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A Red Hat training course is available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux

叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​概​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 的​​​​​​​ Red Hat 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​

版 3

Logo

摘要

Red Hat Cluster Suite 概​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​ 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​ Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Red Hat Cluster Suite 的​​​​​​​概​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

概​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​

本​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​ Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Red Hat Cluster Suite 的​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​階​​​​​​​觀​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​,並​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​:
雖​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​概​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​,但​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​須​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​擁​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​ Red Hat Enterprise Linux 的​​​​​​​進​​​​​​​階​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​識​​​​​​​,並​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​概​​​​​​​念​​​​​​​,才​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​對​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
欲​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ Red Hat Enterprise Linux 的​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​,請​​​​​​​參​​​​​​​閱​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​:
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 安​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​南​​​​​​​ — 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​ Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 的​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 建​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​南​​​​​​​ — 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 的​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
欲​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​ Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 的​​​​​​​ Red Hat Cluster Suite 之​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​,請​​​​​​​參​​​​​​​閱​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​:
  • 設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ Red Hat 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​ — 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ Red Hat 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​(Cluster)元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • Logical Volume Manager Administration — Provides a description of the Logical Volume Manager (LVM), including information on running LVM in a clustered environment.
  • 全​​​​​​​球​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​:設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ — 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​維​​​​​​​護​​​​​​​ Red Hat 全​​​​​​​球​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​(Red Hat GFS,Red Hat Global File System)的​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 全​​​​​​​球​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​ 2:設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ — 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​維​​​​​​​護​​​​​​​ Red Hat 全​​​​​​​球​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​ 2(Red Hat GFS 2,Red Hat Global File System 2)的​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ Device-Mapper Multipath — 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​ Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Device-Mapper Multipath 功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 在​​​​​​​ GFS 環​​​​​​​境​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ GNBD — 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ GFS 環​​​​​​​境​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​,使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ GNBD(Global Network Block Device)的​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ Linux 虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​ — 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ Linux 虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​(LVS,Linux Virtual Server)高​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • Red Hat 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​發​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​公​​​​​​​告​​​​​​​ — 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​ Red Hat 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
關​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​ Red Hat Cluster Suite 的​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​ Red Hat 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​,都​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ Red Hat Enterprise Linux 的​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​光​​​​​​​碟​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​找​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​,格​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​ HTML、​​​​​​​PDF 與​​​​​​​ RPM 等​​​​​​​版​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​:http://www.redhat.com/docs/。​​​​​​​

1. 意​​​​​​​見​​​​​​​

如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​發​​​​​​​現​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​謬​​​​​​​誤​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​,或​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​讓​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​,我​​​​​​​們​​​​​​​竭​​​​​​​誠​​​​​​​歡​​​​​​​迎​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​見​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​請​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ Bugzilla(http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/)的​​​​​​​ Documentation-cluster 類​​​​​​​別​​​​​​​,提​​​​​​​交​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​見​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Be sure to mention the document's identifier:
Cluster_Suite_Overview(EN)-5 (2009-08-18T15:49)
By mentioning this document's identifier, we know exactly which version of the guide you have.
如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​善​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​議​​​​​​​,請​​​​​​​盡​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​詳​​​​​​​述​​​​​​​內​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​發​​​​​​​現​​​​​​​錯​​​​​​​誤​​​​​​​,請​​​​​​​告​​​​​​​訴​​​​​​​我​​​​​​​們​​​​​​​章​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​附​​​​​​​近​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​,這​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​我​​​​​​​們​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​易​​​​​​​找​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​錯​​​​​​​誤​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

章 1. Red Hat Cluster Suite 概​​​​​​​論​​​​​​​

叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​嚴​​​​​​​苛​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​產​​​​​​​環​​​​​​​境​​​​​​​,提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​靠​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​擴​​​​​​​充​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​藉​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​ Red Hat Cluster Suite,您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​視​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​衡​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​擴​​​​​​​充​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​經​​​​​​​濟​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​益​​​​​​​等​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​,建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​章​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​ Red Hat Cluster Suite 元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​概​​​​​​​論​​​​​​​,並​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​章​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​:

1.1. 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​礎​​​​​​​

叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​兩​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​(稱​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​ 節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​(node) 或​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​(member))共​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​,完​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​四​​​​​​​種​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​類​​​​​​​型​​​​​​​:
  • 儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​
  • 高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​
  • 平​​​​​​​衡​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​
  • 高​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​
儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​致​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​,讓​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​讀​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​寫​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​共​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​藉​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​升​​​​​​​級​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​簡​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,有​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​,儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​降​​​​​​​低​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​複​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​,簡​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​災​​​​​​​害​​​​​​​復​​​​​​​原​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​擔​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​Red Hat Cluster Suite 透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​ Red Hat GFS 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
藉​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​消​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​單​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​敗​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​無​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​往​​​​​​​另​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​,高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​無​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​歇​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​讀​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​寫​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​(透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​讀​​​​​​​寫​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​掛​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​因​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​,高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​須​​​​​​​維​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​,因​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​手​​​​​​​另​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​外​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​,並​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​察​​​​​​​覺​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​(高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​「​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​」​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​)Red Hat Cluster Suite 透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​「​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​」​​​​​​​(High-availability Service Management)元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​,提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​衡​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​派​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​,送​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​,好​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​均​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​衡​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​低​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​益​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​擴​​​​​​​充​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​,因​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​根​​​​​​​據​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​,來​​​​​​​決​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​衡​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​無​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​,那​​​​​​​麼​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​衡​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​軟​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​偵​​​​​​​測​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​問​​​​​​​題​​​​​​​,然​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​導​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​對​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​外​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​說​​​​​​​,並​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​注​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​Red Hat Cluster Suite 透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​ LVS(Linux 虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​,Linux Virtual Server)提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​衡​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
高​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​進​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​計​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​讓​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​,藉​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​增​​​​​​​進​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​(高​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​「​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​」​​​​​​​(computational cluster)或​​​​​​​「​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​格​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​」​​​​​​​(grid computing)。​​​​​​​)

注意

在​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​,這​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​種​​​​​​​類​​​​​​​反​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​;您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​綜​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​觀​​​​​​​念​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

1.2. Red Hat Cluster Suite Introduction

Red Hat Cluster Suite(RHCS)是​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​軟​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​,可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​種​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​,以​​​​​​​符​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​對​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​衡​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​擴​​​​​​​充​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​經​​​​​​​濟​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​益​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
RHCS consists of the following major components (refer to 圖形 1.1, “Red Hat Cluster Suite Introduction”):
  • 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​架​​​​​​​構​​​​​​​ — 為​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​協​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​,成​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​礎​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​:設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​鎖​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​ fencing(阻​​​​​​​斷​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​
  • 高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ — 當​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​無​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,將​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​另​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​ — 設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ Red Hat 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​給​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​架​​​​​​​構​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​等​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • Linux 虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​(LVS,Linux Virtual Server)— 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​軟​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​,提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​ IP 的​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​衡​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​LVS 會​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​對​​​​​​​冗​​​​​​​餘​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​,把​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​均​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​ LVS 伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​真​​​​​​​正​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​輔​​​​​​​助​​​​​​​ Red Hat Cluster Suite,這​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​套​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​(「​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​」​​​​​​​Red Hat Cluster Suite 的​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​):
  • Red Hat GFS(全​​​​​​​球​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​,Global File System)— 為​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​,可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​ Red Hat Cluster Suite 運​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​GFS 能​​​​​​​讓​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​,精​​​​​​​細​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​(block)的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​度​​​​​​​,對​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​說​​​​​​​,儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​邏​​​​​​​輯​​​​​​​卷​​​​​​​冊​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​(CLVM,Cluster Logical Volume Manager)— 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​卷​​​​​​​冊​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

    注意

    When you create or modify a CLVM volume for a clustered environment, you must ensure that you are running the clvmd daemon. For further information, refer to 節 1.6, “叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​邏​​​​​​​輯​​​​​​​卷​​​​​​​冊​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​”.
  • 全​​​​​​​球​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​(GNBD,Global Network Block Device)— GFS 的​​​​​​​輔​​​​​​​助​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​,可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​匯​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​乙​​​​​​​太​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,精​​​​​​​細​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​度​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​讓​​​​​​​ Red Hat GFS 使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​等​​​​​​​級​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​經​​​​​​​濟​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Red Hat Cluster Suite Introduction

圖形 1.1. Red Hat Cluster Suite Introduction

注意

圖形 1.1, “Red Hat Cluster Suite Introduction” includes GFS, CLVM, and GNBD, which are components that are part of an optional package and not part of Red Hat Cluster Suite.

1.3. Cluster Infrastructure

Red Hat Cluster Suite 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​架​​​​​​​構​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​群​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​(稱​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​ 節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​(node)或​​​​​​​ 成​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​(member))組​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​,成​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​旦​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​架​​​​​​​構​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​,您​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​搭​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ Red Hat Cluster Suite 元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​,視​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​製​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​(例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ GFS 檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​製​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​,或​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​項​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​架​​​​​​​構​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​:
  • 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​
  • 鎖​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​
  • Fencing
  • 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​

1.3.1. 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​

Cluster management manages cluster quorum and cluster membership. CMAN (an abbreviation for cluster manager) performs cluster management in Red Hat Cluster Suite for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5. CMAN is a distributed cluster manager and runs in each cluster node; cluster management is distributed across all nodes in the cluster (refer to 圖形 1.2, “CMAN/DLM Overview”).
CMAN keeps track of cluster quorum by monitoring the count of cluster nodes. If more than half the nodes are active, the cluster has quorum. If half the nodes (or fewer) are active, the cluster does not have quorum, and all cluster activity is stopped. Cluster quorum prevents the occurrence of a "split-brain" condition — a condition where two instances of the same cluster are running. A split-brain condition would allow each cluster instance to access cluster resources without knowledge of the other cluster instance, resulting in corrupted cluster integrity.
Quorum 得​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​乙​​​​​​​太​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​傳​​​​​​​遞​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​ quorum 也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​藉​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​乙​​​​​​​太​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​「​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​」​​​​​​​透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​ quorum 磁​​​​​​​碟​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​ quorum 包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ 50% 加​​​​​​​ 1;後​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​則​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​決​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

注意

預​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​ quorum。​​​​​​​但​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​比​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
CMAN 會​​​​​​​監​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​傳​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​,追​​​​​​​蹤​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​況​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​當​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​變​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​告​​​​​​​訴​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​架​​​​​​​構​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​,以​​​​​​​採​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​適​​​​​​​當​​​​​​​措​​​​​​​施​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​舉​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​說​​​​​​​,如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​ A 加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​,並​​​​​​​掛​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​ B 與​​​​​​​ C 節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​已​​​​​​​經​​​​​​​掛​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ GFS 檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​,那​​​​​​​麼​​​​​​​ A 就​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​額​​​​​​​外​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​誌​​​​​​​紀​​​​​​​錄​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​鎖​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​並​​​​​​​沒​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​預​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​內​​​​​​​傳​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​,那​​​​​​​麼​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​,並​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​架​​​​​​​構​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​,其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​架​​​​​​​構​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​決​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​對​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​沒​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​,採​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​什​​​​​​​麼​​​​​​​措​​​​​​​施​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​舉​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​說​​​​​​​,fencing 會​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​排​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​外​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
CMAN/DLM Overview

圖形 1.2. CMAN/DLM Overview

1.3.2. 鎖​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​

Lock management is a common cluster-infrastructure service that provides a mechanism for other cluster infrastructure components to synchronize their access to shared resources. In a Red Hat cluster, DLM (Distributed Lock Manager) is the lock manager. As implied in its name, DLM is a distributed lock manager and runs in each cluster node; lock management is distributed across all nodes in the cluster (refer to 圖形 1.2, “CMAN/DLM Overview”). GFS and CLVM use locks from the lock manager. GFS uses locks from the lock manager to synchronize access to file system metadata (on shared storage). CLVM uses locks from the lock manager to synchronize updates to LVM volumes and volume groups (also on shared storage).

1.3.3. Fencing

Fencing is the disconnection of a node from the cluster's shared storage. Fencing cuts off I/O from shared storage, thus ensuring data integrity. The cluster infrastructure performs fencing through the fence daemon, fenced.
當​​​​​​​ CMAN 發​​​​​​​現​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​已​​​​​​​經​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​架​​​​​​​構​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​,告​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​事​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​fenced 注​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​問​​​​​​​題​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,就​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​排​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​外​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​架​​​​​​​構​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​決​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​該​​​​​​​採​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​哪​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​措​​​​​​​施​​​​​​​ — 亦​​​​​​​即​​​​​​​採​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​復​​​​​​​措​​​​​​​施​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​舉​​​​​​​ DLM 與​​​​​​​ GFS 為​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​,當​​​​​​​收​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,DLM 與​​​​​​​ GFS 會​​​​​​​暫​​​​​​​停​​​​​​​活​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​,直​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​偵​​​​​​​測​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​ fenced 已​​​​​​​經​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​排​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​,才​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​恢​​​​​​​復​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​,開​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​進​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​復​​​​​​​原​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​DLM 會​​​​​​​釋​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​鎖​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​;GFS 會​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​復​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​誌​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fencing 程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​決​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​採​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​種​​​​​​​ fencing 措​​​​​​​施​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​兩​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​因​​​​​​​素​​​​​​​決​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ fencing 的​​​​​​​措​​​​​​​施​​​​​​​:排​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​(agent)還​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​排​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​(device)。​​​​​​​fencing 程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​呼​​​​​​​叫​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​著​​​​​​​,代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​排​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​排​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​外​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​當​​​​​​​ fencing 完​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​,fencing 程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Red Hat Cluster Suite 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​種​​​​​​​ fencing 方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​:
  • 電​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​ fencing — 把​​​​​​​無​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 光​​​​​​​纖​​​​​​​交​​​​​​​換​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​ fencing — 停​​​​​​​止​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​光​​​​​​​纖​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​埠​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • GNBD fencing — A fencing method that disables an inoperable node's access to a GNBD server.
  • 其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​ fencing 方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​ — 其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​停​​​​​​​止​​​​​​​ I/O 或​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​閉​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​,包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​ IBM Bladecenter、​​​​​​​PAP、​​​​​​​DRAC/MC、​​​​​​​HP ILO、​​​​​​​IPMI、​​​​​​​IBM RSA II 等​​​​​​​等​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
圖形 1.3, “Power Fencing Example” shows an example of power fencing. In the example, the fencing program in node A causes the power controller to power off node D. 圖形 1.4, “Fibre Channel Switch Fencing Example” shows an example of Fibre Channel switch fencing. In the example, the fencing program in node A causes the Fibre Channel switch to disable the port for node D, disconnecting node D from storage.
Power Fencing Example

圖形 1.3. Power Fencing Example

Fibre Channel Switch Fencing Example

圖形 1.4. Fibre Channel Switch Fencing Example

指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ fencing 的​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​,其​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​編​​​​​​​輯​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​,以​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ fencing 方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ fencing 裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
The way in which a fencing method is specified depends on if a node has either dual power supplies or multiple paths to storage. If a node has dual power supplies, then the fencing method for the node must specify at least two fencing devices — one fencing device for each power supply (refer to 圖形 1.5, “Fencing a Node with Dual Power Supplies”). Similarly, if a node has multiple paths to Fibre Channel storage, then the fencing method for the node must specify one fencing device for each path to Fibre Channel storage. For example, if a node has two paths to Fibre Channel storage, the fencing method should specify two fencing devices — one for each path to Fibre Channel storage (refer to 圖形 1.6, “Fencing a Node with Dual Fibre Channel Connections”).
Fencing a Node with Dual Power Supplies

圖形 1.5. Fencing a Node with Dual Power Supplies

Fencing a Node with Dual Fibre Channel Connections

圖形 1.6. Fencing a Node with Dual Fibre Channel Connections

一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​ fencing 方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​當​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​ fencing 方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ fence 該​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​唯​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​當​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​ fencing 方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,這​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​根​​​​​​​據​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​,按​​​​​​​順​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​ cascaded(串​​​​​​​聯​​​​​​​)在​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​第​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​ fencing 方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​第​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​,就​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​第​​​​​​​二​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​,那​​​​​​​麼​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​去​​​​​​​嘗​​​​​​​試​​​​​​​第​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​,走​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​順​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​,直​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​ fence 為​​​​​​​止​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

1.3.4. 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​

The Cluster Configuration System (CCS) manages the cluster configuration and provides configuration information to other cluster components in a Red Hat cluster. CCS runs in each cluster node and makes sure that the cluster configuration file in each cluster node is up to date. For example, if a cluster system administrator updates the configuration file in Node A, CCS propagates the update from Node A to the other nodes in the cluster (refer to 圖形 1.7, “CCS Overview”).
CCS Overview

圖形 1.7. CCS Overview

Other cluster components (for example, CMAN) access configuration information from the configuration file through CCS (refer to 圖形 1.7, “CCS Overview”).
Accessing Configuration Information

圖形 1.8. Accessing Configuration Information

叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​(/etc/cluster/cluster.conf)是​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​ XML 格​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​寫​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​,描​​​​​​​述​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​特​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​:
  • 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​ — 顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​版​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​等​​​​​​​級​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ fence 時​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​屬​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​,給​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​ fence 時​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​ — 顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​,指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​ ID、​​​​​​​quorum 的​​​​​​​票​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​該​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ fencing 方​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • Fence 裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​ — 顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ fence 裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​參​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​根​​​​​​​據​​​​​​​ fence 裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​類​​​​​​​型​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​舉​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​說​​​​​​​,如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ fence 裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​,叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​義​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​登​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​密​​​​​​​碼​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​ — 顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​義​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​(例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​)、​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​,定​​​​​​​義​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

1.4. 高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​

「​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​」​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​ Red Hat 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​(cluster service)。​​​​​​​Red Hat 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​,rgmanager,能​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​即​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​冷​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​(cold failover)。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ Red Hat 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​,應​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​,以​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​另​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​,使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​並​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​感​​​​​​​受​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​明​​​​​​​顯​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​斷​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​發​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​,是​​​​​​​因​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​,或​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​另​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​(例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​停​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​檢​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​
要​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​,您​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​須​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​(resource)。​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​石​​​​​​​ — 舉​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​說​​​​​​​,一​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​ Red Hat GFS 的​​​​​​​共​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​割​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
You can associate a cluster service with a failover domain. A failover domain is a subset of cluster nodes that are eligible to run a particular cluster service (refer to 圖形 1.9, “備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​”).

注意

備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​並​​​​​​​「​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​」​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​次​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​,以​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​優​​​​​​​先​​​​​​​順​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​優​​​​​​​先​​​​​​​順​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​優​​​​​​​先​​​​​​​等​​​​​​​級​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​優​​​​​​​先​​​​​​​等​​​​​​​級​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​決​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​順​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​ — 亦​​​​​​​即​​​​​​​決​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​該​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​哪​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​順​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​,那​​​​​​​麼​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​(當​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​項​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​非​​​​​​​受​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​,那​​​​​​​麼​​​​​​​該​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​)
In 圖形 1.9, “備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​”, Failover Domain 1 is configured to restrict failover within that domain; therefore, Cluster Service X can only fail over between Node A and Node B. Failover Domain 2 is also configured to restrict failover with its domain; additionally, it is configured for failover priority. Failover Domain 2 priority is configured with Node C as priority 1, Node B as priority 2, and Node D as priority 3. If Node C fails, Cluster Service Y fails over to Node B next. If it cannot fail over to Node B, it tries failing over to Node D. Failover Domain 3 is configured with no priority and no restrictions. If the node that Cluster Service Z is running on fails, Cluster Service Z tries failing over to one of the nodes in Failover Domain 3. However, if none of those nodes is available, Cluster Service Z can fail over to any node in the cluster.
備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​

圖形 1.9. 備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​

圖形 1.10, “Web Server Cluster Service Example” shows an example of a high-availability cluster service that is a web server named "content-webserver". It is running in cluster node B and is in a failover domain that consists of nodes A, B, and D. In addition, the failover domain is configured with a failover priority to fail over to node D before node A and to restrict failover to nodes only in that failover domain. The cluster service comprises these cluster resources:
  • IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​ — IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​ 10.10.10.201。​​​​​​​
  • An application resource named "httpd-content" — a web server application init script /etc/init.d/httpd (specifying httpd).
  • A file system resource — Red Hat GFS named "gfs-content-webserver".
Web Server Cluster Service Example

圖形 1.10. Web Server Cluster Service Example

用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​ 10.10.10.201 連​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​,與​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​站​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​ httpd-content 互​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​httpd-content 應​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ gfs-content-webserver 檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​ B 失​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​,content-webserver 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​ D 上​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​去​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​ D 無​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​,這​​​​​​​項​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​ A。​​​​​​​對​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​說​​​​​​​,備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​並​​​​​​​沒​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​帶​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​明​​​​​​​顯​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​斷​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​另​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​,一​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

1.5. Red Hat GFS

Red Hat GFS 是​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​,讓​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​給​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​塊​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​(block device)。​​​​​​​GFS 是​​​​​​​原​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​,直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​ Linux 核​​​​​​​心​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​ VFS 層​​​​​​​溝​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​GFS 使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​散​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ metadata 與​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​誌​​​​​​​,對​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​做​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​佳​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​維​​​​​​​護​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​,GFS 使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​鎖​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​協​​​​​​​調​​​​​​​ I/O。​​​​​​​當​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​變​​​​​​​ GFS 檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,這​​​​​​​項​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​變​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​即​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
藉​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​ Red Hat GFS,您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​,達​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​長​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​:
  • 簡​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​架​​​​​​​構​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    • 一​​​​​​​次​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​升​​​​​​​級​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,就​​​​​​​適​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    • 消​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​複​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    • 讓​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​讀​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​寫​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    • 簡​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​災​​​​​​​難​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​復​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​(只​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​復​​​​​​​原​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​
  • 儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​;降​​​​​​​低​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    • 將​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​視​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​,而​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​割​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​劃​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    • 藉​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​消​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​複​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​,降​​​​​​​低​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 可​​​​​​​即​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​,在​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​造​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​影​​​​​​​響​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​擴​​​​​​​充​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    • 再​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​複​​​​​​​雜​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​技​​​​​​​巧​​​​​​​,為​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​製​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​割​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    • 即​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​,方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​掛​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​般​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ Red Hat GFS 的​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​已​​​​​​​經​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​ Red Hat Cluster Suite 設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​並​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​卷​​​​​​​冊​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​ CLVM 來​​​​​​​達​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​Red Hat GFS 在​​​​​​​ Red Hat 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ GFS 節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​GFS 為​​​​​​​ Red Hat 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​ GFS 節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​,提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​單​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​致​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​格​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​GFS 能​​​​​​​讓​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​道​​​​​​​底​​​​​​​層​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​況​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​,安​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,GFS 也​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​商​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​環​​​​​​​境​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​見​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​,例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​碟​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​額​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​誌​​​​​​​紀​​​​​​​錄​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​ multipath。​​​​​​​
根​​​​​​​據​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​環​​​​​​​境​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​擴​​​​​​​充​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​經​​​​​​​濟​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​益​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​,GFS 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​章​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​給​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​簡​​​​​​​短​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​,作​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​ GFS 的​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​礎​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
You can deploy GFS in a variety of configurations to suit your needs for performance, scalability, and economy. For superior performance and scalability, you can deploy GFS in a cluster that is connected directly to a SAN. For more economical needs, you can deploy GFS in a cluster that is connected to a LAN with servers that use GNBD (Global Network Block Device) or to iSCSI (Internet Small Computer System Interface) devices. (For more information about GNBD, refer to 節 1.7, “全​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​塊​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​”.)
以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​章​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​ GFS 的​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​,告​​​​​​​訴​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​ GFS 以​​​​​​​符​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​擴​​​​​​​充​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​經​​​​​​​濟​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​益​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​:

注意

這​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​ GFS 建​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​範​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​;您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

1.5.1. 更​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​擴​​​​​​​充​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​

You can obtain the highest shared-file performance when applications access storage directly. The GFS SAN configuration in 圖形 1.11, “GFS with a SAN” provides superior file performance for shared files and file systems. Linux applications run directly on cluster nodes using GFS. Without file protocols or storage servers to slow data access, performance is similar to individual Linux servers with directly connected storage; yet, each GFS application node has equal access to all data files. GFS supports over 300 GFS nodes.
GFS with a SAN

圖形 1.11. GFS with a SAN

1.5.2. 效​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​擴​​​​​​​充​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​等​​​​​​​價​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​

Multiple Linux client applications on a LAN can share the same SAN-based data as shown in 圖形 1.12, “GFS and GNBD with a SAN”. SAN block storage is presented to network clients as block storage devices by GNBD servers. From the perspective of a client application, storage is accessed as if it were directly attached to the server in which the application is running. Stored data is actually on the SAN. Storage devices and data can be equally shared by network client applications. File locking and sharing functions are handled by GFS for each network client.
GFS and GNBD with a SAN

圖形 1.12. GFS and GNBD with a SAN

1.5.3. 經​​​​​​​濟​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​益​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​

圖形 1.13, “GFS 與​​​​​​​ GNBD,加​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​” shows how Linux client applications can take advantage of an existing Ethernet topology to gain shared access to all block storage devices. Client data files and file systems can be shared with GFS on each client. Application failover can be fully automated with Red Hat Cluster Suite.
GFS 與​​​​​​​ GNBD,加​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​

圖形 1.13. GFS 與​​​​​​​ GNBD,加​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​

1.6. 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​邏​​​​​​​輯​​​​​​​卷​​​​​​​冊​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​

CLVM(叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​邏​​​​​​​輯​​​​​​​卷​​​​​​​冊​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​,Cluster Logical Volume Manager)提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​版​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVM2。​​​​​​​CLVM 的​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​單​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVM2 無​​​​​​​異​​​​​​​,但​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​卷​​​​​​​冊​​​​​​​讓​​​​​​​ Red Hat 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ CLVM 建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​邏​​​​​​​輯​​​​​​​卷​​​​​​​冊​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​讓​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​該​​​​​​​邏​​​​​​​輯​​​​​​​卷​​​​​​​冊​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
The key component in CLVM is clvmd. clvmd is a daemon that provides clustering extensions to the standard LVM2 tool set and allows LVM2 commands to manage shared storage. clvmd runs in each cluster node and distributes LVM metadata updates in a cluster, thereby presenting each cluster node with the same view of the logical volumes (refer to 圖形 1.14, “CLVM Overview”). Logical volumes created with CLVM on shared storage are visible to all nodes that have access to the shared storage. CLVM allows a user to configure logical volumes on shared storage by locking access to physical storage while a logical volume is being configured. CLVM uses the lock-management service provided by the cluster infrastructure (refer to 節 1.3, “Cluster Infrastructure”).

注意

Red Hat 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​共​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ CLVM 系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​(clvmd)或​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​ LVM 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​(HA-LVM)。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​因​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​沒​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​正​​​​​​​確​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​權​​​​​​​利​​​​​​​,無​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​兩​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,您​​​​​​​絕​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​對​​​​​​​共​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​碟​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​般​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVM 程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,因​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​導​​​​​​​致​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​損​​​​​​​毀​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​問​​​​​​​題​​​​​​​,請​​​​​​​聯​​​​​​​絡​​​​​​​ Red Hat 客​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​代​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

注意

要​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ CLVM,您​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​須​​​​​​​稍​​​​​​​微​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​變​​​​​​​ /etc/lvm/lvm.conf,才​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​鎖​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
CLVM Overview

圖形 1.14. CLVM Overview

You can configure CLVM using the same commands as LVM2, using the LVM graphical user interface (refer to 圖形 1.15, “LVM Graphical User Interface”), or using the storage configuration function of the Conga cluster configuration graphical user interface (refer to 圖形 1.16, “Conga LVM Graphical User Interface”) . 圖形 1.17, “Creating Logical Volumes” shows the basic concept of creating logical volumes from Linux partitions and shows the commands used to create logical volumes.
LVM Graphical User Interface

圖形 1.15. LVM Graphical User Interface

Conga LVM Graphical User Interface

圖形 1.16. Conga LVM Graphical User Interface

Creating Logical Volumes

圖形 1.17. Creating Logical Volumes

1.7. 全​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​塊​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​

全​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​塊​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​(GNBD,Global Network Block Device)提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​ TCP/IP 存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​ Red Hat GFS 區​​​​​​​塊​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​力​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​GNBD 的​​​​​​​概​​​​​​​念​​​​​​​跟​​​​​​​ NBD 很​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​;但​​​​​​​ GNBD 是​​​​​​​ GFS 專​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​,也​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​ GFS 特​​​​​​​別​​​​​​​微​​​​​​​調​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​非​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​穩​​​​​​​固​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​科​​​​​​​技​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,GNBD 就​​​​​​​非​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ — 例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​光​​​​​​​纖​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​道​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​ iSCSI。​​​​​​​
GNBD consists of two major components: a GNBD client and a GNBD server. A GNBD client runs in a node with GFS and imports a block device exported by a GNBD server. A GNBD server runs in another node and exports block-level storage from its local storage (either directly attached storage or SAN storage). Refer to 圖形 1.18, “GNBD 概​​​​​​​論​​​​​​​”. Multiple GNBD clients can access a device exported by a GNBD server, thus making a GNBD suitable for use by a group of nodes running GFS.
GNBD 概​​​​​​​論​​​​​​​

圖形 1.18. GNBD 概​​​​​​​論​​​​​​​

1.8. Linux 虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

Linux 虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​(LVS,Linux Virtual Server)是​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​軟​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​,可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​群​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​,平​​​​​​​衡​​​​​​​ IP 負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​LVS 會​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​對​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​:一​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​,另​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​則​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​兩​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​角​​​​​​​色​​​​​​​:
  • 在​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​,平​​​​​​​衡​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 檢​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
備​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​監​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​,如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​話​​​​​​​,就​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​手​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
圖形 1.19, “Components of a Running LVS Cluster” provides an overview of the LVS components and their interrelationship.
Components of a Running LVS Cluster

圖形 1.19. Components of a Running LVS Cluster

pulse 系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​兩​​​​​​​種​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,pulse 會​​​​​​​發​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​ heartbeat(心​​​​​​​跳​​​​​​​) 到​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​公​​​​​​​共​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​,以​​​​​​​確​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​正​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,pulse 會​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​ lvs 系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,回​​​​​​​報​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ heartbeat 查​​​​​​​詢​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
lvs 系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​,會​​​​​​​呼​​​​​​​叫​​​​​​​ ipvsadm 工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​維​​​​​​​護​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​心​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ IPVS(IP 虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​,IP Virtual Server)路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​,並​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​,啟​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​ nanny 程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​ nanny 程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​檢​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​已​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​,然​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​告​​​​​​​訴​​​​​​​ lvs 系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​異​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​偵​​​​​​​測​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​異​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​,lvs 系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​告​​​​​​​訴​​​​​​​ ipvsadm 從​​​​​​​ IPVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​該​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​沒​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​收​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​傳​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​,方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​呼​​​​​​​叫​​​​​​​ send_arp,重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​卡​​​​​​​硬​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​(MAC 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​),透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​公​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​私​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​發​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​,關​​​​​​​閉​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ lvs 系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,並​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ lvs 系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,接​​​​​​​受​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
對​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​(例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​站​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​庫​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​)的​​​​​​​外​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​說​​​​​​​,LVS 就​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​,使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​真​​​​​​​正​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​,是​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
因​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​ LVS 沒​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​內​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​共​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​,所​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​兩​​​​​​​種​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​項​​​​​​​:
  • 在​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 在​​​​​​​拓​​​​​​​樸​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​第​​​​​​​三​​​​​​​層​​​​​​​,分​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
對​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​說​​​​​​​,第​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​項​​​​​​​比​​​​​​​較​​​​​​​適​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​,因​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​允​​​​​​​許​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​傳​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​允​​​​​​​許​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​,例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​商​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​站​​​​​​​,那​​​​​​​麼​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​議​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​第​​​​​​​三​​​​​​​層​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
在​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​很​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​舉​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​說​​​​​​​,您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ shell 程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​發​​​​​​​佈​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,您​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​ rsync 的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,每​​​​​​​隔​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​陣​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​複​​​​​​​製​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​,在​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​傳​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​進​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​庫​​​​​​​交​​​​​​​易​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​環​​​​​​​境​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​,使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​ rsync 指​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​並​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​因​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​,對​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​傳​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​庫​​​​​​​交​​​​​​​易​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​類​​​​​​​似​​​​​​​交​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​環​​​​​​​境​​​​​​​,三​​​​​​​層​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​拓​​​​​​​樸​​​​​​​(three-tiered topology)會​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​適​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

1.8.1. Two-Tier LVS Topology

圖形 1.20, “Two-Tier LVS Topology” shows a simple LVS configuration consisting of two tiers: LVS routers and real servers. The LVS-router tier consists of one active LVS router and one backup LVS router. The real-server tier consists of real servers connected to the private network. Each LVS router has two network interfaces: one connected to a public network (Internet) and one connected to a private network. A network interface connected to each network allows the LVS routers to regulate traffic between clients on the public network and the real servers on the private network. In 圖形 1.20, “Two-Tier LVS Topology”, the active LVS router uses Network Address Translation (NAT) to direct traffic from the public network to real servers on the private network, which in turn provide services as requested. The real servers pass all public traffic through the active LVS router. From the perspective of clients on the public network, the LVS router appears as one entity.
Two-Tier LVS Topology

圖形 1.20. Two-Tier LVS Topology

送​​​​​​​抵​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​往​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​,簡​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​ VIP。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​公​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​,也​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​(例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​ www.example.com)將​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​聯​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​[1]上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​請​​​​​​​注​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​,發​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ VIP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​轉​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​另​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,這​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​維​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​住​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​,這​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​「​​​​​​​浮​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​」​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
VIP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​公​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​別​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​舉​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​說​​​​​​​,如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​ eth0 連​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​際​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​,那​​​​​​​麼​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​別​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ eth0:1。​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​,每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​別​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​ HTTP 可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​ eth0:1 來​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​,FTP 可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​ eth0:2 來​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​ >
一​​​​​​​次​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​角​​​​​​​色​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​導​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​種​​​​​​​導​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​根​​​​​​​據​​​​​​​八​​​​​​​種​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​衡​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​驗​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​則​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​:
  • 循​​​​​​​環​​​​​​​(round-robin)排​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​ — 依​​​​​​​照​​​​​​​順​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​,把​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​群​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​演​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​則​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​視​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​,不​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 加​​​​​​​權​​​​​​​循​​​​​​​環​​​​​​​排​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​ — 跟​​​​​​​循​​​​​​​環​​​​​​​排​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​,但​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​派​​​​​​​給​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​較​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​判​​​​​​​別​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​壞​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​,在​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​給​​​​​​​予​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​權​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​,權​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​調​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​顯​​​​​​​著​​​​​​​差​​​​​​​異​​​​​​​,我​​​​​​​們​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​議​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​,如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​變​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​非​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​,那​​​​​​​麼​​​​​​​權​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​收​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 最​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​ — 會​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​散​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​較​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​種​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​排​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​則​​​​​​​,使​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​變​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​佳​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​擇​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​力​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​,加​​​​​​​權​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​排​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​擇​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 加​​​​​​​權​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​(預​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​)— 把​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,對​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​寡​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​判​​​​​​​斷​​​​​​​,又​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​力​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​力​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​權​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​準​​​​​​​,權​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​調​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​當​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,增​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​權​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​讓​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​則​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​想​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 本​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​ — 將​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​往​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​散​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​比​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​,更​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​演​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​則​​​​​​​適​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ / 快​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​往​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​封​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​導​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​擁​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​該​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​;除​​​​​​​非​​​​​​​該​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​已​​​​​​​經​​​​​​​超​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​,同​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​另​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​半​​​​​​​,這​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​封​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​往​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​較​​​​​​​輕​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​去​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 本​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​複​​​​​​​製​​​​​​​排​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​ — 把​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​往​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ IP 相​​​​​​​比​​​​​​​,較​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​演​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​則​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​給​​​​​​​代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ / 快​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​述​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​對​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​導​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​,連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​超​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​,那​​​​​​​麼​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​演​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​複​​​​​​​製​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​標​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​,方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​群​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​,將​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​該​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​標​​​​​​​ IP 的​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​,避​​​​​​​免​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​度​​​​​​​複​​​​​​​製​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 來​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​雜​​​​​​​湊​​​​​​​排​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​ — 在​​​​​​​靜​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​雜​​​​​​​湊​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​尋​​​​​​​找​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​ IP,把​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​散​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​演​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​則​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​給​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​防​​​​​​​火​​​​​​​牆​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
同​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​監​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​特​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​健​​​​​​​康​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​,方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​ send/expect scripts(發​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​ / 預​​​​​​​期​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​幫​​​​​​​忙​​​​​​​偵​​​​​​​測​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​健​​​​​​​康​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​,例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​ HTTPS 或​​​​​​​ SSL,您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​呼​​​​​​​叫​​​​​​​外​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​無​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​,啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​停​​​​​​​止​​​​​​​發​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​該​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​,直​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​歸​​​​​​​正​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​止​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
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The simple, two-tier configuration in 圖形 1.20, “Two-Tier LVS Topology” is suited best for clusters serving data that does not change very frequently — such as static web pages — because the individual real servers do not automatically synchronize data among themselves.

1.8.2. Three-Tier LVS Topology

圖形 1.21, “Three-Tier LVS Topology” shows a typical three-tier LVS configuration. In the example, the active LVS router routes the requests from the public network (Internet) to the second tier — real servers. Each real server then accesses a shared data source of a Red Hat cluster in the third tier over the private network.
Three-Tier LVS Topology

圖形 1.21. Three-Tier LVS Topology

這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​拓​​​​​​​樸​​​​​​​適​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​繁​​​​​​​忙​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ FTP 伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​,要​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​單​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,由​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​ NFS 或​​​​​​​ Samba 來​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​拓​​​​​​​樸​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​適​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​單​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​庫​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​站​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​外​​​​​​​,使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ Red Hat 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​ - 動​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​,使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​,為​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​類​​​​​​​似​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

1.8.3. 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​則​​​​​​​

您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ NAT(網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​轉​​​​​​​換​​​​​​​,Network Address Translation)路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​,或​​​​​​​藉​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​ LVS 直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​進​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​章​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​簡​​​​​​​短​​​​​​​描​​​​​​​述​​​​​​​ NAT 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ LVS 來​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

1.8.3.1. NAT 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​

圖形 1.22, “LVS Implemented with NAT Routing”, illustrates LVS using NAT routing to move requests between the Internet and a private network.
LVS Implemented with NAT Routing

圖形 1.22. LVS Implemented with NAT Routing

在​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​,啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​兩​​​​​​​張​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​卡​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​際​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​卡​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​ eth0 上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​際​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​,同​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​浮​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​,連​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​ eth0:1 上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​私​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​卡​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ eth1 上​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​際​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​,也​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​浮​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​ eth1:1 上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​況​​​​​​​發​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,網​​​​​​​際​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​私​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​手​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​私​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ NAT 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​浮​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​ IP 做​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​預​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​徑​​​​​​​,與​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​溝​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​,這​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​際​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​,就​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​問​​​​​​​題​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
In the example, the LVS router's public LVS floating IP address and private NAT floating IP address are aliased to two physical NICs. While it is possible to associate each floating IP address to its physical device on the LVS router nodes, having more than two NICs is not a requirement.
藉​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​種​​​​​​​拓​​​​​​​樸​​​​​​​,啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​收​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​,並​​​​​​​導​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​正​​​​​​​確​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​,然​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​傳​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​給​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​轉​​​​​​​譯​​​​​​​,把​​​​​​​封​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​替​​​​​​​代​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​公​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​ VIP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​ IP masquerading(IP 偽​​​​​​​冒​​​​​​​),因​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​隱​​​​​​​藏​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​,用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​見​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ NAT 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​種​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​業​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​NAT 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​缺​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​型​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​環​​​​​​​境​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​瓶​​​​​​​頸​​​​​​​,因​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​須​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​進​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

1.8.3.2. 直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​

跟​​​​​​​ NAT 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​比​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​,直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​讓​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​封​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​,並​​​​​​​導​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​;而​​​​​​​非​​​​​​​傳​​​​​​​給​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​轉​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​進​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​封​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​,降​​​​​​​低​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​降​​​​​​​低​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
LVS Implemented with Direct Routing

圖形 1.23. LVS Implemented with Direct Routing

在​​​​​​​典​​​​​​​型​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​ LVS 設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​,LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​ IP(VIP)收​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​進​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​,使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​排​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​演​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​則​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​導​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​去​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​,再​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​結​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​傳​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​給​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​,跳​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​現​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​擴​​​​​​​充​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​,因​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​增​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​擔​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​,幫​​​​​​​忙​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​去​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​封​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​往​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​;否​​​​​​​則​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​話​​​​​​​,這​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​,變​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​瓶​​​​​​​頸​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
雖​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ LVS 中​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​許​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​,但​​​​​​​還​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​見​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​問​​​​​​​題​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​析​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​協​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​(ARP,Address Resolution Protocol)。​​​​​​​
In typical situations, a client on the Internet sends a request to an IP address. Network routers typically send requests to their destination by relating IP addresses to a machine's MAC address with ARP. ARP requests are broadcast to all connected machines on a network, and the machine with the correct IP/MAC address combination receives the packet. The IP/MAC associations are stored in an ARP cache, which is cleared periodically (usually every 15 minutes) and refilled with IP/MAC associations.
ARP 需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​導​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​ LVS 設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​問​​​​​​​題​​​​​​​,是​​​​​​​因​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ IP 必​​​​​​​須​​​​​​​跟​​​​​​​ MAC 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​,因​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​須​​​​​​​跟​​​​​​​某​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​ MAC 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​,因​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ VIP 是​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​,ARP 需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​廣​​​​​​​播​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​ VIP 相​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​造​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​幾​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​問​​​​​​​題​​​​​​​,例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​ VIP 直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​跟​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​聯​​​​​​​並​​​​​​​直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​,完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​,這​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​違​​​​​​​背​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ LVS 的​​​​​​​美​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​想​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​強​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​當​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​,以​​​​​​​快​​​​​​​速​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​覆​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​,並​​​​​​​沒​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​辦​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​決​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​問​​​​​​​題​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​太​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​無​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​即​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​覆​​​​​​​ ARP 的​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​,速​​​​​​​度​​​​​​​還​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​低​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​快​​​​​​​,同​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​發​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ ARP 快​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​ VIP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
要​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​決​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​問​​​​​​​題​​​​​​​,進​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​該​​​​​​​「​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​」​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​ VIP 與​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​做​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​聯​​​​​​​,這​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​並​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​際​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​群​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​ arptables 封​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​濾​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​達​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

1.8.4. Persistence 與​​​​​​​ Firewall Mark

在​​​​​​​某​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​況​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​,我​​​​​​​們​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​希​​​​​​​望​​​​​​​讓​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​複​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,而​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​ LVS 的​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​衡​​​​​​​演​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​則​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​決​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​視​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​格​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​cookies、​​​​​​​SSL 以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​ FTP 連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​,除​​​​​​​非​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​,否​​​​​​​則​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​半​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​敗​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​LVS 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​兩​​​​​​​種​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​問​​​​​​​題​​​​​​​:persistence(持​​​​​​​續​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​)與​​​​​​​ firewall mark(防​​​​​​​火​​​​​​​牆​​​​​​​標​​​​​​​記​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​

1.8.4.1. Persistence

Persistence 啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​,運​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​計​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​當​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​項​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,LVS 會​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​次​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​記​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​段​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​內​​​​​​​再​​​​​​​次​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​導​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​先​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​ — 跳​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​發​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​外​​​​​​​,那​​​​​​​麼​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​根​​​​​​​據​​​​​​​排​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​準​​​​​​​則​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Persistence 也​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​讓​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​遮​​​​​​​罩​​​​​​​,控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​哪​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ persistence 等​​​​​​​級​​​​​​​,把​​​​​​​那​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​視​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​群​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
連​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​埠​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​群​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​對​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​埠​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​協​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​(例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​ FTP)來​​​​​​​說​​​​​​​,是​​​​​​​很​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​,persistence 並​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​群​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​往​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​埠​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​種​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​況​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​,最​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ firewall mark。​​​​​​​

1.8.4.2. Firewall Mark

Firewall mark 是​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​決​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​協​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​埠​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​問​​​​​​​題​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,最​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​易​​​​​​​又​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​率​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​舉​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​說​​​​​​​,如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​ LVS 用​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​商​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​站​​​​​​​,firewall mark 就​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​ HTTP 連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ 80 連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​埠​​​​​​​;HTTPS 連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ 443。​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​協​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ firewall mark 到​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​氣​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,交​​​​​​​易​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​留​​​​​​​住​​​​​​​,因​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​ LVS 會​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​打​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​,把​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​往​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
因​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​既​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​又​​​​​​​簡​​​​​​​單​​​​​​​,LVS 的​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​該​​​​​​​對​​​​​​​群​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​盡​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ firewall mark 而​​​​​​​非​​​​​​​ persistence。​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​,您​​​​​​​還​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​該​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ persistence 功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​,與​​​​​​​ firewall mark 一​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​,以​​​​​​​確​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​內​​​​​​​,重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

1.9. 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​

Red Hat Cluster Suite 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​種​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ Red Hat 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​ Red Hat Cluster Suite 可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​概​​​​​​​觀​​​​​​​:

1.9.1. Conga

Conga 是​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​軟​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​,提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​ Red Hat 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​央​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​Conga 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​:
  • 管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​單​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​
  • 自​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​軟​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​
  • 輕​​​​​​​易​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​現​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​
  • 不​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​認​​​​​​​證​​​​​​​
  • 整​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​誌​​​​​​​
  • 可​​​​​​​精​​​​​​​細​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​權​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​
Conga 的​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​別​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ luci 與​​​​​​​ ricci。​​​​​​​luci 是​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,安​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​ ricci 與​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​溝​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​ricci 是​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​(可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​單​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​)執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,由​​​​​​​ Conga 來​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
luci 可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​瀏​​​​​​​覽​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​三​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​,分​​​​​​​別​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​:
  • homebase — 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​增​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​刪​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​增​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​刪​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​權​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​才​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • cluster(叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​)— 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​luci 的​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ luci 設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​權​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​(由​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​賦​​​​​​​予​​​​​​​權​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​
  • storage(儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​)— 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​遠​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​,您​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​,不​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​屬​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
要​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​,管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​增​​​​​​​(或​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​註​​​​​​​冊​​​​​​​(register))一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​,到​​​​​​​ luci 伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​註​​​​​​​冊​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​,每​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ luci 的​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​庫​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​ luci 的​​​​​​​內​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​複​​​​​​​製​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​另​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​ luci 資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​庫​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​複​​​​​​​製​​​​​​​ luci 伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​內​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​,也​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​升​​​​​​​級​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​測​​​​​​​試​​​​​​​途​​​​​​​徑​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​當​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​ luci 時​​​​​​​,其​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​庫​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​,在​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ luci 伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​現​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​ luci 資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​庫​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​匯​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
在​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​候​​​​​​​,每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​ luci 都​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​ — admin(管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​ admin 可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ luci 伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,admin 也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​帳​​​​​​​號​​​​​​​,並​​​​​​​決​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​哪​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​已​​​​​​​經​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​ luci 資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​庫​​​​​​​註​​​​​​​冊​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​批​​​​​​​次​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​匯​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ luci 伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​,同​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​匯​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
當​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ luci 伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,身​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​認​​​​​​​證​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​進​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​次​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​進​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​身​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​認​​​​​​​證​​​​​​​(除​​​​​​​非​​​​​​​ CA 簽​​​​​​​發​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​認​​​​​​​證​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​變​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​,您​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​ luci 使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​遠​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​luci 與​​​​​​​ ricci 互​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​ XML 來​​​​​​​溝​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​圖​​​​​​​片​​​​​​​顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​ lucci 的​​​​​​​三​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​:homebase(管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​心​​​​​​​)、​​​​​​​cluster(叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​)以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​ storage(儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​
欲​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​ Conga 的​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​,請​​​​​​​參​​​​​​​閱​​​​​​​《​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ Red Hat 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​》​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​ luci 伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​助​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
luci homebase 分​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​

圖形 1.24. luci homebase 分​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​

luci cluster 分​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​

圖形 1.25. luci cluster 分​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​

luci storage 分​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​

圖形 1.26. luci storage 分​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​

1.9.2. 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​圖​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​

This section provides an overview of the system-config-cluster cluster administration graphical user interface (GUI) available with Red Hat Cluster Suite. The GUI is for use with the cluster infrastructure and the high-availability service management components (refer to 節 1.3, “Cluster Infrastructure” and 節 1.4, “高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​”). The GUI consists of two major functions: the Cluster Configuration Tool and the Cluster Status Tool. The Cluster Configuration Tool provides the capability to create, edit, and propagate the cluster configuration file (/etc/cluster/cluster.conf). The Cluster Status Tool provides the capability to manage high-availability services. The following sections summarize those functions.

1.9.2.1. Cluster Configuration Tool

You can access the Cluster Configuration Tool (圖形 1.27, “Cluster Configuration Tool) through the Cluster Configuration tab in the Cluster Administration GUI.
Cluster Configuration Tool

圖形 1.27. Cluster Configuration Tool

Cluster Configuration Tool 是​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​(/etc/cluster/cluster.conf)的​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​,其​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​左​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​階​​​​​​​層​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​圖​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​左​​​​​​​邊​​​​​​​三​​​​​​​角​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​圖​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​按​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​三​​​​​​​角​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​圖​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​,可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​擴​​​​​​​展​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​收​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​樹​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​圖​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​圖​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​摘​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​:
  • 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​ — 顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​,這​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​(Cluster Nodes)下​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​素​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​右​​​​​​​邊​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​框​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​按​​​​​​​鈕​​​​​​​(位​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​ Properties(屬​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​)下​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​),您​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​增​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​刪​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​編​​​​​​​輯​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​屬​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​並​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ fencing 方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • Fence 裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​ — 顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​ fence 裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​Fence 裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ Fence 裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​ 下​​​​​​​顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​素​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​右​​​​​​​邊​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​框​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​按​​​​​​​鈕​​​​​​​(位​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​ Properties(屬​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​)下​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​),您​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​增​​​​​​​ fence 裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​刪​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​ fence 裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​並​​​​​​​編​​​​​​​輯​​​​​​​ fence 裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​屬​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​Fence 裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​須​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ fencing 每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​先​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​義​​​​​​​(使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ 管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ fencing)。​​​​​​​
  • 管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​ — 顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    • 備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​ — 要​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​,用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​「​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​」​​​​​​​底​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​右​​​​​​​邊​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​框​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​按​​​​​​​鈕​​​​​​​(在​​​​​​​屬​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​),您​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​(當​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​擇​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​候​​​​​​​)或​​​​​​​編​​​​​​​輯​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​屬​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​(當​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​擇​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​
    • 資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​ — 設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​共​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​給​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​共​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​NFS 掛​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​匯​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​錄​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​給​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​底​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​素​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​右​​​​​​​邊​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​框​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​按​​​​​​​鈕​​​​​​​(在​​​​​​​屬​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​),您​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​(如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​候​​​​​​​)或​​​​​​​編​​​​​​​輯​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​屬​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​(當​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​擇​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​項​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​

      注意

      Cluster Configuration Tool 也​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​私​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​力​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​私​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​給​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​項​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​圖​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ 服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​ 元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​,設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​私​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    • 服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​ — 建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​(共​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​私​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​)、​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​義​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​政​​​​​​​策​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​素​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​右​​​​​​​邊​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​框​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​按​​​​​​​鈕​​​​​​​(在​​​​​​​屬​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​),您​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​(如​​​​​​​ 果​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​候​​​​​​​)或​​​​​​​編​​​​​​​輯​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​屬​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​(當​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​擇​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​項​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​

1.9.2.2. Cluster Status Tool

You can access the Cluster Status Tool (圖形 1.28, “Cluster Status Tool) through the Cluster Management tab in Cluster Administration GUI.
Cluster Status Tool

圖形 1.28. Cluster Status Tool

Cluster Status Tool 所​​​​​​​顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​事​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​(/etc/cluster/cluster.conf)所​​​​​​​決​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ Cluster Status Tool 來​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​停​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​項​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

1.9.3. 命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​

In addition to Conga and the system-config-cluster Cluster Administration GUI, command line tools are available for administering the cluster infrastructure and the high-availability service management components. The command line tools are used by the Cluster Administration GUI and init scripts supplied by Red Hat. 表格 1.1, “命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​” summarizes the command line tools.

表格 1.1. 命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​

命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​ 搭​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ 目​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​
ccs_tool — 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​ Cluster Infrastructure ccs_tool 是​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​架​​​​​​​構​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​(例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​增​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​)的​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​力​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​欲​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​,請​​​​​​​參​​​​​​​閱​​​​​​​ ccs_tool(8) man page。​​​​​​​
cman_tool — 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​ Cluster Infrastructure cman_tool 是​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ CMAN 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​離​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​變​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ quorum 值​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​力​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​欲​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​,請​​​​​​​參​​​​​​​閱​​​​​​​ cman_tool(8) man page。​​​​​​​
fence_tool — Fence 工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​ Cluster Infrastructure fence_tool 是​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​離​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​預​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​ fence 區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​準​​​​​​​確​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​說​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​ fence 系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​(fenced)以​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ fence 區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​;殺​​​​​​​掉​​​​​​​ fenced 來​​​​​​​離​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​ fence 區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​欲​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​,請​​​​​​​參​​​​​​​閱​​​​​​​ cman_tool(8) man page。​​​​​​​
clustat — 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​ 高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​ clustat 指​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​quorum、​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​欲​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​,請​​​​​​​參​​​​​​​閱​​​​​​​ clustat(8) man page。​​​​​​​
clusvcadm — 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​ 高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​ clusvcadm 指​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​讓​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​停​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​欲​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​,請​​​​​​​參​​​​​​​閱​​​​​​​ clusvcadm(8) man page。​​​​​​​

1.10. Linux 虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​圖​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​

本​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​Red Hat Cluster Suite 的​​​​​​​ LVS 設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​簡​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​ — Piranha Configuration Tool。​​​​​​​Piranha Configuration Tool 是​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​圖​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​,提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​結​​​​​​​構​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​ LVS 的​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​ — /etc/sysconfig/ha/lvs.cf。​​​​​​​
要​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​ Piranha Configuration Tool,您​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​已​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ piranha-gui 服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​瀏​​​​​​​覽​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​遠​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​ Piranha Configuration Tool。​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ http://localhost:3636http://localhost;遠​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​則​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​際​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​,之​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​再​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​:3636。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​想​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​遠​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​ Piranha Configuration Tool,您​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​ root 身​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ ssh 連​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​已​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Starting the Piranha Configuration Tool causes the Piranha Configuration Tool welcome page to be displayed (refer to 圖形 1.29, “The Welcome Panel”). Logging in to the welcome page provides access to the four main screens or panels: CONTROL/MONITORING, GLOBAL SETTINGS, REDUNDANCY, and VIRTUAL SERVERS. In addition, the VIRTUAL SERVERS panel contains four subsections. The CONTROL/MONITORING panel is the first panel displayed after you log in at the welcome screen.
The Welcome Panel

圖形 1.29. The Welcome Panel

以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​幾​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​簡​​​​​​​述​​​​​​​ Piranha Configuration Tool 設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

1.10.1. CONTROL/MONITORING

CONTROL/MONITORING(控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​ / 監​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​)面​​​​​​​板​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​,包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​ pulse 系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​LVS 的​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​ LVS 衍​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ nanny 程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
The CONTROL/MONITORING Panel

圖形 1.30. The CONTROL/MONITORING Panel

Auto update
讓​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​,更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​頻​​​​​​​率​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​Update frequency in seconds(更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​頻​​​​​​​率​​​​​​​,單​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​秒​​​​​​​)文​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​框​​​​​​​輸​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​值​​​​​​​(預​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​值​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ 10 秒​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​
我​​​​​​​們​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​議​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​隔​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​低​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​十​​​​​​​秒​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​低​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​十​​​​​​​秒​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​話​​​​​​​,頁​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​很​​​​​​​頻​​​​​​​繁​​​​​​​,那​​​​​​​麼​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​再​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ Auto update 的​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​隔​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​困​​​​​​​難​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​遇​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​問​​​​​​​題​​​​​​​,只​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​按​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​另​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​板​​​​​​​,再​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​ CONTROL/MONITORING 即​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Update information now
提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​手​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
CHANGE PASSWORD
按​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​「​​​​​​​CHANGE PASSWORD」​​​​​​​(改​​​​​​​變​​​​​​​密​​​​​​​碼​​​​​​​)按​​​​​​​鍵​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​現​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​視​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​,幫​​​​​​​助​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​變​​​​​​​ Piranha Configuration Tool 的​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​密​​​​​​​碼​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

1.10.2. GLOBAL SETTINGS

The GLOBAL SETTINGS panel is where the LVS administrator defines the networking details for the primary LVS router's public and private network interfaces.
The GLOBAL SETTINGS Panel

圖形 1.31. The GLOBAL SETTINGS Panel

The top half of this panel sets up the primary LVS router's public and private network interfaces.
Primary server public IP
主​​​​​​​ LVS 節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​公​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​真​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Primary server private IP
主​​​​​​​ LVS 節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​替​​​​​​​代​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​卡​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​真​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​專​​​​​​​給​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ heartbeat 頻​​​​​​​道​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Use network type
選​​​​​​​擇​​​​​​​ NAT 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
The next three fields are specifically for the NAT router's virtual network interface connected the private network with the real servers.
NAT Router IP
這​​​​​​​欄​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​私​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​浮​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​ IP。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​浮​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​ IP 應​​​​​​​該​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​當​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​閘​​​​​​​道​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
NAT Router netmask
If the NAT router's floating IP needs a particular netmask, select it from drop-down list.
NAT Router device
定​​​​​​​義​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​,給​​​​​​​浮​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​ eth1:1。​​​​​​​

1.10.3. REDUNDANCY

REDUNDANCY 面​​​​​​​板​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​讓​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​,並​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ heartbeat 監​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​項​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
The REDUNDANCY Panel

圖形 1.32. The REDUNDANCY Panel

Redundant server public IP
備​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​公​​​​​​​共​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Redundant server private IP
The backup router's private real IP address.
面​​​​​​​板​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ heartbeat 頻​​​​​​​道​​​​​​​,給​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​監​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​否​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Heartbeat Interval (seconds)
設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ heartbeat 之​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​秒​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​ — 備​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​檢​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​ LVS 節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​間​​​​​​​隔​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Assume dead after (seconds)
如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​ LVS 節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​秒​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​沒​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​,那​​​​​​​麼​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Heartbeat runs on port
設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ heartbeat 會​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​ LVS 節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​埠​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​欄​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​留​​​​​​​白​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​話​​​​​​​,預​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​值​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​ 539。​​​​​​​

1.10.4. VIRTUAL SERVERS

VIRTUAL SERVERS(虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​)面​​​​​​​板​​​​​​​顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​已​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​義​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​格​​​​​​​顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​ IP、​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​ IP 的​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​遮​​​​​​​罩​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​埠​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​協​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
The VIRTUAL SERVERS Panel

圖形 1.33. The VIRTUAL SERVERS Panel

VIRTUAL SERVERS 面​​​​​​​板​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​畫​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​subsections(子​​​​​​​畫​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​)裡​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
要​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​增​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​,請​​​​​​​按​​​​​​​ ADD 按​​​​​​​鈕​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​項​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​,請​​​​​​​勾​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​,然​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​按​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​ DELETE 按​​​​​​​鈕​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
要​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​停​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​格​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​,請​​​​​​​按​​​​​​​ (DE)ACTIVATE 按​​​​​​​鈕​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
新​​​​​​​增​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​,您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​按​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​左​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​勾​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​按​​​​​​​鈕​​​​​​​,然​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​按​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​ EDIT 按​​​​​​​鈕​​​​​​​,顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​ VIRTUAL SERVER 子​​​​​​​畫​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

1.10.4.1. VIRTUAL SERVER 子​​​​​​​畫​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​

The VIRTUAL SERVER subsection panel shown in 圖形 1.34, “The VIRTUAL SERVERS Subsection” allows you to configure an individual virtual server. Links to subsections related specifically to this virtual server are located along the top of the page. But before configuring any of the subsections related to this virtual server, complete this page and click on the ACCEPT button.
The VIRTUAL SERVERS Subsection

圖形 1.34. The VIRTUAL SERVERS Subsection

Name
描​​​​​​​述​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​「​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​」​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​,您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​僅​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​描​​​​​​​述​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​,使​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​易​​​​​​​辨​​​​​​​識​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​參​​​​​​​照​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​協​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​,例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​ HTTP。​​​​​​​
Application port
服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​聆​​​​​​​聽​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​埠​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Protocol
在​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​拉​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​單​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​,有​​​​​​​ UDP 或​​​​​​​ TCP 可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​擇​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Virtual IP Address
The virtual server's floating IP address.
Virtual IP Network Mask
這​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​遮​​​​​​​罩​​​​​​​,列​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​拉​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​單​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Firewall Mark
當​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​埠​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​協​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​,或​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​埠​​​​​​​給​​​​​​​獨​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​但​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​協​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,在​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​輸​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​值​​​​​​​,作​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​防​​​​​​​火​​​​​​​牆​​​​​​​標​​​​​​​誌​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Device
在​​​​​​​ Virtual IP Address 欄​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​義​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​浮​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
您​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​該​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​公​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​浮​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​別​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​,連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​公​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​乙​​​​​​​太​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Re-entry Time
這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​值​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​義​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​,再​​​​​​​試​​​​​​​圖​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​秒​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Service Timeout
在​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​值​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​秒​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​,就​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​記​​​​​​​憶​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​視​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​無​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Quiesce server
當​​​​​​​勾​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​ Queisce server(靜​​​​​​​默​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​)時​​​​​​​,當​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​,最​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​零​​​​​​​,這​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​將​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​導​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​,好​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​樣​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​項​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​避​​​​​​​免​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​進​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,因​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​陷​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​泥​​​​​​​淖​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Load monitoring tool
LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ rup 或​​​​​​​ ruptime,監​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​拉​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​單​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​擇​​​​​​​ rup,每​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​須​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ rstatd 服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​擇​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​ ruptime,每​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​須​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ rwhod 服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Scheduling
從​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​拉​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​單​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​擇​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​偏​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​排​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​演​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​則​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​預​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​值​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ Weighted least-connection(加​​​​​​​權​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​
Persistence
如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ persistence 功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​,請​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​項​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​,所​​​​​​​經​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​秒​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Persistence Network Mask
要​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​ persistence 用​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​特​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,請​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​拉​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​單​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​適​​​​​​​當​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​遮​​​​​​​罩​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

1.10.4.2. REAL SERVER 子​​​​​​​畫​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​

按​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​板​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ REAL SERVER(實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​),會​​​​​​​顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​EDIT REAL SERVER(編​​​​​​​輯​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​)子​​​​​​​畫​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​某​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​特​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
The REAL SERVER Subsection

圖形 1.35. The REAL SERVER Subsection

Click the ADD button to add a new server. To delete an existing server, select the radio button beside it and click the DELETE button. Click the EDIT button to load the EDIT REAL SERVER panel, as seen in 圖形 1.36, “The REAL SERVER Configuration Panel”.
The REAL SERVER Configuration Panel

圖形 1.36. The REAL SERVER Configuration Panel

這​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​板​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​三​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​輸​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​欄​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​:
Name
實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​描​​​​​​​述​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​語​​​​​​​言​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

注意

這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​「​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​」​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​稱​​​​​​​,因​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​說​​​​​​​明​​​​​​​詳​​​​​​​盡​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​,可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​讓​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​易​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​辨​​​​​​​識​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Address
The real server's IP address. Since the listening port is already specified for the associated virtual server, do not add a port number.
Weight
An integer value indicating this host's capacity relative to that of other hosts in the pool. The value can be arbitrary, but treat it as a ratio in relation to other real servers.

1.10.4.3. EDIT MONITORING SCRIPTS Subsection

按​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​MONITORING SCRIPTS(監​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​)連​​​​​​​結​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​EDIT MONITORING SCRIPTS(編​​​​​​​輯​​​​​​​監​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​)能​​​​​​​讓​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​發​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​(或​​​​​​​預​​​​​​​期​​​​​​​收​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​)文​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​,來​​​​​​​檢​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​無​​​​​​​誤​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​訂​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​,以​​​​​​​檢​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​變​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
The EDIT MONITORING SCRIPTS Subsection

圖形 1.37. The EDIT MONITORING SCRIPTS Subsection

Sending Program
要​​​​​​​進​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​驗​​​​​​​證​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​,您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​欄​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檢​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​徑​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​變​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​,例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​ HTTPS 或​​​​​​​ SSL 時​​​​​​​,特​​​​​​​別​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
要​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​項​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​,您​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​須​​​​​​​撰​​​​​​​寫​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​,讓​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​傳​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​,將​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​,同​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​Sending Program(發​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​)欄​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​輸​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​徑​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

注意

如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ Sending Program 欄​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​輸​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​外​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,那​​​​​​​麼​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​忽​​​​​​​略​​​​​​​ Send(發​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​)欄​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Send
這​​​​​​​欄​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ nanny 系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​發​​​​​​​給​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​預​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​發​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​欄​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​ HTTP 來​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​根​​​​​​​據​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​值​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​欄​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​留​​​​​​​白​​​​​​​,那​​​​​​​麼​​​​​​​ nanny 會​​​​​​​試​​​​​​​著​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​連​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​埠​​​​​​​,成​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​話​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​假​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​該​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
這​​​​​​​欄​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​允​​​​​​​許​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​發​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​,也​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​印​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ ASCII 字​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​,以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​逸​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​:
  • \n 是​​​​​​​換​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • \r 是​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​第​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • \t 相​​​​​​​當​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​按​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​「​​​​​​​Tab」​​​​​​​鍵​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • \ 是​​​​​​​逸​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​緊​​​​​​​跟​​​​​​​著​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Expect
伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​該​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​傳​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​否​​​​​​​正​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​運​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​撰​​​​​​​寫​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​發​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,請​​​​​​​輸​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​您​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​訂​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​


[1] 虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​(virtual server)是​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​聆​​​​​​​聽​​​​​​​特​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​ IP 的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

章 2. Red Hat Cluster Suite 元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​摘​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​

本​​​​​​​章​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​ Red Hat Cluster Suite 元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​摘​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​,包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​章​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​:

2.1. 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​

表格 2.1. Red Hat Cluster Suite 軟​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​

功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​ 元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​ 描​​​​​​​述​​​​​​​
Conga luci 遠​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​ - 管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​站​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
ricci 遠​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​ - 受​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​站​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Cluster Configuration Tool system-config-cluster 在​​​​​​​圖​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​環​​​​​​​境​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​,用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​邏​​​​​​​輯​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​(CLVM,Cluster Logical Volume Manager) clvmd 在​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​散​​​​​​​ LVM metadata 的​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​須​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​,如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​沒​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,那​​​​​​​麼​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​報​​​​​​​錯​​​​​​​誤​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
lvm LVM2 的​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​ LVM2 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
system-config-lvm 為​​​​​​​ LVM2 提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​圖​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
lvm.conf LVM 設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​徑​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ /etc/lvm/lvm.conf。​​​​​​​
叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​(CCS,叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​) ccs_tool ccs_tool 是​​​​​​​「​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​」​​​​​​​(CCS,Cluster Configuration System)的​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​,用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​ CCS 設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​外​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​ CCS 的​​​​​​​ GFS 6.0(及​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​)備​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​,更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​現​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​ Red Hat Cluster Suite 所​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ XML 格​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
ccs_test 透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​ ccsd,存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​偵​​​​​​​測​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​測​​​​​​​試​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
ccsd CCS 系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​,為​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​軟​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
cluster.conf 這​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​徑​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ /etc/cluster/cluster.conf。​​​​​​​
叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​(CMAN,Cluster Manager) cman.ko CMAN 的​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​心​​​​​​​模​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
cman_tool 這​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ CMAN 的​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​停​​​​​​​止​​​​​​​ CMAN,並​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​變​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​內​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​參​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​,例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​票​​​​​​​數​​​​​​​(vote)。​​​​​​​
dlm_controld 由​​​​​​​ cman init 程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​心​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ dim;使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
gfs_controld cman init 程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​心​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ gfs;使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
group_tool 用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​得​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​種​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​(包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​ fencing、​​​​​​​DLM、​​​​​​​GFS 與​​​​​​​偵​​​​​​​錯​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​)的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​;包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​ RHEL 4 cman_tool services 所​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​料​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
groupd cman init 程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​ openais / cman 與​​​​​​​ dlm_controld / gfs_controld/fenced 的​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​;使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
libcman.so.<version number> 程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​ cman.ko 互​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​函​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​庫​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​(rgmanager,Resource Group Manager) clusvcadm 用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​手​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​停​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
clustat 用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​顯​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​(包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​)的​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
clurgmgrd 用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​對​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​(包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​停​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​)的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
clurmtabd 用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​處​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​ NFS 的​​​​​​​掛​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Fence fence_apc 用​​​​​​​於​​​​​​​ APC 電​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​交​​​​​​​換​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ fence 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fence_bladecenter 使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ telnet 介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ IBM Bladecenters 之​​​​​​​ fence 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fence_bullpap Bull Novascale Platform Administration Processor (PAP) 介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​ fence 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fence_drac Dell Remote Access Card 的​​​​​​​ fence 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fence_ipmilan 區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​ IPMI(智​​​​​​​慧​​​​​​​型​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​,Intelligent Platform Management Interface)所​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​ fence 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fence_wti WTI 電​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​交​​​​​​​換​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ fence 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fence_brocade Brocade 光​​​​​​​纖​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​道​​​​​​​交​​​​​​​換​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ fence 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fence_mcdata McDate 光​​​​​​​纖​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​道​​​​​​​交​​​​​​​換​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ fence 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fence_vixel Vixel 光​​​​​​​纖​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​道​​​​​​​交​​​​​​​換​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ fence 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fence_sanbox2 SANBox2 光​​​​​​​纖​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​道​​​​​​​交​​​​​​​換​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ fence 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fence_ilo HP ILO 介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ fence 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​(原​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​ fence_rib)。​​​​​​​
fence_rsa IBM RSA II 的​​​​​​​ I/O fence 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fence_gnbd GNBD 儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ fence 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fence_scsi SCSI 保​​​​​​​留​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​致​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ fence 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fence_egenera Egenera BladeFrame 系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ fence 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fence_manual 手​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​干​​​​​​​預​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ fence 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​「​​​​​​​注​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​」​​​​​​​:這​​​​​​​元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​並​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​議​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​投​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​產​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​環​​​​​​​境​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fence_ack_manual fence_manual 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fence_node 在​​​​​​​單​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​進​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ I/O fencing 的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fence_xvm Xen 虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ I/O fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fence_xvmd Xen 虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ I/O fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fence_tool 加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​離​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​ fence 區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
fenced I/O fencing 的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
DLM libdlm.so.<version number> 支​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​散​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​鎖​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​(DLM,Distributed Lock Manager)的​​​​​​​函​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​庫​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
GFS gfs.ko 支​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​ GFS 檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​,並​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ GFS 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​心​​​​​​​模​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
gfs_fsck 修​​​​​​​復​​​​​​​未​​​​​​​掛​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​ GFS 檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
gfs_grow 擴​​​​​​​展​​​​​​​已​​​​​​​掛​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​ GFS 檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
gfs_jadd 為​​​​​​​已​​​​​​​掛​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ GFS 檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​增​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​誌​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
gfs_mkfs 在​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​ GFS 檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
gfs_quota 在​​​​​​​已​​​​​​​掛​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ GFS 檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​碟​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​額​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
gfs_tool 設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​校​​​​​​​調​​​​​​​ GFS 檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​搜​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​種​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
mount.gfs mount(8) 所​​​​​​​呼​​​​​​​叫​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​掛​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​輔​​​​​​​助​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​;使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​無​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
GNBD gnbd.ko 在​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​ GNBD 裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​驅​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​心​​​​​​​模​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
gnbd_export 建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​匯​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ GNBD 伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
gnbd_import 在​​​​​​​ GNBD 用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​匯​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ GNBD 的​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
gnbd_serv 讓​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​匯​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
LVS pulse This is the controlling process which starts all other daemons related to LVS routers. At boot time, the daemon is started by the /etc/rc.d/init.d/pulse script. It then reads the configuration file /etc/sysconfig/ha/lvs.cf. On the active LVS router, pulse starts the LVS daemon. On the backup router, pulse determines the health of the active router by executing a simple heartbeat at a user-configurable interval. If the active LVS router fails to respond after a user-configurable interval, it initiates failover. During failover, pulse on the backup LVS router instructs the pulse daemon on the active LVS router to shut down all LVS services, starts the send_arp program to reassign the floating IP addresses to the backup LVS router's MAC address, and starts the lvs daemon.
lvsd 啟​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​旦​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​ pulse 呼​​​​​​​叫​​​​​​​,lvs 系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​讀​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​ /etc/sysconfig/ha/lvs.cf,呼​​​​​​​叫​​​​​​​ ipvsadm 工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​維​​​​​​​護​​​​​​​ IPVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​,並​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​已​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ nanny 程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​ nanny 回​​​​​​​報​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​無​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​,lvs 會​​​​​​​告​​​​​​​訴​​​​​​​ ipvsadm 工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​ IPVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
ipvsadm 這​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​心​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ IPVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​lvs 系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ LVS,方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​呼​​​​​​​叫​​​​​​​ ipvsadm 來​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​增​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​變​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​刪​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​ IPVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​項​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
nanny nanny 監​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​啟​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​透​​​​​​​過​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,啟​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVS 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​決​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​際​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​健​​​​​​​康​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​況​​​​​​​,然​​​​​​​後​​​​​​​監​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​負​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​(選​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​實​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​義​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​,都​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​獨​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
lvs.cf 這​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ LVS 設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​徑​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ /etc/sysconfig/ha/lvs.cf。​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​否​​​​​​​,所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​得​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Piranha Configuration Tool 這​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​監​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ LVS 的​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​頁​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​維​​​​​​​護​​​​​​​ /etc/sysconfig/ha/lvs.cf LVS 設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​預​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
send_arp 在​​​​​​​發​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​備​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​,浮​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​ IP 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​從​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​另​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​時​​​​​​​這​​​​​​​個​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​會​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​ ARP 廣​​​​​​​播​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Quorum 磁​​​​​​​碟​​​​​​​ qdisk 以​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​碟​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​礎​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ quorum 系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,供​​​​​​​ CMAN / Linux 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
mkqdisk 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ Quorum 磁​​​​​​​碟​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
qdiskd 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ Quorum 磁​​​​​​​碟​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

2.2. Man Page 說​​​​​​​明​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​

本​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​ Red Hat Cluster Suite 相​​​​​​​關​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ man page,作​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​額​​​​​​​外​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​架​​​​​​​構​​​​​​​
    • ccs_tool (8) - 用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​ CCS 設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​
    • ccs_test (8) - 執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​診​​​​​​​斷​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​
    • ccsd (8) - 用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​ CCS 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • ccs (7) - 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​
    • cman_tool (8) - 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​
    • cluster.conf [cluster] (5) - 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​產​​​​​​​品​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​
    • qdisk (5) - 以​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​碟​​​​​​​為​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​礎​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​給​​​​​​​ CMAN / Linux 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ quorum 系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • mkqdisk (8) - 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ quorum 磁​​​​​​​碟​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • qdiskd (8) - 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ Quorum 磁​​​​​​​碟​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_ack_manual (8) - 手​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​ I/O Fencing 會​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_apc (8) - APC MasterSwitch 的​​​​​​​ I/O Fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_bladecenter (8) - IBM Bladecenter 的​​​​​​​ I/O Fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_brocade (8) - Brocade FC switches 的​​​​​​​ I/O Fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_bullpap (8) - 由​​​​​​​ PAP 管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ Bull FAME 架​​​​​​​構​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ I/O Fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_drac (8) - Dell Remote Access Card 的​​​​​​​ fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_egenera (8) - Egenera BladeFrame 的​​​​​​​ I/O fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_gnbd (8) - GNBD 為​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​礎​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ GFS 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​ I/O Fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_ilo (8) - HP Integrated Lights Out card 的​​​​​​​ I/O Fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_ipmilan (8) - 由​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​ IPMI 所​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​電​​​​​​​腦​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ I/O Fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_manual (8) - 手​​​​​​​動​​​​​​​ I/O Fencing 的​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​,由​​​​​​​ fenced 所​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_mcdata (8) - McData FC switches 的​​​​​​​ I/O Fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_node (8) - 在​​​​​​​單​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​執​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ I/O fencing 的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_rib (8) - Compaq Remote Insight Lights Out card 的​​​​​​​ I/O Fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_rsa (8) - IBM RSA II 的​​​​​​​ I/O Fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_sanbox2 (8) - QLogic SANBox2 FC switches 的​​​​​​​ I/O Fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_scsi (8) - SCSI 保​​​​​​​留​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​致​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ I/O Fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_tool (8) - 加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​離​​​​​​​開​​​​​​​ fence 區​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_vixel (8) - Vixel FC switches的​​​​​​​ I/O Fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_wti (8) - WTI Network Power Switch 的​​​​​​​ I/O Fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_xvm (8) - Xen 虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ I/O Fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fence_xvmd (8) - Xen 虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​機​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ I/O Fencing 代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • fenced (8) - I/O Fencing 系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
  • 高​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​
    • clusvcadm (8) - 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​
    • clustat (8) - 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • Clurgmgrd [clurgmgrd] (8) - 資​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​群​​​​​​​組​​​​​​​(叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​)管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • clurmtabd (8) - 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​ NFS 的​​​​​​​遠​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​掛​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
  • GFS
    • gfs_fsck (8) - 離​​​​​​​線​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ GFS 檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​檢​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • gfs_grow (8) - 擴​​​​​​​張​​​​​​​ GFS 檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​
    • gfs_jadd (8) - 將​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​誌​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ GFS 檔​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​
    • gfs_mount (8) - GFS 掛​​​​​​​載​​​​​​​選​​​​​​​項​​​​​​​
    • gfs_quota (8) - 維​​​​​​​護​​​​​​​ GFS 磁​​​​​​​碟​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​額​​​​​​​
    • gfs_tool (8) - gfs ioctl 呼​​​​​​​叫​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​
  • 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​邏​​​​​​​輯​​​​​​​卷​​​​​​​冊​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​
    • clvmd (8) - 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​ LVM 系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • lvm (8) - LVM2 工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​
    • lvm.conf [lvm] (5) - LVM2 的​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​
    • lvmchange (8) - 改​​​​​​​變​​​​​​​邏​​​​​​​輯​​​​​​​卷​​​​​​​冊​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​員​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​屬​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​
    • pvcreate (8) - 對​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​碟​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​割​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​初​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​,好​​​​​​​給​​​​​​​ LVM 使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​
    • lvs (8) - 回​​​​​​​報​​​​​​​邏​​​​​​​輯​​​​​​​卷​​​​​​​冊​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​
  • 全​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​區​​​​​​​塊​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​
    • gnbd_export (8) - 匯​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​ GNBD 的​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​
    • gnbd_import (8) - 在​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​戶​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​維​​​​​​​護​​​​​​​ GNBD 區​​​​​​​塊​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​
    • gnbd_serv (8) - GNBD 伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
  • LVS
    • pulse (8) - 監​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​節​​​​​​​點​​​​​​​健​​​​​​​康​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​況​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​心​​​​​​​跳​​​​​​​(heartbeat)系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • lvs.cf [lvs] (5) - lvs 的​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​檔​​​​​​​
    • lvscan (8) - 掃​​​​​​​描​​​​​​​邏​​​​​​​輯​​​​​​​卷​​​​​​​冊​​​​​​​(的​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​碟​​​​​​​)
    • lvsd (8) - 用​​​​​​​來​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​ Red Hat 叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​統​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • ipvsadm (8) - Linux 虛​​​​​​​擬​​​​​​​伺​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​(LVS)的​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​
    • ipvsadm-restore (8) - 從​​​​​​​標​​​​​​​準​​​​​​​輸​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​(stdin)回​​​​​​​復​​​​​​​ IPVS 表​​​​​​​
    • ipvsadm-save (8) - 將​​​​​​​ IPVS 表​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​標​​​​​​​準​​​​​​​輸​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​(stdout)
    • nanny (8) - 監​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​叢​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​裡​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​務​​​​​​​狀​​​​​​​態​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​
    • send_arp (8) - 通​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​網​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ IP / MAC 位​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​對​​​​​​​應​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​

2.3. 相​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​硬​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​

欲​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​ Red Hat Cluster Suite 元​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​(例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​援​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ fence 裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​儲​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​裝​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​與​​​​​​​光​​​​​​​纖​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​道​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​交​​​​​​​換​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​)相​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​硬​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​資​​​​​​​訊​​​​​​​,請​​​​​​​參​​​​​​​閱​​​​​​​硬​​​​​​​體​​​​​​​設​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​南​​​​​​​,網​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ http://www.redhat.com/cluster_suite/hardware/。​​​​​​​

附錄 A. 版​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​紀​​​​​​​錄​​​​​​​

修訂記錄
修訂 3-8.4002013-10-31Rüdiger Landmann
Rebuild with publican 4.0.0
修訂 3-82012-07-18Anthony Towns
Rebuild for Publican 3.0
修訂 1.0-0Tue Jan 20 2008Paul Kennedy
Consolidation of point releases

索引

N

NAT
routing methods, LVS, 路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​則​​​​​​​
network address translation (參見 NAT)

O

overview
economy, Red Hat GFS
performance, Red Hat GFS
scalability, Red Hat GFS

法律聲明

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