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30.2.2. 引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​

x86 平​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​阶​​​​​​​段​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​第​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​阶​​​​​​​段​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ MBR 里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​小​​​​​​​型​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​二​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​代​​​​​​​码​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​唯​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​第​​​​​​​二​​​​​​​阶​​​​​​​段​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​第​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
GRUB has the advantage of being able to read ext2 and ext3 [13] partitions and load its configuration file — /boot/grub/grub.conf — at boot time. Refer to 第 9.7 节 “GRUB 菜​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​” for information on how to edit this file.

注意

如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ 「​​​​​​​Red Hat 更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​代​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​」​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​升​​​​​​​级​​​​​​​,引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ Red Hat Network 的​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​访​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​:https://rhn.redhat.com/。​​​​​​​
一​​​​​​​旦​​​​​​​第​​​​​​​二​​​​​​​阶​​​​​​​段​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​屏​​​​​​​幕​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​屏​​​​​​​幕​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,用​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​箭​​​​​​​头​​​​​​​键​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​想​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​,并​​​​​​​按​​​​​​​ Enter 键​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​按​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​键​​​​​​​,引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​(可​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​)后​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​项​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Once the second stage boot loader has determined which kernel to boot, it locates the corresponding kernel binary in the /boot/ directory. The kernel binary is named using the following format — /boot/vmlinuz-<kernel-version> file (where <kernel-version> corresponds to the kernel version specified in the boot loader's settings).
For instructions on using the boot loader to supply command line arguments to the kernel, refer to 第 9 章 GRUB 引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​. For information on changing the runlevel at the boot loader prompt, refer 第 9.8 节 “Changing Runlevels at Boot Time”.
然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​,引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​适​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ initramfs 映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​,内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ cpio 命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​从​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​压​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​ /sysroot/ 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ initramfs 来​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​模​​​​​​​块​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ SCSI 硬​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​ ext3 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​尤​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
一​​​​​​​旦​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​ initramfs 映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​,引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​权​​​​​​​交​​​​​​​给​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

30.2.2.1. 其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​体​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​结​​​​​​​构​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​

Once the kernel loads and hands off the boot process to the init command, the same sequence of events occurs on every architecture. So the main difference between each architecture's boot process is in the application used to find and load the kernel.
例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​,Itanium 架​​​​​​​构​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ ELILO 引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​,IBM eServer pSeries 架​​​​​​​构​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ yaboot,而​​​​​​​ IBM System z 则​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ z/IPL 引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​


[13] GRUB reads ext3 file systems as ext2, disregarding the journal file. Refer to the chapter titled The ext3 File System in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for more information on the ext3 file system.