Chapter 3. Policies and service definition

3.1. About availability for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS

Availability and disaster avoidance are extremely important aspects of any application platform. Although Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) provides many protections against failures at several levels, customer-deployed applications must be appropriately configured for high availability. To account for outages that might occur with cloud providers, additional options are available such as deploying a cluster across multiple availability zones and maintaining multiple clusters with failover mechanisms.

3.1.1. Potential points of failure

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) provides many features and options for protecting your workloads against downtime, but applications must be architected appropriately to take advantage of these features.

ROSA can help further protect you against many common Kubernetes issues by adding Red Hat site reliability engineering (SRE) support and the option to deploy a multiple availability zone cluster, but there are a number of ways in which a container or infrastructure can still fail. By understanding potential points of failure, you can understand risks and appropriately architect both your applications and your clusters to be as resilient as necessary at each specific level.

Note

An outage can occur at several different levels of infrastructure and cluster components.

3.1.1.1. Container or pod failure

By design, pods are meant to exist for a short time. Appropriately scaling services so that multiple instances of your application pods are running can protect against issues with any individual pod or container. The OpenShift node scheduler can also make sure these workloads are distributed across different worker nodes to further improve resiliency.

When accounting for possible pod failures, it is also important to understand how storage is attached to your applications. Single persistent volumes attached to single pods cannot leverage the full benefits of pod scaling, whereas replicated databases, database services, or shared storage can.

To avoid disruption to your applications during planned maintenance, such as upgrades, it is important to define a Pod Disruption Budget. These are part of the Kubernetes API and can be managed with oc commands such as other object types. They allow for the specification of safety constraints on pods during operations, such as draining a node for maintenance.

3.1.1.2. Worker node failure

Worker nodes are the virtual machines that contain your application pods. By default, a ROSA cluster has a minimum of two worker nodes for a single availability-zone cluster. In the event of a worker node failure, pods are relocated to functioning worker nodes, as long as there is enough capacity, until any issue with an existing node is resolved or the node is replaced. More worker nodes means more protection against single-node outages, and ensures proper cluster capacity for rescheduled pods in the event of a node failure.

Note

When accounting for possible node failures, it is also important to understand how storage is affected. EFS volumes are not affected by node failure. However, EBS volumes are not accessible if they are connected to a node that fails.

3.1.1.3. Cluster failure

Single-AZ ROSA clusters have at least three control plane and two infrastructure nodes in the same availability zone (AZ) in the private subnet.

Multi-AZ ROSA clusters have at least three control plane nodes and three infrastructure nodes that are preconfigured for high availability, either in a single zone or across multiple zones, depending on the type of cluster you have selected. Control plane and infrastructure nodes have the same resiliency as worker nodes, with the added benefit of being managed completely by Red Hat.

In the event of a complete control plane outage, the OpenShift APIs will not function, and existing worker node pods are unaffected. However, if there is also a pod or node outage at the same time, the control planes must recover before new pods or nodes can be added or scheduled.

All services running on infrastructure nodes are configured by Red Hat to be highly available and distributed across infrastructure nodes. In the event of a complete infrastructure outage, these services are unavailable until these nodes have been recovered.

3.1.1.4. Zone failure

A zone failure from AWS affects all virtual components, such as worker nodes, block or shared storage, and load balancers that are specific to a single availability zone. To protect against a zone failure, ROSA provides the option for clusters that are distributed across three availability zones, known as multiple availability zone clusters. Existing stateless workloads are redistributed to unaffected zones in the event of an outage, as long as there is enough capacity.

3.1.1.5. Storage failure

If you have deployed a stateful application, then storage is a critical component and must be accounted for when thinking about high availability. A single block storage PV is unable to withstand outages even at the pod level. The best ways to maintain availability of storage are to use replicated storage solutions, shared storage that is unaffected by outages, or a database service that is independent of the cluster.

3.2. Overview of responsibilities for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS

This documentation outlines Red Hat, Amazon Web Services (AWS), and customer responsibilities for the Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) managed service.

3.2.1. Shared responsibilities for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS

While Red Hat and Amazon Web Services (AWS) manage the Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS services, the customer shares certain responsibilities. The Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS services are accessed remotely, hosted on public cloud resources, created in customer-owned AWS accounts, and have underlying platform and data security that is owned by Red Hat.

Important

If the cluster-admin role is added to a user, see the responsibilities and exclusion notes in the Red Hat Enterprise Agreement Appendix 4 (Online Subscription Services).

ResourceIncident and operations managementChange managementAccess and identity authorizationSecurity and regulation complianceDisaster recovery

Customer data

Customer

Customer

Customer

Customer

Customer

Customer applications

Customer

Customer

Customer

Customer

Customer

Developer services

Customer

Customer

Customer

Customer

Customer

Platform monitoring

Red Hat

Red Hat

Red Hat

Red Hat

Red Hat

Logging

Red Hat

Red Hat and Customer

Red Hat and Customer

Red Hat and Customer

Red Hat

Application networking

Red Hat and Customer

Red Hat and Customer

Red Hat and Customer

Red Hat

Red Hat

Cluster networking

Red Hat

Red Hat and Customer

Red Hat and Customer

Red Hat

Red Hat

Virtual networking management

Red Hat and Customer

Red Hat and Customer

Red Hat and Customer

Red Hat and Customer

Red Hat and Customer

Virtual compute management (control plane, infrastructure and worker nodes)

Red Hat

Red Hat

Red Hat

Red Hat

Red Hat

Cluster version

Red Hat

Red Hat and Customer

Red Hat

Red Hat

Red Hat

Capacity management

Red Hat

Red Hat and Customer

Red Hat

Red Hat

Red Hat

Virtual storage management

Red Hat

Red Hat

Red Hat

Red Hat

Red Hat

AWS software (public AWS services)

AWS

AWS

AWS

AWS

AWS

Hardware/AWS global infrastructure

AWS

AWS

AWS

AWS

AWS

3.2.2. Tasks for shared responsibilities by area

Red Hat, AWS, and the customer all share responsibility for the monitoring, maintenance, and overall health of a Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) cluster. This documentation illustrates the delineation of responsibilities for each of the listed resources as shown in the tables below.

3.2.3. Incident and operations management

Red Hat is responsible for overseeing the service components required for default platform networking. AWS is responsible for protecting the hardware infrastructure that runs all of the services offered in the AWS Cloud. The customer is responsible for incident and operations management of customer application data and any custom networking the customer may have configured for the cluster network or virtual network.

ResourceService responsibilitiesCustomer responsibilities

Application networking

Red Hat

  • Monitor native OpenShift router service, and respond to alerts.
  • Monitor health of application routes, and the endpoints behind them.
  • Report outages to Red Hat and AWS.

Virtual networking management

Red Hat

  • Monitor AWS load balancers, Amazon VPC subnets, and AWS service components necessary for default platform networking. Respond to alerts.
  • Monitor health of AWS load balancer endpoints.
  • Monitor network traffic that is optionally configured through Amazon VPC-to-VPC connection, AWS VPN connection, or AWS Direct Connect for potential issues or security threats.

Virtual storage management

Red Hat

  • Monitor Amazon EBS volumes attached to cluster nodes and Amazon S3 buckets used for the ROSA service’s built-in container image registry. Respond to alerts.
  • Monitor health of application data.
  • If customer managed AWS KMS keys are used, create and control the key lifecycle and key policies for Amazon EBS encryption.

Platform monitoring

Red Hat

  • Maintain a centralized monitoring and alerting system for all ROSA cluster components, site reliability engineer (SRE) services, and underlying AWS accounts.
 

Incident management

Red Hat

  • Raise and manage known incidents.
  • Share root cause analysis (RCA) drafts with the customer.
  • Raise known incidents through a support case.

Infrastructure and data resiliency

Red Hat

  • There is no Red Hat-provided backup method available for ROSA clusters with STS.
  • Red Hat does not commit to any Recovery Point Objective (RPO) or Recovery Time Objective (RTO).
  • Take regular backups of data and deploy multi-AZ clusters with workloads that follow Kubernetes best practices to ensure high availability within a region.
  • If an entire cloud region is unavailable, install a new cluster in a different region and restore apps using backup data.

Cluster capacity

Red Hat

  • Manage the capacity of all control plane and infrastructure nodes on the cluster.
  • Evaluate cluster capacity during upgrades and in response to cluster alerts.
 

AWS software (public AWS services)

AWS

  • Monitor health of AWS resources in the customer account.
  • Use IAM tools to apply the appropriate permissions to AWS resources in the customer account.

Hardware/AWS global infrastructure

AWS

  • Configure, manage, and monitor customer applications and data to ensure application and data security controls are properly enforced.

3.2.3.1. Platform monitoring

Platform audit logs are securely forwarded to a centralized security information and event monitoring (SIEM) system, where they may trigger configured alerts to the SRE team and are also subject to manual review. Audit logs are retained in the SIEM system for one year. Audit logs for a given cluster are not deleted at the time the cluster is deleted.

3.2.3.2. Incident management

An incident is an event that results in a degradation or outage of one or more Red Hat services. An incident can be raised by a customer or a Customer Experience and Engagement (CEE) member through a support case, directly by the centralized monitoring and alerting system, or directly by a member of the SRE team.

Depending on the impact on the service and customer, the incident is categorized in terms of severity.

When managing a new incident, Red Hat uses the following general workflow:

  1. An SRE first responder is alerted to a new incident and begins an initial investigation.
  2. After the initial investigation, the incident is assigned an incident lead, who coordinates the recovery efforts.
  3. An incident lead manages all communication and coordination around recovery, including any relevant notifications and support case updates.
  4. The incident is recovered.
  5. The incident is documented and a root cause analysis (RCA) is performed within 5 business days of the incident.
  6. An RCA draft document will be shared with the customer within 7 business days of the incident.

3.2.3.3. Notifications

Platform notifications are configured using email. Some customer notifications are also sent to an account’s corresponding Red Hat account team, including a Technical Account Manager, if applicable.

The following activities can trigger notifications:

  • Platform incident
  • Performance degradation
  • Cluster capacity warnings
  • Critical vulnerabilities and resolution
  • Upgrade scheduling

3.2.3.4. Cluster capacity

The impact of a cluster upgrade on capacity is evaluated as part of the upgrade testing process to ensure that capacity is not negatively impacted by new additions to the cluster. During a cluster upgrade, additional worker nodes are added to make sure that total cluster capacity is maintained during the upgrade process.

Capacity evaluations by the Red Hat SRE staff also happen in response to alerts from the cluster, after usage thresholds are exceeded for a certain period of time. Such alerts can also result in a notification to the customer.

3.2.4. Change management

This section describes the policies about how cluster and configuration changes, patches, and releases are managed.

Red Hat is responsible for enabling changes to the cluster infrastructure and services that the customer will control, as well as maintaining versions for the control plane nodes, infrastructure nodes and services, and worker nodes. AWS is responsible for protecting the hardware infrastructure that runs all of the services offered in the AWS Cloud. The customer is responsible for initiating infrastructure change requests and installing and maintaining optional services and networking configurations on the cluster, as well as all changes to customer data and customer applications.

3.2.4.1. Customer-initiated changes

You can initiate changes using self-service capabilities such as cluster deployment, worker node scaling, or cluster deletion.

Change history is captured in the Cluster History section in the OpenShift Cluster Manager Overview tab, and is available for you to view. The change history includes, but is not limited to, logs from the following changes:

  • Adding or removing identity providers
  • Adding or removing users to or from the dedicated-admins group
  • Scaling the cluster compute nodes
  • Scaling the cluster load balancer
  • Scaling the cluster persistent storage
  • Upgrading the cluster

You can implement a maintenance exclusion by avoiding changes in OpenShift Cluster Manager for the following components:

  • Deleting a cluster
  • Adding, modifying, or removing identity providers
  • Adding, modifying, or removing a user from an elevated group
  • Installing or removing add-ons
  • Modifying cluster networking configurations
  • Adding, modifying, or removing machine pools
  • Enabling or disabling user workload monitoring
  • Initiating an upgrade
Important

To enforce the maintenance exclusion, ensure machine pool autoscaling or automatic upgrade policies have been disabled. After the maintenance exclusion has been lifted, proceed with enabling machine pool autoscaling or automatic upgrade policies as desired.

3.2.4.2. Red Hat-initiated changes

Red Hat site reliability engineering (SRE) manages the infrastructure, code, and configuration of Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS using a GitOps workflow and fully automated CI/CD pipelines. This process ensures that Red Hat can safely introduce service improvements on a continuous basis without negatively impacting customers.

Every proposed change undergoes a series of automated verifications immediately upon check-in. Changes are then deployed to a staging environment where they undergo automated integration testing. Finally, changes are deployed to the production environment. Each step is fully automated.

An authorized SRE reviewer must approve advancement to each step. The reviewer cannot be the same individual who proposed the change. All changes and approvals are fully auditable as part of the GitOps workflow.

Some changes are released to production incrementally, using feature flags to control availability of new features to specified clusters or customers.

3.2.4.3. Patch management

OpenShift Container Platform software and the underlying immutable Red Hat CoreOS (RHCOS) operating system image are patched for bugs and vulnerabilities in regular z-stream upgrades. Read more about RHCOS architecture in the OpenShift Container Platform documentation.

3.2.4.4. Release management

Red Hat does not automatically upgrade your clusters. You can schedule to upgrade the clusters at regular intervals (recurring upgrade) or just once (individual upgrade) using the OpenShift Cluster Manager web console. Red Hat might forcefully upgrade a cluster to a new z-stream version only if the cluster is affected by a critical impact CVE.

Note

Because the required permissions can change between y-stream releases, the policies might have to be updated before an upgrade can be performed. Therefore, you cannot schedule a recurring upgrade on ROSA clusters with STS.

You can review the history of all cluster upgrade events in the OpenShift Cluster Manager web console. For more information about releases, see the Life Cycle policy.

ResourceService responsibilitiesCustomer responsibilities

Logging

Red Hat

  • Centrally aggregate and monitor platform audit logs.
  • Provide and maintain a logging Operator to enable the customer to deploy a logging stack for default application logging.
  • Provide audit logs upon customer request.
  • Install the optional default application logging Operator on the cluster.
  • Install, configure, and maintain any optional application logging solutions, such as logging sidecar containers or third-party logging applications.
  • Tune size and frequency of application logs being produced by customer applications if they are affecting the stability of the logging stack or the cluster.
  • Request platform audit logs through a support case for researching specific incidents.

Application networking

Red Hat

  • Set up public load balancers. Provide the ability to set up private load balancers and up to one additional load balancer when required.
  • Set up native OpenShift router service. Provide the ability to set the router as private and add up to one additional router shard.
  • Install, configure, and maintain OpenShift SDN components for default internal pod traffic (for clusters created prior to version 4.11).
  • Provide the ability for the customer to manage NetworkPolicy and EgressNetworkPolicy (firewall) objects.
  • Configure non-default pod network permissions for project and pod networks, pod ingress, and pod egress using NetworkPolicy objects.
  • Use OpenShift Cluster Manager to request a private load balancer for default application routes.
  • Use OpenShift Cluster Manager to configure up to one additional public or private router shard and corresponding load balancer.
  • Request and configure any additional service load balancers for specific services.
  • Configure any necessary DNS forwarding rules.

Cluster networking

Red Hat

  • Set up cluster management components, such as public or private service endpoints and necessary integration with Amazon VPC components.
  • Set up internal networking components required for internal cluster communication between worker, infrastructure, and control plane nodes.
  • Provide optional non-default IP address ranges for machine CIDR, service CIDR, and pod CIDR if needed through OpenShift Cluster Manager when the cluster is provisioned.
  • Request that the API service endpoint be made public or private on cluster creation or after cluster creation through OpenShift Cluster Manager.

Virtual networking management

Red Hat

  • Set up and configure Amazon VPC components required to provision the cluster, such as subnets, load balancers, internet gateways, and NAT gateways.
  • Provide the ability for the customer to manage AWS VPN connectivity with on-premises resources, Amazon VPC-to-VPC connectivity, and AWS Direct Connect as required through OpenShift Cluster Manager.
  • Enable customers to create and deploy AWS load balancers for use with service load balancers.
  • Set up and maintain optional Amazon VPC components, such as Amazon VPC-to-VPC connection, AWS VPN connection, or AWS Direct Connect.
  • Request and configure any additional service load balancers for specific services.

Virtual compute management

Red Hat

  • Set up and configure the ROSA control plane and data plane to use Amazon EC2 instances for cluster compute.
  • Monitor and manage the deployment of Amazon EC2 control plane and infrastructure nodes on the cluster.
  • Monitor and manage Amazon EC2 worker nodes by creating a machine pool using the OpenShift Cluster Manager or the ROSA CLI (rosa).
  • Manage changes to customer-deployed applications and application data.

Cluster version

Red Hat

  • Enable upgrade scheduling process.
  • Monitor upgrade progress and remedy any issues encountered.
  • Publish change logs and release notes for patch release upgrades.
  • Either set up automatic upgrades or schedule patch release upgrades immediately or for the future.
  • Acknowledge and schedule minor version upgrades.
  • Test customer applications on patch releases to ensure compatibility.

Capacity management

Red Hat

  • Monitor the use of the control plane. Control planes include control plane nodes and infrastructure nodes.
  • Scale and resize control plane nodes to maintain quality of service.
  • Monitor worker node utilization and, if appropriate, enables the auto-scaling feature.
  • Determine the scaling strategy of the cluster. See the additional resources for more information on machine pools.
  • Use the provided OpenShift Cluster Manager controls to add or remove additional worker nodes as required.
  • Respond to Red Hat notifications regarding cluster resource requirements.

Virtual storage management

Red Hat

  • Set up and configure Amazon EBS to provision local node storage and persistent volume storage for the cluster.
  • Set up and configure the built-in image registry to use Amazon S3 bucket storage.
  • Regularly prune image registry resources in Amazon S3 to optimize Amazon S3 usage and cluster performance.
  • Optionally configure the Amazon EBS CSI driver or the Amazon EFS CSI driver to provision persistent volumes on the cluster.

AWS software (public AWS services)

AWS

Compute: Provide the Amazon EC2 service, used for ROSA control plane, infrastructure, and worker nodes.

Storage: Provide Amazon EBS, used by ROSA to provision local node storage and persistent volume storage for the cluster.

Storage: Provide Amazon S3, used for the ROSA service’s built-in image registry.

Networking: Provide the following AWS Cloud services, used by ROSA to satisfy virtual networking infrastructure needs:

  • Amazon VPC
  • Elastic Load Balancing
  • AWS IAM

Networking: Provide the following AWS services, which customers can optionally integrate with ROSA:

  • AWS VPN
  • AWS Direct Connect
  • AWS PrivateLink
  • AWS Transit Gateway
  • Sign requests using an access key ID and secret access key associated with an IAM principal or STS temporary security credentials.
  • Specify VPC subnets for the cluster to use during cluster creation.
  • Optionally configure a customer-managed VPC for use with ROSA clusters (required for PrivateLink and HCP clusters).

Hardware/AWS global infrastructure

AWS

  • For information regarding management controls for AWS data centers, see Our Controls on the AWS Cloud Security page.
  • For information regarding change management best practices, see Guidance for Change Management on AWS in the AWS Solutions Library.
  • Implement change management best practices for customer applications and data hosted on the AWS Cloud.

3.2.5. Security and regulation compliance

The following table outlines the the responsibilities in regards to security and regulation compliance:

ResourceService responsibilitiesCustomer responsibilities

Logging

Red Hat

  • Send cluster audit logs to a Red Hat SIEM to analyze for security events. Retain audit logs for a defined period of time to support forensic analysis.
  • Analyze application logs for security events.
  • Send application logs to an external endpoint through logging sidecar containers or third-party logging applications if longer retention is required than is offered by the default logging stack.

Virtual networking management

Red Hat

  • Monitor virtual networking components for potential issues and security threats.
  • Use public AWS tools for additional monitoring and protection.
  • Monitor optional configured virtual networking components for potential issues and security threats.
  • Configure any necessary firewall rules or customer data center protections as required.

Virtual storage management

Red Hat

  • Monitor virtual storage components for potential issues and security threats.
  • Use public AWS tools for additional monitoring and protection.
  • Configure the ROSA service to encrypt control plane, infrastructure, and worker node volume data by default using the AWS managed Key Management Service (KMS) key that Amazon EBS provides.
  • Configure the ROSA service to encrypt customer persistent volumes that use the default storage class with the AWS managed KMS key that Amazon EBS provides.
  • Provide the ability for the customer to use a customer managed AWS KMS key to encrypt persistent volumes.
  • Configure the container image registry to encrypt image registry data at rest using server-side encryption with Amazon S3 managed keys (SSE-3).
  • Provide the ability for the customer to create a public or private Amazon S3 image registry to protect their container images from unauthorized user access.
  • Provision Amazon EBS volumes.
  • Manage Amazon EBS volume storage to ensure enough storage is available to mount as a volume in ROSA.
  • Create the persistent volume claim and generate a persistent volume though OpenShift Cluster Manager.

Virtual compute management

Red Hat

  • Monitor virtual compute components for potential issues and security threats.
  • Use public AWS tools for additional monitoring and protection.
  • Monitor optional configured virtual networking components for potential issues and security threats.
  • Configure any necessary firewall rules or customer data center protections as required.

AWS software (public AWS services)

AWS

Compute: Secure Amazon EC2, used for ROSA control plane, infrastructure, and worker nodes. For more information, see Infrastructure security in Amazon EC2 in the Amazon EC2 User Guide.

Storage: Secure Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS), used for ROSA control plane, infrastructure, and worker node volumes, as well as Kubernetes persistent volumes. For more information, see Data protection in Amazon EC2 in the Amazon EC2 User Guide.

Storage: Provide AWS KMS, which ROSA uses to encrypt control plane, infrastructure, and worker node volumes and persistent volumes. For more information, see Amazon EBS encryption in the Amazon EC2 User Guide.

Storage: Secure Amazon S3, used for the ROSA service’s built-in container image registry. For more information, see Amazon S3 security in the S3 User Guide.

Networking: Provide security capabilities and services to increase privacy and control network access on AWS global infrastructure, including network firewalls built into Amazon VPC, private or dedicated network connections, and automatic encryption of all traffic on the AWS global and regional networks between AWS secured facilities. For more information, see the AWS Shared Responsibility Model and Infrastructure security in the Introduction to AWS Security whitepaper.

  • Ensure security best practices and the principle of least privilege are followed to protect data on the Amazon EC2 instance. For more information, see Infrastructure security in Amazon EC2 and Data protection in Amazon EC2.
  • Monitor optional configured virtual networking components for potential issues and security threats.
  • Configure any necessary firewall rules or customer data center protections as required.
  • Create an optional customer managed KMS key and encrypt the Amazon EBS persistent volume using the KMS key.
  • Monitor the customer data in virtual storage for potential issues and security threats. For more information, see the shared responsibility model.

Hardware/AWS global infrastructure

AWS

  • Provide the AWS global infrastructure that ROSA uses to deliver service functionality. For more information regarding AWS security controls, see Security of the AWS Infrastructure in the AWS whitepaper.
  • Provide documentation for the customer to manage compliance needs and check their security state in AWS using tools such as AWS Artifact and AWS Security Hub. For more information, see Compliance validation for ROSA in the ROSA User Guide.
  • Configure, manage, and monitor customer applications and data to ensure application and data security controls are properly enforced.
  • Use IAM tools to apply the appropriate permissions to AWS resources in the customer account.

Additional resources

  • For more information about customer or shared responsibilities, see the ROSA Security document.

3.2.6. Disaster recovery

Disaster recovery includes data and configuration backup, replicating data and configuration to the disaster recovery environment, and failover on disaster events.

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) provides disaster recovery for failures that occur at the pod, worker node, infrastructure node, control plane node, and availability zone levels.

All disaster recovery requires that the customer use best practices for deploying highly available applications, storage, and cluster architecture, such as single-zone deployment or multi-zone deployment, to account for the level of desired availability.

One single-zone cluster will not provide disaster avoidance or recovery in the event of an availability zone or region outage. Multiple single-zone clusters with customer-maintained failover can account for outages at the zone or at the regional level.

One multi-zone cluster will not provide disaster avoidance or recovery in the event of a full region outage. Multiple multi-zone clusters with customer-maintained failover can account for outages at the regional level.

ResourceService responsibilitiesCustomer responsibilities

Virtual networking management

Red Hat

  • Restore or recreate affected virtual network components that are necessary for the platform to function.
  • Configure virtual networking connections with more than one tunnel where possible for protection against outages as recommended by the public cloud provider.
  • Maintain failover DNS and load balancing if using a global load balancer with multiple clusters.

Virtual Storage management

Red Hat

  • For ROSA clusters created with IAM user credentials, back up all Kubernetes objects on the cluster through hourly, daily, and weekly volume snapshots.
  • For ROSA clusters created with IAM user credentials, back up persistent volumes on the cluster through daily and weekly volume snapshots.
  • Back up customer applications and application data.

Virtual compute management

Red Hat

  • Monitor the cluster and replace failed Amazon EC2 control plane or infrastructure nodes.
  • Provide the ability for the customer to manually or automatically replace failed worker nodes.
  • Replace failed Amazon EC2 worker nodes by editing the machine pool configuration through OpenShift Cluster Manager or the ROSA CLI.

AWS software (public AWS services)

AWS

Compute: Provide Amazon EC2 features that support data resiliency such as Amazon EBS snapshots and Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling. For more information, see Resilience in Amazon EC2 in the EC2 User Guide.

Storage: Provide the ability for the ROSA service and customers to back up the Amazon EBS volume on the cluster through Amazon EBS volume snapshots.

Storage: For information about Amazon S3 features that support data resiliency, see Resilience in Amazon S3.

Networking: For information about Amazon VPC features that support data resiliency, see Resilience in Amazon Virtual Private Cloud in the Amazon VPC User Guide.

  • Configure ROSA multi-AZ clusters to improve fault tolerance and cluster availability.
  • Provision persistent volumes using the Amazon EBS CSI driver to enable volume snapshots.
  • Create CSI volume snapshots of Amazon EBS persistent volumes.

Hardware/AWS global infrastructure

AWS

  • Provide AWS global infrastructure that allows ROSA to scale control plane, infrastructure, and worker nodes across Availability Zones. This functionality enables ROSA to orchestrate automatic failover between zones without interruption.
  • For more information about disaster recovery best practices, see Disaster recovery options in the cloud in the AWS Well-Architected Framework.
  • Configure ROSA multi-AZ clusters to improve fault tolerance and cluster availability.

Additional resources

3.2.7. Additional customer responsibilities for data and applications

The customer is responsible for the applications, workloads, and data that they deploy to Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS. However, Red Hat and AWS provide various tools to help the customer manage data and applications on the platform.

ResourceRed Hat and AWSCustomer responsibilities

Customer data

Red Hat

  • Maintain platform-level standards for data encryption as defined by industry security and compliance standards.
  • Provide OpenShift components to help manage application data, such as secrets.
  • Enable integration with data services such as Amazon RDS to store and manage data outside of the cluster and/or AWS.

AWS

  • Provide Amazon RDS to allow customers to store and manage data outside of the cluster and/or AWS.
  • Maintain responsibility for all customer data stored on the platform and how customer applications consume and expose this data.

Customer applications

Red Hat

  • Provision clusters with OpenShift components installed so that customers can access the OpenShift and Kubernetes APIs to deploy and manage containerized applications.
  • Create clusters with image pull secrets so that customer deployments can pull images from the Red Hat Container Catalog registry.
  • Provide access to OpenShift APIs that a customer can use to set up Operators to add community, third-party, and Red Hat services to the cluster.
  • Provide storage classes and plugins to support persistent volumes for use with customer applications.
  • Provide a container image registry so customers can securely store application container images on the cluster to deploy and manage applications.

AWS

  • Provide Amazon EBS to support persistent volumes for use with customer applications.
  • Provide Amazon S3 to support Red Hat provisioning of the container image registry.
  • Maintain responsibility for customer and third-party applications, data, and their complete lifecycle.
  • If a customer adds Red Hat, community, third-party, their own, or other services to the cluster by using Operators or external images, the customer is responsible for these services and for working with the appropriate provider, including Red Hat, to troubleshoot any issues.
  • Use the provided tools and features to configure and deploy; keep up to date; set up resource requests and limits; size the cluster to have enough resources to run apps; set up permissions; integrate with other services; manage any image streams or templates that the customer deploys; externally serve; save, back up, and restore data; and otherwise manage their highly available and resilient workloads.
  • Maintain responsibility for monitoring the applications run on Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS, including installing and operating software to gather metrics, create alerts, and protect secrets in the application.

3.2.8. Additional resources

3.3. Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS service definition

This documentation outlines the service definition for the Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) managed service.

3.3.1. Account management

This section provides information about the service definition for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS account management.

3.3.1.1. Billing

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS is billed through Amazon Web Services (AWS) based on the usage of AWS components used by the service, such as load balancers, storage, EC2 instances, other components, and Red Hat subscriptions for the OpenShift service.

Any additional Red Hat software must be purchased separately.

3.3.1.2. Cluster self-service

Customers can self-service their clusters, including, but not limited to:

  • Create a cluster
  • Delete a cluster
  • Add or remove an identity provider
  • Add or remove a user from an elevated group
  • Configure cluster privacy
  • Add or remove machine pools and configure autoscaling
  • Define upgrade policies

You can perform these self-service tasks using the Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) CLI, rosa.

3.3.1.3. Instance types

Single availability zone clusters require a minimum of 3 control plane nodes, 2 infrastructure nodes, and 2 worker nodes deployed to a single availability zone.

Multiple availability zone clusters require a minimum of 3 control plane nodes, 3 infrastructure nodes, and 3 worker nodes. Additional nodes must be purchased in multiples of three to maintain proper node distribution.

All Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS clusters support a maximum of 180 worker nodes.

Control plane and infrastructure nodes are deployed and managed by Red Hat. Shutting down the underlying infrastructure through the cloud provider console is unsupported and can lead to data loss. There are at least 3 control plane nodes that handle etcd- and API-related workloads. There are at least 2 infrastructure nodes that handle metrics, routing, the web console, and other workloads. You must not run any workloads on the control and infrastructure nodes. Any workloads you intend to run must be deployed on worker nodes. See the Red Hat Operator support section below for more information about Red Hat workloads that must be deployed on worker nodes.

Note

Approximately one vCPU core and 1 GiB of memory are reserved on each worker node and removed from allocatable resources. This reservation of resources is necessary to run processes required by the underlying platform. These processes include system daemons such as udev, kubelet, and container runtime among others. The reserved resources also account for kernel reservations.

OpenShift Container Platform core systems such as audit log aggregation, metrics collection, DNS, image registry, SDN, and others might consume additional allocatable resources to maintain the stability and maintainability of the cluster. The additional resources consumed might vary based on usage.

For additional information, see the Kubernetes documentation.

Important

As of Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS 4.11, the default per-pod PID limit is 4096. If you want to enable this PID limit, you must upgrade your Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS clusters to this version or later. Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS clusters running on earlier versions use a default PID limit of 1024.

You can configure the per-pod PID limit on a Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS cluster by using the ROSA CLI. For more information, see "Configuring PID limits".

3.3.1.4. AWS instance types

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS offers the following worker node instance types and sizes:

Example 3.1. General purpose

  • m5.metal (96† vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m5.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m5.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m5.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m5.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m5.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m5.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5a.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m5a.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m5a.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m5a.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m5a.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m5a.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m5a.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5ad.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m5ad.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m5ad.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m5ad.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m5ad.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m5ad.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m5ad.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5d.metal (96† vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5d.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m5d.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m5d.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m5d.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m5d.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m5d.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m5d.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5n.metal (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5n.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m5n.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m5n.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m5n.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m5n.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m5n.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m5n.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5dn.metal (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5dn.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m5dn.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m5dn.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m5dn.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m5dn.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m5dn.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m5dn.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5zn.metal (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m5zn.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m5zn.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m5zn.3xlarge (12 vCPU, 48 GiB)
  • m5zn.6xlarge (24 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • m5zn.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m6a.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m6a.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m6a.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m6a.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m6a.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m6a.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m6a.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m6a.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • m6a.48xlarge (192 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • m6i.metal (128 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • m6i.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m6i.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m6i.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m6i.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m6i.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m6i.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m6i.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m6i.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • m6id.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m6id.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m6id.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m6id.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m6id.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m6id.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m6id.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m6id.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • m7i.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m7i.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m7i.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m7i.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m7i.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m7i.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m7i.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m7i.48xlarge (192 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • m7i.metal-24xl (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m7i.metal-48xl (192 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • m7i-flex.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m7i-flex.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m7i-flex.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m7i-flex.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m7a.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m7a.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m7a.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m7a.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m7a.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m7a.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m7a.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m7a.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • m7a.48xlarge (192 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • m7a.metal-48xl (192 vCPU, 768 GiB)

† These instance types provide 96 logical processors on 48 physical cores. They run on single servers with two physical Intel sockets.

Example 3.2. Burstable general purpose

  • t3.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • t3.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • t3a.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • t3a.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)

Example 3.3. Memory intensive

  • x1.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 976 GiB)
  • x1.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 1952 GiB)
  • x1e.xlarge (4 vCPU, 122 GiB)
  • x1e.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 244 GiB)
  • x1e.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 488 GiB)
  • x1e.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 976 GiB)
  • x1e.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 1,952 GiB)
  • x1e.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 3,904 GiB)
  • x2idn.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 1024 GiB)
  • x2idn.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 1536 GiB)
  • x2idn.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 2048 GiB)
  • x2iedn.xlarge (4 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • x2iedn.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • x2iedn.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • x2iedn.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 1024 GiB)
  • x2iedn.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 2048 GiB)
  • x2iedn.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 3072 GiB)
  • x2iedn.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 4096 GiB)
  • x2iezn.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • x2iezn.4xlarge (16vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • x2iezn.6xlarge (24vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • x2iezn.8xlarge (32vCPU, 1,024 GiB)
  • x2iezn.12xlarge (48vCPU, 1,536 GiB)
  • x2idn.metal (128vCPU, 2,048 GiB)
  • x2iedn.metal (128vCPU, 4,096 GiB)
  • x2iezn.metal (48 vCPU, 1,536 GiB)

Example 3.4. Memory optimized

  • r4.xlarge (4 vCPU, 30.5 GiB)
  • r4.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 61 GiB)
  • r4.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 122 GiB)
  • r4.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 244 GiB)
  • r4.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 488 GiB)
  • r5.metal (96† vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r5.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r5.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r5.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r5.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r5.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r5.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r5.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r5a.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r5a.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r5a.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r5a.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r5a.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r5a.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r5a.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r5ad.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r5ad.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r5ad.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r5ad.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r5ad.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r5ad.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r5ad.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r5d.metal (96† vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r5d.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r5d.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r5d.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r5d.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r5d.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r5d.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r5d.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r5n.metal (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r5n.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r5n.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r5n.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r5n.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r5n.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r5n.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r5n.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r5dn.metal (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r5dn.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r5dn.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r5dn.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r5dn.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r5dn.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r5dn.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r5dn.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r6a.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r6a.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r6a.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r6a.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r6a.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r6a.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r6a.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r6a.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 1,024 GiB)
  • r6a.48xlarge (192 vCPU, 1,536 GiB)
  • r6i.metal (128 vCPU, 1,024 GiB)
  • r6i.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r6i.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r6i.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r6i.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r6i.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r6i.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r6i.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r6i.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 1,024 GiB)
  • r6id.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r6id.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r6id.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r6id.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r6id.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r6id.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r6id.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r6id.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 1,024 GiB)
  • z1d.metal (48‡ vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • z1d.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • z1d.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • z1d.3xlarge (12 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • z1d.6xlarge (24 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • z1d.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r7iz.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r7iz.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r7iz.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r7iz.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r7iz.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r7iz.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r7iz.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 1024 GiB)
  • r7iz.metal-16xl (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r7iz.metal-32xl (128 vCPU, 1024 GiB)

† These instance types provide 96 logical processors on 48 physical cores. They run on single servers with two physical Intel sockets.

‡ This instance type provides 48 logical processors on 24 physical cores.

Example 3.5. Accelerated computing

  • p3.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 61 GiB)
  • p3.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 244 GiB)
  • p3.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 488 GiB)
  • p3dn.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • p4d.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 1,152 GiB)
  • g4dn.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • g4dn.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • g4dn.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • g4dn.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • g4dn.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • g4dn.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • g4dn.metal (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • g5.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • g5.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • g5.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • g5.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • g5.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • g5.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • g5.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • g5.48xlarge (192 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • dl1.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)†

† Intel specific; not covered by Nvidia

Support for the GPU instance type software stack is provided by AWS. Ensure that your AWS service quotas can accommodate the desired GPU instance types.

Example 3.6. Compute optimized

  • c5.metal (96 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c5.xlarge (4 vCPU, 8 GiB)
  • c5.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • c5.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • c5.9xlarge (36 vCPU, 72 GiB)
  • c5.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • c5.18xlarge (72 vCPU, 144 GiB)
  • c5.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c5d.metal (96 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c5d.xlarge (4 vCPU, 8 GiB)
  • c5d.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • c5d.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • c5d.9xlarge (36 vCPU, 72 GiB)
  • c5d.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • c5d.18xlarge (72 vCPU, 144 GiB)
  • c5d.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c5a.xlarge (4 vCPU, 8 GiB)
  • c5a.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • c5a.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • c5a.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • c5a.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • c5a.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • c5a.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c5ad.xlarge (4 vCPU, 8 GiB)
  • c5ad.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • c5ad.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • c5ad.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • c5ad.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • c5ad.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • c5ad.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c5n.metal (72 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c5n.xlarge (4 vCPU, 10.5 GiB)
  • c5n.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 21 GiB)
  • c5n.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 42 GiB)
  • c5n.9xlarge (36 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • c5n.18xlarge (72 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c6a.xlarge (4 vCPU, 8 GiB)
  • c6a.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • c6a.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • c6a.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • c6a.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • c6a.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • c6a.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c6a.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • c6a.48xlarge (192 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • c6i.metal (128 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • c6i.xlarge (4 vCPU, 8 GiB)
  • c6i.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • c6i.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • c6i.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • c6i.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • c6i.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • c6i.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c6i.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • c6id.xlarge (4 vCPU, 8 GiB)
  • c6id.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • c6id.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • c6id.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • c6id.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • c6id.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • c6id.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c6id.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 256 GiB)

Example 3.7. Storage optimized

  • i3.metal (72† vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • i3.xlarge (4 vCPU, 30.5 GiB)
  • i3.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 61 GiB)
  • i3.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 122 GiB)
  • i3.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 244 GiB)
  • i3.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 488 GiB)
  • i3en.metal (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • i3en.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • i3en.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • i3en.3xlarge (12 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • i3en.6xlarge (24 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • i3en.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • i3en.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • i4i.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • i4i.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • i4i.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • i4i.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • i4i.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • i4i.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • i4i.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • i4i.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 1024 GiB)
  • i4i.metal (128 vCPU, 1024 GiB)

† This instance type provides 72 logical processors on 36 physical cores.

Note

Virtual instance types initialize faster than ".metal" instance types.

Example 3.8. High memory

  • u-3tb1.56xlarge (224 vCPU, 3,072 GiB)
  • u-6tb1.56xlarge (224 vCPU, 6,144 GiB)
  • u-6tb1.112xlarge (448 vCPU, 6,144 GiB)
  • u-6tb1.metal (448 vCPU, 6,144 GiB)
  • u-9tb1.112xlarge (448 vCPU, 9,216 GiB)
  • u-9tb1.metal (448 vCPU, 9,216 GiB)
  • u-12tb1.112xlarge (448 vCPU, 12,288 GiB)
  • u-12tb1.metal (448 vCPU, 12,288 GiB)
  • u-18tb1.metal (448 vCPU, 18,432 GiB)
  • u-24tb1.metal (448 vCPU, 24,576 GiB)

Additional Resources

3.3.1.5. Regions and availability zones

The following AWS regions are currently available for Red Hat OpenShift 4 and are supported for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS.

Note

Regions in China are not supported, regardless of their support on OpenShift 4.

Note

For GovCloud (US) regions, you must submit an Access request for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) FedRAMP.

GovCloud (US) regions are only supported on ROSA Classic clusters.

Example 3.9. AWS Regions

  • us-east-1 (N. Virginia)
  • us-east-2 (Ohio)
  • us-west-1 (N. California)
  • us-gov-east-1 - (AWS GovCloud - US-East)
  • us-gov-west-1 - (AWS GovCloud - US-West)
  • us-west-2 (Oregon)
  • af-south-1 (Cape Town, AWS opt-in required)
  • ap-east-1 (Hong Kong, AWS opt-in required)
  • ap-south-2 (Hyderabad, AWS opt-in required)
  • ap-southeast-3 (Jakarta, AWS opt-in required)
  • ap-southeast-4 (Melbourne, AWS opt-in required)
  • ap-south-1 (Mumbai)
  • ap-northeast-3 (Osaka)
  • ap-northeast-2 (Seoul)
  • ap-southeast-1 (Singapore)
  • ap-southeast-2 (Sydney)
  • ap-northeast-1 (Tokyo)
  • ca-central-1 (Central Canada)
  • eu-central-1 (Frankfurt)
  • eu-central-2 (Zurich, AWS opt-in required)
  • eu-south-1 (Milan, AWS opt-in required)
  • eu-south-2 (Spain, AWS opt-in required)
  • eu-west-1 (Ireland)
  • eu-west-2 (London)
  • eu-south-1 (Milan, AWS opt-in required)
  • eu-west-3 (Paris)
  • eu-south-2 (Spain, AWS opt-in required)
  • eu-north-1 (Stockholm)
  • eu-central-2 (Zurich, AWS opt-in required)
  • me-south-1 (Bahrain, AWS opt-in required)
  • me-central-1 (UAE, AWS opt-in required)
  • sa-east-1 (São Paulo)

Multiple availability zone clusters can only be deployed in regions with at least 3 availability zones. For more information, see the Regions and Availability Zones section in the AWS documentation.

Each new Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS cluster is installed within an installer-created or preexisting Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) in a single region, with the option to deploy into a single availability zone (Single-AZ) or across multiple availability zones (Multi-AZ). This provides cluster-level network and resource isolation, and enables cloud-provider VPC settings, such as VPN connections and VPC Peering. Persistent volumes (PVs) are backed by Amazon Elastic Block Storage (Amazon EBS), and are specific to the availability zone in which they are provisioned. Persistent volume claims (PVCs) do not bind to a volume until the associated pod resource is assigned into a specific availability zone to prevent unschedulable pods. Availability zone-specific resources are only usable by resources in the same availability zone.

Warning

The region and the choice of single or multiple availability zone cannot be changed after a cluster has been deployed.

3.3.1.6. Local Zones

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS supports the use of AWS Local Zones, which are metropolis-centralized availability zones where customers can place latency-sensitive application workloads. Local Zones are extensions of AWS Regions that have their own internet connection. For more information about AWS Local Zones, see the AWS documentation How Local Zones work.

For steps to enable AWS Local Zones and to add a Local Zone to a machine pool, see Configuring Local Zones for machine pools.

3.3.1.7. Service Level Agreement (SLA)

Any SLAs for the service itself are defined in Appendix 4 of the Red Hat Enterprise Agreement Appendix 4 (Online Subscription Services).

3.3.1.8. Limited support status

When a cluster transitions to a Limited Support status, Red Hat no longer proactively monitors the cluster, the SLA is no longer applicable, and credits requested against the SLA are denied. It does not mean that you no longer have product support. In some cases, the cluster can return to a fully-supported status if you remediate the violating factors. However, in other cases, you might have to delete and recreate the cluster.

A cluster might move to a Limited Support status for many reasons, including the following scenarios:

If you do not upgrade a cluster to a supported version before the end-of-life date

Red Hat does not make any runtime or SLA guarantees for versions after their end-of-life date. To receive continued support, upgrade the cluster to a supported version prior to the end-of-life date. If you do not upgrade the cluster prior to the end-of-life date, the cluster transitions to a Limited Support status until it is upgraded to a supported version.

Red Hat provides commercially reasonable support to upgrade from an unsupported version to a supported version. However, if a supported upgrade path is no longer available, you might have to create a new cluster and migrate your workloads.

If you remove or replace any native Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS components or any other component that is installed and managed by Red Hat
If cluster administrator permissions were used, Red Hat is not responsible for any of your or your authorized users’ actions, including those that affect infrastructure services, service availability, or data loss. If Red Hat detects any such actions, the cluster might transition to a Limited Support status. Red Hat notifies you of the status change and you should either revert the action or create a support case to explore remediation steps that might require you to delete and recreate the cluster.

If you have questions about a specific action that might cause a cluster to move to a Limited Support status or need further assistance, open a support ticket.

3.3.1.9. Support

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS includes Red Hat Premium Support, which can be accessed by using the Red Hat Customer Portal.

See Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS SLAs for support response times.

AWS support is subject to a customer’s existing support contract with AWS.

3.3.2. Logging

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS provides optional integrated log forwarding to Amazon (AWS) CloudWatch.

3.3.2.1. Cluster audit logging

Cluster audit logs are available through AWS CloudWatch, if the integration is enabled. If the integration is not enabled, you can request the audit logs by opening a support case.

3.3.2.2. Application logging

Application logs sent to STDOUT are collected by Fluentd and forwarded to AWS CloudWatch through the cluster logging stack, if it is installed.

3.3.3. Monitoring

This section provides information about the service definition for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS monitoring.

3.3.3.1. Cluster metrics

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS clusters come with an integrated Prometheus stack for cluster monitoring including CPU, memory, and network-based metrics. This is accessible through the web console. These metrics also allow for horizontal pod autoscaling based on CPU or memory metrics provided by an Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS user.

3.3.3.2. Cluster status notification

Red Hat communicates the health and status of Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS clusters through a combination of a cluster dashboard available in OpenShift Cluster Manager, and email notifications sent to the email address of the contact that originally deployed the cluster, and any additional contacts specified by the customer.

3.3.4. Networking

This section provides information about the service definition for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS networking.

3.3.4.1. Custom domains for applications

To use a custom hostname for a route, you must update your DNS provider by creating a canonical name (CNAME) record. Your CNAME record should map the OpenShift canonical router hostname to your custom domain. The OpenShift canonical router hostname is shown on the Route Details page after a route is created. Alternatively, a wildcard CNAME record can be created once to route all subdomains for a given hostname to the cluster’s router.

Note

Starting with Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS 4.14, the Custom Domain Operator is deprecated. To manage Ingress in Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS 4.14, use the Ingress Operator. The functionality is unchanged for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS 4.13 and earlier versions.

3.3.4.2. Domain validated certificates

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS includes TLS security certificates needed for both internal and external services on the cluster. For external routes, there are two separate TLS wildcard certificates that are provided and installed on each cluster: one is for the web console and route default hostnames, and the other is for the API endpoint. Let’s Encrypt is the certificate authority used for certificates. Routes within the cluster, such as the internal API endpoint, use TLS certificates signed by the cluster’s built-in certificate authority and require the CA bundle available in every pod for trusting the TLS certificate.

3.3.4.3. Custom certificate authorities for builds

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS supports the use of custom certificate authorities to be trusted by builds when pulling images from an image registry.

3.3.4.4. Load balancers

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS uses up to five different load balancers:

  • An internal control plane load balancer that is internal to the cluster and used to balance traffic for internal cluster communications.
  • An external control plane load balancer that is used for accessing the OpenShift and Kubernetes APIs. This load balancer can be disabled in OpenShift Cluster Manager. If this load balancer is disabled, Red Hat reconfigures the API DNS to point to the internal control plane load balancer.
  • An external control plane load balancer for Red Hat that is reserved for cluster management by Red Hat. Access is strictly controlled, and communication is only possible from whitelisted bastion hosts.
  • A default external router/ingress load balancer that is the default application load balancer, denoted by apps in the URL. The default load balancer can be configured in OpenShift Cluster Manager to be either publicly accessible over the Internet or only privately accessible over a pre-existing private connection. All application routes on the cluster are exposed on this default router load balancer, including cluster services such as the logging UI, metrics API, and registry.
  • Optional: A secondary router/ingress load balancer that is a secondary application load balancer, denoted by apps2 in the URL. The secondary load balancer can be configured in OpenShift Cluster Manager to be either publicly accessible over the Internet or only privately accessible over a pre-existing private connection. If a Label match is configured for this router load balancer, then only application routes matching this label are exposed on this router load balancer; otherwise, all application routes are also exposed on this router load balancer.
  • Optional: Load balancers for services. Enable non-HTTP/SNI traffic and non-standard ports for services. These load balancers can be mapped to a service running on Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS to enable advanced ingress features, such as non-HTTP/SNI traffic or the use of non-standard ports. Each AWS account has a quota which limits the number of Classic Load Balancers that can be used within each cluster.

3.3.4.5. Cluster ingress

Project administrators can add route annotations for many different purposes, including ingress control through IP allow-listing.

Ingress policies can also be changed by using NetworkPolicy objects, which leverage the ovs-networkpolicy plugin. This allows for full control over the ingress network policy down to the pod level, including between pods on the same cluster and even in the same namespace.

All cluster ingress traffic will go through the defined load balancers. Direct access to all nodes is blocked by cloud configuration.

3.3.4.6. Cluster egress

Pod egress traffic control through EgressNetworkPolicy objects can be used to prevent or limit outbound traffic in Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS.

Public outbound traffic from the control plane and infrastructure nodes is required and necessary to maintain cluster image security and cluster monitoring. This requires that the 0.0.0.0/0 route belongs only to the Internet gateway; it is not possible to route this range over private connections.

OpenShift 4 clusters use NAT gateways to present a public, static IP for any public outbound traffic leaving the cluster. Each availability zone a cluster is deployed into receives a distinct NAT gateway, therefore up to 3 unique static IP addresses can exist for cluster egress traffic. Any traffic that remains inside the cluster, or that does not go out to the public Internet, will not pass through the NAT gateway and will have a source IP address belonging to the node that the traffic originated from. Node IP addresses are dynamic; therefore, a customer must not rely on whitelisting individual IP addresses when accessing private resources.

Customers can determine their public static IP addresses by running a pod on the cluster and then querying an external service. For example:

$ oc run ip-lookup --image=busybox -i -t --restart=Never --rm -- /bin/sh -c "/bin/nslookup -type=a myip.opendns.com resolver1.opendns.com | grep -E 'Address: [0-9.]+'"

3.3.4.7. Cloud network configuration

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS allows for the configuration of a private network connection through AWS-managed technologies, such as:

  • VPN connections
  • VPC peering
  • Transit Gateway
  • Direct Connect
Important

Red Hat site reliability engineers (SREs) do not monitor private network connections. Monitoring these connections is the responsibility of the customer.

3.3.4.8. DNS forwarding

For Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS clusters that have a private cloud network configuration, a customer can specify internal DNS servers available on that private connection, that should be queried for explicitly provided domains.

3.3.4.9. Network verification

Network verification checks run automatically when you deploy a Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS cluster into an existing Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) or create an additional machine pool with a subnet that is new to your cluster. The checks validate your network configuration and highlight errors, enabling you to resolve configuration issues prior to deployment.

You can also run the network verification checks manually to validate the configuration for an existing cluster.

Additional resources

3.3.5. Storage

This section provides information about the service definition for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS storage.

3.3.5.1. Encrypted-at-rest OS and node storage

Control plane, infrastructure, and worker nodes use encrypted-at-rest Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) storage.

3.3.5.2. Encrypted-at-rest PV

EBS volumes that are used for PVs are encrypted-at-rest by default.

3.3.5.3. Block storage (RWO)

Persistent volumes (PVs) are backed by Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS), which is Read-Write-Once.

PVs can be attached only to a single node at a time and are specific to the availability zone in which they were provisioned. However, PVs can be attached to any node in the availability zone.

Each cloud provider has its own limits for how many PVs can be attached to a single node. See AWS instance type limits for details.

3.3.5.4. Shared Storage (RWX)

The AWS CSI Driver can be used to provide RWX support for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS. A community Operator is provided to simplify setup. See Amazon Elastic File Storage Setup for OpenShift Dedicated and Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS for details.

3.3.6. Platform

This section provides information about the service definition for the Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) platform.

3.3.6.1. Cluster backup policy

Important

Red Hat does not provide a backup method for ROSA clusters with STS, which is the default. It is critical that customers have a backup plan for their applications and application data. The table below only applies to clusters created with IAM user credentials.

Application and application data backups are not a part of the Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS service. The following table outlines the cluster backup policy.

ComponentSnapshot frequencyRetentionNotes

Full object store backup

Daily

7 days

This is a full backup of all Kubernetes objects like etcd. No persistent volumes (PVs) are backed up in this backup schedule.

Weekly

30 days

Full object store backup

Hourly

24 hour

This is a full backup of all Kubernetes objects like etcd. No PVs are backed up in this backup schedule.

Node root volume

Never

N/A

Nodes are considered to be short-term. Nothing critical should be stored on a node’s root volume.

3.3.6.2. Autoscaling

Node autoscaling is available on Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS. You can configure the autoscaler option to automatically scale the number of machines in a cluster.

3.3.6.3. Daemonsets

Customers can create and run daemonsets on Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS. To restrict daemonsets to only running on worker nodes, use the following nodeSelector:

...
spec:
  nodeSelector:
    role: worker
...

3.3.6.4. Multiple availability zone

In a multiple availability zone cluster, control plane nodes are distributed across availability zones and at least one worker node is required in each availability zone.

3.3.6.5. Node labels

Custom node labels are created by Red Hat during node creation and cannot be changed on Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS clusters at this time. However, custom labels are supported when creating new machine pools.

3.3.6.6. OpenShift version

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS is run as a service and is kept up to date with the latest OpenShift Container Platform version. Upgrade scheduling to the latest version is available.

3.3.6.7. Upgrades

Upgrades can be scheduled using the ROSA CLI, rosa, or through OpenShift Cluster Manager.

See the Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS Life Cycle for more information on the upgrade policy and procedures.

3.3.6.8. Windows Containers

Red Hat OpenShift support for Windows Containers is not available on Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS at this time.

3.3.6.9. Container engine

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS runs on OpenShift 4 and uses CRI-O as the only available container engine.

3.3.6.10. Operating system

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS runs on OpenShift 4 and uses Red Hat CoreOS as the operating system for all control plane and worker nodes.

3.3.6.11. Red Hat Operator support

Red Hat workloads typically refer to Red Hat-provided Operators made available through Operator Hub. Red Hat workloads are not managed by the Red Hat SRE team, and must be deployed on worker nodes. These Operators may require additional Red Hat subscriptions, and may incur additional cloud infrastructure costs. Examples of these Red Hat-provided Operators are:

  • Red Hat Quay
  • Red Hat Advanced Cluster Management
  • Red Hat Advanced Cluster Security
  • Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh
  • OpenShift Serverless
  • Red Hat OpenShift Logging
  • Red Hat OpenShift Pipelines

3.3.6.12. Kubernetes Operator support

All Operators listed in the OperatorHub marketplace should be available for installation. These Operators are considered customer workloads, and are not monitored by Red Hat SRE.

3.3.7. Security

This section provides information about the service definition for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS security.

3.3.7.1. Authentication provider

Authentication for the cluster can be configured using either OpenShift Cluster Manager or cluster creation process or using the ROSA CLI, rosa. ROSA is not an identity provider, and all access to the cluster must be managed by the customer as part of their integrated solution. The use of multiple identity providers provisioned at the same time is supported. The following identity providers are supported:

  • GitHub or GitHub Enterprise
  • GitLab
  • Google
  • LDAP
  • OpenID Connect
  • htpasswd

3.3.7.2. Privileged containers

Privileged containers are available for users with the cluster-admin role. Usage of privileged containers as cluster-admin is subject to the responsibilities and exclusion notes in the Red Hat Enterprise Agreement Appendix 4 (Online Subscription Services).

3.3.7.3. Customer administrator user

In addition to normal users, Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS provides access to an ROSA-specific group called dedicated-admin. Any users on the cluster that are members of the dedicated-admin group:

  • Have administrator access to all customer-created projects on the cluster.
  • Can manage resource quotas and limits on the cluster.
  • Can add and manage NetworkPolicy objects.
  • Are able to view information about specific nodes and PVs in the cluster, including scheduler information.
  • Can access the reserved dedicated-admin project on the cluster, which allows for the creation of service accounts with elevated privileges and also gives the ability to update default limits and quotas for projects on the cluster.
  • Can install Operators from OperatorHub and perform all verbs in all *.operators.coreos.com API groups.

3.3.7.4. Cluster administration role

The administrator of Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS has default access to the cluster-admin role for your organization’s cluster. While logged into an account with the cluster-admin role, users have increased permissions to run privileged security contexts.

3.3.7.5. Project self-service

By default, all users have the ability to create, update, and delete their projects. This can be restricted if a member of the dedicated-admin group removes the self-provisioner role from authenticated users:

$ oc adm policy remove-cluster-role-from-group self-provisioner system:authenticated:oauth

Restrictions can be reverted by applying:

$ oc adm policy add-cluster-role-to-group self-provisioner system:authenticated:oauth

3.3.7.6. Regulatory compliance

See Understanding process and security for ROSA for the latest compliance information.

3.3.7.7. Network security

With Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS, AWS provides a standard DDoS protection on all load balancers, called AWS Shield. This provides 95% protection against most commonly used level 3 and 4 attacks on all the public facing load balancers used for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS. A 10-second timeout is added for HTTP requests coming to the haproxy router to receive a response or the connection is closed to provide additional protection.

3.3.7.8. etcd encryption

In Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS, the control plane storage is encrypted at rest by default and this includes encryption of the etcd volumes. This storage-level encryption is provided through the storage layer of the cloud provider.

You can also enable etcd encryption, which encrypts the key values in etcd, but not the keys. If you enable etcd encryption, the following Kubernetes API server and OpenShift API server resources are encrypted:

  • Secrets
  • Config maps
  • Routes
  • OAuth access tokens
  • OAuth authorize tokens

The etcd encryption feature is not enabled by default and it can be enabled only at cluster installation time. Even with etcd encryption enabled, the etcd key values are accessible to anyone with access to the control plane nodes or cluster-admin privileges.

Important

By enabling etcd encryption for the key values in etcd, you will incur a performance overhead of approximately 20%. The overhead is a result of introducing this second layer of encryption, in addition to the default control plane storage encryption that encrypts the etcd volumes. Red Hat recommends that you enable etcd encryption only if you specifically require it for your use case.

3.3.8. Additional resources

3.4. Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS update life cycle

3.4.1. Overview

Red Hat provides a published product life cycle for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS in order for customers and partners to effectively plan, deploy, and support their applications running on the platform. Red Hat publishes this life cycle in order to provide as much transparency as possible and might make exceptions from these policies as conflicts arise.

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS is a managed instance of Red Hat OpenShift and maintains an independent release schedule. More details about the managed offering can be found in the Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS service definition. The availability of Security Advisories and Bug Fix Advisories for a specific version are dependent upon the Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform life cycle policy and subject to the Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS maintenance schedule.

3.4.2. Definitions

Table 3.1. Version reference

Version formatMajorMinorPatchMajor.minor.patch
 

x

y

z

x.y.z

Example

4

5

21

4.5.21

Major releases or X-releases

Referred to only as major releases or X-releases (X.y.z).

Examples

  • "Major release 5" → 5.y.z
  • "Major release 4" → 4.y.z
  • "Major release 3" → 3.y.z
Minor releases or Y-releases

Referred to only as minor releases or Y-releases (x.Y.z).

Examples

  • "Minor release 4" → 4.4.z
  • "Minor release 5" → 4.5.z
  • "Minor release 6" → 4.6.z
Patch releases or Z-releases

Referred to only as patch releases or Z-releases (x.y.Z).

Examples

  • "Patch release 14 of minor release 5" → 4.5.14
  • "Patch release 25 of minor release 5" → 4.5.25
  • "Patch release 26 of minor release 6" → 4.6.26

3.4.3. Major versions (X.y.z)

Major versions of Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS, for example version 4, are supported for one year following the release of a subsequent major version or the retirement of the product.

Example

  • If version 5 were made available on Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS on January 1, version 4 would be allowed to continue running on managed clusters for 12 months, until December 31. After this time, clusters would need to be upgraded or migrated to version 5.

3.4.4. Minor versions (x.Y.z)

Starting with the 4.8 OpenShift Container Platform minor version, Red Hat supports all minor versions for at least a 16 month period following general availability of the given minor version. Patch versions are not affected by the support period.

Customers are notified 60, 30, and 15 days before the end of the support period. Clusters must be upgraded to the latest patch version of the oldest supported minor version before the end of the support period, or the cluster will enter a "Limited Support" status.

Example

  1. A customer’s cluster is currently running on 4.13.8. The 4.13 minor version became generally available on May 17, 2023.
  2. On July 19, August 16, and September 2, 2024, the customer is notified that their cluster will enter "Limited Support" status on September 17, 2024 if the cluster has not already been upgraded to a supported minor version.
  3. The cluster must be upgraded to 4.14 or later by September 17, 2024.
  4. If the upgrade has not been performed, the cluster will be flagged as being in a "Limited Support" status.

3.4.5. Patch versions (x.y.Z)

During the period in which a minor version is supported, Red Hat supports all OpenShift Container Platform patch versions unless otherwise specified.

For reasons of platform security and stability, a patch release may be deprecated, which would prevent installations of that release and trigger mandatory upgrades off that release.

Example

  1. 4.7.6 is found to contain a critical CVE.
  2. Any releases impacted by the CVE will be removed from the supported patch release list. In addition, any clusters running 4.7.6 will be scheduled for automatic upgrades within 48 hours.

3.4.6. Limited support status

When a cluster transitions to a Limited Support status, Red Hat no longer proactively monitors the cluster, the SLA is no longer applicable, and credits requested against the SLA are denied. It does not mean that you no longer have product support. In some cases, the cluster can return to a fully-supported status if you remediate the violating factors. However, in other cases, you might have to delete and recreate the cluster.

A cluster might transition to a Limited Support status for many reasons, including the following scenarios:

If you do not upgrade a cluster to a supported version before the end-of-life date

Red Hat does not make any runtime or SLA guarantees for versions after their end-of-life date. To receive continued support, upgrade the cluster to a supported version prior to the end-of-life date. If you do not upgrade the cluster prior to the end-of-life date, the cluster transitions to a Limited Support status until it is upgraded to a supported version.

Red Hat provides commercially reasonable support to upgrade from an unsupported version to a supported version. However, if a supported upgrade path is no longer available, you might have to create a new cluster and migrate your workloads.

If you remove or replace any native Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS components or any other component that is installed and managed by Red Hat
If cluster administrator permissions were used, Red Hat is not responsible for any of your or your authorized users’ actions, including those that affect infrastructure services, service availability, or data loss. If Red Hat detects any such actions, the cluster might transition to a Limited Support status. Red Hat notifies you of the status change and you should either revert the action or create a support case to explore remediation steps that might require you to delete and recreate the cluster.

If you have questions about a specific action that might cause a cluster to transition to a Limited Support status or need further assistance, open a support ticket.

3.4.7. Supported versions exception policy

Red Hat reserves the right to add or remove new or existing versions, or delay upcoming minor release versions, that have been identified to have one or more critical production impacting bugs or security issues without advance notice.

3.4.8. Installation policy

While Red Hat recommends installation of the latest support release, Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS supports installation of any supported release as covered by the preceding policy.

3.4.9. Mandatory upgrades

If a critical or important CVE, or other bug identified by Red Hat, significantly impacts the security or stability of the cluster, the customer must upgrade to the next supported patch release within two business days.

In extreme circumstances and based on Red Hat’s assessment of the CVE criticality to the environment, Red Hat will notify customers that they have two business days to schedule or manually update their cluster to the latest, secure patch release. In the case that an update is not performed after two business days, Red Hat will automatically update the cluster to the latest, secure patch release to mitigate potential security breach(es) or instability. Red Hat might, at its own discretion, temporarily delay an automated update if requested by a customer through a support case.

3.4.10. Life cycle dates

VersionGeneral availabilityEnd of life

4.14

Oct 31, 2023

Feb 28, 2025

4.13

May 17, 2023

Sep 17, 2024

4.12

Jan 17, 2023

May 17, 2024

4.11

Aug 10, 2022

Dec 10, 2023

4.10

Mar 10, 2022

Sep 10, 2023

4.9

Oct 18, 2021

Dec 18, 2022

4.8

Jul 27, 2021

Sep 27, 2022

3.5. Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP) service definition

This documentation outlines the service definition for the Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP) managed service.

3.5.1. Account management

This section provides information about the service definition for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS account management.

3.5.1.1. Billing

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS is billed through Amazon Web Services (AWS) based on the usage of AWS components used by the service, such as load balancers, storage, EC2 instances, other components, and Red Hat subscriptions for the OpenShift service.

Any additional Red Hat software must be purchased separately.

3.5.1.2. Cluster self-service

Customers can self-service their clusters, including, but not limited to:

  • Create a cluster
  • Delete a cluster
  • Add or remove an identity provider
  • Add or remove a user from an elevated group
  • Configure cluster privacy
  • Add or remove machine pools and configure autoscaling
  • Define upgrade policies

You can perform these self-service tasks using the Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) CLI, rosa.

3.5.1.3. Instance types

All ROSA with HCP clusters require a minimum of 2 worker nodes. All ROSA with HCP clusters support a maximum of 51 worker nodes. Shutting down the underlying infrastructure through the cloud provider console is unsupported and can lead to data loss.

Note

Approximately one vCPU core and 1 GiB of memory are reserved on each worker node and removed from allocatable resources. This reservation of resources is necessary to run processes required by the underlying platform. These processes include system daemons such as udev, kubelet, and container runtime among others. The reserved resources also account for kernel reservations.

OpenShift Container Platform core systems such as audit log aggregation, metrics collection, DNS, image registry, SDN, and others might consume additional allocatable resources to maintain the stability and maintainability of the cluster. The additional resources consumed might vary based on usage.

For additional information, see the Kubernetes documentation.

Important

As of Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS 4.11, the default per-pod PID limit is 4096. If you want to enable this PID limit, you must upgrade your Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS clusters to this version or later. Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS clusters running on earlier versions use a default PID limit of 1024.

You can configure the per-pod PID limit on a Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS cluster by using the ROSA CLI. For more information, see "Configuring PID limits".

Additional Resources

3.5.1.4. AWS instance types

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS offers the following worker node instance types and sizes:

Example 3.10. General purpose

  • m5.metal (96† vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m5.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m5.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m5.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m5.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m5.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m5.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5a.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m5a.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m5a.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m5a.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m5a.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m5a.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m5a.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5ad.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m5ad.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m5ad.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m5ad.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m5ad.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m5ad.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m5ad.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5d.metal (96† vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5d.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m5d.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m5d.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m5d.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m5d.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m5d.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m5d.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5n.metal (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5n.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m5n.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m5n.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m5n.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m5n.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m5n.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m5n.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5dn.metal (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5dn.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m5dn.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m5dn.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m5dn.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m5dn.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m5dn.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m5dn.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m5zn.metal (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m5zn.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m5zn.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m5zn.3xlarge (12 vCPU, 48 GiB)
  • m5zn.6xlarge (24 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • m5zn.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m6a.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m6a.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m6a.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m6a.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m6a.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m6a.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m6a.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m6a.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • m6a.48xlarge (192 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • m6i.metal (128 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • m6i.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m6i.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m6i.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m6i.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m6i.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m6i.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m6i.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m6i.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • m6id.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m6id.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m6id.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m6id.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m6id.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m6id.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m6id.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m6id.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • m7i.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m7i.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m7i.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m7i.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m7i.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m7i.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m7i.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m7i.48xlarge (192 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • m7i.metal-24xl (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m7i.metal-48xl (192 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • m7i-flex.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m7i-flex.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m7i-flex.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m7i-flex.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m7a.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • m7a.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • m7a.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • m7a.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • m7a.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • m7a.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • m7a.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • m7a.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • m7a.48xlarge (192 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • m7a.metal-48xl (192 vCPU, 768 GiB)

† These instance types provide 96 logical processors on 48 physical cores. They run on single servers with two physical Intel sockets.

Example 3.11. Burstable general purpose

  • t3.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • t3.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • t3a.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • t3a.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)

Example 3.12. Memory intensive

  • x1.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 976 GiB)
  • x1.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 1952 GiB)
  • x1e.xlarge (4 vCPU, 122 GiB)
  • x1e.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 244 GiB)
  • x1e.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 488 GiB)
  • x1e.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 976 GiB)
  • x1e.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 1,952 GiB)
  • x1e.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 3,904 GiB)
  • x2idn.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 1024 GiB)
  • x2idn.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 1536 GiB)
  • x2idn.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 2048 GiB)
  • x2iedn.xlarge (4 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • x2iedn.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • x2iedn.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • x2iedn.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 1024 GiB)
  • x2iedn.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 2048 GiB)
  • x2iedn.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 3072 GiB)
  • x2iedn.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 4096 GiB)
  • x2iezn.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • x2iezn.4xlarge (16vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • x2iezn.6xlarge (24vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • x2iezn.8xlarge (32vCPU, 1,024 GiB)
  • x2iezn.12xlarge (48vCPU, 1,536 GiB)
  • x2idn.metal (128vCPU, 2,048 GiB)
  • x2iedn.metal (128vCPU, 4,096 GiB)
  • x2iezn.metal (48 vCPU, 1,536 GiB)

Example 3.13. Memory optimized

  • r4.xlarge (4 vCPU, 30.5 GiB)
  • r4.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 61 GiB)
  • r4.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 122 GiB)
  • r4.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 244 GiB)
  • r4.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 488 GiB)
  • r5.metal (96† vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r5.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r5.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r5.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r5.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r5.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r5.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r5.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r5a.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r5a.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r5a.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r5a.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r5a.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r5a.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r5a.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r5ad.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r5ad.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r5ad.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r5ad.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r5ad.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r5ad.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r5ad.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r5d.metal (96† vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r5d.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r5d.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r5d.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r5d.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r5d.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r5d.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r5d.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r5n.metal (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r5n.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r5n.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r5n.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r5n.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r5n.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r5n.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r5n.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r5dn.metal (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r5dn.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r5dn.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r5dn.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r5dn.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r5dn.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r5dn.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r5dn.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r6a.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r6a.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r6a.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r6a.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r6a.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r6a.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r6a.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r6a.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 1,024 GiB)
  • r6a.48xlarge (192 vCPU, 1,536 GiB)
  • r6i.metal (128 vCPU, 1,024 GiB)
  • r6i.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r6i.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r6i.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r6i.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r6i.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r6i.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r6i.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r6i.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 1,024 GiB)
  • r6id.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r6id.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r6id.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r6id.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r6id.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r6id.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r6id.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • r6id.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 1,024 GiB)
  • z1d.metal (48‡ vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • z1d.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • z1d.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • z1d.3xlarge (12 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • z1d.6xlarge (24 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • z1d.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r7iz.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • r7iz.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • r7iz.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • r7iz.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • r7iz.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • r7iz.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r7iz.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 1024 GiB)
  • r7iz.metal-16xl (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • r7iz.metal-32xl (128 vCPU, 1024 GiB)

† These instance types provide 96 logical processors on 48 physical cores. They run on single servers with two physical Intel sockets.

‡ This instance type provides 48 logical processors on 24 physical cores.

Example 3.14. Accelerated computing

  • p3.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 61 GiB)
  • p3.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 244 GiB)
  • p3.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 488 GiB)
  • p3dn.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • p4d.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 1,152 GiB)
  • g4dn.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • g4dn.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • g4dn.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • g4dn.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • g4dn.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • g4dn.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • g4dn.metal (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • g5.xlarge (4 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • g5.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • g5.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • g5.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • g5.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • g5.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • g5.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • g5.48xlarge (192 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • dl1.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)†

† Intel specific; not covered by Nvidia

Support for the GPU instance type software stack is provided by AWS. Ensure that your AWS service quotas can accommodate the desired GPU instance types.

Example 3.15. Compute optimized

  • c5.metal (96 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c5.xlarge (4 vCPU, 8 GiB)
  • c5.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • c5.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • c5.9xlarge (36 vCPU, 72 GiB)
  • c5.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • c5.18xlarge (72 vCPU, 144 GiB)
  • c5.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c5d.metal (96 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c5d.xlarge (4 vCPU, 8 GiB)
  • c5d.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • c5d.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • c5d.9xlarge (36 vCPU, 72 GiB)
  • c5d.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • c5d.18xlarge (72 vCPU, 144 GiB)
  • c5d.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c5a.xlarge (4 vCPU, 8 GiB)
  • c5a.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • c5a.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • c5a.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • c5a.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • c5a.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • c5a.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c5ad.xlarge (4 vCPU, 8 GiB)
  • c5ad.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • c5ad.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • c5ad.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • c5ad.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • c5ad.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • c5ad.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c5n.metal (72 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c5n.xlarge (4 vCPU, 10.5 GiB)
  • c5n.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 21 GiB)
  • c5n.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 42 GiB)
  • c5n.9xlarge (36 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • c5n.18xlarge (72 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c6a.xlarge (4 vCPU, 8 GiB)
  • c6a.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • c6a.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • c6a.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • c6a.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • c6a.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • c6a.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c6a.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • c6a.48xlarge (192 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • c6i.metal (128 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • c6i.xlarge (4 vCPU, 8 GiB)
  • c6i.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • c6i.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • c6i.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • c6i.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • c6i.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • c6i.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c6i.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • c6id.xlarge (4 vCPU, 8 GiB)
  • c6id.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 16 GiB)
  • c6id.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • c6id.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • c6id.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • c6id.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • c6id.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • c6id.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 256 GiB)

Example 3.16. Storage optimized

  • i3.metal (72† vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • i3.xlarge (4 vCPU, 30.5 GiB)
  • i3.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 61 GiB)
  • i3.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 122 GiB)
  • i3.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 244 GiB)
  • i3.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 488 GiB)
  • i3en.metal (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • i3en.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • i3en.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • i3en.3xlarge (12 vCPU, 96 GiB)
  • i3en.6xlarge (24 vCPU, 192 GiB)
  • i3en.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • i3en.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • i4i.xlarge (4 vCPU, 32 GiB)
  • i4i.2xlarge (8 vCPU, 64 GiB)
  • i4i.4xlarge (16 vCPU, 128 GiB)
  • i4i.8xlarge (32 vCPU, 256 GiB)
  • i4i.12xlarge (48 vCPU, 384 GiB)
  • i4i.16xlarge (64 vCPU, 512 GiB)
  • i4i.24xlarge (96 vCPU, 768 GiB)
  • i4i.32xlarge (128 vCPU, 1024 GiB)
  • i4i.metal (128 vCPU, 1024 GiB)

† This instance type provides 72 logical processors on 36 physical cores.

Note

Virtual instance types initialize faster than ".metal" instance types.

Example 3.17. High memory

  • u-3tb1.56xlarge (224 vCPU, 3,072 GiB)
  • u-6tb1.56xlarge (224 vCPU, 6,144 GiB)
  • u-6tb1.112xlarge (448 vCPU, 6,144 GiB)
  • u-6tb1.metal (448 vCPU, 6,144 GiB)
  • u-9tb1.112xlarge (448 vCPU, 9,216 GiB)
  • u-9tb1.metal (448 vCPU, 9,216 GiB)
  • u-12tb1.112xlarge (448 vCPU, 12,288 GiB)
  • u-12tb1.metal (448 vCPU, 12,288 GiB)
  • u-18tb1.metal (448 vCPU, 18,432 GiB)
  • u-24tb1.metal (448 vCPU, 24,576 GiB)

Additional Resources

3.5.1.5. Regions and availability zones

The following AWS regions are currently available for ROSA with HCP.

Note

Regions in China are not supported, regardless of their support on OpenShift 4.

Note

For GovCloud (US) regions, you must submit an Access request for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) FedRAMP.

GovCloud (US) regions are only supported on ROSA Classic clusters.

Example 3.18. AWS Regions

  • us-east-1 (N. Virginia)
  • us-east-2 (Ohio)
  • us-west-2 (Oregon)
  • ap-south-2 (Hyderabad, AWS opt-in required)
  • ap-southeast-3 (Jakarta, AWS opt-in required)
  • ap-southeast-4 (Melbourne, AWS opt-in required)
  • ap-south-1 (Mumbai)
  • ap-southeast-1 (Singapore)
  • ap-southeast-2 (Sydney)
  • ap-northeast-1 (Tokyo)
  • ca-central-1 (Central Canada)
  • eu-central-1 (Frankfurt)
  • eu-west-1 (Ireland)
  • eu-west-2 (London)
  • eu-south-1 (Milan, AWS opt-in required)
  • eu-north-1 (Stockholm)

Multiple availability zone clusters can only be deployed in regions with at least 3 availability zones. For more information, see the Regions and Availability Zones section in the AWS documentation.

Each new ROSA with HCP cluster is installed within a preexisting Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) in a single region, with the option to deploy up to the total number of availability zones for the given region. This provides cluster-level network and resource isolation, and enables cloud-provider VPC settings, such as VPN connections and VPC Peering. Persistent volumes (PVs) are backed by Amazon Elastic Block Storage (Amazon EBS), and are specific to the availability zone in which they are provisioned. Persistent volume claims (PVCs) do not bind to a volume until the associated pod resource is assigned into a specific availability zone to prevent unschedulable pods. Availability zone-specific resources are only usable by resources in the same availability zone.

Warning

The region cannot be changed after a cluster has been deployed.

3.5.1.6. Local Zones

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP) does not support the use of AWS Local Zones.

3.5.1.7. Service Level Agreement (SLA)

Any SLAs for the service itself are defined in Appendix 4 of the Red Hat Enterprise Agreement Appendix 4 (Online Subscription Services).

3.5.1.8. Limited support status

When a cluster transitions to a Limited Support status, Red Hat no longer proactively monitors the cluster, the SLA is no longer applicable, and credits requested against the SLA are denied. It does not mean that you no longer have product support. In some cases, the cluster can return to a fully-supported status if you remediate the violating factors. However, in other cases, you might have to delete and recreate the cluster.

A cluster might move to a Limited Support status for many reasons, including the following scenarios:

If you remove or replace any native Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS components or any other component that is installed and managed by Red Hat
If cluster administrator permissions were used, Red Hat is not responsible for any of your or your authorized users’ actions, including those that affect infrastructure services, service availability, or data loss. If Red Hat detects any such actions, the cluster might transition to a Limited Support status. Red Hat notifies you of the status change and you should either revert the action or create a support case to explore remediation steps that might require you to delete and recreate the cluster.

If you have questions about a specific action that might cause a cluster to move to a Limited Support status or need further assistance, open a support ticket. :!rosa-with-hcp:

3.5.1.9. Support

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS includes Red Hat Premium Support, which can be accessed by using the Red Hat Customer Portal.

See Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS SLAs for support response times.

AWS support is subject to a customer’s existing support contract with AWS.

3.5.2. Logging

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS provides optional integrated log forwarding to Amazon (AWS) CloudWatch.

3.5.2.1. Cluster audit logging

Cluster audit logs are available through AWS CloudWatch, if the integration is enabled. If the integration is not enabled, you can request the audit logs by opening a support case.

3.5.2.2. Application logging

Application logs sent to STDOUT are collected by Fluentd and forwarded to AWS CloudWatch through the cluster logging stack, if it is installed.

3.5.3. Monitoring

This section provides information about the service definition for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS monitoring.

3.5.3.1. Cluster metrics

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS clusters come with an integrated Prometheus stack for cluster monitoring including CPU, memory, and network-based metrics. This is accessible through the web console. These metrics also allow for horizontal pod autoscaling based on CPU or memory metrics provided by an Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS user.

3.5.3.2. Cluster status notification

Red Hat communicates the health and status of Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS clusters through a combination of a cluster dashboard available in OpenShift Cluster Manager, and email notifications sent to the email address of the contact that originally deployed the cluster, and any additional contacts specified by the customer.

3.5.4. Networking

This section provides information about the service definition for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS networking.

3.5.4.1. Custom domains for applications

To use a custom hostname for a route, you must update your DNS provider by creating a canonical name (CNAME) record. Your CNAME record should map the OpenShift canonical router hostname to your custom domain. The OpenShift canonical router hostname is shown on the Route Details page after a route is created. Alternatively, a wildcard CNAME record can be created once to route all subdomains for a given hostname to the cluster’s router.

Note

Starting with Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS 4.14, the Custom Domain Operator is deprecated. To manage Ingress in Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS 4.14, use the Ingress Operator. The functionality is unchanged for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS 4.13 and earlier versions.

3.5.4.2. Domain validated certificates

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS includes TLS security certificates needed for both internal and external services on the cluster. For external routes, there are two separate TLS wildcard certificates that are provided and installed on each cluster: one is for the web console and route default hostnames, and the other is for the API endpoint. Let’s Encrypt is the certificate authority used for certificates. Routes within the cluster, such as the internal API endpoint, use TLS certificates signed by the cluster’s built-in certificate authority and require the CA bundle available in every pod for trusting the TLS certificate.

3.5.4.3. Custom certificate authorities for builds

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS supports the use of custom certificate authorities to be trusted by builds when pulling images from an image registry.

3.5.4.4. Load balancers

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP) only deploys load balancers fro the default ingress controller. All other load balancers can be optionally deployed by a customer for secondary ingress controllers or Service load balancers.

3.5.4.5. Cluster ingress

Project administrators can add route annotations for many different purposes, including ingress control through IP allow-listing.

Ingress policies can also be changed by using NetworkPolicy objects, which leverage the ovs-networkpolicy plugin. This allows for full control over the ingress network policy down to the pod level, including between pods on the same cluster and even in the same namespace.

All cluster ingress traffic will go through the defined load balancers. Direct access to all nodes is blocked by cloud configuration.

3.5.4.6. Cluster egress

Pod egress traffic control through EgressNetworkPolicy objects can be used to prevent or limit outbound traffic in Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP).

3.5.4.7. Cloud network configuration

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS allows for the configuration of a private network connection through AWS-managed technologies, such as:

  • VPN connections
  • VPC peering
  • Transit Gateway
  • Direct Connect
Important

Red Hat site reliability engineers (SREs) do not monitor private network connections. Monitoring these connections is the responsibility of the customer.

3.5.4.8. DNS forwarding

For Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS clusters that have a private cloud network configuration, a customer can specify internal DNS servers available on that private connection, that should be queried for explicitly provided domains.

3.5.4.9. Network verification

Network verification checks run automatically when you deploy a Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS cluster into an existing Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) or create an additional machine pool with a subnet that is new to your cluster. The checks validate your network configuration and highlight errors, enabling you to resolve configuration issues prior to deployment.

You can also run the network verification checks manually to validate the configuration for an existing cluster. :!rosa-with-hcp:

Additional resources

3.5.5. Storage

This section provides information about the service definition for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP) storage.

3.5.5.1. Encrypted-at-rest OS and node storage

Worker nodes use encrypted-at-rest Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) storage.

3.5.5.2. Encrypted-at-rest PV

EBS volumes that are used for PVs are encrypted-at-rest by default.

3.5.5.3. Block storage (RWO)

Persistent volumes (PVs) are backed by Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS), which is Read-Write-Once.

PVs can be attached only to a single node at a time and are specific to the availability zone in which they were provisioned. However, PVs can be attached to any node in the availability zone.

Each cloud provider has its own limits for how many PVs can be attached to a single node. See AWS instance type limits for details.

3.5.5.4. Shared Storage (RWX)

The AWS CSI Driver can be used to provide RWX support for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP). A community Operator is provided to simplify setup. See Amazon Elastic File Storage Setup for OpenShift Dedicated and Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS for details.

3.5.6. Platform

This section provides information about the service definition for the Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP) platform.

3.5.6.1. Cluster backup policy

Important

Red Hat does not provide a backup method for ROSA clusters with STS, which is the default. It is critical that customers have a backup plan for their applications and application data.

Application and application data backups are not a part of the Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP) service.

3.5.6.2. Autoscaling

Node autoscaling is available on Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP). You can configure the autoscaler option to automatically scale the number of machines in a cluster.

3.5.6.3. Daemonsets

Customers can create and run daemonsets on Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP).

3.5.6.4. Multiple availability zone

Control plane components are always deployed across multiple availability zones, regardless of a customer’s worker node configuration.

3.5.6.5. Node labels

Custom node labels are created by Red Hat during node creation and cannot be changed on Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP) clusters at this time. However, custom labels are supported when creating new machine pools.

3.5.6.6. OpenShift version

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP) is run as a service and is kept up to date with the latest OpenShift Container Platform version. Upgrade scheduling to the latest version is available.

3.5.6.7. Upgrades

Upgrades can be scheduled using the ROSA CLI, rosa, or through OpenShift Cluster Manager.

See the Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS Life Cycle for more information on the upgrade policy and procedures.

3.5.6.8. Windows Containers

Red Hat OpenShift support for Windows Containers is not available on Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS at this time.

3.5.6.9. Container engine

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP) runs on OpenShift 4 and uses CRI-O as the only available container engine.

3.5.6.10. Operating system

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP) runs on OpenShift 4 and uses Red Hat CoreOS as the operating system for all control plane and worker nodes.

3.5.6.11. Red Hat Operator support

Red Hat workloads typically refer to Red Hat-provided Operators made available through Operator Hub. Red Hat workloads are not managed by the Red Hat SRE team, and must be deployed on worker nodes. These Operators may require additional Red Hat subscriptions, and may incur additional cloud infrastructure costs. Examples of these Red Hat-provided Operators are:

  • Red Hat Quay
  • Red Hat Advanced Cluster Management
  • Red Hat Advanced Cluster Security
  • Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh
  • OpenShift Serverless
  • Red Hat OpenShift Logging
  • Red Hat OpenShift Pipelines

3.5.6.12. Kubernetes Operator support

All Operators listed in the OperatorHub marketplace should be available for installation. These Operators are considered customer workloads, and are not monitored by Red Hat SRE.

3.5.7. Security

This section provides information about the service definition for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP) security.

3.5.7.1. Authentication provider

Authentication for the cluster can be configured using either OpenShift Cluster Manager or cluster creation process or using the ROSA CLI, rosa. ROSA is not an identity provider, and all access to the cluster must be managed by the customer as part of their integrated solution. The use of multiple identity providers provisioned at the same time is supported. The following identity providers are supported:

  • GitHub or GitHub Enterprise
  • GitLab
  • Google
  • LDAP
  • OpenID Connect
  • htpasswd

3.5.7.2. Privileged containers

Privileged containers are available for users with the cluster-admin role. Usage of privileged containers as cluster-admin is subject to the responsibilities and exclusion notes in the Red Hat Enterprise Agreement Appendix 4 (Online Subscription Services).

3.5.7.3. Customer administrator user

In addition to normal users, Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP) provides access to an ROSA with HCP-specific group called dedicated-admin. Any users on the cluster that are members of the dedicated-admin group:

  • Have administrator access to all customer-created projects on the cluster.
  • Can manage resource quotas and limits on the cluster.
  • Can add and manage NetworkPolicy objects.
  • Are able to view information about specific nodes and PVs in the cluster, including scheduler information.
  • Can access the reserved dedicated-admin project on the cluster, which allows for the creation of service accounts with elevated privileges and also gives the ability to update default limits and quotas for projects on the cluster.
  • Can install Operators from OperatorHub and perform all verbs in all *.operators.coreos.com API groups.

3.5.7.4. Cluster administration role

The administrator of Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP) has default access to the cluster-admin role for your organization’s cluster. While logged into an account with the cluster-admin role, users have increased permissions to run privileged security contexts.

3.5.7.5. Project self-service

By default, all users have the ability to create, update, and delete their projects. This can be restricted if a member of the dedicated-admin group removes the self-provisioner role from authenticated users:

$ oc adm policy remove-cluster-role-from-group self-provisioner system:authenticated:oauth

Restrictions can be reverted by applying:

$ oc adm policy add-cluster-role-to-group self-provisioner system:authenticated:oauth

3.5.7.6. Regulatory compliance

ROSA with HCP is currently in the process of obtaining compliance certifications.

3.5.7.7. Network security

With Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS, AWS provides a standard DDoS protection on all load balancers, called AWS Shield. This provides 95% protection against most commonly used level 3 and 4 attacks on all the public facing load balancers used for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS. A 10-second timeout is added for HTTP requests coming to the haproxy router to receive a response or the connection is closed to provide additional protection.

3.5.7.8. etcd encryption

In Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP), the control plane storage is encrypted at rest by default and this includes encryption of the etcd volumes. This storage-level encryption is provided through the storage layer of the cloud provider.

The etcd database is always encrypted by default. Customers might opt to provide their own custom AWS KMS keys for the purpose of encrypting the etcd database.

Etcd encryption will encrypt the following Kubernetes API server and OpenShift API server resources:

  • Secrets
  • Config maps
  • Routes
  • OAuth access tokens
  • OAuth authorize tokens

3.5.8. Additional resources

3.6. ROSA with HCP update life cycle

3.6.1. Overview

Red Hat provides a published product life cycle for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS in order for customers and partners to effectively plan, deploy, and support their applications running on the platform. Red Hat publishes this life cycle in order to provide as much transparency as possible and might make exceptions from these policies as conflicts arise.

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS is a managed instance of Red Hat OpenShift and maintains an independent release schedule. More details about the managed offering can be found in the Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS service definition. The availability of Security Advisories and Bug Fix Advisories for a specific version are dependent upon the Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform life cycle policy and subject to the Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS maintenance schedule.

3.6.2. Definitions

Table 3.2. Version reference

Version formatMajorMinorPatchMajor.minor.patch
 

x

y

z

x.y.z

Example

4

5

21

4.5.21

Major releases or X-releases

Referred to only as major releases or X-releases (X.y.z).

Examples

  • "Major release 5" → 5.y.z
  • "Major release 4" → 4.y.z
  • "Major release 3" → 3.y.z
Minor releases or Y-releases

Referred to only as minor releases or Y-releases (x.Y.z).

Examples

  • "Minor release 4" → 4.4.z
  • "Minor release 5" → 4.5.z
  • "Minor release 6" → 4.6.z
Patch releases or Z-releases

Referred to only as patch releases or Z-releases (x.y.Z).

Examples

  • "Patch release 14 of minor release 5" → 4.5.14
  • "Patch release 25 of minor release 5" → 4.5.25
  • "Patch release 26 of minor release 6" → 4.6.26

3.6.3. Major versions (X.y.z)

Major versions of Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS, for example version 4, are supported for one year following the release of a subsequent major version or the retirement of the product.

Example

  • If version 5 were made available on Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS on January 1, version 4 would be allowed to continue running on managed clusters for 12 months, until December 31. After this time, clusters would need to be upgraded or migrated to version 5.

3.6.4. Minor versions (x.Y.z)

Starting with the 4.8 OpenShift Container Platform minor version, Red Hat supports all minor versions for at least a 16 month period following general availability of the given minor version. Patch versions are not affected by the support period.

Customers are notified 60, 30, and 15 days before the end of the support period. Clusters must be upgraded to the latest patch version of the oldest supported minor version before the end of the support period, or Red Hat will automatically upgrade the control plane to the next supported minor version.

Example

  1. A customer’s cluster is currently running on 4.13.8. The 4.13 minor version became generally available on May 17, 2023.
  2. On July 19, August 16, and September 2, 2024, the customer is notified that their cluster will enter "Limited Support" status on September 17, 2024 if the cluster has not already been upgraded to a supported minor version.
  3. The cluster must be upgraded to 4.14 or later by September 17, 2024.
  4. If the upgrade has not been performed, the cluster’s control plane will be automatically upgraded to 4.14.26, and there will be no automatic upgrades to the cluster’s worker nodes.

3.6.5. Patch versions (x.y.Z)

During the period in which a minor version is supported, Red Hat supports all OpenShift Container Platform patch versions unless otherwise specified.

For reasons of platform security and stability, a patch release may be deprecated, which would prevent installations of that release and trigger mandatory upgrades off that release.

Example

  1. 4.7.6 is found to contain a critical CVE.
  2. Any releases impacted by the CVE will be removed from the supported patch release list. In addition, any clusters running 4.7.6 will be scheduled for automatic upgrades within 48 hours.

3.6.6. Limited support status

When a cluster transitions to a Limited Support status, Red Hat no longer proactively monitors the cluster, the SLA is no longer applicable, and credits requested against the SLA are denied. It does not mean that you no longer have product support. In some cases, the cluster can return to a fully-supported status if you remediate the violating factors. However, in other cases, you might have to delete and recreate the cluster.

A cluster might transition to a Limited Support status for many reasons, including the following scenarios:

If you remove or replace any native Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS components or any other component that is installed and managed by Red Hat
If cluster administrator permissions were used, Red Hat is not responsible for any of your or your authorized users’ actions, including those that affect infrastructure services, service availability, or data loss. If Red Hat detects any such actions, the cluster might transition to a Limited Support status. Red Hat notifies you of the status change and you should either revert the action or create a support case to explore remediation steps that might require you to delete and recreate the cluster.

If you have questions about a specific action that might cause a cluster to transition to a Limited Support status or need further assistance, open a support ticket.

3.6.7. Supported versions exception policy

Red Hat reserves the right to add or remove new or existing versions, or delay upcoming minor release versions, that have been identified to have one or more critical production impacting bugs or security issues without advance notice.

3.6.8. Installation policy

While Red Hat recommends installation of the latest support release, Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS supports installation of any supported release as covered by the preceding policy.

3.6.9. Mandatory upgrades

If a critical or important CVE, or other bug identified by Red Hat, significantly impacts the security or stability of the cluster, the customer must upgrade to the next supported patch release within two business days.

In extreme circumstances and based on Red Hat’s assessment of the CVE criticality to the environment, Red Hat will notify customers that they have two business days to schedule or manually update their cluster to the latest, secure patch release. In the case that an update is not performed after two business days, Red Hat will automatically update the cluster’s control plane to the latest, secure patch release to mitigate potential security breach(es) or instability. Red Hat might, at its own discretion, temporarily delay an automated update if requested by a customer through a support case.

3.6.10. Life cycle dates

VersionGeneral availabilityEnd of life

4.14

Dec 4, 2023

Feb 28, 2025

3.7. Understanding security for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS

This document details the Red Hat, Amazon Web Services (AWS), and customer security responsibilities for the managed Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA).

Acronyms and terms

  • AWS - Amazon Web Services
  • CEE - Customer Experience and Engagement (Red Hat Support)
  • CI/CD - Continuous Integration / Continuous Delivery
  • CVE - Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures
  • PVs - Persistent Volumes
  • ROSA - Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS
  • SRE - Red Hat Site Reliability Engineering
  • VPC - Virtual Private Cloud

3.7.1. Security and regulation compliance

Security and regulation compliance includes tasks such as the implementation of security controls and compliance certification.

3.7.1.1. Data classification

Red Hat defines and follows a data classification standard to determine the sensitivity of data and highlight inherent risk to the confidentiality and integrity of that data while it is collected, used, transmitted, stored, and processed. Customer-owned data is classified at the highest level of sensitivity and handling requirements.

3.7.1.2. Data management

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) uses AWS Key Management Service (KMS) to help securely manage keys for encrypted data. These keys are used for control plane, infrastructure, and worker data volumes that are encrypted by default. Persistent volumes (PVs) for customer applications also use AWS KMS for key management.

When a customer deletes their ROSA cluster, all cluster data is permanently deleted, including control plane data volumes and customer application data volumes, such as persistent volumes (PV).

3.7.1.3. Vulnerability management

Red Hat performs periodic vulnerability scanning of ROSA using industry standard tools. Identified vulnerabilities are tracked to their remediation according to timelines based on severity. Vulnerability scanning and remediation activities are documented for verification by third-party assessors in the course of compliance certification audits.

3.7.1.4. Network security

3.7.1.4.1. Firewall and DDoS protection

Each ROSA cluster is protected by a secure network configuration using firewall rules for AWS Security Groups. ROSA customers are also protected against DDoS attacks with AWS Shield Standard.

3.7.1.4.2. Private clusters and network connectivity

Customers can optionally configure their ROSA cluster endpoints, such as web console, API, and application router, to be made private so that the cluster control plane and applications are not accessible from the Internet. Red Hat SRE still requires Internet-accessible endpoints that are protected with IP allow-lists.

AWS customers can configure a private network connection to their ROSA cluster through technologies such as AWS VPC peering, AWS VPN, or AWS Direct Connect.

3.7.1.4.3. Cluster network access controls

Fine-grained network access control rules can be configured by customers, on a per-project basis, using NetworkPolicy objects and the OpenShift SDN.

3.7.1.5. Penetration testing

Red Hat performs periodic penetration tests against ROSA. Tests are performed by an independent internal team by using industry standard tools and best practices.

Any issues that may be discovered are prioritized based on severity. Any issues found belonging to open source projects are shared with the community for resolution.

3.7.1.6. Compliance

Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS follows common industry best practices for security and controls. The certifications are outlined in the following table.

Table 3.3. Security and control certifications for Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS

ComplianceRed Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA)Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) with hosted control planes (HCP)

HIPAA Qualified

Yes

No

ISO 27001

Yes

No

ISO 27017

Yes

No

ISO 27018

Yes

No

PCI DSS

Yes

No

SOC 2 Type 2

Yes

No

SOC 3

Yes

No

Additional resources

3.8. SRE and service account access

Red Hat site reliability engineering (SRE) access to Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) clusters is outlined through identity and access management.

3.8.1. Identity and access management

Most access by Red Hat SRE teams is done by using cluster Operators through automated configuration management.

Subprocessors

For a list of the available subprocessors, see the Red Hat Subprocessor List on the Red Hat Customer Portal.

3.8.2. SRE cluster access

SRE access to Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) clusters is controlled through several layers of required authentication, all of which are managed by strict company policy. All authentication attempts to access a cluster and changes made within a cluster are recorded within audit logs, along with the specific account identity of the SRE responsible for those actions. These audit logs help ensure that all changes made by SREs to a customer’s cluster adhere to the strict policies and procedures that make up Red Hat’s managed services guidelines.

The information presented below is an overview of the process an SRE must perform to access a customer’s cluster.

  • SRE requests a refreshed ID token from the Red Hat SSO (Cloud Services). This request is authenticated. The token is valid for fifteen minutes. After the token expires, you can refresh the token again and receive a new token. The ability to refresh to a new token is indefinite; however, the ability to refresh to a new token is revoked after 30 days of inactivity.
  • SRE connects to the Red Hat VPN. The authentication to the VPN is completed by the Red Hat Corporate Identity and Access Management system (RH IAM). With RH IAM, SREs are multifactor and can be managed internally per organization by groups and existing onboarding and offboarding processes. After an SRE is authenticated and connected, the SRE can access the cloud services fleet management plane. Changes to the cloud services fleet management plane require many layers of approval and are maintained by strict company policy.
  • After authorization is complete, the SRE logs into the fleet management plane and receives a service account token that the fleet management plane created. The token is valid for 15 minutes. After the token is no longer valid, it is deleted.
  • With access granted to the fleet management plane, SRE uses various methods to access clusters, depending on network configuration.

    • Accessing a private or public cluster: Request is sent through a specific Network Load Balancer (NLB) by using an encrypted HTTP connection on port 6443.
    • Accessing a PrivateLink cluster: Request is sent to the Red Hat Transit Gateway, which then connects to a Red Hat VPC per region. The VPC that receives the request will be dependent on the target private cluster’s region. Within the VPC, there is a private subnet that contains the PrivateLink endpoint to the customer’s PrivateLink cluster.

SREs access ROSA clusters through the web console or command line interface (CLI) tools. Authentication requires multi-factor authentication (MFA) with industry-standard requirements for password complexity and account lockouts. SREs must authenticate as individuals to ensure auditability. All authentication attempts are logged to a Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) system.

SREs access private clusters using an encrypted HTTP connection. Connections are permitted only from a secured Red Hat network using either an IP allowlist or a private cloud provider link.

Figure 3.1. SRE access to ROSA clusters

267 OpenShift on AWS Access Networking 1222

3.8.2.1. Privileged access controls in ROSA

SRE adheres to the principle of least privilege when accessing ROSA and AWS components. There are four basic categories of manual SRE access:

  • SRE admin access through the Red Hat Portal with normal two-factor authentication and no privileged elevation.
  • SRE admin access through the Red Hat corporate SSO with normal two-factor authentication and no privileged elevation.
  • OpenShift elevation, which is a manual elevation using Red Hat SSO. Access is limited to 2 hours, is fully audited, and requires management approval.
  • AWS access or elevation, which is a manual elevation for AWS console or CLI access. Access is limited to 60 minutes and is fully audited.

Each of these access types have different levels of access to components:

ComponentTypical SRE admin access (Red Hat Portal)Typical SRE admin access (Red Hat SSO)OpenShift elevationCloud provider access or elevation

OpenShift Cluster Manager

R/W

No access

No access

No access

OpenShift console

No access

R/W

R/W

No access

Node operating system

No access

A specific list of elevated OS and network permissions.

A specific list of elevated OS and network permissions.

No access

AWS Console

No access

No access, but this is the account used to request cloud provider access.

No access

All cloud provider permissions using the SRE identity.

3.8.2.2. SRE access to AWS accounts

Red Hat personnel do not access AWS accounts in the course of routine Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS operations. For emergency troubleshooting purposes, the SREs have well-defined and auditable procedures to access cloud infrastructure accounts.

SREs generate a short-lived AWS access token for a reserved role using the AWS Security Token Service (STS). Access to the STS token is audit-logged and traceable back to individual users. Both STS and non-STS clusters use the AWS STS service for SRE access. For non-STS clusters, the BYOCAdminAccess role has the AdministratorAccess IAM policy attached, and this role is used for administration. For STS clusters, the ManagedOpenShift-Support-Role has the ManagedOpenShift-Support-Access policy attached, and this role is used for administration.

3.8.2.3. SRE STS view of AWS accounts

When SREs are on a VPN through two-factor authentication, they and Red Hat Support can assume the ManagedOpenShift-Support-Role in your AWS account. The ManagedOpenShift-Support-Role has all the permissions necessary for SREs to directly troubleshoot and manage AWS resources. Upon assumption of the ManagedOpenShift-Support-Role, SREs use a AWS Security Token Service (STS) to generate a unique, time-expiring URL to the customer’s AWS web UI for their account. SREs can then perform multiple troubleshooting actions, which include:

  • Viewing CloudTrail logs
  • Shutting down a faulty EC2 Instance

All activities performed by SREs arrive from Red Hat IP addresses and are logged to CloudTrail to allow you to audit and review all activity. This role is only used in cases where access to AWS services is required to assist you. The majority of permissions are read-only. However, a select few permissions have more access, including the ability to reboot an instance or spin up a new instance. SRE access is limited to the policy permissions attached to the ManagedOpenShift-Support-Role.

For a full list of permissions, see sts_support_permission_policy.json in the About IAM resources for ROSA clusters that use STS user guide.

3.8.3. Red Hat support access

Members of the Red Hat Customer Experience and Engagement (CEE) team typically have read-only access to parts of the cluster. Specifically, CEE has limited access to the core and product namespaces and does not have access to the customer namespaces.

RoleCore namespaceLayered product namespaceCustomer namespaceAWS account*

OpenShift SRE

Read: All

Write: Very

limited [1]

Read: All

Write: None

Read: None[2]

Write: None

Read: All [3]

Write: All [3]

CEE

Read: All

Write: None

Read: All

Write: None

Read: None[2]

Write: None

Read: None

Write: None

Customer administrator

Read: None

Write: None

Read: None

Write: None

Read: All

Write: All

Read: All

Write: All

Customer user

Read: None

Write: None

Read: None

Write: None

Read: Limited[4]

Write: Limited[4]

Read: None

Write: None

Everybody else

Read: None

Write: None

Read: None

Write: None

Read: None

Write: None

Read: None

Write: None

  1. Limited to addressing common use cases such as failing deployments, upgrading a cluster, and replacing bad worker nodes.
  2. Red Hat associates have no access to customer data by default.
  3. SRE access to the AWS account is an emergency procedure for exceptional troubleshooting during a documented incident.
  4. Limited to what is granted through RBAC by the Customer Administrator and namespaces created by the user.

3.8.4. Customer access

Customer access is limited to namespaces created by the customer and permissions that are granted using RBAC by the Customer Administrator role. Access to the underlying infrastructure or product namespaces is generally not permitted without cluster-admin access. For more information about customer access and authentication, see the "Understanding Authentication" section of the documentation.

3.8.5. Access approval and review

New SRE user access requires management approval. Separated or transferred SRE accounts are removed as authorized users through an automated process. Additionally, the SRE performs periodic access review, including management sign-off of authorized user lists.

The access and identity authorization table includes responsibilities for managing authorized access to clusters, applications, and infrastructure resources. This includes tasks such as providing access control mechanisms, authentication, authorization, and managing access to resources.

ResourceService responsibilitiesCustomer responsibilities

Logging

Red Hat

  • Adhere to an industry standards-based tiered internal access process for platform audit logs.
  • Provide native OpenShift RBAC capabilities.
  • Configure OpenShift RBAC to control access to projects and by extension a project’s application logs.
  • For third-party or custom application logging solutions, the customer is responsible for access management.

Application networking

Red Hat

  • Provide native OpenShift RBAC and dedicated-admin capabilities.
  • Configure OpenShift dedicated-admin and RBAC to control access to route configuration as required.
  • Manage organization administrators for Red Hat to grant access to OpenShift Cluster Manager. The cluster manager is used to configure router options and provide service load balancer quota.

Cluster networking

Red Hat

  • Provide customer access controls through OpenShift Cluster Manager.
  • Provide native OpenShift RBAC and dedicated-admin capabilities.
  • Manage Red Hat organization membership of Red Hat accounts.
  • Manage organization administrators for Red Hat to grant access to OpenShift Cluster Manager.
  • Configure OpenShift dedicated-admin and RBAC to control access to route configuration as required.

Virtual networking management

Red Hat

  • Provide customer access controls through OpenShift Cluster Manager.
  • Manage optional user access to AWS components through OpenShift Cluster Manager.

Virtual storage management

Red Hat

  • Provide customer access controls through Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager.
  • Manage optional user access to AWS components through OpenShift Cluster Manager.
  • Create AWS IAM roles and attached policies necessary to enable ROSA service access.

Virtual compute management

Red Hat

  • Provide customer access controls through Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager.
  • Manage optional user access to AWS components through OpenShift Cluster Manager.
  • Create AWS IAM roles and attached policies necessary to enable ROSA service access.

AWS software (public AWS services)

AWS

Compute: Provide the Amazon EC2 service, used for ROSA control plane, infrastructure, and worker nodes.

Storage: Provide Amazon EBS, used to allow ROSA to provision local node storage and persistent volume storage for the cluster.

Storage: Provide Amazon S3, used for the service’s built-in image registry.

Networking: Provide AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM), used by customers to control access to ROSA resources running on customer accounts.

  • Create AWS IAM roles and attached policies necessary to enable ROSA service access.
  • Use IAM tools to apply the appropriate permissions to AWS resources in the customer account.
  • To enable ROSA across your AWS organization, the customer is responsible for managing AWS Organizations administrators.
  • To enable ROSA across your AWS organization, the customer is responsible for distributing the ROSA entitlement grant using AWS License Manager.

Hardware and AWS global infrastructure

AWS

  • For information about physical access controls for AWS data centers, see Our Controls on the AWS Cloud Security page.
  • Customer is not responsible for AWS global infrastructure.

3.8.6. How service accounts assume AWS IAM roles in SRE owned projects

When you install a Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS cluster that uses the AWS Security Token Service (STS), cluster-specific Operator AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) roles are created. These IAM roles permit the Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS cluster Operators to run core OpenShift functionality.

Cluster Operators use service accounts to assume IAM roles. When a service account assumes an IAM role, temporary STS credentials are provided for the service account to use in the cluster Operator’s pod. If the assumed role has the necessary AWS privileges, the service account can run AWS SDK operations in the pod.

Workflow for assuming AWS IAM roles in SRE owned projects

The following diagram illustrates the workflow for assuming AWS IAM roles in SRE owned projects:

Figure 3.2. Workflow for assuming AWS IAM roles in SRE owned projects

Workflow for assuming AWS IAM roles in SRE owned projects

The workflow has the following stages:

  1. Within each project that a cluster Operator runs, the Operator’s deployment spec has a volume mount for the projected service account token, and a secret containing AWS credential configuration for the pod. The token is audience-bound and time-bound. Every hour, Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS generates a new token, and the AWS SDK reads the mounted secret containing the AWS credential configuration. This configuration has a path to the mounted token and the AWS IAM Role ARN. The secret’s credential configuration includes the following:

    • An $AWS_ARN_ROLE variable that has the ARN for the IAM role that has the permissions required to run AWS SDK operations.
    • An $AWS_WEB_IDENTITY_TOKEN_FILE variable that has the full path in the pod to the OpenID Connect (OIDC) token for the service account. The full path is /var/run/secrets/openshift/serviceaccount/token.
  2. When a cluster Operator needs to assume an AWS IAM role to access an AWS service (such as EC2), the AWS SDK client code running on the Operator invokes the AssumeRoleWithWebIdentity API call.
  3. The OIDC token is passed from the pod to the OIDC provider. The provider authenticates the service account identity if the following requirements are met:

    • The identity signature is valid and signed by the private key.
    • The sts.amazonaws.com audience is listed in the OIDC token and matches the audience configured in the OIDC provider.

      Note

      In Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS with STS clusters, the OIDC provider is created during install and set as the service account issuer by default. The sts.amazonaws.com audience is set by default in the OIDC provider.

    • The OIDC token has not expired.
    • The issuer value in the token has the URL for the OIDC provider.
  4. If the project and service account are in the scope of the trust policy for the IAM role that is being assumed, then authorization succeeds.
  5. After successful authentication and authorization, temporary AWS STS credentials in the form of an AWS access token, secret key, and session token are passed to the pod for use by the service account. By using the credentials, the service account is temporarily granted the AWS permissions enabled in the IAM role.
  6. When the cluster Operator runs, the Operator that is using the AWS SDK in the pod consumes the secret that has the path to the projected service account and AWS IAM Role ARN to authenticate against the OIDC provider. The OIDC provider returns temporary STS credentials for authentication against the AWS API.

Additional resources