Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

Deployment Guide

Deployment, Configuration and Administration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

Edition 5

Jaromír Hradílek

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

Douglas Silas

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

Martin Prpič

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

Stephen Wadeley

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

Eva Kopalová

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

Peter Ondrejka

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

Ella Deon Lackey

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

Tomáš Čapek

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

Petr Kovář

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

Miroslav Svoboda

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

Petr Bokoč

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

Florian Nadge

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

John Ha

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

David O'Brien

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

Michael Hideo

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

Don Domingo

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

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Abstract

The Deployment Guide documents relevant information regarding the deployment, configuration and administration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. It is oriented towards system administrators with a basic understanding of the system.
Preface
1. Target Audience
2. How to Read this Book
3. Document Conventions
3.1. Typographic Conventions
3.2. Pull-quote Conventions
3.3. Notes and Warnings
4. Feedback
5. Acknowledgments
I. Basic System Configuration
1. Keyboard Configuration
1.1. Changing the Keyboard Layout
1.2. Adding the Keyboard Layout Indicator
1.3. Setting Up a Typing Break
2. Date and Time Configuration
2.1. Date/Time Properties Tool
2.1.1. Date and Time Properties
2.1.2. Network Time Protocol Properties
2.1.3. Time Zone Properties
2.2. Command Line Configuration
2.2.1. Date and Time Setup
2.2.2. Network Time Protocol Setup
3. Managing Users and Groups
3.1. Introduction to Users and Groups
3.1.1. User Private Groups
3.1.2. Shadow Passwords
3.2. Using the User Manager Tool
3.2.1. Viewing Users and Groups
3.2.2. Adding a New User
3.2.3. Adding a New Group
3.2.4. Modifying User Properties
3.2.5. Modifying Group Properties
3.3. Using Command Line Tools
3.3.1. Adding a New User
3.3.2. Adding a New Group
3.3.3. Creating Group Directories
3.4. Additional Resources
3.4.1. Installed Documentation
4. Gaining Privileges
4.1. The su Command
4.2. The sudo Command
4.3. Additional Resources
II. Package Management
5. Registering a System and Managing Subscriptions
5.1. Using Red Hat Subscription Manager Tools
5.1.1. Launching the Red Hat Subscription Manager GUI
5.1.2. Running the subscription-manager Command-Line Tool
5.2. Registering and Unregistering a System
5.2.1. Registering from the GUI
5.2.2. Registering from the Command Line
5.2.3. Unregistering
5.3. Attaching and Removing Subscriptions
5.3.1. Attaching and Removing Subscriptions through the GUI
5.3.2. Attaching and Removing Subscriptions through the Command Line
5.4. Redeeming Vendor Subscriptions
5.4.1. Redeeming Subscriptions through the GUI
5.4.2. Redeeming Subscriptions through the Command Line
5.5. Attaching Subscriptions from a Subscription Asset Manager Activation Key
5.6. Setting Preferences for Systems
5.6.1. Setting Preferences in the UI
5.6.2. Setting Service Levels Through the Command Line
5.6.3. Setting a Preferred Operating System Release Version in the Command Line
5.7. Managing Subscription Expiration and Notifications
6. Yum
6.1. Checking For and Updating Packages
6.1.1. Checking For Updates
6.1.2. Updating Packages
6.1.3. Preserving Configuration File Changes
6.1.4. Upgrading the System Off-line with ISO and Yum
6.2. Packages and Package Groups
6.2.1. Searching Packages
6.2.2. Listing Packages
6.2.3. Displaying Package Information
6.2.4. Installing Packages
6.2.5. Removing Packages
6.3. Working with Transaction History
6.3.1. Listing Transactions
6.3.2. Examining Transactions
6.3.3. Reverting and Repeating Transactions
6.3.4. Completing Transactions
6.3.5. Starting New Transaction History
6.4. Configuring Yum and Yum Repositories
6.4.1. Setting [main] Options
6.4.2. Setting [repository] Options
6.4.3. Using Yum Variables
6.4.4. Viewing the Current Configuration
6.4.5. Adding, Enabling, and Disabling a Yum Repository
6.4.6. Creating a Yum Repository
6.4.7. Working with Yum Cache
6.5. Yum Plug-ins
6.5.1. Enabling, Configuring, and Disabling Yum Plug-ins
6.5.2. Installing Additional Yum Plug-ins
6.5.3. Plug-in Descriptions
6.6. Additional Resources
7. PackageKit
7.1. Updating Packages with Software Update
7.2. Using Add/Remove Software
7.2.1. Refreshing Software Sources (Yum Repositories)
7.2.2. Finding Packages with Filters
7.2.3. Installing and Removing Packages (and Dependencies)
7.2.4. Installing and Removing Package Groups
7.2.5. Viewing the Transaction Log
7.3. PackageKit Architecture
7.4. Additional Resources
III. Networking
8. NetworkManager
8.1. The NetworkManager Daemon
8.2. Interacting with NetworkManager
8.2.1. Connecting to a Network
8.2.2. Configuring New and Editing Existing Connections
8.2.3. Connecting to a Network Automatically
8.2.4. User and System Connections
8.3. Establishing Connections
8.3.1. Establishing a Wired (Ethernet) Connection
8.3.2. Establishing a Wireless Connection
8.3.3. Establishing a Mobile Broadband Connection
8.3.4. Establishing a VPN Connection
8.3.5. Establishing a DSL Connection
8.3.6. Establishing a Bond Connection
8.3.7. Establishing a VLAN Connection
8.3.8. Establishing an IP-over-InfiniBand (IPoIB) Connection
8.3.9. Configuring Connection Settings
8.4. NetworkManager Architecture
9. Network Interfaces
9.1. Network Configuration Files
9.2. Interface Configuration Files
9.2.1. Ethernet Interfaces
9.2.2. Specific ifcfg Options for Linux on System z
9.2.3. Required ifcfg Options for Linux on System z
9.2.4. Channel Bonding Interfaces
9.2.5. Network Bridge
9.2.6. Setting Up 802.1q VLAN Tagging
9.2.7. Alias and Clone Files
9.2.8. Dialup Interfaces
9.2.9. Other Interfaces
9.3. Interface Control Scripts
9.4. Static Routes and the Default Gateway
9.5. Configuring IPv6 Tokenized Interface Identifiers
9.6. Network Function Files
9.7. Ethtool
9.8. Additional Resources
9.8.1. Installed Documentation
9.8.2. Useful Websites
10. Configure SCTP
10.1. Introduction to Streaming Control Transport Protocol (SCTP)
10.1.1. Comparison of TCP and SCTP Handshaking
10.2. Understanding SCTP
10.2.1. Bundled Streams
10.2.2. Partial Reliability
10.2.3. Message Boundary Preservation
10.2.4. Protocol Event Notifications
10.3. When To Use SCTP
10.4. When Not To Use SCTP
10.5. Compare SCTP to Bonding and Network Teaming
10.6. Using SCTP
10.6.1. Check if SCTP is installed
10.6.2. Install SCTP
10.6.3. Configuring SCTP
10.6.4. Tune SCTP
10.6.5. Troubleshooting SCTP
10.7. Additional Resources
10.7.1. Installed Documentation
10.7.2. Useful Websites
IV. Infrastructure Services
11. Services and Daemons
11.1. Configuring the Default Runlevel
11.2. Configuring the Services
11.2.1. Using the Service Configuration Utility
11.2.2. Using the ntsysv Utility
11.2.3. Using the chkconfig Utility
11.3. Running Services
11.3.1. Determining the Service Status
11.3.2. Starting a Service
11.3.3. Stopping a Service
11.3.4. Restarting a Service
11.4. Additional Resources
11.4.1. Installed Documentation
11.4.2. Related Books
12. Configuring Authentication
12.1. Configuring System Authentication
12.1.1. Launching the Authentication Configuration Tool UI
12.1.2. Selecting the Identity Store for Authentication
12.1.3. Configuring Alternative Authentication Features
12.1.4. Configuring Authentication from the Command Line
12.1.5. Using Custom Home Directories
12.2. Using and Caching Credentials with SSSD
12.2.1. About SSSD
12.2.2. Setting up the sssd.conf File
12.2.3. Starting and Stopping SSSD
12.2.4. SSSD and System Services
12.2.5. Configuring Services: NSS
12.2.6. Configuring Services: PAM
12.2.7. Configuring Services: autofs
12.2.8. Configuring Services: sudo
12.2.9. Configuring Services: OpenSSH and Cached Keys
12.2.10. SSSD and Identity Providers (Domains)
12.2.11. Creating Domains: LDAP
12.2.12. Creating Domains: Identity Management (IdM)
12.2.13. Creating Domains: Active Directory
12.2.14. Configuring Domains: Active Directory as an LDAP Provider (Alternative)
12.2.15. Domain Options: Setting Username Formats
12.2.16. Domain Options: Enabling Offline Authentication
12.2.17. Domain Options: Setting Password Expirations
12.2.18. Domain Options: Using DNS Service Discovery
12.2.19. Domain Options: Using IP Addresses in Certificate Subject Names (LDAP Only)
12.2.20. Creating Domains: Proxy
12.2.21. Creating Domains: Kerberos Authentication
12.2.22. Creating Domains: Access Control
12.2.23. Creating Domains: Primary Server and Backup Servers
12.2.24. Installing SSSD Utilities
12.2.25. SSSD and UID and GID Numbers
12.2.26. Creating Local System Users
12.2.27. Seeding Users into the SSSD Cache During Kickstart
12.2.28. Managing the SSSD Cache
12.2.29. Downgrading SSSD
12.2.30. Using NSCD with SSSD
12.2.31. Troubleshooting SSSD
13. OpenSSH
13.1. The SSH Protocol
13.1.1. Why Use SSH?
13.1.2. Main Features
13.1.3. Protocol Versions
13.1.4. Event Sequence of an SSH Connection
13.2. Configuring OpenSSH
13.2.1. Configuration Files
13.2.2. Starting an OpenSSH Server
13.2.3. Requiring SSH for Remote Connections
13.2.4. Using a Key-Based Authentication
13.3. OpenSSH Clients
13.3.1. Using the ssh Utility
13.3.2. Using the scp Utility
13.3.3. Using the sftp Utility
13.4. More Than a Secure Shell
13.4.1. X11 Forwarding
13.4.2. Port Forwarding
13.5. Additional Resources
13.5.1. Installed Documentation
13.5.2. Useful Websites
V. Servers
14. DHCP Servers
14.1. Why Use DHCP?
14.2. Configuring a DHCP Server
14.2.1. Configuration File
14.2.2. Lease Database
14.2.3. Starting and Stopping the Server
14.2.4. DHCP Relay Agent
14.3. Configuring a DHCP Client
14.4. Configuring a Multihomed DHCP Server
14.4.1. Host Configuration
14.5. DHCP for IPv6 (DHCPv6)
14.6. Additional Resources
14.6.1. Installed Documentation
15. DNS Servers
15.1. Introduction to DNS
15.1.1. Nameserver Zones
15.1.2. Nameserver Types
15.1.3. BIND as a Nameserver
15.2. BIND
15.2.1. Configuring the named Service
15.2.2. Editing Zone Files
15.2.3. Using the rndc Utility
15.2.4. Using the dig Utility
15.2.5. Advanced Features of BIND
15.2.6. Common Mistakes to Avoid
15.2.7. Additional Resources
16. Web Servers
16.1. The Apache HTTP Server
16.1.1. New Features
16.1.2. Notable Changes
16.1.3. Updating the Configuration
16.1.4. Running the httpd Service
16.1.5. Editing the Configuration Files
16.1.6. Working with Modules
16.1.7. Setting Up Virtual Hosts
16.1.8. Setting Up an SSL Server
16.1.9. Additional Resources
17. Mail Servers
17.1. Email Protocols
17.1.1. Mail Transport Protocols
17.1.2. Mail Access Protocols
17.2. Email Program Classifications
17.2.1. Mail Transport Agent
17.2.2. Mail Delivery Agent
17.2.3. Mail User Agent
17.3. Mail Transport Agents
17.3.1. Postfix
17.3.2. Sendmail
17.3.3. Fetchmail
17.3.4. Mail Transport Agent (MTA) Configuration
17.4. Mail Delivery Agents
17.4.1. Procmail Configuration
17.4.2. Procmail Recipes
17.5. Mail User Agents
17.5.1. Securing Communication
17.6. Additional Resources
17.6.1. Installed Documentation
17.6.2. Useful Websites
17.6.3. Related Books
18. Directory Servers
18.1. OpenLDAP
18.1.1. Introduction to LDAP
18.1.2. Installing the OpenLDAP Suite
18.1.3. Configuring an OpenLDAP Server
18.1.4. Running an OpenLDAP Server
18.1.5. Configuring a System to Authenticate Using OpenLDAP
18.1.6. Additional Resources
19. File and Print Servers
19.1. Samba
19.1.1. Introduction to Samba
19.1.2. Samba Daemons and Related Services
19.1.3. Connecting to a Samba Share
19.1.4. Configuring a Samba Server
19.1.5. Starting and Stopping Samba
19.1.6. Samba Server Types and the smb.conf File
19.1.7. Samba Security Modes
19.1.8. Samba Account Information Databases
19.1.9. Samba Network Browsing
19.1.10. Samba with CUPS Printing Support
19.1.11. Samba Distribution Programs
19.1.12. Additional Resources
19.2. FTP
19.2.1. The File Transfer Protocol
19.2.2. The vsftpd Server
19.2.3. Files Installed with vsftpd
19.2.4. Starting and Stopping vsftpd
19.2.5. vsftpd Configuration Options
19.2.6. Additional Resources
19.3. Printer Configuration
19.3.1. Starting the Printer Configuration Tool
19.3.2. Starting Printer Setup
19.3.3. Adding a Local Printer
19.3.4. Adding an AppSocket/HP JetDirect printer
19.3.5. Adding an IPP Printer
19.3.6. Adding an LPD/LPR Host or Printer
19.3.7. Adding a Samba (SMB) printer
19.3.8. Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing
19.3.9. Printing a Test Page
19.3.10. Modifying Existing Printers
19.3.11. Additional Resources
20. Configuring NTP Using ntpd
20.1. Introduction to NTP
20.2. NTP Strata
20.3. Understanding NTP
20.4. Understanding the Drift File
20.5. UTC, Timezones, and DST
20.6. Authentication Options for NTP
20.7. Managing the Time on Virtual Machines
20.8. Understanding Leap Seconds
20.9. Understanding the ntpd Configuration File
20.10. Understanding the ntpd Sysconfig File
20.11. Checking if the NTP Daemon is Installed
20.12. Installing the NTP Daemon (ntpd)
20.13. Checking the Status of NTP
20.14. Configure the Firewall to Allow Incoming NTP Packets
20.14.1. Configure the Firewall Using the Graphical Tool
20.14.2. Configure the Firewall Using the Command Line
20.15. Configure ntpdate Servers
20.16. Configure NTP
20.16.1. Configure Access Control to an NTP Service
20.16.2. Configure Rate Limiting Access to an NTP Service
20.16.3. Adding a Peer Address
20.16.4. Adding a Server Address
20.16.5. Adding a Broadcast or Multicast Server Address
20.16.6. Adding a Manycast Client Address
20.16.7. Adding a Broadcast Client Address
20.16.8. Adding a Manycast Server Address
20.16.9. Adding a Multicast Client Address
20.16.10. Configuring the Burst Option
20.16.11. Configuring the iburst Option
20.16.12. Configuring Symmetric Authentication Using a Key
20.16.13. Configuring the Poll Interval
20.16.14. Configuring Server Preference
20.16.15. Configuring the Time-to-Live for NTP Packets
20.16.16. Configuring the NTP Version to Use
20.17. Configuring the Hardware Clock Update
20.18. Configuring Clock Sources
20.19. Additional Resources
20.19.1. Installed Documentation
20.19.2. Useful Websites
21. Configuring PTP Using ptp4l
21.1. Introduction to PTP
21.1.1. Understanding PTP
21.1.2. Advantages of PTP
21.2. Using PTP
21.2.1. Checking for Driver and Hardware Support
21.2.2. Installing PTP
21.2.3. Starting ptp4l
21.3. Specifying a Configuration File
21.4. Using the PTP Management Client
21.5. Synchronizing the Clocks
21.6. Verifying Time Synchronization
21.7. Serving PTP Time With NTP
21.8. Serving NTP Time With PTP
21.9. Improving Accuracy
21.10. Additional Resources
21.10.1. Installed Documentation
21.10.2. Useful Websites
VI. Monitoring and Automation
22. System Monitoring Tools
22.1. Viewing System Processes
22.1.1. Using the ps Command
22.1.2. Using the top Command
22.1.3. Using the System Monitor Tool
22.2. Viewing Memory Usage
22.2.1. Using the free Command
22.2.2. Using the System Monitor Tool
22.3. Viewing CPU Usage
22.3.1. Using the System Monitor Tool
22.4. Viewing Block Devices and File Systems
22.4.1. Using the lsblk Command
22.4.2. Using the blkid Command
22.4.3. Using the findmnt Command
22.4.4. Using the df Command
22.4.5. Using the du Command
22.4.6. Using the System Monitor Tool
22.5. Viewing Hardware Information
22.5.1. Using the lspci Command
22.5.2. Using the lsusb Command
22.5.3. Using the lspcmcia Command
22.5.4. Using the lscpu Command
22.6. Monitoring Performance with Net-SNMP
22.6.1. Installing Net-SNMP
22.6.2. Running the Net-SNMP Daemon
22.6.3. Configuring Net-SNMP
22.6.4. Retrieving Performance Data over SNMP
22.6.5. Extending Net-SNMP
22.7. Additional Resources
22.7.1. Installed Documentation
23. Viewing and Managing Log Files
23.1. Configuring rsyslog
23.1.1. Global Directives
23.1.2. Modules
23.1.3. Rules
23.1.4. rsyslog Command Line Configuration
23.2. Locating Log Files
23.2.1. Configuring logrotate
23.3. Viewing Log Files
23.4. Adding a Log File
23.5. Monitoring Log Files
23.6. Additional Resources
23.6.1. Installed Documentation
23.6.2. Useful Websites
24. Automating System Tasks
24.1. Cron and Anacron
24.1.1. Installing Cron and Anacron
24.1.2. Running the Crond Service
24.1.3. Configuring Anacron Jobs
24.1.4. Configuring Cron Jobs
24.1.5. Controlling Access to Cron
24.1.6. Black and White Listing of Cron Jobs
24.2. At and Batch
24.2.1. Installing At and Batch
24.2.2. Running the At Service
24.2.3. Configuring an At Job
24.2.4. Configuring a Batch Job
24.2.5. Viewing Pending Jobs
24.2.6. Additional Command Line Options
24.2.7. Controlling Access to At and Batch
24.3. Additional Resources
25. Automatic Bug Reporting Tool (ABRT)
25.1. Installing ABRT and Starting its Services
25.2. Using the Graphical User Interface
25.3. Using the Command Line Interface
25.3.1. Viewing Problems
25.3.2. Reporting Problems
25.3.3. Deleting Problems
25.4. Configuring ABRT
25.4.1. ABRT Events
25.4.2. Standard ABRT Installation Supported Events
25.4.3. Event Configuration in ABRT GUI
25.4.4. ABRT Specific Configuration
25.4.5. Configuring ABRT to Detect a Kernel Panic
25.4.6. Automatic Downloads and Installation of Debuginfo Packages
25.4.7. Configuring Automatic Reporting
25.4.8. Uploading and Reporting Using a Proxy Server
25.5. Configuring Centralized Crash Collection
25.5.1. Configuration Steps Required on a Dedicated System
25.5.2. Configuration Steps Required on a Client System
25.5.3. Saving Package Information
25.5.4. Testing ABRT's Crash Detection
26. OProfile
26.1. Overview of Tools
26.2. Configuring OProfile
26.2.1. Specifying the Kernel
26.2.2. Setting Events to Monitor
26.2.3. Separating Kernel and User-space Profiles
26.3. Starting and Stopping OProfile
26.4. Saving Data
26.5. Analyzing the Data
26.5.1. Using opreport
26.5.2. Using opreport on a Single Executable
26.5.3. Getting more detailed output on the modules
26.5.4. Using opannotate
26.6. Understanding /dev/oprofile/
26.7. Example Usage
26.8. OProfile Support for Java
26.8.1. Profiling Java Code
26.9. Graphical Interface
26.10. OProfile and SystemTap
26.11. Additional Resources
26.11.1. Installed Docs
26.11.2. Useful Websites
VII. Kernel, Module and Driver Configuration
27. Manually Upgrading the Kernel
27.1. Overview of Kernel Packages
27.2. Preparing to Upgrade
27.3. Downloading the Upgraded Kernel
27.4. Performing the Upgrade
27.5. Verifying the Initial RAM Disk Image
27.6. Verifying the Boot Loader
27.6.1. Configuring the GRUB Boot Loader
27.6.2. Configuring the OS/400 Boot Loader
27.6.3. Configuring the YABOOT Boot Loader
28. Working with Kernel Modules
28.1. Listing Currently-Loaded Modules
28.2. Displaying Information About a Module
28.3. Loading a Module
28.4. Unloading a Module
28.5. Setting Module Parameters
28.6. Persistent Module Loading
28.7. Specific Kernel Module Capabilities
28.7.1. Using Multiple Ethernet Cards
28.7.2. Using Channel Bonding
28.8. Additional Resources
29. The kdump Crash Recovery Service
29.1. Installing the kdump Service
29.2. Configuring the kdump Service
29.2.1. Configuring the kdump at First Boot
29.2.2. Using the Kernel Dump Configuration Utility
29.2.3. Configuring kdump on the Command Line
29.2.4. Testing the Configuration
29.3. Analyzing the Core Dump
29.3.1. Running the crash Utility
29.3.2. Displaying the Message Buffer
29.3.3. Displaying a Backtrace
29.3.4. Displaying a Process Status
29.3.5. Displaying Virtual Memory Information
29.3.6. Displaying Open Files
29.3.7. Exiting the Utility
29.4. Additional Resources
29.4.1. Installed Documentation
29.4.2. Useful Websites
A. Consistent Network Device Naming
A.1. Affected Systems
A.2. System Requirements
A.3. Enabling and Disabling the Feature
A.4. Notes for Administrators
B. RPM
B.1. RPM Design Goals
B.2. Using RPM
B.2.1. Finding RPM Packages
B.2.2. Installing and Upgrading
B.2.3. Configuration File Changes
B.2.4. Uninstalling
B.2.5. Freshening
B.2.6. Querying
B.2.7. Verifying
B.3. Checking a Package's Signature
B.3.1. Importing Keys
B.3.2. Verifying Signature of Packages
B.4. Practical and Common Examples of RPM Usage
B.5. Additional Resources
B.5.1. Installed Documentation
B.5.2. Useful Websites
B.5.3. Related Books
C. The X Window System
C.1. The X Server
C.2. Desktop Environments and Window Managers
C.2.1. Desktop Environments
C.2.2. Window Managers
C.3. X Server Configuration Files
C.3.1. The Structure of the Configuration
C.3.2. The xorg.conf.d Directory
C.3.3. The xorg.conf File
C.4. Fonts
C.4.1. Adding Fonts to Fontconfig
C.5. Runlevels and X
C.5.1. Runlevel 3
C.5.2. Runlevel 5
C.6. Additional Resources
C.6.1. Installed Documentation
C.6.2. Useful Websites
D. The sysconfig Directory
D.1. Files in the /etc/sysconfig/ Directory
D.1.1. /etc/sysconfig/arpwatch
D.1.2. /etc/sysconfig/authconfig
D.1.3. /etc/sysconfig/autofs
D.1.4. /etc/sysconfig/clock
D.1.5. /etc/sysconfig/dhcpd
D.1.6. /etc/sysconfig/firstboot
D.1.7. /etc/sysconfig/i18n
D.1.8. /etc/sysconfig/init
D.1.9. /etc/sysconfig/ip6tables-config
D.1.10. /etc/sysconfig/keyboard
D.1.11. /etc/sysconfig/ldap
D.1.12. /etc/sysconfig/named
D.1.13. /etc/sysconfig/network
D.1.14. /etc/sysconfig/ntpd
D.1.15. /etc/sysconfig/quagga
D.1.16. /etc/sysconfig/radvd
D.1.17. /etc/sysconfig/samba
D.1.18. /etc/sysconfig/saslauthd
D.1.19. /etc/sysconfig/selinux
D.1.20. /etc/sysconfig/sendmail
D.1.21. /etc/sysconfig/spamassassin
D.1.22. /etc/sysconfig/squid
D.1.23. /etc/sysconfig/system-config-users
D.1.24. /etc/sysconfig/vncservers
D.1.25. /etc/sysconfig/xinetd
D.2. Directories in the /etc/sysconfig/ Directory
D.3. Additional Resources
D.3.1. Installed Documentation
E. The proc File System
E.1. A Virtual File System
E.1.1. Viewing Virtual Files
E.1.2. Changing Virtual Files
E.2. Top-level Files within the proc File System
E.2.1. /proc/buddyinfo
E.2.2. /proc/cmdline
E.2.3. /proc/cpuinfo
E.2.4. /proc/crypto
E.2.5. /proc/devices
E.2.6. /proc/dma
E.2.7. /proc/execdomains
E.2.8. /proc/fb
E.2.9. /proc/filesystems
E.2.10. /proc/interrupts
E.2.11. /proc/iomem
E.2.12. /proc/ioports
E.2.13. /proc/kcore
E.2.14. /proc/kmsg
E.2.15. /proc/loadavg
E.2.16. /proc/locks
E.2.17. /proc/mdstat
E.2.18. /proc/meminfo
E.2.19. /proc/misc
E.2.20. /proc/modules
E.2.21. /proc/mounts
E.2.22. /proc/mtrr
E.2.23. /proc/partitions
E.2.24. /proc/slabinfo
E.2.25. /proc/stat
E.2.26. /proc/swaps
E.2.27. /proc/sysrq-trigger
E.2.28. /proc/uptime
E.2.29. /proc/version
E.3. Directories within /proc/
E.3.1. Process Directories
E.3.2. /proc/bus/
E.3.3. /proc/bus/pci
E.3.4. /proc/driver/
E.3.5. /proc/fs
E.3.6. /proc/irq/
E.3.7. /proc/net/
E.3.8. /proc/scsi/
E.3.9. /proc/sys/
E.3.10. /proc/sysvipc/
E.3.11. /proc/tty/
E.3.12. /proc/PID/
E.4. Using the sysctl Command
E.5. Additional Resources
E.5.1. Installed Documentation
E.5.2. Useful Websites
F. Revision History
Index