第 25 章 磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​简​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​

注意

本​​​​​​​附​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​非​​​​​​​ x86 体​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​适​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​,在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​般​​​​​​​原​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​适​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
本​​​​​​​附​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​非​​​​​​​ x86 体​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​适​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​,在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​般​​​​​​​原​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​适​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
If you are reasonably comfortable with disk partitions, you could skip ahead to 第 25.1.4 节 “为​​​​​​​Red Hat Enterprise Linux 腾​​​​​​​挪​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​”, for more information on the process of freeing up disk space to prepare for a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This section also discusses the partition naming scheme used by Linux systems, sharing disk space with other operating systems, and related topics.

25.1. 硬​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​概​​​​​​​念​​​​​​​

硬​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​极​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​简​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​ — 它​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​靠​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​储​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​检​​​​​​​索​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
When discussing issues such as disk partitioning, it is important to know a bit about the underlying hardware. Unfortunately, it is easy to become bogged down in details. Therefore, this appendix uses a simplified diagram of a disk drive to help explain what is really happening when a disk drive is partitioned. 图 25.1 “未​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​”, shows a brand-new, unused disk drive.
未​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

图 25.1. 未​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

没​​​​​​​什​​​​​​​么​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​,是​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​?不​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​,若​​​​​​​我​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​仅​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​层​​​​​​​次​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​讨​​​​​​​论​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​,此​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​已​​​​​​​足​​​​​​​够​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​假​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​我​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​储​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​,就​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​言​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​还​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​我​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​首​​​​​​​先​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​做​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​准​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

25.1.1. 不​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​写​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​什​​​​​​​么​​​​​​​,而​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​怎​​​​​​​么​​​​​​​写​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​

Experienced computer users probably got this one on the first try. We need to format the drive. Formatting (usually known as "making a file system") writes information to the drive, creating order out of the empty space in an unformatted drive.
有​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

图 25.2. 有​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

  • A small percentage of the drive's available space is used to store file system-related data and can be considered as overhead.
  • A file system splits the remaining space into small, consistently-sized segments. For Linux, these segments are known as blocks. [11]
由​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​带​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​,以​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​牺​​​​​​​牲​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​付​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​很​​​​​​​小​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​代​​​​​​​价​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
It is also worth noting that there is no single, universal file system. As 图 25.3 “含​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​”, shows, a disk drive may have one of many different file systems written on it. As you might guess, different file systems tend to be incompatible; that is, an operating system that supports one file system (or a handful of related file system types) may not support another. This last statement is not a hard-and-fast rule, however. For example, Red Hat Enterprise Linux supports a wide variety of file systems (including many commonly used by other operating systems), making data interchange between different file systems easy.
含​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

图 25.3. 含​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

当​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​,将​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​写​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​仅​​​​​​​仅​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​开​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​标​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​际​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​储​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​且​​​​​​​检​​​​​​​索​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​写​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​,让​​​​​​​我​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​再​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
已​​​​​​​写​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

图 25.4. 已​​​​​​​写​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

As 图 25.4 “已​​​​​​​写​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​”, shows, some of the previously-empty blocks are now holding data. However, by just looking at this picture, we cannot determine exactly how many files reside on this drive. There may only be one file or many, as all files use at least one block and some files use multiple blocks. Another important point to note is that the used blocks do not have to form a contiguous region; used and unused blocks may be interspersed. This is known as fragmentation. Fragmentation can play a part when attempting to resize an existing partition.
如​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​与​​​​​​​计​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​科​​​​​​​技​​​​​​​,磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​世​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​直​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​断​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​变​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​特​​​​​​​别​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​越​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​越​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​际​​​​​​​尺​​​​​​​寸​​​​​​​越​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​越​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​,而​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​储​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​力​​​​​​​越​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​越​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​增​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​致​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​根​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​变​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

25.1.2. 分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​:将​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​变​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

由​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​断​​​​​​​增​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​,一​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​人​​​​​​​开​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​质​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​格​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​块​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​否​​​​​​​明​​​​​​​智​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​类​​​​​​​想​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​哲​​​​​​​学​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​,也​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​技​​​​​​​术​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​从​​​​​​​哲​​​​​​​学​​​​​​​角​​​​​​​度​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​讲​​​​​​​,一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​较​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​额​​​​​​​外​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​若​​​​​​​超​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​小​​​​​​​似​​​​​​​乎​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​造​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​杂​​​​​​​乱​​​​​​​无​​​​​​​章​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​从​​​​​​​技​​​​​​​术​​​​​​​角​​​​​​​度​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​讲​​​​​​​,某​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​计​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​,某​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​拥​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​巨​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​较​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​,但​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​跟​​​​​​​踪​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​强​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​费​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​随​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​变​​​​​​​得​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
解​​​​​​​决​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​题​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​办​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​划​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​ (partition)。​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​独​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​访​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​添​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​(partition table)来​​​​​​​做​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

注意

虽​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​章​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​际​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​开​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​正​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​事​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​首​​​​​​​,在​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​但​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​清​​​​​​​楚​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​见​​​​​​​,我​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​开​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

图 25.5. 带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

As 图 25.5 “带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​” shows, the partition table is divided into four sections or four primary partitions. A primary partition is a partition on a hard drive that can contain only one logical drive (or section). Each section can hold the information necessary to define a single partition, meaning that the partition table can define no more than four partitions.
每​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​项​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​着​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​几​​​​​​​项​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​特​​​​​​​征​​​​​​​:
  • 在​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​开​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​结​​​​​​​束​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​(起​​​​​​​止​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​)
  • Whether the partition is "active"
  • The partition's type
Let us take a closer look at each of these characteristics. The starting and ending points actually define the partition's size and location on the disk. The "active" flag is used by some operating systems' boot loaders. In other words, the operating system in the partition that is marked "active" is booted.
The partition's type can be a bit confusing. The type is a number that identifies the partition's anticipated usage. If that statement sounds a bit vague, that is because the meaning of the partition type is a bit vague. Some operating systems use the partition type to denote a specific file system type, to flag the partition as being associated with a particular operating system, to indicate that the partition contains a bootable operating system, or some combination of the three.
只​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

图 25.6. 只​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

在​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​,整​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​,基​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​复​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​项​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
We have labeled this partition as being of the "DOS" type. Although it is only one of several possible partition types listed in 表 25.1 “分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​类​​​​​​​型​​​​​​​”, it is adequate for the purposes of this discussion.
表 25.1 “分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​类​​​​​​​型​​​​​​​”, contains a listing of some popular (and obscure) partition types, along with their hexadecimal numeric values.

表 25.1. 分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​类​​​​​​​型​​​​​​​

分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​类​​​​​​​型​​​​​​​ 值​​​​​​​ 分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​类​​​​​​​型​​​​​​​ 值​​​​​​​
Empty 00 Novell Netware 386 65
DOS 12-bit FAT 01 PIC/IX 75
XENIX root 02 Old MINIX 80
XENIX usr 03 Linux/MINUX 81
DOS 16-bit <=32M 04 Linux swap 82
Extended 05 Linux Native 83
DOS 16-bit >=32 06 Linux extended 85
OS/2 HPFS 07 Amoeba 93
AIX 08 Amoeba BBT 94
AIX bootable 09 BSD/386 a5
OS/2 Boot Manager 0a OpenBSD a6
Win95 FAT32 0b NEXTSTEP a7
Win95 FAT32 (LBA) 0c BSDI fs b7
Win95 FAT16 (LBA) 0e BSDI swap b8
Win95 Extended (LBA) 0f Syrinx c7
Venix 80286 40 CP/M db
Novell 51 DOS access e1
PPC PReP Boot 41 DOS R/O e3
GNU HURD 63 DOS secondary f2
Novell Netware 286 64 BBT ff

25.1.3. 分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​ — 扩​​​​​​​展​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​概​​​​​​​述​​​​​​​

经​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​段​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​,四​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​很​​​​​​​明​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​够​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​随​​​​​​​着​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​断​​​​​​​增​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​,配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​四​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​仍​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​剩​​​​​​​余​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​越​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​越​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​我​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Enter the extended partition. As you may have noticed in 表 25.1 “分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​类​​​​​​​型​​​​​​​”, there is an "Extended" partition type. It is this partition type that is at the heart of extended partitions.
When a partition is created and its type is set to "Extended," an extended partition table is created. In essence, the extended partition is like a disk drive in its own right — it has a partition table that points to one or more partitions (now called logical partitions, as opposed to the four primary partitions) contained entirely within the extended partition itself. 图 25.7 “带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​扩​​​​​​​展​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​”, shows a disk drive with one primary partition and one extended partition containing two logical partitions (along with some unpartitioned free space).
带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​扩​​​​​​​展​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

图 25.7. 带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​扩​​​​​​​展​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

如​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​暗​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​,主​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​与​​​​​​​逻​​​​​​​辑​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​别​​​​​​​ — 主​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​四​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​,但​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​逻​​​​​​​辑​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​却​​​​​​​无​​​​​​​固​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​,鉴​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ Linux 进​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​避​​​​​​​免​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​义​​​​​​​ 12 个​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​逻​​​​​​​辑​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
现​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​,我​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​已​​​​​​​经​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​致​​​​​​​讨​​​​​​​论​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​概​​​​​​​念​​​​​​​,让​​​​​​​我​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​识​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​Red Hat Enterprise Linux 上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

25.1.4. 为​​​​​​​Red Hat Enterprise Linux 腾​​​​​​​挪​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​

当​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​试​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​硬​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,有​​​​​​​三​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​:
  • 有​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​未​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​闲​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​
  • 有​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​未​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​
  • 被​​​​​​​活​​​​​​​跃​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​闲​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​
让​​​​​​​我​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​依​​​​​​​次​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

注意

请​​​​​​​记​​​​​​​住​​​​​​​,以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​清​​​​​​​晰​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​见​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​经​​​​​​​简​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​反​​​​​​​映​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​际​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​Red Hat Enterprise Linux 时​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​遇​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​切​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​布​​​​​​​局​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

25.1.4.1. 使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​未​​​​​​​经​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​闲​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​

带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​未​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​闲​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

图 25.8. 带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​未​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​闲​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​细​​​​​​​想​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​认​​​​​​​识​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​未​​​​​​​经​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​硬​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​属​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​类​​​​​​​型​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​唯​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​别​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​属​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​义​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
In any case, you can create the necessary partitions from the unused space. Unfortunately, this scenario, although very simple, is not very likely (unless you have just purchased a new disk just for Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Most pre-installed operating systems are configured to take up all available space on a disk drive (refer to 第 25.1.4.3 节 “使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​活​​​​​​​跃​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​闲​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​”).
接​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​,我​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​讨​​​​​​​论​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​普​​​​​​​遍​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

25.1.4.2. 使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​未​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​

In this case, maybe you have one or more partitions that you do not use any longer. Perhaps you have dabbled with another operating system in the past, and the partition(s) you dedicated to it never seem to be used anymore. 图 25.9 “带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​未​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​”, illustrates such a situation.
带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​未​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

图 25.9. 带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​未​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​发​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​己​​​​​​​处​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​那​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​拨​​​​​​​给​​​​​​​未​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​首​​​​​​​先​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​删​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​,然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ Linux 分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​删​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​未​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​,然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​再​​​​​​​手​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

25.1.4.3. 使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​活​​​​​​​跃​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​闲​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​

这​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​见​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​幸​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​难​​​​​​​处​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​题​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​,即​​​​​​​便​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​足​​​​​​​够​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​闲​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​已​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​给​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​正​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​购​​​​​​​买​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​预​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​软​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​计​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​,很​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​硬​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
除​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​给​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​添​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​硬​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​外​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​还​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​:
Destructive Repartitioning
简​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​言​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​让​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​删​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​几​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​小​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​想​​​​​​​象​​​​​​​得​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​,贮​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​原​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​破​​​​​​​坏​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​味​​​​​​​着​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​做​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​己​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​利​​​​​​​益​​​​​​​着​​​​​​​想​​​​​​​,请​​​​​​​做​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​,并​​​​​​​校​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​(如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​软​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​话​​​​​​​)这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​,在​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​删​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​试​​​​​​​着​​​​​​​从​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​读​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

警告

如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​某​​​​​​​类​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​,该​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​注​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​,那​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​预​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​售​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​计​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​没​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​光​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​质​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​请​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​破​​​​​​​坏​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​原​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​原​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​觉​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
被​​​​​​​破​​​​​​​坏​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

图 25.10. 被​​​​​​​破​​​​​​​坏​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

Non-Destructive Repartitioning
这​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​似​​​​​​​乎​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​“​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​”​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​:它​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​变​​​​​​​小​​​​​​​,却​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​丢​​​​​​​失​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​原​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​人​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​发​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​办​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​既​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​靠​​​​​​​又​​​​​​​简​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​但​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​哪​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​软​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​帮​​​​​​​助​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​达​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​呢​​​​​​​?在​​​​​​​软​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​市​​​​​​​场​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​几​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​软​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​做​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​番​​​​​​​调​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​找​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​适​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
非​​​​​​​破​​​​​​​坏​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​非​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​直​​​​​​​捷​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​几​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​:
  • 压​​​​​​​缩​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​
  • Resize the existing partition
  • Create new partition(s)
接​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​,我​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​详​​​​​​​细​​​​​​​说​​​​​​​明​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
25.1.4.3.1. 压​​​​​​​缩​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​
As 图 25.11 “磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​压​​​​​​​缩​​​​​​​”, shows, the first step is to compress the data in your existing partition. The reason for doing this is to rearrange the data such that it maximizes the available free space at the "end" of the partition.
磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​压​​​​​​​缩​​​​​​​

图 25.11. 磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​压​​​​​​​缩​​​​​​​

这​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​执​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​阻​​​​​​​止​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​划​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​想​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​小​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​还​​​​​​​请​​​​​​​注​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​,由​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​某​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​原​​​​​​​因​​​​​​​,某​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​(这​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​严​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​小​​​​​​​),你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​迫​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​破​​​​​​​坏​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
25.1.4.3.2. Resize the existing partition
分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​小​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​划​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

图 25.12. 分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​小​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​划​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

理​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​软​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​很​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​,只​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​才​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​正​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​采​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​措​​​​​​​施​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​我​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​范​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​,最​​​​​​​佳​​​​​​​措​​​​​​​施​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​删​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ DOS 分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​,然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​恰​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ Linux 分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
25.1.4.3.3. Create new partition(s)
As the previous step implied, it may or may not be necessary to create new partitions. However, unless your resizing software is Linux-aware, it is likely that you must delete the partition that was created during the resizing process. 图 25.13 “带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​终​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​”, shows this being done.
带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​终​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

图 25.13. 带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​终​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

注意

下​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ intel 的​​​​​​​计​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​特​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
为​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​便​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​,我​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​ parted 工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​免​​​​​​​费​​​​​​​获​​​​​​​得​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​划​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​小​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​决​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ parted 来​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​给​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​硬​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​熟​​​​​​​悉​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​贮​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​,并​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​计​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​给​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​计​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​做​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​质​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​(如​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​光​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​带​​​​​​​),而​​​​​​​且​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​继​​​​​​​续​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​读​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​决​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ parted,请​​​​​​​留​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ parted 运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​:一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​划​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​小​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​,另​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ parted 用​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​ Red Hat Enterprise Linux,你​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​删​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​既​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​删​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​,也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​删​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

25.1.5. 分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​

Linux refers to disk partitions using a combination of letters and numbers which may be confusing, particularly if you are used to the "C drive" way of referring to hard disks and their partitions. In the DOS/Windows world, partitions are named using the following method:
  • Each partition's type is checked to determine if it can be read by DOS/Windows.
  • If the partition's type is compatible, it is assigned a "drive letter." The drive letters start with a "C" and move on to the following letters, depending on the number of partitions to be labeled.
  • 驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​母​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​代​​​​​​​那​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​,也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​带​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​灵​​​​​​​活​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​传​​​​​​​达​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​比​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​采​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​,文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​格​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​类​​​​​​​似​​​​​​​ /dev/xxyN。​​​​​​​
下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​说​​​​​​​明​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​析​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​:
/dev/
这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​串​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​因​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​硬​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,而​​​​​​​硬​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​,所​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​代​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​/dev/上​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
xx
分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​母​​​​​​​标​​​​​​​明​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​类​​​​​​​型​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ hd (IDE 磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​)或​​​​​​​ sd(SCSI 磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​
y
这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​母​​​​​​​标​​​​​​​明​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​,/dev/hda(第​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​ IDE 磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​)或​​​​​​​ /dev/sdb(第​​​​​​​二​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​ SCSI 磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​)
N
最​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​代​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​四​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​(主​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​扩​​​​​​​展​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​)是​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​从​​​​​​​ 1 排​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​ 4。​​​​​​​逻​​​​​​​辑​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​从​​​​​​​ 5 开​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​,/dev/hda3 是​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​第​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​ IDE 硬​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​第​​​​​​​三​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​扩​​​​​​​展​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​;/dev/sdb6 是​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​第​​​​​​​二​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​ SCSI 硬​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​第​​​​​​​二​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​逻​​​​​​​辑​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

注意

该​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​案​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​没​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​明​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​类​​​​​​​型​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​;与​​​​​​​ DOS/Windows 不​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​,所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​Red Hat Enterprise Linux 下​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​识​​​​​​​别​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​说​​​​​​​Red Hat Enterprise Linux 能​​​​​​​够​​​​​​​访​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​类​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​,但​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​,访​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​专​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​另​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
请​​​​​​​切​​​​​​​记​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​;它​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​帮​​​​​​​助​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​Red Hat Enterprise Linux 所​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​易​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

25.1.6. 磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​

如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​Red Hat Enterprise Linux 分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​与​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​共​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​硬​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​,多​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​,应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​没​​​​​​​什​​​​​​​么​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​题​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​,某​​​​​​​类​​​​​​​ Liunx 和​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​组​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​特​​​​​​​别​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​注​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

25.1.7. 磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​挂​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​

One area that many people new to Linux find confusing is the matter of how partitions are used and accessed by the Linux operating system. In DOS/Windows, it is relatively simple: Each partition gets a "drive letter." You then use the correct drive letter to refer to files and directories on its corresponding partition.
这​​​​​​​与​​​​​​​ Linux 处​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​贮​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​题​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​截​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​别​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​,Linux 中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​构​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​组​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​贮​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​挂​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​(mounting)来​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​,挂​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​联​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​某​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​挂​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​(通​​​​​​​称​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​挂​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​,mount point)的​​​​​​​贮​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​够​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​,如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​ /dev/hda5/ 被​​​​​​​挂​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ /usr/ 上​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​味​​​​​​​着​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ /usr/ 之​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​物​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​义​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ /dev/hda5/ 上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​因​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​ /usr/share/doc/FAQ/txt/Linux-FAQ 被​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ /dev/hda5/上​​​​​​​,而​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​ /etc/X11/gdm/Sessions/Gnome 却​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
继​​​​​​​续​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​,/usr/ 之​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​还​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​挂​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​,某​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​(假​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​,/dev/hda7/)可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​挂​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​ /usr/local/ 下​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​味​​​​​​​着​​​​​​​ /usr/local/man/whatis 将​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ /dev/hda7 上​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ /dev/hda5 上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

25.1.8. 多​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​?

At this point in the process of preparing to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you must give some consideration to the number and size of the partitions to be used by your new operating system. The question of "how many partitions" continues to spark debate within the Linux community and, without any end to the debate in sight, it is safe to say that there are probably as many partition layouts as there are people debating the issue.
记​​​​​​​住​​​​​​​,我​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​推​​​​​​​荐​​​​​​​,除​​​​​​​非​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​特​​​​​​​殊​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​原​​​​​​​因​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​:swap、​​​​​​​/boot/(或​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ Itanium 系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ /boot/efi/ 分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​)、​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ Itanium 系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ /var/ 分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​ /(根​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​


[11] Blocks really are consistently sized, unlike our illustrations. Keep in mind, also, that an average disk drive contains thousands of blocks. But for the purposes of this discussion, please ignore these minor discrepancies.

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