Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta

7.0 Release Notes

Release Notes for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta

Edition 0

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

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Abstract

The Release Notes document the major features and enhancements implemented in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta release. For detailed information regarding the changes between Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 and 7, consult the Migration Planning Guide. Known problems are listed in the Technical Notes.
Note: This document is under development, is subject to substantial change, and is provided only as a preview. The included information and instructions should not be considered complete, and should be used with caution.

Chapter 1. Introduction

Red Hat is pleased to announce the availability of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta is the next generation of Red Hat's comprehensive suite of operating systems, designed for mission-critical enterprise computing and certified by top enterprise software and hardware vendors.

Chapter 2. Architectures

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta available as a single kit on the following architectures [1]:
  • 64-bit AMD
  • 64-bit Intel
  • IBM POWER7 and POWER8
  • IBM System z
In this release, Red Hat brings together improvements across the server, systems, and the overall Red Hat open source experience.


[1] Note that the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta installation is only supported on 64-bit hardware.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta is able to run 32-bit operating systems, including previous versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, as virtual machines.

Chapter 3. Capabilities and Limits

The following table lists the capabilities and limits of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 as compared to previous versions 5 and 6.

Table 3.1. Limits for Red Hat Enterprise Linux versions 5, 6 and 7

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7
Maximum Logical CPUs    
x86_64 160/255 160/4096 160/5120
POWER 128/128 128 Under evaluation
System z 101 (zEC12) 101 (zEC12) Under evaluation
Maximum Memory    
x86_64 1 TB 3 TB supported/64 TB 3 TB supported/64 TB
POWER 512 GB minimum/1 TB recommended 2 TB 2 TB
System z 3 TB (z196) 3 TB (z196) 3 TB (z196)
Required Minimums    
x86_64 512 MB minimum/1 GB per logical CPU recommended 1 GB minimum/1 GB per logical CPU recommended 1 GB minimum/1 GB per logical CPU recommended
POWER 1 GB/2 GB recommended 2 GB/2 GB per Red Hat Enterprise Linux install 2 GB/2 GB per Red Hat Enterprise Linux install
System z 512 MB 512 MB 1 GB[a]
File Systems and Storage Limits    
Maximum File Size: XFS 16 TB 16 TB 16 TB
Maximum File Size: ext4 16 TB 16 TB 16 TB
Maximum File Size: Btrfs N/A Under evaluation Under evaluation
Maximum File System Size: XFS 100 TB[b] 100 TB 500 TB
Maximum File System Size: ext4 16 TB 16 TB 50 TB
Maximum File System Size: Btrfs N/A Under evaluation 50 TB
Maximum Boot LUN Size 2 TB 16 TB[c] 50 TB
Maximum Per-Process Address Size: x86_64 2 TB 128 TB 128 TB
     
[a] Greater than 1 GB is recommended for installation on IBM System z.
[b] Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 5.5 or greater supports an XFS maximum file system size up to 100 TB.
[c] Note that UEFI and GPT support are required for greater than 2 TB boot LUN support.

Chapter 4. Package and Support Changes

The following tables of deprecated and removed packages and drivers are considered strictly relevant for the release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta and may be changed at Red Hat's discretion for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0.

4.1. Deprecated Packages

The following functions and capabilities are planned to be deprecated in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0, and may be removed from a future version of the product. Where appropriate, alternative capabilities are suggested below.

Table 4.1. Deprecated Packages

Functionality/Package Alternative Migration Notes
ext2, ext3 file system support ext4 ext4 can be used for ext2 and ext3 file systems
sblim-sfcb tog-pegasus
Legacy RHN Hosted registration subscription-manager and Subscription Asset Manager
acpid systemd
evolution-mapi evolution-ews Please migrate from Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 machines
gtkhtml3 webkitgtk3
sendmail postfix
edac-utils and mcelog rasdaemon
libcgroup systemd cgutils will continue to exist in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 but systemd is evolving capabilities to enable customers to migrate in later releases
krb5-appl openssh OpenSSH contains functionally similar tools which are implemented using more actively maintained standards and in a more actively developed and maintained code base.
lvm1 lvm2
lvm2mirror and cmirror lvm2 raid1 lvm2 raid1 does not support clusters. There is no plan to replace cmirror.

4.2. Removed Packages

This section list packages removed from Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 as compared with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.

Table 4.2. Removed Packages

Functionality/Package Alternative Migration Notes
gcj OpenJDK Do not compile Java application to native code with gcj.
32-bit architectures as installation architectures 64-bit architectures Applications will still run with compatibility libraries. Test your applications on 64-bit Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. If 32-bit boot support is required, continue to use Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
IBM POWER6 support None Continue to use Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 or 6.
Matahari CIM-based management Matahari was removed from Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4. Do not use.
ecryptfs Use existing LUKS or dm-crypt block-based encryption Migration is not available; users need to recreate encrypted data.
TurboGears2 web application stack None
OpenMotif version 2.2 Motif 2.3 Rebuild applications against the current Motif version that is in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
webalizer web analytics tool None
compiz window manager gnome-shell
Eclipse developer toolset None Eclipse is now offered in the Red Hat Developer Toolset offering.
Qpid and QMF None Qpid and QMF are available in the MRG offering.
amtu None Common Criteria certifications no longer require this tool.
system-config-services systemadm
pidgin front ends empathy
perl-suidperl interpreter None This functionality has been removed in upstream perl.
pam_passwdqc, pam_cracklib pam_pwquality
HAL library and daemon udev
ConsoleKit library and daemon systemd http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/writing-display-managers
DeviceKit-power upower
system-config-lvm gnome-disk-utility gnome-disk-utility is also present in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
system-config-network nm-connection-editor, nmcli nm-connection-editor is also present in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
taskjuggler None
thunderbird evolution
vconfig iproute
Assorted older graphics drivers Modern hardware or the vesa driver
xorg-x11-twm None
xorg-x11-xdm gdm
system-config-firewall firewall-config and firewall-cmd system-config-firewall is still available as part of an alternative firewall solution for static-only environments along with iptables services.
mod_perl mod_fcgid Incompatible with HTTP 2.4
busybox None
prelink None Note that prelink is shipped in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta, but is disabled by default.
KVM and virtualization packages (in the ComputeNode variant) KVM and virtualization equipped variant such as a Server variant
module-init-tools kmod
kernel-firmware-* linux-firmware

4.3. Deprecated Drivers and Modules

The following drivers and modules have been deprecated in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta and may be removed in future releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Graphics Drivers
xorg-x11-drv-ast
xorg-x11-drv-cirrus
xorg-x11-drv-mach64
xorg-x11-drv-mga
xorg-x11-drv-openchrome
Note that all of the above graphics drivers have Kernel Mode Setting (KMS) drivers replacing them.
Input Drivers
xorg-x11-drv-void
Storage Drivers
3w-9xxx
arcmsr
aic79xx

4.4. Discontinued Kernel Drivers, Modules and Features

This section lists drivers and modules removed from Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta as compared with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
Storage Drivers
cciss
aic94xx
aic7xxx
i2o
ips
megaraid_mbox
mptlan
mptfc
sym53c8xx
ecryptfs
3w-xxxx
Networking Drivers
3c59x
3c574_cs
3c589_c
3c589_cs
8390
acenic
amd8111e
at76c50x-usb
ath5k
axnet_cs
b43
b43legacy
can-dev
cassini
cdc-phonet
cxgb
de4x5
de2104x
dl2k
dmfe
e100
ems_pci
ems_usb
fealnx
fmvi18x_cs
fmvj18x_cs
forcedeth
ipw2100
ipw2200
ixgb
kvaser_pci
libertas
libertas_tf
libertas_tf_usb
mac80211_hwsim
myri10ge
natsemi
ne2k-pci
niu
nmckan_cs
nmclan_cs
ns83820
p54pci
p54usb
pcnet32
pcnet_32
pcnet_cs
pppol2tp
r6040
rt61pci
rt73usb
rt2400pci
rt2500pci
rt2500usb
rtl8180
rtl8187
s2io
sc92031
sis190
sis900
sja1000
sja1000_platform
smc91c92_cs
starfire
sundance
sungem
sungem_phy
sunhme
tehuti
tlan
tulip
typhoon
uli526x
vcan
via-rhine
via-velocity
vxge
winbond-840
xirc2ps_cs
xircom_cb
zd1211rw
Graphics Drivers
xorg-x11-drv-acecad
xorg-x11-drv-aiptek
xorg-x11-drv-elographics
xorg-x11-drv-fpit
xorg-x11-drv-hyperpen
xorg-x11-drv-mutouch
xorg-x11-drv-penmount
Input Drivers
xorg-x11-drv-acecad
xorg-x11-drv-aiptek
xorg-x11-drv-elographics
xorg-x11-drv-fpit
xorg-x11-drv-hyperpen
xorg-x11-drv-mutouch
xorg-x11-drv-penmount

Chapter 5. Installation and Booting

5.1. Installer

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installer, Anaconda, has been redesigned and enhanced in order to improve the installation process for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

Interface

  • Anaconda features a new text mode that works on IBM S/390, typewriter terminals, and which can also be used write-only.
  • Anaconda now features a newly-redesigned graphical user interface that employs a modern and intuitive hub-and-spoke interaction model.
  • The Anaconda installer features improved l10n (localization) support.
  • Initial Setup is ensured by firstboot.

Storage

  • Directly-formatted unpartitioned devices are supported.
  • The temporary file storage facility, tmpfs, can now be configured during installation.
  • LVM thin provisioning is now supported.
  • The Btrfs file system is now supported.

Networking

Networking features include support for teaming, bonding and NTP (Network Time Protocol) configuration. For further details, see Chapter 12, Networking.

Developer Tooling

  • Anaconda now uses the improved makeupdates script.

Other Features

  • Geolocation is now supported: language and timezone are preselected from GeoIP.
  • Screenshots are now supported globally.
  • Anaconda now supports add-ons.
  • The loader binary has been replaced by dracut modules.
  • The realmd DBus service has been integrated into kickstart.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta Installation Guide provides detailed documentation on the installer and the installation process.

5.2. Boot Loader

GRUB 2

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta ships with a new boot loader, GRUB 2, which is more robust, portable and powerful than its predecessor, GRUB, which is the boot loader that Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 uses. GRUB 2 provides a number of features and improvements, the most notable of which are:
  • In addition to the 64-bit Intel and AMD architectures, GRUB 2 now supports a wider variety of platforms, including PowerPC.
  • GRUB 2 supports additional firmware types, including BIOS, EFI and OpenFirmware.
  • In addition to supporting Master Boot Record (MBT) partition tables, GRUB 2 supports GUID Partition Tables (GPT).
  • In addition to the Linux file systems, GRUB 2 also supports non-Linux file systems such as Apple Hierarchical File System Plus (HFS+) and Microsoft's NTFS file system.

Chapter 6. Storage

LIO kernel Target Subsystem

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta uses the LIO kernel target subsystem, which is the standard open source SCSI target for block storage, for all of the following storage fabrics: FCoE, iSCSI, iSER (Mellanox InfiniBand), and SRP (Mellanox InfiniBand).
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 uses tgtd, the SCSI Target Daemon, for iSCSI target support, and only uses LIO, the Linux kernel target, for Fibre-Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) targets via the fcoe-target-utils package.
The targetcli shell provides the general management platform for the LIO Linux SCSI target.

Fast Block Devices Caching Slower Block Devices

The ability to have fast block devices act as a cache for slower block devices is introduced as a Technology Preview in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta. This feature allows a PCIe SSD device to act as a cache for direct-attached storage (DAS) or storage area network (SAN) storage, which improves file system performance.

Chapter 7. File Systems

Support of XFS File System

The default file system for an Anaconda-based installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta is now XFS, which replaces the Fourth Extended Filesystem (ext4) used by default in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. The ext4 and Btrfs (B-Tree) file systems can be used as alternatives to XFS.
XFS is a highly scalable, high-performance file system which was originally designed at Silicon Graphics, Inc. It was created to support file systems up to 16 Exabytes (approximately 16 million terabytes), files up to 8 Exabytes (approximately 8 million terabytes) and directory structures containing tens of millions of entries. XFS supports metadata journaling, which facilitates quicker crash recovery. XFS file systems can also be defragmented and expanded while mounted and active.
For information about changes between commands used for common tasks in ext4 and XFS, see the Reference Table in the Installation Guide.

Chapter 8. Kernel

Support for Large crashkernel Sizes

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta supports the kdump crash dumping mechanism on systems with large memory (up to 3TB).

Swap Memory Compression

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta introduces a new feature, swap memory compression. Swap compression is performed through zswap, a thin backend for frontswap. Utilizing the swap memory compression technology ensures a significant I/O reduction and performance gains.

NUMA-Aware Scheduling and Memory Allocation

In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta, the kernel automatically relocates processes and memory between NUMA nodes in the same system, in order to improve performance on systems with non-uniform memory access (NUMA).

APIC Virtualization

Virtualization of Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller (APIC) registers is supported by utilizing hardware capabilities of new processors to improve virtual machine monitor (VMM) interrupt handling.

vmcp Built in the Kernel

In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta, the vmcp kernel module is built in the kernel. This ensures that the vmcp device node is always present, and users can send IBM z/VM hypervisor control program commands without having to load the vmcp kernel module first.

Hardware Error Reporting Mechanism

Currently, the hardware error reporting mechanisms in Linux can be problematic, mostly due to various tools (mcelog and EDAC) that collect errors from different sources with different methods as well as different tools (such as mcelog, edac-utils, and syslog) to report the error events.
The problems of hardware error reporting can be split in these two parts:
  • different error data collection mechanisms that collect various and sometime duplicate data,
  • and different tools that report these data in different locations with different time stamps, which makes it hard to correlate the events.
The goal of the new Hardware Event Reporting Mechanism, or HERM, in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta is to unify the error data collection from various sources, and report the error events to users space in a sequential timeline and single location. HERM in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta introduces a new user space daemon, rasdaemon, which catches and handles all Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability (RAS) error events that come from the kernel tracing infrastructure, and logs them. HERM in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta also provides the tools to report the errors and is able to detect different types of errors such as burst and sparse errors.

Full DynTick Support

The nohz_full boot parameter extends the original tickless kernel feature to an additional case when the tick can be stopped, when the per-cpu nr_running=1 setting is used. That is, there is a single runnable task on a CPU's run queue.

Chapter 9. Virtualization

9.1. Kernel-Based Virtualization

Improved Block I/O Performance Using virtio-blk-data-plane

In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta, the virtio-blk-data-plane I/O virtualization functionality is available as a Technology Preview. This functionality extends QEMU to perform disk I/O in a dedicated thread that is optimized for I/O performance.

PCI Bridge

QEMU previously supported only up to 32 PCI slots. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta features PCI Bridge as a Technology Preview, which allows users to configure more than 32 PCI devices.

QEMU Sandboxing

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta features enhanced KVM virtualization security through the use of kernel system call filtering, which improves isolation between the host system and the guest.

QEMU Virtual CPU Hot Add Support

QEMU in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta features virtual CPU (vCPU) hot add support. Virtual CPUs (vCPUS) can be added to a running virtual machine in order to meet either the workload's demands or to maintain the Service Level Agreement (SLA) associated with the workload. Note that vCPU hot plug is only supported on virtual machines using the pc-i440fx-rhel7.0.0 machine type, the default machine type on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta.

Multiple Queue NICs

Multiple queue virtio_net provides better scalability; each virtual CPU can have a separate transmit or receive queue and separate interrupts that it can use without influencing other virtual CPUs.

Multiple Queue virtio_scsi

Multiple queue virtio_scsi provides better scalability; each virtual CPU can have a separate queue and interrupt that it can use without influencing other virtual CPUs.

Page Delta Compression for Live Migration

The KVM live migration feature has been improved by compressing the guest memory pages and reducing the size of the transferred migration data. This feature allows the migration to converge faster.

HyperV Enlightenment in KVM

KVM has been updated with several Microsoft Hyper-V functions; for example, support for Memory Management Unit (MMU) and Virtual Interrupt Controller. Microsoft provides a para-virtualized API between the guest and the host, and by implementing parts of this functionality on the host, and exposing it according to Microsoft specifications, Microsoft Windows guests can improve their performance.

EOI Acceleration for High Bandwidth I/O

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta utilizes Intel and AMD enhancements to Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller (APIC) to accelerate end of interrupt (EOI) processing. For older chipsets, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta provides para-virtualization options for EOI acceleration.

USB 3.0 Support for QEMU Guests

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta features improved USB support by adding USB 3.0 hostadapter (xHCI) emulation.

Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012 Guest Support

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta supports Microsoft Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012 guests running inside KVM virtual machines.

I/O Throttling for QEMU Guests

This feature provides I/O throttling, or limits, for QEMU guests block devices. I/O throttling slows down the processing of I/O memory requests. This slows down the system but prevents it from crashes. Note that it is not possible to throttle data planes.

Integration of Ballooning and Transparent Huge Pages

Ballooning and transparent huge pages are better integrated in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta. Balloon pages can be moved and compacted so they can become huge pages.

Pulling System Entropy from Host

A new device, virtio-rng, can be configured for guests, which will make entropy available to guests from the host. By default, this information is sourced from the host's /dev/random file, but hardware random number generators (RNGs) available on hosts can be used as the source as well.

Bridge Zero Copy Transmit

Bridge zero-copy transmit is a performance feature to improve CPU processing of large messages. The bridge zero-copy transmit feature improves performance from guest to external traffic when using a bridge.

Live Migration Support

Live migration of a guest from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.5 host to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta host is supported.

Discard Support in qemu-kvm

Discard support, using the fstrim or mount -o discard command, works on a guest after adding discard='unmap' to the <driver> element in the domain's XML definition. For example:
<disk type='file' device='disk'>
	<driver name='qemu' type='raw' discard='unmap'/>
  <source file='/var/lib/libvirt/images/vm1.img'>
  ...
</disk>

NVIDIA GPU Device Assignment

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta supports device assignment of NVIDIA professional series graphics devices (Quadro, GRID, Tesla K-series) as a secondary graphics device to emulated VGA.

Para-Virtualized Ticketlocks

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta supports para-virtualized ticketlocks (pvticketlocks) that improve performance of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta guest virtual machines running over Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta hosts with oversubscribed CPUs.

Error Handling on Assigned PCI Devices

If a PCI device with Advanced Error Reporting (AER) encounters an error while assigned to a guest, the affected guest is brought down without impacting any other running guests or the host. The guests can be brought up after the host driver for the device recovers from the error.

Q35 Chipset, PCI Express Bus and AHCI Bus Emulation

The Q35 machine type, required for PCI express bus support in KVM guest virtual machines, is available as a Technology Preview in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta. Including an AHCI bus is only supported with the Q35 machine type and is also a Technology Preview.

VFIO-based PCI Device Assignment

The Virtual Function I/O (VFIO) user-space driver interface provides KVM guest virtual machines with an improved PCI device assignment solution. VFIO provides kernel-level enforcement of device isolation, improves security of device access and is compatible with features such as secure boot. VFIO replaces the KVM device assignment mechanism used in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.

Intel VT-d Large Pages

When using Virtual Function I/O (VFIO) device assignment with a KVM guest virtual machine on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta, 2MB pages are used by the input/output memory management unit (IOMMU), thus reducing translation lookaside buffer (TLB) overhead for I/O operations. 1GB page support is planned for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0, The VT-d large pages feature is only supported on certain more recent Intel-based platforms.

KVM Clock Get Time Performance

In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta the vsyscall mechanism was enhanced to support fast reads of the clock from the user space for KVM guests. A guest virtual machine running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta host will see improved performance for applications that read the time of day frequently.

QCOW2 Version 3 Image Format

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta adds support for the QCOW2 version 3 Image Format.

Improved Live Migration Statistics

Information about live migration is now available to analyze and tune performance. Improved statistics include information about expected downtime, downtime or dirty pages rate.

Live Migration Threads

The KVM live migration feature has been improved to support threading.

Hot Plugging of Character Devices and Serial Ports

Hot plugging new serial ports with new character devices is now supported in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta.

Emulation of AMD Opteron G5

KVM is now able to emulate AMD Opteron G5 processors.

Support of New Intel Instructions on KVM Guests

KVM guests can use new instructions supported by Intel 22nm processors. These include:
  • Floating-Point Fused Multiply-Add,
  • 256-bit Integer vectors,
  • big-endian move instruction (MOVBE) support,
  • or HLE/HLE+.

VPC and VHDX File Formats

KVM in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta includes support for the Microsoft Virtual PC (VPC) and Microsoft Hyper-V virtual hard disk (VHDX) file formats.

New Features in libguestfs

libguestfs is a set of tools for accessing and modifying virtual machine disk images. libguestfs included in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta includes a number of improvements, from which the most notable are the following:
  • Secure Virtualization Using SELinux, or sVirt protection, ensures enhanced security against malicious and malformed disk images.
  • Remote disks can be examined and modified, initially over Network Block Device (NBD).
  • Disks can be hot plugged for better performance in certain applications.

9.2. Xen

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta Xen HVM Guest

Users can now use Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta as a guest on the popular Xen environment.

9.3. Hyper-V

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta Hosted as a Generation 2 Virtual Machine

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta can be used as a generation 2 virtual machine in the Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2012 R2 host. In addition to the functions supported in the previous generation, generation 2 provides new functions on a virtual machine; for example secure boot, boot from a SCSI virtual hard disk or UEFI firmware support.

Chapter 10. Clustering

Clusters are multiple computers (nodes) working together to increase reliability, scalability, and availability to critical production services. High Availability using Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta can be deployed in a variety of configurations to suit varying needs for performance, high-availability, load balancing, and file sharing.
Refer to Section 18.5, “Clustering and High Availability” for a list of documents available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta providing information about configuration and management of Red Hat High Availability Add-On.

10.1. Pacemaker Cluster Manager

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta replaces rgmanager with Pacemaker for managing cluster resources and recovering from node failures.
Some of the benefits of Pacemaker include:
  • Automatic synchronization and versioning of the resource configuration.
  • A flexible resource and fencing model that can more closely match the user's environment.
  • Fencing can be used to recover from resource-level failures.
  • Time-based configuration options.
  • The ability to run the same resource on multiple nodes. For example, a web server or cluster file system.
  • The ability to run the same resource on multiple nodes in one of two different modes. For example, a sync source and target.
  • Pacemaker does not require a distributed lock manager.
  • Configurable behavior when quorum is lost or multiple partitions are formed.

10.2. High Availability Administration

The Pacemaker Configuration System, or pcs, replaces ccs, ricci and luci as the unified cluster configuration and administration tool. Some of the benefits of pcs include:
  • Command-line tool.
  • Ability to easily bootstrap a cluster, that is, getting the initial cluster up and running.
  • Ability to configure cluster options.
  • Ability to add, remove, or modify resources and their relationships to each other.

10.3. New Resource Agents

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta ships with a number of resource agents. A resource agent is a standardized interface for a cluster resource. A resource agent translates a standard set of operations into steps specific to the resource or application, and interprets their results as success or failure.

Chapter 11. Compiler and Tools

11.1. GCC Toolchain

In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta, the gcc toolchain is based on the gcc-4.8.x release series, and includes numerous enhancements and bugfixes relative to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 equivalent. Similarly, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 includes binutils-2.23.52.x.
These versions correspond to the equivalent tools in Red Hat Developer Toolset 2.0; a detailed comparison of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 gcc and binutils versions can therefore be seen here:
Notable highlights of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta toolchain are the following:
  • Experimental support for building applications compliant with C++11 (including full C++11 language support) and some experimental support for C11 features.
  • Improved support for programming parallel applications, including OpenMP v3.1, C++11 Types and GCC Built-ins for Atomic Memory Access and experimental support for transactional memory (including Intel RTM/HLE intrinsics, built-ins, and code generation)
  • A new local register allocator (LRA), improving code performance.
  • DWARF4 is now used as the default debug format.
  • A variety of new architecture-specific options.
  • Support for AMD family 15h and 16h processors.
  • Link-time optimization support.
  • Enhanced warnings and diagnostics.
  • A variety of new Fortran features.

11.2. GLIBC

In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta, the glibc libraries (libc, libm, libpthread, NSS plug-ins, and others) are based on the glibc 2.17 release, which includes numerous enhancements and bug fixes relative to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 equivalent.
Notable highlights of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta glibc libraries are the following:
  • Experimental ISO C11 support.
  • New Linux interfaces: prlimit, prlimit64, fanotify_init, fanotify_mark, clock_adjtime, name_to_handle_at, open_by_handle_at, syncfs, setns, sendmmsg, process_vm_readv, process_vm_writev.
  • New optimized string functions for AMD64 and Intel 64 architectures using Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE), Supplemental Streaming SIMD Extensions 3 (SSSE3), Streaming SIMD Extensions 4.2 (SSE4.2), and Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX).
  • New optimized string functions for IBM PowerPC and IBM POWER7.
  • New optimized string functions for IBM S/390 and IBM System z with specifically optimized routines for IBM System z10 and IBM zEnterprise 196.
  • New locales: os_RU, bem_ZA, en_ZA, ff_SN, sw_KE, sw_TZ, lb_LU, wae_CH, yue_HK, lij_IT, mhr_RU, bho_IN, unm_US, es_CU, ta_LK, ayc_PE, doi_IN, ia_FR, mni_IN, nhn_MX, niu_NU, niu_NZ, sat_IN, szl_PL, mag_IN.
  • New encodings: CP770, CP771, CP772, CP773, CP774.
  • New interfaces: scandirat, scandirat64.
  • Checking versions of the FD_SET, FD_CLR, FD_ISSET, poll, and ppoll file descriptors added.
  • Caching of the netgroup database is now supported in the nscd daemon.
  • The new function secure_getenv() allows secure access to the environment, returning NULL if running in a SUID or SGID process. This function replaces the internal function __secure_getenv().
  • The crypt() function now fails if passed salt bytes that violate the specification for those values. On Linux, the crypt() function will consult the /proc/sys/crypto/fips_enabled file to determine if FIPS mode is enabled, and fail on encrypted strings using the Message-Digest algorithm 5 (MD5) or Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm when the mode is enabled.
  • The clock_* suite of functions (declared in <time.h>) is now available directly in the main C library. Previously it was necessary to link with -lrt to use these functions. This change has the effect that a single-threaded program that uses a function such as clock_gettime() (and is not linked with -lrt) will no longer implicitly load the pthreads library at runtime and so will not suffer the overheads associated with multi-thread support in other code such as the C++ runtime library.
  • New header <sys/auxv.h> and function getauxval() allow easy access to the AT_* key-value pairs passed from the Linux kernel. The header also defines the HWCAP_* bits associated with the AT_HWCAP key.
  • A new class of installed header has been documented for low-level platform-specific functionality. PowerPC added the first instance with a function to provide time base register access.

11.3. GDB

In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta, the GDB debugger is based on the gdb-7.6.1 release, and includes numerous enhancements and bugfixes relative to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 equivalent.
This version corresponds to GDB in Red Hat Developer Toolset v2.0; a detailed comparison of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta GDB versions can therefore be seen here:
Notable new features of GDB included in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta are the following:
  • Faster loading of symbols using the new .gdb_index section and the new gdb-add-index shell command. Note that this feature is already present in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1 and later.
  • gdbserver now supports standard input/output (STDIO) connections, for example: (gdb) target remote | ssh myhost gdbserver - hello
  • More expected behavior of the watch using the -location parameter.
  • Virtual method tables can be displayed by a new command, info vtbl.
  • Control of automatic loading of files by new commands info auto-load, set auto-load and show auto-load.
  • Displaying absolute path to source file names using the set filename-display absolute command.
  • Control flow recording with hardware support by a new command, record btrace.
Notable bug fixes in GDB shipped in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta are the following:
  • The info proc command has been updated to work on core files.
  • Breakpoints are now set on all matching locations in all inferiors.
  • The file name part of breakpoint location now matches trailing components of a source file name.
  • Breakpoints can now be put also on inline functions.
  • Parameters of the template are now put in scope of a template instantiation.
In addition, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta provides a new package, gdb-doc, which contains the GDB Manual in PDF, HTML, and info formats. The GDB Manual was part of the main RPM package in previous versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

11.4. Programming Languages

Ruby 2.0.0

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta provides the latest Ruby version, 2.0.0. The most notable of the changes between version 2.0.0 and 1.8.7 included in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 are the following:
  • New interpreter, YARV (yet another Ruby VM), which significantly reduces loading times, especially for applications with large trees or files.
  • New and faster "Lazy Sweep" garbage collector.
  • Ruby now supports string encoding.
  • Ruby now supports native threads instead of green threads.
For more information about Ruby 2.0.0, consult the upstream pages of the project: https://www.ruby-lang.org/en/.

Python 2.7.5

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta includes Python 2.7.5, which is the latest Python 2.7 series release. This version contains many improvements in performance and provides forward compatibility with Python 3. The most notable of the changes in Python 2.7.5 are the following:
  • An ordered dictionary type
  • A faster I/O module
  • Set and dictionary comprehensions
  • The sysconfig module
For the full list of the changes, see http://docs.python.org/dev/whatsnew/2.7.html

Java 7 and Multiple JDKs

Red Hat Enterprise Linux features OpenJDK7 as the default Java Development Kit (JDK) and Java 7 serves as the default Java version. All Java 7 packages (java-1.7.0-openjdk, java-1.7.0-oracle, java-1.7.0-ibm) allow installation of multiple versions in parallel, similarly to the kernel.
The ability of parallel installation allows users to try out multiple versions of the same JDK simultaneously, to tune performance and debug problems if needed. The precise JDK is selectable through alternatives as before.

11.5. Performance Tools

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta premiers support for Performance Co-Pilot, a suite of tools, services, and libraries for acquisition, archiving, analysis, and dissemination of system-wide performance measurements. SystemTap premiers support for (DynInst-based) instrumentation that runs entirely in unprivileged user-space, as well as efficient (Byteman-based) pinpoint probing of Java applications. Valgrind brings support for hardware transactional memory and improvements in modeling vectorized instructions.
In addition, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta includes updates to the most recent versions of several other tools such as oprofile, papi, and elfutils, bringing performance, portability, and functionality improvements.

Chapter 12. Networking

Network Teaming

Networking Teaming has been introduced as an alternative to bonding for link aggregation. It is designed to be easy to maintain, debug and extended. For the user it offers performance and flexibility improvements and should be evaluated for all new installations.

NetworkManager

A number of improvements have been made to NetworkManager to make it more suitable for use in server applications. In particular, NetworkManager no longer watches for configuration file changes by default, such as those made by editors or deployment tools. It allows administrators to make it aware of external changes through the nmcli connection reload command. Changes made through NetworkManager's D-Bus API or with the NetworkManager command-line tool, nmcli, are still effective immediately.
The nmcli tool is introduced to allow users and scripts to interact with NetworkManager.

chrony Suite

The chrony suite of utilities is available to update the system clock on systems that do not fit into the conventional permanently networked, always on, dedicated server category. The chrony suite should be considered for all systems which are frequently suspended or otherwise intermittently disconnected and reconnected to a network. Mobile and virtual systems for example.

Dynamic Firewall Daemon, firewalld Suite

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta ships with the dynamic firewall daemon, firewalld, which provides a dynamically managed firewall with support for network "zones" to assign a level of trust to a network and its associated connections and interfaces. It has support for IPv4 and IPv6 firewall settings. It supports Ethernet bridges and has a separation of runtime and permanent configuration options. It also has an interface for services or applications to add firewall rules directly.

DNSSEC

DNSSEC is a set of Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) that enables a DNS client to authenticate and check the integrity of responses from a DNS nameserver in order to verify their origin and to determine if they have been interfered with in transit.

OpenLMI

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta features the OpenLMI project, which provides a common infrastructure for the management of Linux systems. It allows users to configure, manage and monitor hardware, operating systems, and system services. OpenLMI is intended to simplify the task of configuring and managing production servers.
OpenLMI is designed to provide a common management interface to multiple versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. It builds on top of existing tools, providing an abstraction layer that hides much of the complexity of the underlying system from system administrators.
OpenLMI consists of a set of system management agents installed on a managed system, an OpenLMI controller, which manages the agents and provides an interface to them, and client applications or scripts which call the system managements agents through the OpenLMI controller.
OpenLMI allows users to:
  • configure, manage and monitor bare-metal production servers as well as virtual machine guests;
  • configure, manage and monitor local or remote systems;
  • configure, manage and monitor storage and networks;
  • call system management functions from C/C++, Python, Java, or command-line interface.
For more information about OpenLMI, see http://www.openlmi.org.

Chapter 13. Authentication

New Trust Implementation

Using a user ID or group ID defined in the Active Directory instead of using a user ID and group ID generated from the user Security Identifier is now supported for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.9 clients and later and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3 clients. This trust implementation is usable if POSIX attributes are defined in the Active Directory.

Updated slapi-nis Plug-In

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta features an updated directory server plug-in, slapi-nis, which allows users of Active Directory to authenticate on legacy clients.

Backup and Restore Mechanism for IPA

The backup and restore mechanism for the IPA suite is featured as a Technology Preview in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta.

Chapter 14. Security

OpenSSH chroot Shell Logins

Generally, each Linux user is mapped to an SELinux user using SELinux policy, allowing Linux users to inherit the restrictions placed on SELinux users. There is a default mapping in which Linux users are mapped to to the SELinux unconfined_u user.
In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, the ChrootDirectory option for chrooting users can be used with unconfined users without any change, but for confined users, such as staff_u, user_u, or guest_u, the SELinux selinuxuser_use_ssh_chroot variable has to be set. Administrators are advised to use the guest_u user for all chrooted users when using the ChrootDirectory option to achieve higher security.

Multiple Required Authentications

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta supports multiple required authentications in the SSH procotol version 2 using the AuthenticationMethods option. This option lists one or more comma-separated lists of authentication method names. Successful completion of all the methods in any list is required for authentication to complete. This enables, for example, requiring a user to have to authenticate using the public key or GSSAPI before they are offered password authentication.

GSS Proxy

GSS Proxy is the system service that establishes GSS API Kerberos context on behalf of other applications. This brings security benefits; for example, in a situation when the access to the system keytab is shared between different processes, a successful attack against that process leads to Kerberos impersonation of all other processes.

Changes in NSS

The nss packages have been upgraded to upstream version 3.15.2. Message-Digest algorithm 2 (MD2), MD4, and MD5 signatures are no longer accepted for online certificate status protocol (OCSP) or certificate revocation lists (CRLs), consistent with their handling for general certificate signatures.
Advanced Encryption Standard Galois Counter Mode, or AES-GCM, cipher suite (RFC 5288 and RFC 5289) has been added when TLS 1.2 is negotiated. Specifically, the following cipher suites are now supported:
  • TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
  • TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
  • TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
  • TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256

Chapter 15. Subscription Management

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta is available using the Red Hat Subscription Management services. The following Knowledge Base article provides a brief overview and instructions on how to register your Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta system with Red Hat Subscription Management.

Certificate-Based Entitlements

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta supports new certificate-based entitlements through the subscription-manager tool. Legacy entitlements are also supported for Satellite users to provide a transition for users using Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and 6. Note that registering to Red Hat Network Classic using the rhn_register or rhnreg_ks tools will not work on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta. You can use the mentioned tools to register to Red Hat Satellite or Proxy only.

Chapter 16. Desktop

16.1. GNOME 3

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta features the next major version of the GNOME Desktop, GNOME 3. The user experience of GNOME 3 is largely defined by GNOME Shell, which replaces the GNOME 2 desktop shell. Apart from window management, GNOME Shell provides the top bar on the screen, which hosts the 'system status' area in the top right, a clock, and a hot corner that switches to Activities Overview, which provides easy access to applications and windows.
The default GNOME Shell interface in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta is GNOME Classic which features a window list at the bottom of the screen and traditional Applications and Places menus.
For more information about GNOME 3, consult the GNOME help. To access it, press the Super (Windows) key to enter the Activities Overview, type help, and then press Enter.
For more information about GNOME 3 Desktop deployment, configuration and administration, see Desktop Migration and Administration Guide.

GTK+ 3

GNOME 3 uses the GTK+ 3 library which can be installed in parallel with GTK+ 2. Both GTK+ and GTK+ 3 are available in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta. Existing GTK+ 2 applications will continue to work in GNOME 3.

GNOME Boxes

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta introduces a lightweight graphical desktop virtualization tool used to view and access virtual machines and remote systems. GNOME Boxes provides a way to test different operating systems and applications from the desktop with minimal configuration.

16.2. KDE

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta features KDE Plasma Workspaces version 4.10 and the latest version of KDE Platform and Applications. To learn more about the release, consult http://www.kde.org/announcements/4.10/

KScreen

Configuration of multiple displays is improved with KScreen, a new screen management software for KDE. KScreen provides a new user interface for monitor configuration and automatic saving and restoring of profiles for connected monitors. For detailed information about KScreen, see http://community.kde.org/Solid/Projects/ScreenManagement

Chapter 17. Web Servers and Services

Apache HTTP Server 2.4

Version 2.4 of the Apache HTTP Server (httpd) is included in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta, and offers a range of new features:
  • an enhanced version of the "Event" processing module, improving asynchronous request process and performance;
  • native FastCGI support in the mod_proxy module;
  • support for embedded scripting using the Lua language.
More information about the features and changes in httpd 2.4 can be found at http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/new_features_2_4.html. A guide to adapting configuration files is also available: http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/upgrading.html.

MariaDB 5.5

MariaDB is the default implementation of MySQL in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta. MariaDB is a community-developed fork of the MySQL database project, and provides a replacement for MySQL. MariaDB preserves API and ABI compatibility with MySQL and adds several new features; for example, a non-blocking client API library, the Aria and XtraDB storage engines with enhanced performance, better server status variables or enhanced replication.
Detailed information about MariaDB can be found at https://mariadb.com/kb/en/what-is-mariadb-55/.

PostgreSQL 9.2

PostgreSQL is an advanced Object-Relational database management system (DBMS). The postgresql packages include the PostgreSQL server package and client programs and libraries needed to access a PostgreSQL DBMS server.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta features version 9.2 of PostgreSQL. For a list of new features, bug fixes and possible incompatibilities against version 8.4 packaged in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, please refer to the upstream release notes:
Or the PostgreSQL wiki pages:

Chapter 18. Documentation

Documentation for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta is comprised of several separate documents. Each of these documents belongs to one or more of the following subject areas:
  • Release Documentation
  • Installation and Deployment
  • Security
  • Tools and Performance
  • Clustering
  • Virtualization

18.1. Release Documentation

Release Notes

The Release Notes document the major new features in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta.

Technical Notes

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux Technical Notes contains information about known issues in this release.

Migration Planning Guide

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux Migration Planning Guide documents migration from Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

Desktop Migration and Administration Guide

The Desktop Migration and Administration Guide is a guide to the GNOME 3 Desktop migration planning, deployment, configuration, and administration on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

18.2. Installation and Deployment

Installation Guide

The Installation Guide documents relevant information regarding the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7. This book also covers advanced installation methods such as kickstart and PXE installations, and installations over VNC, as well as common post-installation tasks.

System Administrator's Guide

The System Administrator's Guide provides information about deploying, configuring, and administering Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

System Administrator's Reference Guide

The System Administrator's Reference Guide guide is a reference guide for administrators of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

Storage Administration Guide

The Storage Administration Guide provides instructions on how to effectively manage storage devices and file systems on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7. It is intended for use by system administrators with intermediate experience in either Red Hat Enterprise Linux or Fedora distributions of Linux.

Global File System 2

The Global File System 2 book provides information about configuring and maintaining Red Hat GFS2 (Global File System 2) in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

Logical Volume Manager Administration

The Storage Administration Guide provides instructions on how to effectively manage storage devices and file systems on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7. It is intended for use by system administrators with intermediate experience in either Red Hat Enterprise Linux or Fedora distributions of Linux.

Kernel Crash Dump Guide

The Kernel Crash Dump Guide documents how to configure, test, and use the kdump crash recovery service available in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

18.3. Security

Security Guide

The Security Guide is designed to assist users and administrators in learning the processes and practices of securing workstations and servers against local and remote intrusion, exploitation and malicious activity.

SELinux User's and Administrator's Guide

The SELinux User's and Administrator's Guide covers the management and use of Security-Enhanced Linux. Note that managing confined services, which was documented in a stand-alone book in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, is now part of the SELinux User's and Administrator's Guide.

18.4. Tools and Performance

Power Management Guide

The Power Management Guide documents how to manage power consumption in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

Performance Tuning Guide

The Performance Tuning Guide documents how to optimize subsystem throughput in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

Developer Guide

The Developer Guide describes the different features and utilities that make Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 an ideal enterprise platform for application development.

SystemTap Beginners Guide

The SystemTap Beginners Guide provides basic instructions on how to use SystemTap to monitor different subsystems of Red Hat Enterprise Linux in finer detail.

SystemTap Reference

The SystemTap Tapset Reference guide describes the most common tapset definitions users can apply to SystemTap scripts.

18.5. Clustering and High Availability

High Availability Add-On Administration

The High Availability Add-On Administration guide provides information on how to configure and administer the High Availability Add-On in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

High Availability Add-On Overview

The High Availability Add-On Overview document provides an overview of the High Availability Add-On for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

High Availability Add-On Reference

High Availability Add-On Reference is a reference guide to the High Availability Add-On for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

Load Balancer Administration

Load Balancer Administration is a guide to configuring and administering high-performance load balancing in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

DM Multipath

The DM Multipath book guides users through configuring and administering the Device-Mapper Multipath feature for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

18.6. Virtualization

Virtualization Getting Started Guide

The Virtualization Getting Started Guide is an introduction to virtualization on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

Virtualization Deployment and Administration Guide

The Virtualization Deployment and Administration Guide provides information on installing, configuring, and managing virtualization on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

Virtualization Security Guide

The Virtualization Security Guide provides an overview of virtualization security technologies provided by Red Hat, and provides recommendations for securing virtualization hosts, guests, and shared infrastructure and resources in virtualized environments.

Virtualization Tuning and Optimization Guide

The Virtualization Tuning and Optimization Guide covers KVM and virtualization performance. Within this guide you can find tips and suggestions for making full use of KVM performance features and options for your host systems and virtualized guests.

Linux Containers Guide

Linux Containers Guide includes information on configuration and managing of Linux Containers in Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and provides an overview of application examples for Linux containers.

Chapter 19. Internationalization

19.1. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 International Languages

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 supports installation of multiple languages and changing of languages based on your requirements.
The following languages are supported in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0:
  • East Asian Languages - Japanese, Korean, Simplified Chinese, and Traditional Chinese.
  • European Languages - English, German, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese Brazilian, and Russian.
  • Indic Languages - Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Odia, Punjabi, Tamil, and Telugu.
The table below summarizes the currently supported languages, their locales, default fonts installed, and packages required for some of the supported languages.
For more information on font configuration, see Desktop Migration and Administration Guide.

Table 19.1. Language Support Matrix

Territory Language Locale Default Font (Font Package) Input Methods
Brazil Portuguese pt_BR.UTF-8 DejaVu Sans (dejavu-sans-fonts)
France French fr_FR.UTF-8 DejaVu Sans (dejavu-sans-fonts)
Germany German de_DE.UTF-8 DejaVu Sans (dejavu-sans-fonts)
Italy Italian it_IT.UTF-8 DejaVu Sans (dejavu-sans-fonts)
Russia Russian ru_RU.UTF-8 DejaVu Sans (dejavu-sans-fonts)  
Spain Spanish es_ES.UTF-8 DejaVu Sans (dejavu-sans-fonts)
USA English en_US.UTF-8 DejaVu Sans (dejavu-sans-fonts)
China Simplified Chinese zh_CN.UTF-8 WenQuanYi Zen Hei Sharp (wqy-zenhei-fonts) ibus-libpinyin, ibus-table-chinese
Japan Japanese ja_JP.UTF-8 VL PGothic (vlgothic-p-fonts) ibus-kkc
Korea Korean ko_KR.UTF-8 NanumGothic (nhn-nanum-gothic-fonts) ibus-hangul
Taiwan Traditional Chinese zh_TW.UTF-8 AR PL UMing TW (cjkuni-uming-fonts) ibus-chewing, ibus-table-chinese
India Assamese as_IN.UTF-8 Lohit Assamese (lohit-assamese-fonts) ibus-m17n, m17n-db, m17n-contrib
Bengali bn_IN.UTF-8 Lohit Bengali (lohit-bengali-fonts) ibus-m17n, m17n-db, m17n-contrib
Gujarati gu_IN.UTF-8 Lohit Gujarati (lohit-gujarati-fonts) ibus-m17n, m17n-db, m17n-contrib
Hindi hi_IN.UTF-8 Lohit Hindi (lohit-devanagari-fonts) ibus-m17n, m17n-db, m17n-contrib
Kannada kn_IN.UTF-8 Lohit Kannada (lohit-kannada-fonts) ibus-m17n, m17n-db, m17n-contrib
Malayalam ml_IN.UTF-8 Meera (smc-meera-fonts) ibus-m17n, m17n-db, m17n-contrib
Marathi mr_IN.UTF-8 Lohit Marathi (lohit-marathi-fonts) ibus-m17n, m17n-db, m17n-contrib
Odia or_IN.UTF-8 Lohit Oriya (lohit-oriya-fonts) ibus-m17n, m17n-db, m17n-contrib
Punjabi pa_IN.UTF-8 Lohit Punjabi (lohit-punjabi-fonts) ibus-m17n, m17n-db, m17n-contrib
Tamil ta_IN.UTF-8 Lohit Tamil (lohit-tamil-fonts) ibus-m17n, m17n-db, m17n-contrib
Telugu te_IN.UTF-8 Lohit Telugu (lohit-telugu-fonts) ibus-m17n, m17n-db, m17n-contrib

19.2. General Changes In Internationalization

New yum-langpacks Plug-In

A new YUM plug-in, yum-langpacks now allows users to install translation subpackages for various packages for the current language locale.

Changing Locale and Keyboard Layout Settings

localectl is a new utility used to query and change the system locale and keyboard layout settings; the settings re-used in text consoles and inherited by desktop environments. localectl also accepts a hostname argument to administer remote systems over SSH.

19.3. Input Methods

Changes in IBus

The ibus package version 1.5 is shipped in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta and support for Intelligent Input Bus (IBus) is now integrated in GNOME.
  • Input methods can be added using the gnome-control-center region command, and the gnome-control-center keyboard command can be used to set input hotkeys.
  • For non-GNOME sessions, ibus can configure both XKB layouts and input methods in the ibus-setup tool and switch them with a hotkey.
  • The default hotkey is now Super+space, which was Control+space in ibus included in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. This provides a similar UI which the user can see with the Alt+Tab combination. Multiple input methods can be switched using the Alt+Tab combination.

Predictive Input Method for IBus

ibus-typing-booster is a predictive input method for the ibus platform. It predicts complete words based on partial input. Users can select the desired word from a list of suggestions and improve their typing speed and spelling. ibus-typing-booster works also with the Hunspell dictionaries and can make suggestions for a language using a Hunspell dictionary.
For more detailed changes in input methods, see Desktop Migration and Administration Guide.

19.4. Fonts

fonts-tweak-tool

A new tool, fonts-tweak-tool allows users to configure the default fonts per language using the user font configuration.

19.5. Language-Specific Changes

Arabic

New Arabic fonts from Paktype are available in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta: paktype-ajrak, paktype-basic-naskh-farsi, paktype-basic-naskh-sindhi, paktype-basic-naskh-urdu, and paktype-basic-naskh-sa.

Chinese

  • The WQY Zenhei font is now the default font for Simplified Chinese.
  • The default engine for Simplified Chinese has been changed from ibus-pinyin used in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 to ibus-libpinyin.

Indic

  • The new Lohit Devanagari font replaces the previous separate Lohit fonts for Hindi, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Marathi, and Nepali. Any distinct glyphs for these languages needed in the future can be handled in Lohit Devanagari with the Open Type Font locl tags.
  • New font packages gubbi-fonts and navilu-fonts have been added for Kannada language.

Japanese

  • IPA fonts are no longer installed by default
  • ibus-kkc, the Kana Kanji Conversion, is the new default Japanese input method engine using the new libkkc backend. It replaces ibus-anthy, anthy, and kasumi.

Korean

The Nanum font is used by default now.

New Locales

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta supports new locales, Konkani (kok_IN) and Pushto (ps_AF).

Chapter 20. Supportability and Maintenance

ABRT 2.1

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta ships with Automatic Bug Reporting Tool (ABRT) 2.1 which features improved user interface and the ability to send uReports, lightweight anonymous problem reports suitable for machine processing such as gathering crash statistics. Note that in order to discover as many software bugs as possible, ABRT included in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta is by default configured to automatically send reports of application crashes to Red Hat.
The set of supported languages has been extended with Java and Ruby in ABRT 2.1.

Revision History

Revision History
Revision 0.0-32Mon Apr 07 2014Eliška Slobodová
Corrected the maximum file size for ext4 file system.
Revision 0.0-31Thu Feb 06 2014Eliška Slobodová
Removed a note about live migration convergence as the feature is not fully available.
Revision 0.0-29Thu Dec 11 2013Eliška Slobodová
Release of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Beta Release Notes.