual Machine vm.sh Table B.24, “Virtual Machine (vm Resource)”
NOTE: luci displays this as a virtual service if the host cluster can support virtual machines.

Table B.2. Apache (apache Resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name The name of the Apache Service.
Server Root server_root The default value is /etc/httpd.
Config File config_file Specifies the Apache configuration file. The default valuer is /etc/httpd/conf.
httpd Options httpd_options Other command line options for httpd.
Shutdown Wait (seconds) shutdown_wait Specifies the number of seconds to wait for correct end of service shutdown.

Table B.3. Condor Instance (condor Resource)

Field luci Field cluster.conf Attribute
Instance Name name Specifies a unique name for the Condor instance.
Condor Subsystem Type type Specifies the type of Condor subsystem for this instance: schedd, job_server, or query_server.

Table B.4. Filesystem (fs Resource

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name Specifies a name for the file system resource.
Filesystem Type fstype If not specified, mount tries to determine the file system type.
Mount Point mountpoint Path in file system hierarchy to mount this file system.
Device, FS Label, or UUID device Specifies the device associated with the file system resource. This can be a block device, file system label, or UUID of a file system.
Mount Options options Mount options; that is, options used when the file system is mounted. These may be file-system specific. Refer to the mount(8) man page for supported mount options.
File System ID (optional) fsid

Note

File System ID is used only by NFS services.
When creating a new file system resource, you can leave this field blank. Leaving the field blank causes a file system ID to be assigned automatically after you commit the parameter during configuration. If you need to assign a file system ID explicitly, specify it in this field.
Force Unmount force_unmount If enabled, forces the file system to unmount. The default setting is disabled. Force Unmount kills all processes using the mount point to free up the mount when it tries to unmount.
Force fsck force_fsck If enabled, causes fsck to be run on the file system before mounting it. The default setting is disabled.
Enable NFS daemon and lockd workaround (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4 and later) nfsrestart If your filesystem is exported via NFS and occasionally fails to unmount (either during shutdown or service relocation), setting this option will drop all filesystem references prior to the unmount operation. Setting this option requires that you enable the Force unmount option and must not be used together with the NFS Server resource. You should set this option as a last resort only, as this is a hard attempt to unmount a file system.
Use Quick Status Checks quick_status If enabled, performs quick status checks.
Reboot Host Node if Unmount Fails self_fence If enabled, reboots the node if unmounting this file system fails. The filesystem resource agent accepts a value of 1, yes, on, or true to enable this parameter, and a value of 0, no, off, or false to disable it. The default setting is disabled.

Table B.5. GFS2 (clusterfs Resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name The name of the file system resource.
Mount Point mountpoint The path to which the file system resource is mounted.
Device, FS Label, or UUID device The device file associated with the file system resource.
Filesystem Type fstype Set to GFS2 on luci
Mount Options options Mount options.
File System ID (optional) fsid

Note

File System ID is used only by NFS services.
When creating a new GFS2 resource, you can leave this field blank. Leaving the field blank causes a file system ID to be assigned automatically after you commit the parameter during configuration. If you need to assign a file system ID explicitly, specify it in this field.
Force Unmount force_unmount If enabled, forces the file system to unmount. The default setting is disabled. Force Unmount kills all processes using the mount point to free up the mount when it tries to unmount. With GFS2 resources, the mount point is not unmounted at service tear-down unless Force Unmount is enabled.
Enable NFS daemon and lockd workaround (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4 and later) nfsrestart If your filesystem is exported via NFS and occasionally fails to unmount (either during shutdown or service relocation), setting this option will drop all filesystem references prior to the unmount operation. Setting this option requires that you enable the Force unmount option and must not be used together with the NFS Server resource. You should set this option as a last resort only, as this is a hard attempt to unmount a file system.
Reboot Host Node if Unmount Fails self_fence If enabled and unmounting the file system fails, the node will immediately reboot. Generally, this is used in conjunction with force-unmount support, but it is not required. The GFS2 resource agent accepts a value of 1, yes, on, or true to enable this parameter, and a value of 0, no, off, or false to disable it.

Table B.6. IP Address (ip Resource

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
IP Address, Netmask Bits address The IP address (and, optionally, netmask bits) for the resource. Netmask bits, or network prefix length, may come after the address itself with a slash as a separator, complying with CIDR notation (for example, 10.1.1.1/8). This is a virtual IP address. IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are supported, as is NIC link monitoring for each IP address.
Monitor Link monitor_link Enabling this causes the status check to fail if the link on the NIC to which this IP address is bound is not present.
Disable Updates to Static Routes disable_rdisc Disable updating of routing using RDISC protocol.
Number of Seconds to Sleep After Removing an IP Address sleeptime Specifies the amount of time (in seconds) to sleep.

Table B.7. HA LVM (lvm Resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name A unique name for this LVM resource.
Volume Group Name vg_name A descriptive name of the volume group being managed.
Logical Volume Name lv_name Name of the logical volume being managed. This parameter is optional if there is more than one logical volume in the volume group being managed.
Fence the Node if It is Unable to Clean UP LVM Tags self_fence Fence the node if it is unable to clean up LVM tags. The LVM resource agent accepts a value of 1 or yes to enable this parameter, and a value of 0 or no to disable it.

Table B.8. MySQL (mysql Resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name Specifies a name of the MySQL server resource.
Config File config_file Specifies the configuration file. The default value is /etc/my.cnf.
Listen Address listen_address Specifies an IP address for MySQL server. If an IP address is not provided, the first IP address from the service is taken.
mysqld Options mysqld_options Other command line options for mysqld.
Startup Wait (seconds) startup_wait Specifies the number of seconds to wait for correct end of service startup.
Shutdown Wait (seconds) shutdown_wait Specifies the number of seconds to wait for correct end of service shutdown.

Table B.9. NFS/CIFS Mount (netfs resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name
Symbolic name for the NFS or CIFS mount.

Note

This resource is required when a cluster service is configured to be an NFS client.
Mount Point mountpoint Path to which the file system resource is mounted.
Host host NFS/CIFS server IP address or hostname.
NFS Export Directory Name or CIFS share export NFS Export directory name or CIFS share name.
Filesystem Type fstype
File system type:
  • NFS — Specifies using the default NFS version. This is the default setting.
  • NFS v4 — Specifies using NFSv4 protocol.
  • CIFS — Specifies using CIFS protocol.
Do Not Unmount the Filesystem During a Stop of Relocation Operation. no_unmount If enabled, specifies that the file system should not be unmounted during a stop or relocation operation.
Force Unmount force_unmount If Force Unmount is enabled, the cluster kills all processes using this file system when the service is stopped. Killing all processes using the file system frees up the file system. Otherwise, the unmount will fail, and the service will be restarted.
Options options Mount options. Specifies a list of mount options. If none are specified, the file system is mounted -o sync.

Table B.10. NFS Client (nfsclient Resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name This is a symbolic name of a client used to reference it in the resource tree. This is not the same thing as the Target option.
Target Hostname, Wildcard, or Netgroup target This is the server from which you are mounting. It can be specified using a hostname, a wildcard (IP address or hostname based), or a netgroup defining a host or hosts to export to.
Allow Recovery of This NFS Client allow_recover Allow recovery.
Options options Defines a list of options for this client — for example, additional client access rights. For more information, refer to the exports (5) man page, General Options.

Table B.11. NFS v3 Export (nfsexport Resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name
Descriptive name of the resource. The NFS Export resource ensures that NFS daemons are running. It is fully reusable; typically, only one NFS Export resource is needed. For more information on configuring the nfsexport resource, see Section 7.8, “Configuring nfsexport and nfsserver Resources”.

Tip

Name the NFS Export resource so it is clearly distinguished from other NFS resources.

Table B.12. NFS Server (nfsserver Resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name
Descriptive name of the NFS server resource. The NFS server resource is useful for exporting NFSv4 file systems to clients. Because of the way NFSv4 works, only one NFSv4 resource may exist on a server at a time. Additionally, it is not possible to use the NFS server resource when also using local instances of NFS on each cluster node. For more information on configuring the nfsserver resource, see Section 7.8, “Configuring nfsexport and nfsserver Resources”.

Table B.13. Open LDAP (openldap Resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name Specifies a service name for logging and other purposes.
Config File config_file Specifies an absolute path to a configuration file. The default value is /etc/openldap/slapd.conf.
URL List url_list The default value is ldap:///.
slapd Options slapd_options Other command line options for slapd.
Shutdown Wait (seconds) shutdown_wait Specifies the number of seconds to wait for correct end of service shutdown.

Table B.14. Oracle 10g/11g Failover Instance (oracledb Resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Instance Name (SID) of Oracle Instance name Instance name.
Oracle Listener Instance Name listener_name Oracle listener instance name. If you have multiple instances of Oracle running, it may be necessary to have multiple listeners on the same machine with different names.
Oracle User Name user This is the user name of the Oracle user that the Oracle AS instance runs as.
Oracle Application Home Directory home This is the Oracle (application, not user) home directory. It is configured when you install Oracle.
Oracle Installation Type type
The Oracle installation type.
  • Default: 10g
  • base: Database Instance and Listener only
  • base-11g: Oracle11g Database Instance and Listener Only
  • base-em (or 10g): Database, Listener, Enterprise Manager, and iSQL*Plus
  • base-em-11g: Database, Listener, Enterprise Manager dbconsole
  • ias (or 10g-ias): Internet Application Server (Infrastructure)
Virtual Hostname (optional) vhost Virtual Hostname matching the installation hostname of Oracle 10g. Note that during the start/stop of an oracledb resource, your hostname is changed temporarily to this hostname. Therefore, you should configure an oracledb resource as part of an exclusive service only.
TNS_ADMIN (optional) tns_admin Path to specific listener configuration file.

Table B.15. Oracle 10g/11g Failover Instance (orainstance Resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Instance name (SID) of Oracle instance name Instance name.
Oracle User Name user This is the user name of the Oracle user that the Oracle instance runs as.
Oracle Application Home Directory home This is the Oracle (application, not user) home directory. It is configured when you install Oracle.
List of Oracle Listeners (optional, separated by spaces) listeners List of Oracle listeners which will be started with the database instance. Listener names are separated by whitespace. Defaults to empty which disables listeners.
Path to Lock File (optional) lockfile Location for lockfile which will be used for checking if the Oracle should be running or not. Defaults to location under /tmp.
TNS_ADMIN (optional) tns_admin Path to specific listener configuration file.

Table B.16. Oracle 10g/11g Listener (oralistener Resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Listener Name name Listener name.
Oracle User Name user This is the user name of the Oracle user that the Oracle instance runs as.
Oracle Application Home Directory home This is the Oracle (application, not user) home directory. It is configured when you install Oracle.
TNS_ADMIN (optional) tns_admin Path to specific listener configuration file.

Table B.17. PostgreSQL 8 (postgrest-8 Resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name Specifies a service name for logging and other purposes.
Config File config_file Define absolute path to configuration file. The default value is /var/lib/pgsql/data/postgresql.conf.
Postmaster User postmaster_user User who runs the database server because it cannot be run by root. The default value is postgres.
Postmaster Options postmaster_options Other command line options for postmaster.
Shutdown Wait (seconds) shutdown_wait Specifies the number of seconds to wait for correct end of service shutdown.

Table B.18. SAP Database (SAPDatabase Resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
SAP Database Name SID Specifies a unique SAP system identifier. For example, P01.
SAP Executable Directory DIR_EXECUTABLE Specifies the fully qualified path to sapstartsrv and sapcontrol.
Database Type DBTYPE Specifies one of the following database types: Oracle, DB6, or ADA.
Oracle Listener Name NETSERVICENAME Specifies Oracle TNS listener name.
ABAP Stack is Not Installed, Only Java Stack is Installed DBJ2EE_ONLY If you do not have an ABAP stack installed in the SAP database, enable this parameter.
Application Level Monitoring STRICT_MONITORING Activates application level monitoring.
Automatic Startup Recovery AUTOMATIC_RECOVER Enable or disable automatic startup recovery.
Path to Java SDK JAVE_HOME Path to Java SDK.
File Name of the JDBC Driver DB_JARS File name of the JDBC driver.
Path to a Pre-Start Script PRE_START_USEREXIT Path to a pre-start script.
Path to a Post-Start Script POST_START_USEREXIT Path to a post-start script.
Path to a Pre-Stop Script PRE_STOP_USEREXIT Path to a pre-stop script
Path to a Post-Stop Script POST_STOP_USEREXIT Path to a post-stop script
J2EE Instance Bootstrap Directory DIR_BOOTSTRAP The fully qualified path the J2EE instance bootstrap directory. For example, /usr/sap/P01/J00/j2ee/cluster/bootstrap.
J2EE Security Store Path DIR_SECSTORE The fully qualified path the J2EE security store directory. For example, /usr/sap/P01/SYS/global/security/lib/tools.

Table B.19. SAP Instance (SAPInstance Resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
SAP Instance Name InstanceName The fully qualified SAP instance name. For example, P01_DVEBMGS00_sapp01ci.
SAP Executable Directory DIR_EXECUTABLE The fully qualified path to sapstartsrv and sapcontrol.
Directory Containing the SAP START Profile DIR_PROFILE The fully qualified path to the SAP START profile.
Name of the SAP START Profile START_PROFILE Specifies name of the SAP START profile.
Number of Seconds to Wait Before Checking Startup Status START_WAITTIME Specifies the number of seconds to wait before checking the startup status (do not wait for J2EE-Addin).
Enable Automatic Startup Recovery AUTOMATIC_RECOVER Enable or disable automatic startup recovery.
Path to a Pre-Start Script PRE_START_USEREXIT Path to a pre-start script.
Path to a Post-Start Script POST_START_USEREXIT Path to a post-start script.
Path to a Pre-Stop Script PRE_STOP_USEREXIT Path to a pre-stop script
Path to a Post-Stop Script POST_STOP_USEREXIT Path to a post-stop script

Note

Regarding Table B.20, “Samba Server (samba Resource)”, when creating or editing a cluster service, connect a Samba-service resource directly to the service, not to a resource within a service.

Table B.20. Samba Server (samba Resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name Specifies the name of the Samba server.
Config File config_file The Samba configuration file
Other Command-Line Options for smbd smbd_options Other command-line options for smbd.
Other Command-Line Options for nmbd nmbd_options Other command-line options for nmbd.
Shutdown Wait (seconds) shutdown_wait Specifies number of seconds to wait for correct end of service shutdown.

Table B.21. Script (script Resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name Specifies a name for the custom user script. The script resource allows a standard LSB-compliant init script to be used to start a clustered service.
Full Path to Script File file Enter the path where this custom script is located (for example, /etc/init.d/userscript).

Table B.22. Sybase ASE Failover Instance (ASEHAagent Resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Instance Name name Specifies the instance name of the Sybase ASE resource.
ASE Server Name server_name The ASE server name that is configured for the HA service.
SYBASE Home directory sybase_home The home directory of Sybase products.
Login File login_file The full path of login file that contains the login-password pair.
Interfaces File interfaces_file The full path of the interfaces file that is used to start/access the ASE server.
SYBASE_ASE Directory Name sybase_ase The directory name under sybase_home where ASE products are installed.
SYBASE_OCS Directory Name sybase_ocs The directory name under sybase_home where OCS products are installed. For example, ASE-15_0.
Sybase User sybase_user The user who can run ASE server.
Start Timeout (seconds) start_timeout The start timeout value.
Shutdown Timeout (seconds) shutdown_timeout The shutdown timeout value.
Deep Probe Timeout deep_probe_timeout The maximum seconds to wait for the response of ASE server before determining that the server had no response while running deep probe.

Table B.23. Tomcat 6 (tomcat-6 Resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Name name Specifies a service name for logging and other purposes.
Config File config_file Specifies the absolute path to the configuration file. The default value is /etc/tomcat6/tomcat6.conf.
Shutdown Wait (seconds) shutdown_wait Specifies the number of seconds to wait for correct end of service shutdown. The default value is 30.

Important

Regarding Table B.24, “Virtual Machine (vm Resource)”, when you configure your cluster with virtual machine resources, you should use the rgmanager tools to start and stop the virtual machines. Using virsh to start the machine can result in the virtual machine running in more than one place, which can cause data corruption in the virtual machine. For information on configuring your system to reduce the chances of administrators accidentally "double-starting" virtual machines by using both cluster and non-cluster tools, refer to Section 2.14, “Configuring Virtual Machines in a Clustered Environment”.

Note

Virtual machine resources are configured differently than other cluster resources. To configure a virtual machine resource with luci, add a service group to the cluster then add a resource to the service, selecting Virtual Machine as the resource type and entering the virtual machine resource parameters. For information on configuring a virtual machine with the ccs, refer to Section 5.12, “Virtual Machine Resources”.

Table B.24. Virtual Machine (vm Resource)

luci Field cluster.conf Attribute Description
Service Name name Specifies the name of the virtual machine. When using the luci interface, you specify this as a service name.
Automatically Start This Service autostart If enabled, this virtual machine is started automatically after the cluster forms a quorum. If this parameter is disabled, this virtual machine is not started automatically after the cluster forms a quorum; the virtual machine is put into the disabled state.
Run Exclusive exclusive If enabled, this virtual machine can only be relocated to run on another node exclusively; that is, to run on a node that has no other virtual machines running on it. If no nodes are available for a virtual machine to run exclusively, the virtual machine is not restarted after a failure. Additionally, other virtual machines do not automatically relocate to a node running this virtual machine as Run exclusive. You can override this option by manual start or relocate operations.
Failover Domain domain Defines lists of cluster members to try in the event that a virtual machine fails.
Recovery Policy recovery
Recovery policy provides the following options:
  • Disable — Disables the virtual machine if it fails.
  • Relocate — Tries to restart the virtual machine in another node; that is, it does not try to restart in the current node.
  • Restart — Tries to restart the virtual machine locally (in the current node) before trying to relocate (default) to virtual machine to another node.
  • Restart-Disable — The service will be restarted in place if it fails. However, if restarting the service fails the service will be disabled instead of moved to another host in the cluster.
Restart Options max_restarts, restart_expire_time With Restart or Restart-Disable selected as the recovery policy for a service, specifies the maximum number of restart failures before relocating or disabling the service and specifies the length of time in seconds after which to forget a restart.
Migration Type migrate Specifies a migration type of live or pause. The default setting is live.
Migration Mapping migration_mapping
Specifies an alternate interface for migration. You can specify this when, for example, the network address used for virtual machine migration on a node differs from the address of the node used for cluster communication.
Specifying the following indicates that when you migrate a virtual machine from member to member2, you actually migrate to target2. Similarly, when you migrate from member2 to member, you migrate using target.
member:target,member2:target2
Status Program status_program
Status program to run in addition to the standard check for the presence of a virtual machine. If specified, the status program is executed once per minute. This allows you to ascertain the status of critical services within a virtual machine. For example, if a virtual machine runs a web server, your status program could check to see whether a web server is up and running; if the status check fails (signified by returning a non-zero value), the virtual machine is recovered.
After a virtual machine is started, the virtual machine resource agent will periodically call the status program and wait for a successful return code (zero) prior to returning. This times out after five minutes.
Path to xmlfile Used to Create the VM xmlfile Full path to libvirt XML file containing the libvirt domain definition.
VM Configuration File Path path
A colon-delimited path specification that the Virtual Machine Resource Agent (vm.sh) searches for the virtual machine configuration file. For example: /mnt/guests/config:/etc/libvirt/qemu.

Important

The path should never directly point to a virtual machine configuration file.
Path to the VM Snapshot Directory snapshot Path to the snapshot directory where the virtual machine image will be stored.
Hypervisor URI hypervisor_uri Hypervisor URI (normally automatic).
Migration URI migration_uri Migration URI (normally automatic).
Tunnel data over ssh during migration tunnelled Tunnel data over ssh during migration.

HA Resource Behavior

This appendix describes common behavior of HA resources. It is meant to provide ancillary information that may be helpful in configuring HA services. You can configure the parameters with luci or by editing /etc/cluster/cluster.conf. For descriptions of HA resource parameters, refer to Appendix B, HA Resource Parameters. To understand resource agents in more detail you can view them in /usr/share/cluster of any cluster node.

Note

To fully comprehend the information in this appendix, you may require detailed understanding of resource agents and the cluster configuration file, /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
An HA service is a group of cluster resources configured into a coherent entity that provides specialized services to clients. An HA service is represented as a resource tree in the cluster configuration file, /etc/cluster/cluster.conf (in each cluster node). In the cluster configuration file, each resource tree is an XML representation that specifies each resource, its attributes, and its relationship among other resources in the resource tree (parent, child, and sibling relationships).

Note

Because an HA service consists of resources organized into a hierarchical tree, a service is sometimes referred to as a resource tree or resource group. Both phrases are synonymous with HA service.
At the root of each resource tree is a special type of resource — a service resource. Other types of resources comprise the rest of a service, determining its characteristics. Configuring an HA service consists of creating a service resource, creating subordinate cluster resources, and organizing them into a coherent entity that conforms to hierarchical restrictions of the service.
This appendix consists of the following sections:

Note

The sections that follow present examples from the cluster configuration file, /etc/cluster/cluster.conf, for illustration purposes only.

C.1. Parent, Child, and Sibling Relationships Among Resources

A cluster service is an integrated entity that runs under the control of rgmanager. All resources in a service run on the same node. From the perspective of rgmanager, a cluster service is one entity that can be started, stopped, or relocated. Within a cluster service, however, the hierarchy of the resources determines the order in which each resource is started and stopped.The hierarchical levels consist of parent, child, and sibling.
Example C.1, “Resource Hierarchy of Service foo” shows a sample resource tree of the service foo. In the example, the relationships among the resources are as follows:
  • fs:myfs (<fs name="myfs" ...>) and ip:10.1.1.2 (<ip address="10.1.1.2 .../>) are siblings.
  • fs:myfs (<fs name="myfs" ...>) is the parent of script:script_child (<script name="script_child"/>).
  • script:script_child (<script name="script_child"/>) is the child of fs:myfs (<fs name="myfs" ...>).

Example C.1. Resource Hierarchy of Service foo

<service name="foo" ...>
    <fs name="myfs" ...>
        <script name="script_child"/>
    </fs>
    <ip address="10.1.1.2" .../>
</service>

The following rules apply to parent/child relationships in a resource tree:
  • Parents are started before children.
  • Children must all stop cleanly before a parent may be stopped.
  • For a resource to be considered in good health, all its children must be in good health.

Note

When configuring a dependency tree for a cluster service that includes a floating IP address resource, you must configure the IP resource as the first entry and not as the child of another resource.

C.2. Sibling Start Ordering and Resource Child Ordering

The Service resource determines the start order and the stop order of a child resource according to whether it designates a child-type attribute for a child resource as follows:
  • Designates child-type attribute (typed child resource) — If the Service resource designates a child-type attribute for a child resource, the child resource is typed. The child-type attribute explicitly determines the start and the stop order of the child resource.
  • Does not designate child-type attribute (non-typed child resource) — If the Service resource does not designate a child-type attribute for a child resource, the child resource is non-typed. The Service resource does not explicitly control the starting order and stopping order of a non-typed child resource. However, a non-typed child resource is started and stopped according to its order in /etc/cluster/cluster.conf. In addition, non-typed child resources are started after all typed child resources have started and are stopped before any typed child resources have stopped.

Note

The only resource to implement defined child resource type ordering is the Service resource.
For more information about typed child resource start and stop ordering, refer to Section C.2.1, “Typed Child Resource Start and Stop Ordering”. For more information about non-typed child resource start and stop ordering, refer to Section C.2.2, “Non-typed Child Resource Start and Stop Ordering”.

C.2.1. Typed Child Resource Start and Stop Ordering

For a typed child resource, the type attribute for the child resource defines the start order and the stop order of each resource type with a number that can range from 1 to 100; one value for start, and one value for stop. The lower the number, the earlier a resource type starts or stops. For example, Table C.1, “Child Resource Type Start and Stop Order” shows the start and stop values for each resource type; Example C.2, “Resource Start and Stop Values: Excerpt from Service Resource Agent, service.sh shows the start and stop values as they appear in the Service resource agent, service.sh. For the Service resource, all LVM children are started first, followed by all File System children, followed by all Script children, and so forth.

Table C.1. Child Resource Type Start and Stop Order

Resource Child Type Start-order Value Stop-order Value
LVM lvm 1 9
File System fs 2 8
GFS2 File System clusterfs 3 7
NFS Mount netfs 4 6
NFS Export nfsexport 5 5
NFS Client nfsclient 6 4
IP Address ip 7 2
Samba smb 8 3
Script script 9 1

Example C.2. Resource Start and Stop Values: Excerpt from Service Resource Agent, service.sh

<special tag="rgmanager">
    <attributes root="1" maxinstances="1"/>
    <child type="lvm" start="1" stop="9"/>
    <child type="fs" start="2" stop="8"/>
    <child type="clusterfs" start="3" stop="7"/>
    <child type="netfs" start="4" stop="6"/>
    <child type="nfsexport" start="5" stop="5"/>
    <child type="nfsclient" start="6" stop="4"/>
    <child type="ip" start="7" stop="2"/>
    <child type="smb" start="8" stop="3"/>
    <child type="script" start="9" stop="1"/>
</special>

Ordering within a resource type is preserved as it exists in the cluster configuration file, /etc/cluster/cluster.conf. For example, consider the starting order and stopping order of the typed child resources in Example C.3, “Ordering Within a Resource Type”.

Example C.3. Ordering Within a Resource Type

<service name="foo">
  <script name="1" .../>
  <lvm name="1" .../>
  <ip address="10.1.1.1" .../>
  <fs name="1" .../>
  <lvm name="2" .../>
</service>

Typed Child Resource Starting Order

In Example C.3, “Ordering Within a Resource Type”, the resources are started in the following order:
  1. lvm:1 — This is an LVM resource. All LVM resources are started first. lvm:1 (<lvm name="1" .../>) is the first LVM resource started among LVM resources because it is the first LVM resource listed in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  2. lvm:2 — This is an LVM resource. All LVM resources are started first. lvm:2 (<lvm name="2" .../>) is started after lvm:1 because it is listed after lvm:1 in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  3. fs:1 — This is a File System resource. If there were other File System resources in Service foo, they would start in the order listed in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  4. ip:10.1.1.1 — This is an IP Address resource. If there were other IP Address resources in Service foo, they would start in the order listed in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  5. script:1 — This is a Script resource. If there were other Script resources in Service foo, they would start in the order listed in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.

Typed Child Resource Stopping Order

In Example C.3, “Ordering Within a Resource Type”, the resources are stopped in the following order:
  1. script:1 — This is a Script resource. If there were other Script resources in Service foo, they would stop in the reverse order listed in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  2. ip:10.1.1.1 — This is an IP Address resource. If there were other IP Address resources in Service foo, they would stop in the reverse order listed in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  3. fs:1 — This is a File System resource. If there were other File System resources in Service foo, they would stop in the reverse order listed in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  4. lvm:2 — This is an LVM resource. All LVM resources are stopped last. lvm:2 (<lvm name="2" .../>) is stopped before lvm:1; resources within a group of a resource type are stopped in the reverse order listed in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  5. lvm:1 — This is an LVM resource. All LVM resources are stopped last. lvm:1 (<lvm name="1" .../>) is stopped after lvm:2; resources within a group of a resource type are stopped in the reverse order listed in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.

C.2.2. Non-typed Child Resource Start and Stop Ordering

Additional considerations are required for non-typed child resources. For a non-typed child resource, starting order and stopping order are not explicitly specified by the Service resource. Instead, starting order and stopping order are determined according to the order of the child resource in /etc/cluster/cluster.conf. Additionally, non-typed child resources are started after all typed child resources and stopped before any typed child resources.
For example, consider the starting order and stopping order of the non-typed child resources in Example C.4, “Non-typed and Typed Child Resource in a Service”.

Example C.4. Non-typed and Typed Child Resource in a Service

<service name="foo">
  <script name="1" .../>
  <nontypedresource name="foo"/>
  <lvm name="1" .../>
  <nontypedresourcetwo name="bar"/>
  <ip address="10.1.1.1" .../>
  <fs name="1" .../>
  <lvm name="2" .../>
</service>

Non-typed Child Resource Starting Order

In Example C.4, “Non-typed and Typed Child Resource in a Service”, the child resources are started in the following order:
  1. lvm:1 — This is an LVM resource. All LVM resources are started first. lvm:1 (<lvm name="1" .../>) is the first LVM resource started among LVM resources because it is the first LVM resource listed in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  2. lvm:2 — This is an LVM resource. All LVM resources are started first. lvm:2 (<lvm name="2" .../>) is started after lvm:1 because it is listed after lvm:1 in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  3. fs:1 — This is a File System resource. If there were other File System resources in Service foo, they would start in the order listed in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  4. ip:10.1.1.1 — This is an IP Address resource. If there were other IP Address resources in Service foo, they would start in the order listed in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  5. script:1 — This is a Script resource. If there were other Script resources in Service foo, they would start in the order listed in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  6. nontypedresource:foo — This is a non-typed resource. Because it is a non-typed resource, it is started after the typed resources start. In addition, its order in the Service resource is before the other non-typed resource, nontypedresourcetwo:bar; therefore, it is started before nontypedresourcetwo:bar. (Non-typed resources are started in the order that they appear in the Service resource.)
  7. nontypedresourcetwo:bar — This is a non-typed resource. Because it is a non-typed resource, it is started after the typed resources start. In addition, its order in the Service resource is after the other non-typed resource, nontypedresource:foo; therefore, it is started after nontypedresource:foo. (Non-typed resources are started in the order that they appear in the Service resource.)

Non-typed Child Resource Stopping Order

In Example C.4, “Non-typed and Typed Child Resource in a Service”, the child resources are stopped in the following order:
  1. nontypedresourcetwo:bar — This is a non-typed resource. Because it is a non-typed resource, it is stopped before the typed resources are stopped. In addition, its order in the Service resource is after the other non-typed resource, nontypedresource:foo; therefore, it is stopped before nontypedresource:foo. (Non-typed resources are stopped in the reverse order that they appear in the Service resource.)
  2. nontypedresource:foo — This is a non-typed resource. Because it is a non-typed resource, it is stopped before the typed resources are stopped. In addition, its order in the Service resource is before the other non-typed resource, nontypedresourcetwo:bar; therefore, it is stopped after nontypedresourcetwo:bar. (Non-typed resources are stopped in the reverse order that they appear in the Service resource.)
  3. script:1 — This is a Script resource. If there were other Script resources in Service foo, they would stop in the reverse order listed in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  4. ip:10.1.1.1 — This is an IP Address resource. If there were other IP Address resources in Service foo, they would stop in the reverse order listed in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  5. fs:1 — This is a File System resource. If there were other File System resources in Service foo, they would stop in the reverse order listed in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  6. lvm:2 — This is an LVM resource. All LVM resources are stopped last. lvm:2 (<lvm name="2" .../>) is stopped before lvm:1; resources within a group of a resource type are stopped in the reverse order listed in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.
  7. lvm:1 — This is an LVM resource. All LVM resources are stopped last. lvm:1 (<lvm name="1" .../>) is stopped after lvm:2; resources within a group of a resource type are stopped in the reverse order listed in the Service foo portion of /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.

C.3. Inheritance, the <resources> Block, and Reusing Resources

Some resources benefit by inheriting values from a parent resource; that is commonly the case in an NFS service. Example C.5, “NFS Service Set Up for Resource Reuse and Inheritance” shows a typical NFS service configuration, set up for resource reuse and inheritance.

Example C.5. NFS Service Set Up for Resource Reuse and Inheritance


    <resources>
        <nfsclient name="bob" target="bob.example.com" options="rw,no_root_squash"/>
        <nfsclient name="jim" target="jim.example.com" options="rw,no_root_squash"/>
        <nfsexport name="exports"/>
    </resources>
    <service name="foo">
        <fs name="1" mountpoint="/mnt/foo" device="/dev/sdb1" fsid="12344">
            <nfsexport ref="exports">  <!-- nfsexport's path and fsid attributes
                                            are inherited from the mountpoint &
                                            fsid attribute of the parent fs 
                                            resource -->
                <nfsclient ref="bob"/> <!-- nfsclient's path is inherited from the
                                            mountpoint and the fsid is added to the
                                            options string during export -->
                <nfsclient ref="jim"/>
            </nfsexport>
        </fs>
        <fs name="2" mountpoint="/mnt/bar" device="/dev/sdb2" fsid="12345">
            <nfsexport ref="exports">
                <nfsclient ref="bob"/> <!-- Because all of the critical data for this
                                            resource is either defined in the 
                                            resources block or inherited, we can
                                            reference it again! -->
                <nfsclient ref="jim"/>
            </nfsexport>
        </fs>
        <ip address="10.2.13.20"/>
    </service>


If the service were flat (that is, with no parent/child relationships), it would need to be configured as follows:
  • The service would need four nfsclient resources — one per file system (a total of two for file systems), and one per target machine (a total of two for target machines).
  • The service would need to specify export path and file system ID to each nfsclient, which introduces chances for errors in the configuration.
In Example C.5, “NFS Service Set Up for Resource Reuse and Inheritance” however, the NFS client resources nfsclient:bob and nfsclient:jim are defined once; likewise, the NFS export resource nfsexport:exports is defined once. All the attributes needed by the resources are inherited from parent resources. Because the inherited attributes are dynamic (and do not conflict with one another), it is possible to reuse those resources — which is why they are defined in the resources block. It may not be practical to configure some resources in multiple places. For example, configuring a file system resource in multiple places can result in mounting one file system on two nodes, therefore causing problems.

C.4. Failure Recovery and Independent Subtrees

In most enterprise environments, the normal course of action for failure recovery of a service is to restart the entire service if any component in the service fails. For example, in Example C.6, “Service foo Normal Failure Recovery”, if any of the scripts defined in this service fail, the normal course of action is to restart (or relocate or disable, according to the service recovery policy) the service. However, in some circumstances certain parts of a service may be considered non-critical; it may be necessary to restart only part of the service in place before attempting normal recovery. To accomplish that, you can use the __independent_subtree attribute. For example, in Example C.7, “Service foo Failure Recovery with __independent_subtree Attribute”, the __independent_subtree attribute is used to accomplish the following actions:
  • If script:script_one fails, restart script:script_one, script:script_two, and script:script_three.
  • If script:script_two fails, restart just script:script_two.
  • If script:script_three fails, restart script:script_one, script:script_two, and script:script_three.
  • If script:script_four fails, restart the whole service.

Example C.6. Service foo Normal Failure Recovery

<service name="foo">
      <script name="script_one" ...>
          <script name="script_two" .../>
      </script>
      <script name="script_three" .../>
</service>

Example C.7. Service foo Failure Recovery with __independent_subtree Attribute

<service name="foo">
      <script name="script_one" __independent_subtree="1" ...>
          <script name="script_two" __independent_subtree="1" .../>
          <script name="script_three" .../>
      </script>
      <script name="script_four" .../>
</service>

In some circumstances, if a component of a service fails you may want to disable only that component without disabling the entire service, to avoid affecting other services that use other components of that service. As of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1 release, you can accomplish that by using the __independent_subtree="2" attribute, which designates the independent subtree as non-critical.

Note

You may only use the non-critical flag on singly-referenced resources. The non-critical flag works with all resources at all levels of the resource tree, but should not be used at the top level when defining services or virtual machines.
As of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1 release, you can set maximum restart and restart expirations on a per-node basis in the resource tree for independent subtrees. To set these thresholds, you can use the following attributes:
  • __max_restarts configures the maximum number of tolerated restarts prior to giving up.
  • __restart_expire_time configures the amount of time, in seconds, after which a restart is no longer attempted.

C.5. Debugging and Testing Services and Resource Ordering

You can debug and test services and resource ordering with the rg_test utility. rg_test is a command-line utility provided by the rgmanager package that is run from a shell or a terminal (it is not available in Conga). Table C.2, “rg_test Utility Summary” summarizes the actions and syntax for the rg_test utility.

Table C.2. rg_test Utility Summary

Action Syntax
Display the resource rules that rg_test understands. rg_test rules
Test a configuration (and /usr/share/cluster) for errors or redundant resource agents. rg_test test /etc/cluster/cluster.conf
Display the start and stop ordering of a service.
Display start order:
rg_test noop /etc/cluster/cluster.conf start service servicename
Display stop order:
rg_test noop /etc/cluster/cluster.conf stop service servicename
Explicitly start or stop a service.

Important

Only do this on one node, and always disable the service in rgmanager first.
Start a service:
rg_test test /etc/cluster/cluster.conf start service servicename
Stop a service:
rg_test test /etc/cluster/cluster.conf stop service servicename
Calculate and display the resource tree delta between two cluster.conf files.
rg_test delta cluster.conf file 1 cluster.conf file 2
For example:
rg_test delta /etc/cluster/cluster.conf.bak /etc/cluster/cluster.conf

Cluster Service Resource Check and Failover Timeout

This appendix describes how rgmanager monitors the status of cluster resources, and how to modify the status check interval. The appendix also describes the __enforce_timeouts service parameter, which indicates that a timeout for an operation should cause a service to fail.

Note

To fully comprehend the information in this appendix, you may require detailed understanding of resource agents and the cluster configuration file, /etc/cluster/cluster.conf. For a comprehensive list and description of cluster.conf elements and attributes, refer to the cluster schema at /usr/share/cluster/cluster.rng, and the annotated schema at /usr/share/doc/cman-X.Y.ZZ /cluster_conf.html (for example /usr/share/doc/cman-3.0.12/cluster_conf.html).

D.1. Modifying the Resource Status Check Interval

rgmanager checks the status of individual resources, not whole services. Every 10 seconds, rgmanager scans the resource tree, looking for resources that have passed their "status check" interval.
Each resource agent specifies the amount of time between periodic status checks. Each resource utilizes these timeout values unless explicitly overridden in the cluster.conf file using the special <action> tag:
<action name="status" depth="*" interval="10" />
This tag is a special child of the resource itself in the cluster.conf file. For example, if you had a file system resource for which you wanted to override the status check interval you could specify the file system resource in the cluster.conf file as follows:

  <fs name="test" device="/dev/sdb3">
    <action name="status" depth="*" interval="10" />
    <nfsexport...>
    </nfsexport>
  </fs>

Some agents provide multiple "depths" of checking. For example, a normal file system status check (depth 0) checks whether the file system is mounted in the correct place. A more intensive check is depth 10, which checks whether you can read a file from the file system. A status check of depth 20 checks whether you can write to the file system. In the example given here, the depth is set to *, which indicates that these values should be used for all depths. The result is that the test file system is checked at the highest-defined depth provided by the resource-agent (in this case, 20) every 10 seconds.

D.2. Enforcing Resource Timeouts

There is no timeout for starting, stopping, or failing over resources. Some resources take an indeterminately long amount of time to start or stop. Unfortunately, a failure to stop (including a timeout) renders the service inoperable (failed state). You can, if desired, turn on timeout enforcement on each resource in a service individually by adding __enforce_timeouts="1" to the reference in the cluster.conf file.
The following example shows a cluster service that has been configured with the __enforce_timeouts attribute set for the netfs resource. With this attribute set, then if it takes more than 30 seconds to unmount the NFS file system during a recovery process the operation will time out, causing the service to enter the failed state.

</screen>
<rm>
  <failoverdomains/>
  <resources>
    <netfs export="/nfstest" force_unmount="1" fstype="nfs" host="10.65.48.65" 
           mountpoint="/data/nfstest" name="nfstest_data" options="rw,sync,soft"/>
  </resources>
  <service autostart="1" exclusive="0" name="nfs_client_test" recovery="relocate">
    <netfs ref="nfstest_data" __enforce_timeouts="1"/>
  </service>
</rm>

Command Line Tools Summary

Table E.1, “Command Line Tool Summary” summarizes preferred command-line tools for configuring and managing the High Availability Add-On. For more information about commands and variables, refer to the man page for each command-line tool.

Table E.1. Command Line Tool Summary

Command Line Tool Used With Purpose
ccs_config_dump — Cluster Configuration Dump Tool Cluster Infrastructure ccs_config_dump generates XML output of running configuration. The running configuration is, sometimes, different from the stored configuration on file because some subsystems store or set some default information into the configuration. Those values are generally not present on the on-disk version of the configuration but are required at runtime for the cluster to work properly. For more information about this tool, refer to the ccs_config_dump(8) man page.
ccs_config_validate — Cluster Configuration Validation Tool Cluster Infrastructure ccs_config_validate validates cluster.conf against the schema, cluster.rng (located in /usr/share/cluster/cluster.rng on each node). For more information about this tool, refer to the ccs_config_validate(8) man page.
clustat — Cluster Status Utility High-availability Service Management Components The clustat command displays the status of the cluster. It shows membership information, quorum view, and the state of all configured user services. For more information about this tool, refer to the clustat(8) man page.
clusvcadm — Cluster User Service Administration Utility High-availability Service Management Components The clusvcadm command allows you to enable, disable, relocate, and restart high-availability services in a cluster. For more information about this tool, refer to the clusvcadm(8) man page.
cman_tool — Cluster Management Tool Cluster Infrastructure cman_tool is a program that manages the CMAN cluster manager. It provides the capability to join a cluster, leave a cluster, kill a node, or change the expected quorum votes of a node in a cluster. For more information about this tool, refer to the cman_tool(8) man page.
fence_tool — Fence Tool Cluster Infrastructure fence_tool is a program used to join and leave the fence domain. For more information about this tool, refer to the fence_tool(8) man page.

High Availability LVM (HA-LVM)

The Red Hat High Availability Add-On provides support for high availability LVM volumes (HA-LVM) in a failover configuration. This is distinct from active/active configurations enabled by the Clustered Logical Volume Manager (CLVM), which is a set of clustering extensions to LVM that allow a cluster of computers to manage shared storage.
When to use CLVM or HA-LVM should be based on the needs of the applications or services being deployed.
  • If the applications are cluster-aware and have been tuned to run simultaneously on multiple machines at a time, then CLVM should be used. Specifically, if more than one node of your cluster will require access to your storage which is then shared among the active nodes, then you must use CLVM. CLVM allows a user to configure logical volumes on shared storage by locking access to physical storage while a logical volume is being configured, and uses clustered locking services to manage the shared storage. For information on CLVM, and on LVM configuration in general, refer to Logical Volume Manager Administration.
  • If the applications run optimally in active/passive (failover) configurations where only a single node that accesses the storage is active at any one time, you should use High Availability Logical Volume Management agents (HA-LVM).
Most applications will run better in an active/passive configuration, as they are not designed or optimized to run concurrently with other instances. Choosing to run an application that is not cluster-aware on clustered logical volumes may result in degraded performance if the logical volume is mirrored. This is because there is cluster communication overhead for the logical volumes themselves in these instances. A cluster-aware application must be able to achieve performance gains above the performance losses introduced by cluster file systems and cluster-aware logical volumes. This is achievable for some applications and workloads more easily than others. Determining what the requirements of the cluster are and whether the extra effort toward optimizing for an active/active cluster will pay dividends is the way to choose between the two LVM variants. Most users will achieve the best HA results from using HA-LVM.
HA-LVM and CLVM are similar in the fact that they prevent corruption of LVM metadata and its logical volumes, which could otherwise occur if multiple machines where allowed to make overlapping changes. HA-LVM imposes the restriction that a logical volume can only be activated exclusively; that is, active on only one machine at a time. This means that only local (non-clustered) implementations of the storage drivers are used. Avoiding the cluster coordination overhead in this way increases performance. CLVM does not impose these restrictions - a user is free to activate a logical volume on all machines in a cluster; this forces the use of cluster-aware storage drivers, which allow for cluster-aware file systems and applications to be put on top.
HA-LVM can be setup to use one of two methods for achieving its mandate of exclusive logical volume activation.
  • The preferred method uses CLVM, but it will only ever activate the logical volumes exclusively. This has the advantage of easier setup and better prevention of administrative mistakes (like removing a logical volume that is in use). In order to use CLVM, the High Availability Add-On and Resilient Storage Add-On software, including the clvmd daemon, must be running.
    The procedure for configuring HA-LVM using this method is described in Section F.1, “Configuring HA-LVM Failover with CLVM (preferred)”.
  • The second method uses local machine locking and LVM "tags". This method has the advantage of not requiring any LVM cluster packages; however, there are more steps involved in setting it up and it does not prevent an administrator from mistakenly removing a logical volume from a node in the cluster where it is not active. The procedure for configuring HA-LVM using this method is described in Section F.2, “Configuring HA-LVM Failover with Tagging”.

F.1. Configuring HA-LVM Failover with CLVM (preferred)

To set up HA-LVM failover (using the preferred CLVM variant), perform the following steps:
  1. Ensure that your system is configured to support CLVM, which requires the following:
    • The High Availability Add-On and Resilient Storage Add-On are installed, including the the cmirror package if the CLVM logical volumes are to be mirrored.
    • The locking_type parameter in the global section of the /etc/lvm/lvm.conf file is set to the value '3'.
    • The High Availability Add-On and Resilient Storage Add-On software, including the clvmd daemon, must be running. For CLVM mirroring, the cmirrord service must be started as well.
  2. Create the logical volume and file system using standard LVM and file system commands, as in the following example.
    # pvcreate /dev/sd[cde]1
    
    # vgcreate -cy shared_vg /dev/sd[cde]1
    
    # lvcreate -L 10G -n ha_lv shared_vg
    
    # mkfs.ext4 /dev/shared_vg/ha_lv
    
    # lvchange -an shared_vg/ha_lv
    For information on creating LVM logical volumes, refer to Logical Volume Manager Administration.
  3. Edit the /etc/cluster/cluster.conf file to include the newly created logical volume as a resource in one of your services. Alternately, you can use Conga or the ccs command to configure LVM and file system resources for the cluster. The following is a sample resource manager section from the /etc/cluster/cluster.conf file that configures a CLVM logical volume as a cluster resource:
    
    <rm>  
       <failoverdomains>
           <failoverdomain name="FD" ordered="1" restricted="0">
              <failoverdomainnode name="neo-01" priority="1"/>
              <failoverdomainnode name="neo-02" priority="2"/>
           </failoverdomain>
       </failoverdomains>
       <resources>
           <lvm name="lvm" vg_name="shared_vg" lv_name="ha-lv"/>
           <fs name="FS" device="/dev/shared_vg/ha-lv" force_fsck="0" force_unmount="1" fsid="64050" fstype="ext4" mountpoint="/mnt" options="" self_fence="0"/>
       </resources>
       <service autostart="1" domain="FD" name="serv" recovery="relocate">
           <lvm ref="lvm"/>
           <fs ref="FS"/>
       </service>
    </rm>
    
    

F.2. Configuring HA-LVM Failover with Tagging

To set up HA-LVM failover by using tags in the /etc/lvm/lvm.conf file, perform the following steps:
  1. Ensure that the locking_type parameter in the global section of the /etc/lvm/lvm.conf file is set to the value '1'.
  2. Create the logical volume and file system using standard LVM and file system commands, as in the following example.
    # pvcreate /dev/sd[cde]1
    
    # vgcreate shared_vg /dev/sd[cde]1
    
    # lvcreate -L 10G -n ha_lv shared_vg
    
    # mkfs.ext4 /dev/shared_vg/ha_lv
    For information on creating LVM logical volumes, refer to Logical Volume Manager Administration.
  3. Edit the /etc/cluster/cluster.conf file to include the newly created logical volume as a resource in one of your services. Alternately, you can use Conga or the ccs command to configure LVM and file system resources for the cluster. The following is a sample resource manager section from the /etc/cluster/cluster.conf file that configures a CLVM logical volume as a cluster resource:
    
    <rm>  
       <failoverdomains>
           <failoverdomain name="FD" ordered="1" restricted="0">
              <failoverdomainnode name="neo-01" priority="1"/>
              <failoverdomainnode name="neo-02" priority="2"/>
           </failoverdomain>
       </failoverdomains>
       <resources>
           <lvm name="lvm" vg_name="shared_vg" lv_name="ha_lv"/>
           <fs name="FS" device="/dev/shared_vg/ha_lv" force_fsck="0" force_unmount="1" fsid="64050" fstype="ext4" mountpoint="/mnt" options="" self_fence="0"/>
       </resources>
       <service autostart="1" domain="FD" name="serv" recovery="relocate">
           <lvm ref="lvm"/>
           <fs ref="FS"/>
       </service>
    </rm>
    
    

    Note

    If there are multiple logical volumes in the volume group, then the logical volume name (lv_name) in the lvm resource should be left blank or unspecified. Also note that in an HA-LVM configuration, a volume group may be used by only a single service.
  4. Edit the volume_list field in the /etc/lvm/lvm.conf file. Include the name of your root volume group and your hostname as listed in the /etc/cluster/cluster.conf file preceded by @. The hostname to include here is the machine on which you are editing the lvm.conf file, not any remote hostname. Note that this string MUST match the node name given in the cluster.conf file. Below is a sample entry from the /etc/lvm/lvm.conf file:
    volume_list = [ "VolGroup00", "@neo-01" ]
    
    This tag will be used to activate shared VGs or LVs. DO NOT include the names of any volume groups that are to be shared using HA-LVM.
  5. Update the initrd device on all your cluster nodes:
    # dracut -H -f /boot/initramfs-$(uname -r).img $(uname -r)
  6. Reboot all nodes to ensure the correct initrd device is in use.

Revision History

Revision History
Revision 6.0-21.404Mon Nov 25 2013Rüdiger Landmann
Rebuild with Publican 4.0.0
Revision 6.0-21Wed Nov 13 2013Steven Levine
Version for 6.5 GA release
Revision 6.0-20Wed Nov 6 2013Steven Levine
Resolves: #986462
Updates oracledb resource table.
Revision 6.0-16Tue Oct 29 2013Steven Levine
Resolves: #1021045
Corrects example of iptables rule.
Revision 6.0-15Fri Sep 27 2013Steven Levine
Version for 6.5 Beta release
Revision 6.0-12Thu Sep 26 2013Steven Levine
Resolves: #884758, #893575, #969525, #969139, #987151, #987623
Small updates to fence device parameter tables.
Resolves: #901637, #983739, 986462
Small updates to resource parameter tables.
Resolves: #633495
Documents configuration of nfsexport and nfsserver resources.
Resolves: #852966, #975512, #977194, #991297, #874211, #908328, #919600,#955405, #972521, #986474, #987135, #698454, #967986
Small corrections and clarifications throughout document.
Revision 6.0-3Thu Sep 05 2013Steven Levine
Major review revision for all 6.5 BZs.
Revision 6.0-2Fri Jun 14 2013Steven Levine
Adding section on configuring nfsserver and nfsexport.
Revision 6.0-1Thu Jun 13 2013Steven Levine
Updating cluster update procedures and qdisk considerations.
Revision 5.0-25Mon Feb 18 2013Steven Levine
Version for 6.4 GA release
Revision 5.0-23Wed Jan 30 2013Steven Levine
Resolves: 901641
Corrects and clarifies iptables rules.
Revision 5.0-22Tue Jan 29 2013Steven Levine
Resolves: 788636
Documents RRP configuration through ccs command.
Resolves: 789010
Document RRP configuration in the cluster.conf file.
Revision 5.0-20Fri Jan 18 2013Steven Levine
Resolves: 894097
Removes advice to ensure you are not using VLAN tagging.
Resolves: 845365
Indicates that bonding modes 0 and 2 are now supported.
Revision 5.0-19Thu Jan 17 2013Steven Levine
Resolves: 896234
Clarifies terminology of cluster node references.
Revision 5.0-16Mon Nov 26 2012Steven Levine
Version for 6.4 Beta release
Revision 5.0-15Wed Nov 20 2012Steven Levine
Resolves: 838988
Documents nfsrestart attribute for file system resource agents.
Resolves: 843169
Documents IBM iPDU fence agent.
Resolves: 846121
Documents Eaton Network Power Controller (SNMP Interface) fence agent.
Resolves: 856834
Documents HP Bladesystem fence agent.
Resolves: 865313
Documents NFS Server resource agent.
Resolves: 862281
Clarifies which ccs commands overwrite previous settings.
Resolves: 846205
Documents iptables firewall filtering for igmp component.
Resolves: 857172
Documents ability to remove users from luci.
Resolves: 857165
Documents the privilege level parameter of the IPMI fence agent.
Resolves: 840912
Clears up formatting issue with resource parameter table.
Resolves: 849240, 870292
Clarifies installation procedure.
Resolves: 871165
Clarifies description of IP address parameter in description of IP address resource agent.
Resolves: 845333, 869039, 856681
Fixes small typographical errors and clarifies small technical ambiguities.
Revision 5.0-12Thu Nov 1 2012Steven Levine
Added newly-supported fence agents.
Revision 5.0-7Thu Oct 25 2012Steven Levine
Added section on override semantics.
Revision 5.0-6Tue Oct 23 2012Steven Levine
Fixed default value of Post Join Delay.
Revision 5.0-4Tue Oct 16 2012Steven Levine
Added description of NFS server resource.
Revision 5.0-2Thu Oct 11 2012Steven Levine
Updates to Conga descriptions.
Revision 5.0-1Mon Oct 8 2012Steven Levine
Clarifying ccs semantics
Revision 4.0-5Fri Jun 15 2012Steven Levine
Version for 6.3 GA release
Revision 4.0-4Tue Jun 12 2012Steven Levine
Resolves: 830148
Ensures consistency of port number examples for luci.
Revision 4.0-3Tue May 21 2012Steven Levine
Resolves: 696897
Adds cluster.conf parameter information to tables of fence device parameters and resource parameters.
Resolves: 811643
Adds procedure for restoring a luci database on a separate machine.
Revision 4.0-2Wed Apr 25 2012Steven Levine
Resolves: 815619
Removes warning about using UDP Unicast with GFS2 file systems.
Revision 4.0-1Fri Mar 30 2012Steven Levine
Resolves: 771447, 800069, 800061
Updates documentation of luci to be consistent with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3 version.
Resolves: 712393
Adds information on capturing an application core for RGManager.
Resolves: 800074
Documents condor resource agent.
Resolves: 757904
Documents luci configuration backup and restore.
Resolves: 772374
Adds section on managing virtual machines in a cluster.
Resolves: 712378
Adds documentation for HA-LVM configuration.
Resolves: 712400
Documents debug options.
Resolves: 751156
Documents new fence_ipmilan parameter.
Resolves: 721373
Documents which configuration changes require a cluster restart.
Revision 3.0-5Thu Dec 1 2011Steven Levine
Release for GA of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2
Resolves: 755849
Corrects monitor_link parameter example.
Revision 3.0-4Mon Nov 7 2011Steven Levine
Resolves: 749857
Adds documentation for RHEV-M REST API fence device.
Revision 3.0-3Fri Oct 21 2011Steven Levine
Resolves: #747181, #747182, #747184, #747185, #747186, #747187, #747188, #747189, #747190, #747192
Corrects typographical errors and ambiguities found during documentation QE review for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2.
Revision 3.0-2Fri Oct 7 2011Steven Levine
Resolves: #743757
Corrects reference to supported bonding mode in troubleshooting section.
Revision 3.0-1Wed Sep 28 2011Steven Levine
Initial revision for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 Beta release
Resolves: #739613
Documents support for new ccs options to display available fence devices and available services.
Resolves: #707740
Documents updates to the Conga interface and documents support for setting user permissions to administer Conga.
Resolves: #731856
Documents supports for configuring luci by means of the /etc/sysconfig/luci file.
Resolves: #736134
Documents support for UDPU transport.
Resolves: #736143
Documents support for clustered Samba.
Resolves: #617634
Documents how to configure the only IP address luci is served at.
Resolves: #713259
Documents support for fence_vmware_soap agent.
Resolves: #721009
Provides link to Support Essentials article.
Resolves: #717006
Provides information on allowing multicast traffic through the iptables firewall.
Resolves: #717008
Provides information about cluster service status check and failover timeout.
Resolves: #711868
Clarifies description of autostart.
Resolves: #728337
Documents procedure for adding vm resources with the ccs command.
Resolves: #725315, #733011, #733074, #733689
Corrects small typographical errors.
Revision 2.0-1Thu May 19 2011Steven Levine
Initial revision for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1
Resolves: #671250
Documents support for SNMP traps.
Resolves: #659753
Documents ccs command.
Resolves: #665055
Updates Conga documentation to reflect updated display and feature support.
Resolves: #680294
Documents need for password access for ricci agent.
Resolves: #687871
Adds chapter on troubleshooting.
Resolves: #673217
Fixes typographical error.
Resolves: #675805
Adds reference to cluster.conf schema to tables of HA resource parameters.
Resolves: #672697
Updates tables of fence device parameters to include all currently supported fencing devices.
Resolves: #677994
Corrects information for fence_ilo fence agent parameters.
Resolves: #629471
Adds technical note about setting consensus value in a two-node cluster.
Resolves: #579585
Updates section on upgrading Red Hat High Availability Add-On Software.
Resolves: #643216
Clarifies small issues throughout document.
Resolves: #643191
Provides improvements and corrections for the luci documentation.
Resolves: #704539
Updates the table of Virtual Machine resource parameters.
Revision 1.0-1Wed Nov 10 2010Paul Kennedy
Initial release for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

Index

A

ACPI
configuring, Configuring ACPI For Use with Integrated Fence Devices
APC power switch over SNMP fence device , Fence Device Parameters
APC power switch over telnet/SSH fence device , Fence Device Parameters

B

behavior, HA resources, HA Resource Behavior
Brocade fabric switch fence device , Fence Device Parameters

C

CISCO MDS fence device , Fence Device Parameters
Cisco UCS fence device , Fence Device Parameters
cluster
administration, Before Configuring the Red Hat High Availability Add-On, Managing Red Hat High Availability Add-On With Conga, Managing Red Hat High Availability Add-On With ccs, Managing Red Hat High Availability Add-On With Command Line Tools
diagnosing and correcting problems, Diagnosing and Correcting Problems in a Cluster, Diagnosing and Correcting Problems in a Cluster
starting, stopping, restarting, Starting and Stopping the Cluster Software
cluster administration, Before Configuring the Red Hat High Availability Add-On, Managing Red Hat High Availability Add-On With Conga, Managing Red Hat High Availability Add-On With ccs, Managing Red Hat High Availability Add-On With Command Line Tools
adding cluster node, Adding a Member to a Running Cluster, Adding a Member to a Running Cluster
compatible hardware, Compatible Hardware
configuration validation, Configuration Validation
configuring ACPI, Configuring ACPI For Use with Integrated Fence Devices
configuring iptables, Enabling IP Ports
considerations for using qdisk, Considerations for Using Quorum Disk
considerations for using quorum disk, Considerations for Using Quorum Disk
deleting a cluster, Starting, Stopping, Restarting, and Deleting Clusters
deleting a node from the configuration; adding a node to the configuration , Deleting or Adding a Node
diagnosing and correcting problems in a cluster, Diagnosing and Correcting Problems in a Cluster, Diagnosing and Correcting Problems in a Cluster
displaying HA services with clustat, Displaying HA Service Status with clustat
enabling IP ports, Enabling IP Ports
general considerations, General Configuration Considerations
joining a cluster, Causing a Node to Leave or Join a Cluster, Causing a Node to Leave or Join a Cluster
leaving a cluster, Causing a Node to Leave or Join a Cluster, Causing a Node to Leave or Join a Cluster
managing cluster node, Managing Cluster Nodes, Managing Cluster Nodes
managing high-availability services, Managing High-Availability Services, Managing High-Availability Services
managing high-availability services, freeze and unfreeze, Managing HA Services with clusvcadm, Considerations for Using the Freeze and Unfreeze Operations
network switches and multicast addresses, Multicast Addresses
NetworkManager, Considerations for NetworkManager
rebooting cluster node, Rebooting a Cluster Node
removing cluster node, Deleting a Member from a Cluster
restarting a cluster, Starting, Stopping, Restarting, and Deleting Clusters
ricci considerations, Considerations for ricci
SELinux, Red Hat High Availability Add-On and SELinux
starting a cluster, Starting, Stopping, Restarting, and Deleting Clusters, Starting and Stopping a Cluster
starting, stopping, restarting a cluster, Starting and Stopping the Cluster Software
stopping a cluster, Starting, Stopping, Restarting, and Deleting Clusters, Starting and Stopping a Cluster
updating a cluster configuration using cman_tool version -r, Updating a Configuration Using cman_tool version -r
updating a cluster configuration using scp, Updating a Configuration Using scp
updating configuration, Updating a Configuration
virtual machines, Configuring Virtual Machines in a Clustered Environment
cluster configuration, Configuring Red Hat High Availability Add-On With Conga, Configuring Red Hat High Availability Add-On With the ccs Command, Configuring Red Hat High Availability Manually
deleting or adding a node, Deleting or Adding a Node
updating, Updating a Configuration
cluster resource relationships, Parent, Child, and Sibling Relationships Among Resources
cluster resource status check, Cluster Service Resource Check and Failover Timeout
cluster resource types, Considerations for Configuring HA Services
cluster service managers
configuration, Adding a Cluster Service to the Cluster, Adding a Cluster Service to the Cluster, Adding a Cluster Service to the Cluster
cluster services, Adding a Cluster Service to the Cluster, Adding a Cluster Service to the Cluster, Adding a Cluster Service to the Cluster
(see also adding to the cluster configuration)
cluster software
configuration, Configuring Red Hat High Availability Add-On With Conga, Configuring Red Hat High Availability Add-On With the ccs Command, Configuring Red Hat High Availability Manually
configuration
HA service, Considerations for Configuring HA Services
Configuring High Availability LVM, High Availability LVM (HA-LVM)
Conga
accessing, Configuring Red Hat High Availability Add-On Software
consensus value, The consensus Value for totem in a Two-Node Cluster

D

Dell DRAC 5 fence device , Fence Device Parameters
Dell iDRAC fence device , Fence Device Parameters

E

Eaton network power switch, Fence Device Parameters
Egenera SAN controller fence device , Fence Device Parameters
ePowerSwitch fence device , Fence Device Parameters

F

failover timeout, Cluster Service Resource Check and Failover Timeout
features, new and changed, New and Changed Features
feedback, Feedback
fence agent
fence_apc, Fence Device Parameters
fence_apc_snmp, Fence Device Parameters
fence_bladecenter, Fence Device Parameters
fence_brocade, Fence Device Parameters
fence_cisco_mds, Fence Device Parameters
fence_cisco_ucs, Fence Device Parameters
fence_drac5, Fence Device Parameters
fence_eaton_snmp, Fence Device Parameters
fence_egenera, Fence Device Parameters
fence_eps, Fence Device Parameters
fence_hpblade, Fence Device Parameters
fence_ibmblade, Fence Device Parameters
fence_idrac, Fence Device Parameters
fence_ifmib, Fence Device Parameters
fence_ilo, Fence Device Parameters
fence_ilo2, Fence Device Parameters
fence_ilo3, Fence Device Parameters
fence_ilo4, Fence Device Parameters
fence_ilo_mp, Fence Device Parameters
fence_imm, Fence Device Parameters
fence_intelmodular, Fence Device Parameters
fence_ipdu, Fence Device Parameters
fence_ipmilan, Fence Device Parameters
fence_rhevm, Fence Device Parameters
fence_rsb, Fence Device Parameters
fence_scsi, Fence Device Parameters
fence_virt, Fence Device Parameters
fence_vmware_soap, Fence Device Parameters
fence_wti, Fence Device Parameters
fence device
APC power switch over SNMP, Fence Device Parameters
APC power switch over telnet/SSH, Fence Device Parameters
Brocade fabric switch, Fence Device Parameters
Cisco MDS, Fence Device Parameters
Cisco UCS, Fence Device Parameters
Dell DRAC 5, Fence Device Parameters
Dell iDRAC, Fence Device Parameters
Eaton network power switch, Fence Device Parameters
Egenera SAN controller, Fence Device Parameters
ePowerSwitch, Fence Device Parameters
Fence virt, Fence Device Parameters
Fujitsu Siemens Remoteview Service Board (RSB), Fence Device Parameters
HP BladeSystem, Fence Device Parameters
HP iLO, Fence Device Parameters
HP iLO MP, Fence Device Parameters
HP iLO2, Fence Device Parameters
HP iLO3, Fence Device Parameters
HP iLO4, Fence Device Parameters
IBM BladeCenter, Fence Device Parameters
IBM BladeCenter SNMP, Fence Device Parameters
IBM Integrated Management Module, Fence Device Parameters
IBM iPDU, Fence Device Parameters
IF MIB, Fence Device Parameters
Intel Modular, Fence Device Parameters
IPMI LAN, Fence Device Parameters
RHEV-M REST API, Fence Device Parameters
SCSI fencing, Fence Device Parameters
VMware (SOAP interface), Fence Device Parameters
WTI power switch, Fence Device Parameters
Fence virt fence device , Fence Device Parameters
fence_apc fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_apc_snmp fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_bladecenter fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_brocade fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_cisco_mds fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_cisco_ucs fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_drac5 fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_eaton_snmp fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_egenera fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_eps fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_hpblade fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_ibmblade fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_idrac fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_ifmib fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_ilo fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_ilo2 fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_ilo3 fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_ilo4 fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_ilo_mp fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_imm fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_intelmodular fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_ipdu fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_ipmilan fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_rhevm fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_rsb fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_scsi fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_virt fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_vmware_soap fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
fence_wti fence agent, Fence Device Parameters
Fujitsu Siemens Remoteview Service Board (RSB) fence device, Fence Device Parameters

G

general
considerations for cluster administration, General Configuration Considerations

H

HA service configuration
overview, Considerations for Configuring HA Services
hardware
compatible, Compatible Hardware
HP Bladesystem fence device , Fence Device Parameters
HP iLO fence device, Fence Device Parameters
HP iLO MP fence device , Fence Device Parameters
HP iLO2 fence device, Fence Device Parameters
HP iLO3 fence device, Fence Device Parameters
HP iLO4 fence device, Fence Device Parameters

I

IBM BladeCenter fence device , Fence Device Parameters
IBM BladeCenter SNMP fence device , Fence Device Parameters
IBM Integrated Management Module fence device , Fence Device Parameters
IBM iPDU fence device , Fence Device Parameters
IF MIB fence device , Fence Device Parameters
integrated fence devices
configuring ACPI, Configuring ACPI For Use with Integrated Fence Devices
Intel Modular fence device , Fence Device Parameters
introduction, Introduction
other Red Hat Enterprise Linux documents, Introduction
IP ports
enabling, Enabling IP Ports
IPMI LAN fence device , Fence Device Parameters
iptables
configuring, Enabling IP Ports
iptables firewall, Configuring the iptables Firewall to Allow Cluster Components

L

LVM, High Availability, High Availability LVM (HA-LVM)

M

multicast addresses
considerations for using with network switches and multicast addresses, Multicast Addresses
multicast traffic, enabling, Configuring the iptables Firewall to Allow Cluster Components

N

NetworkManager
disable for use with cluster, Considerations for NetworkManager
nfsexport resource, configuring, Configuring nfsexport and nfsserver Resources
nfsserver resource, configuring, Configuring nfsexport and nfsserver Resources

O

overview
features, new and changed, New and Changed Features

P

parameters, fence device, Fence Device Parameters
parameters, HA resources, HA Resource Parameters

Q

qdisk
considerations for using, Considerations for Using Quorum Disk
quorum disk
considerations for using, Considerations for Using Quorum Disk

R

relationships
cluster resource, Parent, Child, and Sibling Relationships Among Resources
RHEV-M REST API fence device , Fence Device Parameters
ricci
considerations for cluster administration, Considerations for ricci

T

tables
fence devices, parameters, Fence Device Parameters
HA resources, parameters, HA Resource Parameters
timeout failover, Cluster Service Resource Check and Failover Timeout
tools, command line, Command Line Tools Summary
totem tag
consensus value, The consensus Value for totem in a Two-Node Cluster
troubleshooting
diagnosing and correcting problems in a cluster, Diagnosing and Correcting Problems in a Cluster, Diagnosing and Correcting Problems in a Cluster
types
cluster resource, Considerations for Configuring HA Services

V

validation
cluster configuration, Configuration Validation
virtual machines, in a cluster, Configuring Virtual Machines in a Clustered Environment
VMware (SOAP interface) fence device , Fence Device Parameters

W

WTI power switch fence device , Fence Device Parameters