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Chapter 17. How does the subscriptions service show my subscription data?

The subscriptions service shows subscription data for Red Hat offerings such as software products or product sets, organized by the Red Hat software portfolio options in the Hybrid Cloud Console navigation menu. Currently, the subscriptions service shows data for the Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Red Hat OpenShift, and Red Hat Cloud Services software portfolios.

Note

The Red Hat Cloud Services portfolio page is currently represented as the Application Services navigation option on the Hybrid Cloud Console home page.

For each software portfolio, the Subscriptions menu shows options for navigating to the subscriptions service product pages for the available product architectures, products, or product sets within the selected portfolio. The Subscriptions menu might also contain options for viewing other subscription-related data or functions that are not part of the subscriptions service.

Each product page for the subscriptions service offers multiple views. These views enable you to explore different aspects about your subscriptions for that product. When combined, the data from these views can help you recognize and mitigate problems or trends with excess subscription usage, organize subscription allocation across all of your resources, and improve decision-making for future purchasing and renewals.

For all of these activities, and for other questions about your subscription usage, the members of your Red Hat account team can provide expertise, guidance, and additional resources. Their assistance can add context to the account data that is reported in the subscriptions service and can help you understand and comply with your responsibilities as a customer. For more information, see Your responsibilities.

17.1. How to use the subscription data in the views

The subscriptions service views can be grouped generally into the graph view and the table view.

The graph view is a visual representation of the subscription usage and capacity for your organization, where your organization is also a Red Hat account. This view helps you track usage trends and determine utilization, which is the percentage of deployed software when measured against your total subscriptions.

The table view can contain one or more tables that provide more details about the general data in the graph view. The current systems table provides details about subscription usage on individual components of your environment, for example, systems in your inventory or clusters in your cloud infrastructure or restricted network. The current subscriptions table provides details about individual subscriptions in your account. The table view helps you to find where Red Hat software is deployed in your environment, to understand how individual subscriptions contribute to your overall capacity for usage of similar types of subscriptions, to resolve questions you might have about subscription usage, and to refine plans for future deployments.

Note

For some product pages, the table view data is derived from data in the Cloud Services platform inventory service. User access to subscriptions, inventory, and other services is controlled independently by a role-based access control (RBAC) system for the Cloud Services platform tools, where individual users belong to groups and groups are associated with roles. More specifically, user access to the inventory service is controlled through the Inventory administrator role.

When the Inventory administrator RBAC role is enabled for the group or groups for your organization, information in the current systems table for the subscriptions service can display as links, where you can open a more detailed record in the inventory application for the listed systems. Otherwise, current systems table information displays as nonlinked information. For more information about RBAC usage in your organization, contact the organization administrator for your account.

The usage and utilization graph view

The graph view shows you your total subscription usage and capacity over time in a graph form. It provides perspective on your account’s subscription threshold, current subscription utilization, and remaining subscription capacity, along with the historical trend of your software usage. The graph view might contain a single graph or multiple graphs, depending upon how subscription usage for a product is measured.

The usage and capacity calculations that appear in the graph are based on data snapshots that are provided periodically as the Hybrid Cloud Console processing tools analyze information from the various data collection tools and data sources. The data snapshots for Annual subscriptions generally update once every 24 hours. The data snapshots for On-Demand subscriptions can be more frequent, updating multiple times per day.

  • Usage is the measurement of the consumption of Red Hat products installed on physical hardware or its equivalent. Usage is measured with a unit of measurement that is defined within the terms of a subscription.

    Units of measurement differ according to the type of product and the type of subscription. The terms of Annual subscriptions determine usage as the physical hardware that is consumed, such as sockets or cores, or equivalent physical hardware that is consumed, such as a cloud platform instance that is equal to a socket. The terms of On-Demand subscriptions, such as pay-as-you-go subscriptions, can determine usage by a combination of metrics that measure consumed resources. One type of these metrics might be a compound unit, or derived unit. Examples of derived units can be a certain amount of physical hardware that is consumed during a specific period of time, such as core hours, or the availability of a Red Hat service instance, such as instance hours.

    Usage is represented by a line or area graph, with different types of usage, for example, Red Hat Enterprise Linux physical, virtual, and public cloud usage, represented by different colors.

    For Annual subscriptions, usage fluctuates over time as you install and uninstall the software contained in your subscriptions. For On-Demand subscriptions, usage fluctuates as you consume more or less of the resources that are measured by the terms of that subscription.

  • Capacity is the upper limit of usage for a subscription, expressed in the unit of measurement and then summed for similar subscriptions across all of the contracts in your account. Similar subscriptions can be all products in a certain product portfolio, such as all RHEL subscriptions.

    The sum of capacity for all of your active subscriptions, the maximum capacity, is also known as the subscription threshold. This value is represented by a dashed line in the usage and utilization graph for a product. Two primary reasons could prevent a subscription threshold from appearing in the graph. If a product page includes a subscription that is sold with unlimited capacity as part of its sales terms, the subscription threshold is not shown. Also, for On-Demand subscriptions or similar subscriptions that are billed for monthly usage, no capacity is set, so a subscription threshold is not shown. If filter selections remove unlimited subscriptions from a view, then the subscription threshold would appear for those filtered results.

    The capacity of an individual subscription does not change over time. The subscription threshold fluctuates over time as new subscriptions are activated and old subscriptions expire, affecting the maximum capacity.

  • Utilization is the percentage of the maximum capacity, as indicated by the subscription threshold, that is exhausted through the deployment and usage of Red Hat software in your account. In simple terms, utilization is the usage divided by the maximum capacity. If capacity is not applicable to a certain type of subscription present in the account, such as an unlimited subscription, utilization as a percentage of the maximum capacity also does not apply.

    Subscription utilization fluctuates over time due to the interaction of the changes to the usage and the subscription threshold.

Although the graph shows trends over a selected time interval, you can also view more specific information for the graph. For example, if the selected time interval is Weekly, you can hover over the graph near a date to see more specific data for a particular week.

You can also use the available filters, which can vary by product, to change the usage data that displays in the graph. For example, you can filter by the time interval, the unit of measurement, or by the subscription attribute filters such as service level agreement (SLA), as applicable.

The graph view: example graph

The following image shows an example RHEL usage and utilization graph in the subscriptions service. For other product pages, the graph view will contain differences in design, depending on how those products are sold and measured.

For the graph, the time filter is set to a daily view, and the graph displays a month of RHEL usage.

Figure 17.1. Usage and utilization graph example

Usage and utilization graph example for a month of data
  1. A tooltip displays when you hover over a point in the graph. In this example, the tooltip displays more information about the subscription usage and the subscription threshold for a specific day, April 6. For this day, physical RHEL is consuming 20 sockets, virtualized RHEL is consuming 25 sockets, and public cloud RHEL is consuming 22 sockets, with a total of 67 sockets for all usage types. This usage total is less than the subscription threshold of 80 sockets.
  2. The maximum capacity of RHEL usage, based on a unit of measurement of sockets, displays as the dashed subscription threshold line. This example shows an increase in the subscription threshold sometime between April 11 and April 16. The increase in the available capacity in this Red Hat account is due to the activation of additional RHEL subscriptions in the account.
  3. The RHEL subscription usage, based on a unit of measurement of sockets, displays as three different colors for RHEL installed in physical, virtual, and public cloud environments. The example shows how all of these types of usage fluctuate over time. Usage fluctuates according to subscription activity, such as installation and uninstallation on physical systems or launch and termination of instances in the public cloud.

The table view: current systems table

The current systems table shows you details about usage on individual components in your environment, taken from the most recent daily snapshot of the usage data. This table provides information that can help you correlate the aggregated usage totals in the graph with the current software deployments on individual components across your organization. The components and data shown in the table vary by product because of the different ways that usage is tracked for products, by socket count, core count, core hours, and so on. Also, a component that displays as a "system" in the table can be a physical or virtual machine, or it can be another object such as a cluster or instance. Therefore, generic references to this table as the current systems table are for convenience only.

Note

For some products such as RHEL, the data in the current systems table view contains aspects of the data that is available from the Hybrid Cloud Console inventory application, with the following differences:

  • The inventory application shows significantly more system data. The current systems table view is a small subset of this data.
  • Data in the inventory application can be more current because of the methods that are used to update the data. The current systems table view in subscriptions is based on a daily snapshot, so that data could be up to 24 hours old.
  • Consumption of sockets or cores in the inventory application is represented as actual consumption. Usage in subscriptions is represented as normalized consumption, bound by the terms of subscription. For example, usage of a physical RHEL subscription is measured by socket pair, so a socket count for that type of system is always rounded to the next higher even number.

The information in the current systems table generally shows the name of the system, the type of the system, the usage total for that system according to the unit of measurement, and the date that the system was last seen. However, the available columns in the table might differ according to the types of data that are relevant for that product. Columns in the table are sortable.

For the Name column that contains the name of the system, the system is the machine, either physical or virtualized, on which the product or product set is deployed. A system can also be a different component, such as a Red Hat OpenShift cluster or an instance of a Red Hat Cloud Services service. The system is usually represented by either its display name or its universally unique ID (UUID). For multi-guest systems such as hypervisors, you can expand the system to see more information about individual guests. For some objects in the Name column, you can also click the system name to open the full system record in a different resource, for example, in the Hybrid Cloud Console inventory application.

Note

Currently for the display of Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform and Red Hat OpenShift Dedicated pay-as-you-go On-Demand subscription data, the Name column uses the inventory UUID. This ID is not the same as the cluster ID that is used for the cluster in Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager. In addition, the inventory UUID in the Name column does not provide a link to the cluster record in Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager. However, in both the subscriptions service and Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager you can use the available search filters to cross-reference these IDs.

For the Type column that contains the type of the system, the type is the infrastructure type on which the product or product set is deployed. A system can be a physical host, hypervisor, individual virtual machine, or other form of virtual deployment such as a public cloud instance. The information in this column might not be applicable to all products, so for some products the Type column might not appear.

For the column where the usage total for that system is displayed, the column label will vary according to how product usage is measured. For subscriptions where usage is measured with multiple metrics, multiple columns will display. The usage is the actual or equivalent amount of physical hardware that the product or product set is consuming on that system. Usage is counted according to the applicable unit of measurement, which in turn is determined by the terms of the subscription. For example, for a subscription that is sold by sockets, the usage total is the number of sockets, also known as subscribed sockets, that are consumed by a system. Other subscriptions such as On-Demand subscriptions are sold with different terms, such as by core hours, or might include multiple metrics in the terms, such as data transfer, data storage, and instance hours.

Note

The data for the usage total is based on the update, or heartbeat, cycles for the subscriptions service. For Annual subscriptions, the value that displays for the usage total is based on the 24-hour snapshot of usage for the most recently tallied day. For On-Demand subscriptions, the value is the most recently tallied data that is available to the subscriptions service, data that could be from the current day.

For the Last seen column that contains a date, that last seen date is the date that the system was last found by the Cloud Services platform tools, such as the inventory service or Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager and other tools in the monitoring stack. As part of the underlying tasks that subscriptions and other tools perform to calculate usage, the inventory service and the monitoring stack help to identify and deduplicate system data that is gathered by the various data collection tools.

As with the usage and utilization graph, you can use the filters to change the data that displays in the current systems table. However, a change to the time interval, such as changing from days to weeks, has no effect on the current systems table. The data displayed is from the most recent snapshot, so it is usually no more than 24 hours old.

You can also search the current systems table for a specific system name or a group of similarly named systems by using the search field. Exact and partial strings are accepted, but common wildcard characters are treated as literal characters, not special character wildcards.

The table view: current subscriptions table

The current subscriptions table shows you details about your currently active subscriptions, taken from the most recent daily snapshot of this data. This table contains information that can help you understand the maximum capacity for your usage of that product within your account. The maximum capacity is displayed as the subscription threshold in the usage and utilization graph view.

The table shows the capacity for each subscription in the unit of measurement by which that subscription is sold, for example, sockets or cores. The sum of the capacity for all rows equals the subscription threshold.

By using the data in the current subscriptions table, you can more fully understand how individual subscriptions are contributing to the subscription threshold. This information can help you plan for any future purchasing decisions, such as adjusting the amount of existing subscriptions or purchasing different subscriptions that are more suited to your usage profile. You can also use the information in the table to anticipate upcoming events that could affect your business activities in relation to purchasing and renewals, such as contract expiration.

Note

Currently, On-Demand subscriptions such as Red Hat OpenShift Dedicated On-Demand are restricted to one subscription per account. Therefore, the current subscriptions table does not display for these types of products.

The information in the current subscriptions table generally shows the name of the product subscription, the service level agreement (SLA) for the subscription, the quantity of the subscription, the capacity of that subscription according to the unit of measurement, and the next renewal event for the subscription. All columns in the table are sortable.

The Product column lists unique product subscriptions that are currently active in your account. Future-dated subscriptions that are not yet active do not appear in the table. Expired subscriptions that are not renewed are removed from the table.

Subscriptions that share the same stock-keeping unit (SKU) appear on a single row. Subscriptions that can be grouped on the same row include these characteristics:

  • Subscriptions with the same SKU, whether purchased in the same or different contracts or purchased at the same or different times.
  • Subscriptions with the same SKU but with other minor differences to attributes, such as differences in quantity, that do not result in the creation of a new SKU.

In the Product column, a subscription might display multiple times. The text that displays for a subscription is derived from the SKU description text. In some cases, this text might be identical for different SKUs. For example, two subscriptions could differ in one major attribute such as the SLA, resulting in a different SKU for the changed SLA.

The Service level column contains the service level agreement (SLA) for a subscription, as defined within the terms of the subscription. Examples include Premium, Standard, or Self-Support. This information can sometimes help you distinguish between two subscriptions in the Product column that have identical descriptions.

The Quantity column contains the number of active subscriptions for a SKU. For example, a single table row might contain multiples of the same SKU purchased in the same transaction. It might also contain multiples of the same SKU purchased in different transactions.

For the column where the capacity for a subscription is displayed, the column label will vary according to how product usage is measured. For example, RHEL is sold in socket pairs, so the capacity column for RHEL has the label Sockets. This capacity column measures the maximum amount of available usage for the subscriptions in each table row. Usage is counted according to the applicable unit of measurement, which in turn is determined by the terms of the subscription. When summed, the total for all rows in the table represents the maximum possible capacity of usage for all subscriptions of that product. This value is also the subscription threshold in the graph view.

Note

When a row includes a subscription that is sold with unlimited capacity, the capacity value for that row will show the infinity symbol to represent the unlimited capacity.

The Next renewal column lists the next pending renewal event for any subscription that is in that row.

17.2. Measurement of usage and capacity

Currently, the subscriptions service tracks certain types of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Red Hat OpenShift products. The data that is displayed for usage and capacity varies by product.

Overall usage and capacity trends display on the usage and utilization graph. The information in the current systems table provides additional detail about the most recent day of data from the graph.

17.2.1. Measurement of usage and capacity for Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Red Hat Enterprise Linux

For Red Hat Enterprise Linux, measurement of usage is based on the consumption of sockets, according to the terms of your subscription.

Usage: RHEL

Usage is measured in CPU sockets. Data is aggregated for all supported architectures and is divided by architecture, including the RHEL variants for x86. You can view aggregated or specific architecture data by selecting from the Subscriptions options in the navigation menu.

The usage data in the graph is divided into three sections, based on RHEL on physical systems, virtualized systems, or public cloud systems.

Capacity: RHEL
To measure capacity, the socket contribution of each RHEL subscription is added to a total that encompasses the inventory’s CPU architecture, including the RHEL variants for x86.

For some Red Hat products, RHEL is included with and is installed to support that product. For example, RHEL is included with Red Hat Satellite. Bundled RHEL is not tracked or counted against total usage or capacity.

17.2.2. Measurement of usage and capacity for Red Hat OpenShift

For Red Hat OpenShift, measurement of usage is based upon the size of clusters. The unit of measurement that is used to measure cluster size depends upon the subscription terms and type of subscription for the product.

The cluster size is the sum of the size of all the subscribed nodes. The subscribed nodes are the compute or worker nodes in the versions of Red Hat OpenShift where this fact can be obtained. For each of the subscribed nodes, the kernel is queried for the number of sockets, the number of cores on each socket, and the number of threads supported by each core. Then the total number of threads is divided by the threads per core to determine the number of cores on the node (physical or virtual machine).

Note

For Red Hat OpenShift version 4.1 and later (including the 4.7 versions of Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform and OpenShift Dedicated for On-Demand subscriptions), the subscriptions service is able to distinguish between control plane and compute nodes, also commonly referred to as infrastructure and worker nodes. You might be familiar with other names for the types of control plane nodes that were used in different releases of Red Hat OpenShift, such as master, router, registry, metrics, logging, etcd, and similar names. In the aggregation of usage data based on cluster size for these versions of Red Hat OpenShift, control plane nodes are ignored. However, for OpenShift Dedicated On-Demand, control plane usage is tracked as instance hours, based upon the availability of clusters.

The subscriptions service is not able to make this same distinction for earlier versions of Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform, so data for infrastructure nodes is displayed and counted along with the worker node usage. Analysis of cluster data indicates that approximately 15% of data displayed for earlier versions of Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform is infrastructure node overhead. Therefore, if your subscription profile includes Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform version 3, it is possible that you can exceed your Red Hat OpenShift subscription threshold by up to 15% but still be in compliance with your subscriptions.

For additional details about improvements to Red Hat OpenShift usage tracking in the subscriptions service, see the following information: How do vCPUs, hyper-threading, and subscription structure affect the subscriptions service usage data?

After the cluster size information is obtained, usage and capacity information is calculated according to the product and type of subscription. For more information, see the following descriptions of each product and subscription type.

Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform

Usage: Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform with an Annual subscription
Usage of an Annual subscription of Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform is measured in CPU cores or sockets. Data displays as an account-level view that is a sum of usage across active clusters.
Capacity: Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform with an Annual subscription
To measure capacity, the core or socket contribution (as applicable) of each subscription is added to a total for Annual subscriptions.
Usage: Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform with a pay-as-you-go On-Demand subscription

Usage of a pay-as-you-go On-Demand subscription of Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform is measured in core hours. A core hour is a unit of measurement for computational activity on one core (as defined by the subscription terms), for a total of one hour, measured to the granularity of the meter that is used. To obtain usage in core hours, the subscriptions service uses numerical integration, also commonly known as an "area under the curve" calculation.

The core hour based usage data for all clusters is summed and then displays as daily usage in the usage and utilization graph. Because of the monthly billing cycle for a pay-as-you-go subscription, the default time interval for the graph is one month, the current month. A cumulative core hours used value also displays for the most recent snapshot of the usage for that month if there is accumulated usage to display.

Note

The core hour usage data for the account and for individual clusters that is shown in the subscriptions service interface is rounded to two decimal places for display purposes. The usage values that are displayed in different locations in the interface might show slight discrepancies due to this rounding. However, the data that is used for the subscriptions service calculations and that is provided to the Red Hat Marketplace billing service is at the millicore level, rounded to 6 decimal places, and is not from the displayed values.

Capacity: Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform with a pay-as-you-go On-Demand subscription
Capacity is not an applicable metric for a pay-as-you-go On-Demand subscription. So capacity is not tracked, nor is a subscription threshold line shown, for this type of subscription.

Red Hat OpenShift Dedicated

Usage: Red Hat OpenShift Dedicated with a pay-as-you-go On-Demand subscription

Usage of a pay-as-you-go On-Demand subscription of Red Hat OpenShift Dedicated is measured with two units of measurement, core hours and instance hours. Therefore, the usage and utilization graph includes a dual y-axis, also known as a primary y-axis and secondary y-axis.

  • A core hour is a unit of measurement for computational activity on one core (as defined by the subscription terms), for a total of one hour, measured to the granularity of the meter that is used. For Red Hat OpenShift Dedicated On-Demand, core hours measure the workload usage on the compute machines.
  • An instance hour is a unit of measurement for the availability of a Red Hat service instance, during which it can accept and execute customer workloads. For Red Hat OpenShift Dedicated On-Demand, instance hours use your cluster availability data to measure the control plane usage on the control plane machines (in older versions of Red Hat OpenShift, the master machines). This data is used to calculate the control plane cost, also known as the cluster fee, that is included in your Red Hat Marketplace invoice.

To obtain usage in core hours and instance hours, the subscriptions service uses numerical integration, also commonly known as an "area under the curve" calculation. This process samples usage multiple times per hour, normalizes the samples for a specific time interval, aggregates the normalized samples into a daily total, and then sums each day into a total that is determined by the billing terms of the subscription. The usage data for all clusters is summed and displayed in the usage and utilization graph based on the selected time filter. The core hour usage is plotted with the primary y-axis, and the instance hour usage is plotted with the secondary y-axis. Because of the monthly billing cycle for a pay-as-you-go subscription, the default time interval for the graph is one month, the current month. A cumulative core hours used value also displays for the most recent snapshot of the usage for that month if there is accumulated usage to display.

Note

The core hour and instance hour usage data for the account and for individual clusters that is shown in the subscriptions service interface is rounded to two decimal places for display purposes. The usage values that are displayed in different locations in the interface might show slight discrepancies due to this rounding. However, the data that is used for the subscriptions service calculations and that is provided to the Red Hat Marketplace billing service is at the millicore level, rounded to 6 decimal places, and is not from the displayed values.

Capacity: Red Hat OpenShift Dedicated with a pay-as-you-go On-Demand subscription
Capacity is not an applicable metric for a pay-as-you-go On-Demand subscription. So capacity is not tracked, nor is a subscription threshold line shown, for this type of subscription.

17.2.3. Measurement of usage and capacity for Red Hat Cloud Services

For Red Hat Cloud Services, measurement of usage is based on metrics that generally relate to the consumption of computing resources by the platform that powers the service. These resources might include, but are not limited to, metrics concerning CPU, RAM, network traffic, storage volume, and control plane consumption during the availability of each instance of a service. Because these services perform different jobs and consume different resources, an individual service might be measured by a single metric or a combination of these metrics. In addition, those differences in the services can result in different units of measurement being used for the basic metric types.

Red Hat OpenShift Streams for Apache Kafka

Usage: Red Hat OpenShift Streams for Apache Kafka with a pay-as-you-go On-Demand subscription

Usage of a pay-as-you-go On-Demand subscription of Red Hat OpenShift Streams for Apache Kafka is measured with three metrics, data transfer, data storage, and instance hours. The usage is aggregated for display in the subscriptions service according to the selected time filter.

Note

For the following measurements that include binary gigabytes, a binary gigabyte is the equivalent of a gibibyte. A gibibyte (GiB) is equal to 1,073,741,824 bytes, or 10243 bytes.

  • The data transfer metric is the total number of bytes of inbound and outbound data that is transferred for all active instances within a single hour, shown in binary gigabytes. The data transfer metric shows the network traffic for the instances of the service. You can think of the data transfer metric as a pure counter, incrementing its value for both inbound and outbound network traffic and summing that count into a total that is determined by the billing terms of the subscription, such as a monthly total for an On-Demand subscription.
  • The data storage metric is the maximum number of bytes stored for each active instance during a single hour, summed into an hourly total for all instances and shown in binary gigabyte hours. The data storage metric shows the amount of data that is stored by the instances of the service. You can think of the data storage metric as a gauge that finds the greatest amount of storage that is consumed by each instance in a single hour, sums each hour into a daily total, and then sums each day into a total that is determined by the billing terms of the subscription.
  • The instance hours metric is the number of active instances within a single hour, where each instance consumes a full hour of service if active at any time within that hour, shown in instance hours. The instance hours metric shows the availability of a Red Hat service instance, during which it can accept and execute workloads. You can think of the instance hours metric as a switch that measures availability during the time when an instance is in “on” mode. While an instance is in "on" mode, it is consuming Red Hat resources on the supporting control plane machines throughout its lifespan. An instance that is deleted is in "off" mode and does not generate data for any of the metrics, including the data storage metric, because all storage volumes are deleted with the instance deletion.
Capacity: Red Hat OpenShift Streams for Apache Kafka with a pay-as-you-go On-Demand subscription
Capacity is not an applicable metric for a pay-as-you-go On-Demand subscription. So capacity is not tracked, nor is a subscription threshold line shown, for this type of subscription.

17.3. Units of measurement

The unit of measurement by which product usage is tracked is determined by the terms of the subscription.

17.3.1. Units of measurement for Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Because of the inherent differences between physical, virtual, and public cloud offerings and their relation to hardware, the subscriptions service tracking uses different units of measurement, as follows:

Physical usage

The subscriptions service measures your physical RHEL installations by CPU socket pairs. Each system contributes its installed socket count, rounded upwards to the next even number. The value that displays is the total socket count, including all of the system-level pair rounding.

In the current systems table, on-premise physical hardware and other structures such as a RHEL based hypervisor can display as physical machines.

Virtualized usage

The subscriptions service measures your virtualized RHEL installations in two ways. Where host-guest mappings are not used, such as with standard guest subscriptions, each system contributes a single installed socket. Where host-guest mappings are required, such as with virtual data center (VDC) subscriptions or similar virtualized environments, the socket count of the hypervisor host node is counted, by using the same socket pair method that is used with physical RHEL installations.

Virtualized usage for hypervisors and virtual machines is grouped together in the usage and utilization graph, but hypervisor usage is displayed separately from virtual usage in the current systems table. This separation can help you troubleshoot questions about the collection of usage data for virtualized environments. In particular, it can help you determine whether host-guest mapping data is being correctly provided to the subscriptions service through the configuration of virt-who and the Satellite inventory upload plugin. For example, when these tools are correctly configured, virtualized usage is counted as follows:

  • For a RHEL based hypervisor with RHEL guests, the socket count of the hypervisor is counted twice, with the socket pair method applied. One count as physical represents the node’s own copy of RHEL, and one count as virtualized represents the usage of guest systems.
  • For a non RHEL based hypervisor with RHEL guests, the socket count of the hypervisor is counted once, as virtualized, with the socket pair method.
  • For standalone virtual machines, or for virtual machines with no detectable hypervisor management, each virtual machine is counted as a single socket.
Public cloud usage

The subscriptions service measures public cloud RHEL installations by socket. The measurement of public cloud usage differs depending on whether you are using the high-precision public cloud metering capabilities provided by the subscriptions service.

  • If you are not using public cloud metering, the instances launched from public cloud RHEL images are recognized through Desktop Management Interfaces (DMI) fact-value pairs that are present in the image and instance metadata. The values of the DMI facts identify an instance as running in the cloud infrastructure provided by Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform (GCP), and Alibaba Cloud. Each running instance contributes a single socket to the socket count. With this method, the subscriptions service has no way to identify when a single instance runs multiple times per day, so a single instance will be counted as active for the entire day.
  • If you are using public cloud metering (currently available only for AWS instances), the subscriptions service is able to track your RHEL based AWS instances with much higher precision. For each of your AWS accounts, you create a source by using the settings feature for the Hybrid Cloud Console. You provide enough data during source creation for the subscriptions service to track the start and stop events of the instances for an AWS account. Because the subscriptions service has access to these tracking capabilities, a single instance that runs multiple times per day can be identified. So instead of counting instances only, the subscriptions service shifts to count the maximum number of concurrent instances running in each source (AWS account) per day. The daily totals for multiple AWS sources are then compiled at the Red Hat account level.

17.3.2. Units of measurement for Red Hat OpenShift

Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform with an Annual subscription

The subscriptions service measures your Red Hat OpenShift usage in units of CPU cores or CPU sockets. For Red Hat OpenShift 4, the counting is aggregated at the cluster level, and for Red Hat OpenShift 3, the counting is aggregated at the node level. Currently, the subscriptions service cannot display a single, mixed-unit view of Red Hat OpenShift usage in environments that include core-based and socket-based clusters within the same account. You must use filtering to view that data in separate views.

You can use a filter to toggle the usage and capacity data between the two units of measurement. If subscription attributes are set on the cluster (through Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager for Red Hat OpenShift 4) or on the node (through the command to set the ocm.units value for Red Hat OpenShift 3), then that data can be reported by cores or sockets. If subscription attributes are not set or cannot be set, then the data is included in reports for both core-based and socket-based usage.

Physical usage

The subscriptions service measures your core-based physical Red Hat OpenShift installations by actual core count. Socket-based physical installations are measured by socket pairs, so the count is rounded upwards to the next even number.

In the current systems table, an example of a physical system for Red Hat OpenShift is a Red Hat OpenShift cluster running on bare metal. Another example is a RHEL system reporting as a Red Hat OpenShift 3 cluster node.

Virtual usage

The subscriptions service measures your core-based and socket-based installations by actual core and actual socket count.

In the current systems table, an example of a virtual system for Red Hat OpenShift is a cluster installed in environments such as Red Hat OpenStack Platform, Red Hat Virtualization, VMware vSphere, or on public cloud.

Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform and Red Hat OpenShift Dedicated with a pay-as-you-go On-Demand subscription

The subscriptions service measures your pay-as-you-go On-Demand subscription of Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform or Red Hat OpenShift Dedicated usage in core hours. A core hour is a unit of measurement for computational activity on one core (as defined by the subscription terms), for a total of one hour, measured to the granularity of the meter that is used.

Physical usage
The subscriptions service measures your core-based physical Red Hat OpenShift installations by actual core count. Socket-based physical installations are measured by socket pairs, so the count is rounded upwards to the next even number.
Virtual usage
The subscriptions service measures your core-based and vCPU-based virtual installations by actual core count, with vCPUs rationalized to cores using maximum efficiency. Socket-based virtual installations are measured by socket count as reported by your hypervisor. For best reporting, confirm that your hypervisor is reporting accurate socket counts for your virtual machines.
Control plane usage
For Red Hat OpenShift Dedicated On-Demand only, the subscriptions service also measures your cluster availability by instance hour. For Red Hat OpenShift Dedicated On-Demand, this instance hour calculation of control plane usage is based on a cluster hour unit of measurement.

17.3.3. Units of measurement for Red Hat Cloud Services

Red Hat OpenShift Streams for Apache Kafka with a pay-as-you-go On-Demand subscription

The subscriptions service measures your pay-as-you-go On-Demand subscription of Red Hat OpenShift Streams for Apache Kafka with different units of measurement for the three different metrics that are used.

Note

For the following measurements that include binary gigabytes, a binary gigabyte is the equivalent of a gibibyte. A gigibyte (GiB) is equal to 1,073,741,824 bytes, or 10243 bytes.

Data transfer
The subscriptions service measures data transfer for an OpenShift Streams for Apache Kafka service instance by binary gigabytes.
Data storage
The subscriptions service measures data storage for an OpenShift Streams for Apache Kafka service instance by binary gigabyte hours. A binary gigabyte hour is a unit of measurement for computational activity, including storage of data, generated by that service instance for a total of one hour.
Instance hours
The subscriptions service measures control plane usage for an OpenShift Streams for Apache Kafka service instance by instance hours.

17.4. Filtering

You can further refine the subscriptions service data by selecting values from the available filters in the interface. When you select a filter option, the graph view (and in some cases, the table view) generally refreshes to show data that relates to that option. In other words, most of the filters are inclusive, not exclusive, for the selected option.

Filtering by time

For Annual subscriptions, you can filter data by several different time intervals, including daily (the default) and quarterly. For On-Demand subscriptions, you can filter by the current month or by any other month in the previous 12 months.

Filtering by time affects only the usage and utilization graph view. The current systems table view is always data from the most recent subscriptions service daily snapshot, and is not affected by the time filter.

Note

During the rapid development of the subscriptions service, the addition of new features is improving the scope and accuracy of this tool. The subscriptions service does not provide in-application capability to recalculate older usage and capacity data as these new features are being added. Therefore, the selection of a longer time interval could display results that contain inconsistencies.

Filtering by subscription attributes

You can filter by subscription attributes, which is data that describes the characteristics and intended usage of subscription. The accuracy of those filters is dependent upon how accurately the subscription attribute data is set.

Subscription attributes might be configured from the operating system or its management tools, or from settings within the product itself. In these various tools, subscription attribute data is also known as system purpose, subscription settings, or similar names. In some cases, subscription attribute values might be derived from the subscription, such as when a subscription is sold either by sockets or cores.

You can use the subscriptions service filters to get a more focused view on usage that meets certain use cases within your subscription profile. For example, filtering your RHEL subscriptions by service level agreement (SLA) to show only those with an SLA of Premium could help you determine the current usage of premium subscriptions compared to your overall capacity for those premium subscriptions. In turn, this knowledge can inform decisions such as additional deployments, actions to mitigate subscription compliance issues, or future purchasing and renewals.

As another example, selecting a nonspecific value for a filter, such as the No SLA or Unspecified options, can help show subscriptions that have subscription attribute values that might be missing or that might be less common and not specifically filterable by the subscriptions service. For those subscriptions with missing subscription attributes, adding that data can improve the accuracy and usefulness of the subscriptions service reporting.

The subscriptions service provides the following filters and filter options for RHEL:

  • SLA (service level agreement): Premium, Standard, Self-Support, No SLA
  • Usage: Development/Test, Disaster Recovery, Production, Unspecified

The subscriptions service provides the following filter and filter options for Red Hat OpenShift:

  • SLA (service level agreement): Premium, Standard, Self-Support, No SLA
  • Cores: Cores (default), Sockets

Because the current offerings for Red Hat OpenShift Streams for Apache Kafka are of one subscription type only, filtering by subscription attributes is currently not available.

Filtering by name (current systems table)

You can filter the data in the current systems table by the contents of Name column, which shows either the display name or universally unique ID (UUID) of each system. To filter by name, use the search field near the Name column.

You can search for a specific system name or a group of similarly named systems. Exact and partial strings are accepted, but common wildcard characters are treated as literal characters, not special character wildcards.

Filtering the graph display with the graph legend

You can filter how data displays in the usage and utilization graph by clicking the legend options below the graph, toggling them off and on. For example, in the graph for RHEL, you can click Physical RHEL in the graph legend to hide all physical RHEL data and show only the virtualized RHEL and public cloud RHEL data. You can then click it again to show the physical RHEL data. You can also toggle multiple legend options off at the same time.

Note

Unlike the other filtering options, filtering by the graph legend is an exclusive filter, not an inclusive filter. In other words, the intent of this filter is to hide data for the selected option.