Red Hat Training

A Red Hat training course is available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Virtualization

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5

A reference guide for virsch, xm, vmm and xend.

版 2.0

Logo

摘要

本​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​南​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​绍​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virsh、​​​​​​​xm、​​​​​​​vmm 和​​​​​​​ xend 来​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​监​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​企​​​​​​​业​​​​​​​ Linux 5 上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​《​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​企​​​​​​​业​​​​​​​版​​​​​​​ Linux 虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​南​​​​​​​》​​​​​​​发​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​,或​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​想​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​善​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​南​​​​​​​,我​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​乐​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​受​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​议​​​​​​​!你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ Bugzilla(http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/)里​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​交​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​企​​​​​​​业​​​​​​​版​​​​​​​ Linux 和​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​南​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​报​​​​​​​告​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

第 1 章 Red Hat虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​体​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​结​​​​​​​构​​​​​​​

红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​层​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​专​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​组​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​驱​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​己​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​调​​​​​​​度​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​ CPU 来​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​利​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​物​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ CPU。​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​处​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​己​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​调​​​​​​​度​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​署​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​:完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​(full virtualization)或​​​​​​​半​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​(paravirtualization)。​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​底​​​​​​​层​​​​​​​物​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​抽​​​​​​​象​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​,且​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​,客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​(客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​象​​​​​​​往​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​,意​​​​​​​识​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​环​​​​​​​境​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​半​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​(这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​识​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​环​​​​​​​境​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​)并​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​近​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​半​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​署​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​构​​​​​​​架​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
第​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​,称​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ domain0 (dom0),在​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​Domain0 是​​​​​​​专​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​拥​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​力​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​Domain0 处​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​物​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​硬​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​,如​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​卡​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​硬​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​Domain0 也​​​​​​​处​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​,如​​​​​​​暂​​​​​​​停​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​恢​​​​​​​复​​​​​​​执​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
The hypervisor (Red Hat's Virtual Machine Monitor) is a virtualization platform that allows multiple operating systems to run on a single host simultaneously within a full virtualization environment. A guest is an operating system (OS) that runs on a virtual machine in addition to the host or main OS.
With Red Hat Virtualization, each guests memory comes from a slice of the host's physical memory. For paravirtual guests, you can set both the initial memory and the maximum size of the virtual machine. You can add (or remove) physical memory to the virtual machine at runtime without exceeding the maximum size you specify. This process is called ballooning.
你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​ cpu(称​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ vcpu)来​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​按​​​​​​​照​​​​​​​物​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ CPU 的​​​​​​​负​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​调​​​​​​​度​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​ vcpu。​​​​​​​
你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​授​​​​​​​予​​​​​​​某​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​(virtual disks)。​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​视​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​硬​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​(对​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​言​​​​​​​)CD-ROM 设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​块​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​规​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​,通​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVM 物​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​卷​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​(Virtual networking interface)运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​象​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​太​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​卡​​​​​​​(VNIC)一​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​,其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​永​​​​​​​久​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​ MAC 地​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​ VNIC,它​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ MAC 地​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​从​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​着​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​千​​​​​​​六​​​​​​​百​​​​​​​万​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​储​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​池​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​随​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​,所​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​受​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​ MAC 地​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​太​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​着​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​复​​​​​​​杂​​​​​​​站​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​手​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​ MAC 地​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​唯​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
每​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​连​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​(text console)。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​登​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​(graphical console),这​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​物​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​普​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​半​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​标​​​​​​​准​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​适​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​特​​​​​​​征​​​​​​​,如​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​终​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​ X 窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​键​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​键​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​鼠​​​​​​​标​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Guests can be identified in any of three identities: domain name (domain-name), identity (domain-id), or UUID. The domain-name is a text string that corresponds to a guest configuration file. The domain-name is used to launch the guests, and when the guest runs the same name is used to identify and control it. The domain-id is a unique, non-persistent number that gets assigned to an active domain and is used to identify and control it. The UUID is a persistent, unique identifier that is controlled from the guest's configuration file and ensures that the guest is identified over time by system management tools. It is visible to the guest when it runs. A new UUID is automatically assigned to each guest by the system tools when the guest first installs.

第 2 章 操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​

Red Hat Virtualization's paravirtualization mode allows you to utilize high performance virtualization on architectures that are potentially difficult to virtualize such as x86 based systems. To deploy para-virtualization across your operating system(s), you need access to the paravirtual guest kernels that are available from a respective Red Hat distro (for example, RHEL 4.0, RHEL 5.0, etc.). Whilst your operating system kernels must support Red Hat Virtualization, it is not necessary to modify user applications or libraries.
如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​ Intel VT 和​​​​​​​ AMD SVM CPU 硬​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​,Red Hat虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​允​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​未​​​​​​​经​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ Intel VT 或​​​​​​​ AMD SVM 系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​署​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​体​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​结​​​​​​​构​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​Red Hat虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​:
  • 用​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​半​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ Intel VT-x 或​​​​​​​ AMD-V Pacifica 和​​​​​​​ Vanderpool 技​​​​​​​术​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 用​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ ia64 的​​​​​​​ Intel VT-i
  • Linux 和​​​​​​​ UNIX 操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​,包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​ NetBSD、​​​​​​​FreeBSD 和​​​​​​​ Solaris。​​​​​​​
  • Microsoft Windows as an unmodified guest operating system with Intel Vanderpool or AMD's Pacifica technology.
要​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ Hardware-assisted Virtual Machine (HVM)、​​​​​​​Intel 或​​​​​​​ AMD 平​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​环​​​​​​​境​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​检​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ CPU,确​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​力​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
要​​​​​​​检​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​否​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ Intel 支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ CPU flags,键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​:
grep vmx /proc/cpuinfo
输​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​:
flags   :  fpu tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic mtrr mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm syscall  nx lm constant_tsc pni monitor ds_cpl vmx est tm2 cx16 xtpr lahf_lm
如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​ vmx flag,那​​​​​​​么​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ CPU 带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​ Intel 支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
要​​​​​​​检​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​否​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​ AMD 支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ CPU flag,键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​:
grep svm /proc/cpuinfo
cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep svm
输​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​:
flags   :  fpu tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic mtrr mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dt acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm syscall nx mmtext fxsr_opt  rdtscp lm 3dnowext  pni  cx16  lahf_lm  cmp_legacy  svm  cr8_legacy
如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​ svm flag,则​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ CPU 带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​ AMD 支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

注意

除​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​检​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​ CPU flag,你​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ BIOS 启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

第 3 章 硬​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​

Red Hat虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​处​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​允​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ x86 体​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​结​​​​​​​构​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ P6(或​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​早​​​​​​​)处​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​Red Hat虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​:
  • Celeron
  • Pentium II
  • Pentium III
  • Pentium IV
  • Xeon
  • AMD Athlon
  • AMD Duron
在​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,32 位​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ 32 位​​​​​​​半​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​64 位​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ 64 位​​​​​​​半​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​64 位​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ 32 位​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​ 32 位​​​​​​​ PAE 或​​​​​​​ 64 位​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​32 位​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ PAE 和​​​​​​​非​​​​​​​ PAE 完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
对​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ x86_64 系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​,红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​企​​​​​​​业​​​​​​​ Linux 虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​超​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​ 32GB 的​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​超​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​ 32GB 物​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​附​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​ mem=32G 参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​演​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ grub.conf 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​怎​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​采​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​正​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​:

title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server  (2.6.18-4.elxen)
root  (hd0, 0)
kernel   /xen.gz-2.6.18-4-el5 mem=32G
module   /vmlinuz -2.6.18-4.el5xen ro root=LABEL=/
module   /initrd-2.6.18-4.el5xen.img

PAE (Physical Address Extension) 是​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​增​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​物​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​技​​​​​​​术​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​活​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ PAE。​​​​​​​带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​ PAE 支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​ 32 位​​​​​​​体​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​结​​​​​​​构​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ 16GB 的​​​​​​​物​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​我​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​推​​​​​​​荐​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​给​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​准​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​ 256M 内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​x86/64 位​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​寻​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​达​​​​​​​ 64GB 物​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​非​​​​​​​ PAE 系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​无​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​道​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​否​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​ PAE,可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​:
grep pae /proc/cpuinfo
显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​:
flags : fpu tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic mtrr mca cmov pat pse36 mmx fxsr sse syscall mmtext 3dnowext 3dnow up ts
如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​(或​​​​​​​近​​​​​​​似​​​​​​​),那​​​​​​​么​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ CPU 支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​ PAE。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​,说​​​​​​​明​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ CPU 不​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​ PAE。​​​​​​​

第 4 章 Red Hat虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​

下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​项​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​Red Hat虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​:
  • 正​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​Red Hat RHEL 5 Linux 系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​
  • 可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ GRUB 引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​
  • 根​​​​​​​访​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​权​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​
  • P6 级​​​​​​​(或​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​早​​​​​​​)的​​​​​​​处​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​
  • The Linux bridge-utils
  • Linux 热​​​​​​​插​​​​​​​拔​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​
  • zlib 开​​​​​​​发​​​​​​​库​​​​​​​
  • Python 2.2 runtime
  • initscripts
在​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​依​​​​​​​赖​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

注意

If your system CPU architecture is ia64, you need to manually install the xen-ia64-guest-firmware package to run a fully virtualized guest. This package is provided in the Supplementary CD and is not installed by default.

第 5 章 引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​

在​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​Red Hat虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​组​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​象​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​登​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​且​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​Red Hat虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​根​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​登​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​xend 守​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​已​​​​​​​经​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​ initscripts 初​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​,如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​手​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​ xend,可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​:
service xend start
你​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ chkconfig xend 来​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​ xend 在​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
xend 节​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​守​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​执​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​守​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​资​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​,且​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​交​​​​​​​互​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​ xend 之​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​编​​​​​​​辑​​​​​​​ xend 的​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​ xend-config.sxp 来​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ etc/xen 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

第 6 章 配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​ GRUB

GNU Grand Unified Boot Loader (or GRUB) is a program which enables the user to select which installed operating system or kernel to load at system boot time. It also allows the user to pass arguments to the kernel. The GRUB configuration file (located in /boot/grub/grub.conf) is used to create a list of operating systems to boot in GRUB's menu interface. When you install the kernel-xen RPM, a post script adds kernel-xen entries to the GRUB configuration file. You can edit the grub.conf file and enable the following GRUB parameter:
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.18-3.el5xen)
root   (hd0; 0)
kernel  /xen.gz.-2.6.18-3.el5
module  /vmlinuz-2.6..18-3.el5xen ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00  rhgb quiet
module  /initrd-2.6.18-3. el5xenxen.img

如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​与​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ Linux grub 条​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​,引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ hypervisor、​​​​​​​initrd 映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​ Linux 内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​既​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​条​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​条​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​先​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​ hypervisor 和​​​​​​​ Linux 内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​发​​​​​​​送​​​​​​​(和​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​受​​​​​​​)命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​条​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​展​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​怎​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​ Domain0 linux 内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ 800MB 之​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​:

title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.18-3.el5xen)
root   (hd0; 0)
kernel  /xen.gz.-2.6.18-3.el5 dom0_mem=800M
module  /vmlinuz-2.6..18-3.el5xen ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00  rhgb quiet
module  /initrd-2.6.18-3. el5xenxen.img

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​ GRUB 参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​(hypervisor):
mem

这​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ domain0 的​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

com1=115200, 8n1

这​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​第​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​串​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​充​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​串​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​(com2 被​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​给​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​,诸​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​类​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​
 
dom0_mem
这​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ domain0 的​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
dom0_max_vcpus
这​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​ domain0 可​​​​​​​见​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ CPU 数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
acpi
这​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​ ACPI hypervisor 切​​​​​​​换​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​ hypervisor 和​​​​​​​ domain0。​​​​​​​ACPI 参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​项​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​:

/*   ****  Linux config options: propagated to domain0  ****/
/*   "acpi=off":      Disables both ACPI table parsing and interpreter.   */
/*   "acpi=force":    Overrides the disable blacklist.                    */
/*   "acpi=strict":   Disables out-of-spec workarounds.                   */
/*   "acpi=ht":       Limits ACPI from boot-time to enable HT.            */
/*   "acpi=noirq":    Disables ACPI interrupt routing.                    */


noacpi

这​​​​​​​禁​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ interrupt delivery 的​​​​​​​ ACPI。​​​​​​​

第 7 章 引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ xm 程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virsh 和​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​(Virtual Machine Manager)来​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​先​​​​​​​决​​​​​​​条​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​先​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​ xm create 子​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​:
# xm create -c guestdomain1
guestdomain1 是​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​ -c 选​​​​​​​项​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​连​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​际​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

第 8 章 在​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​/停​​​​​​​止​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​候​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​停​​​​​​​止​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​Domain0 在​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​等​​​​​​​待​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​闭​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​想​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​闭​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ /etc/xen/ 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​想​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​ /etc/xen/auto 的​​​​​​​符​​​​​​​号​​​​​​​链​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
chkconfig xendomains on
chkconfig xendomains on 命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​次​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
chkconfig xendomains off
终​​​​​​​止​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​Red Hat虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​chkconfig xendomains off 命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​次​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​闭​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

第 9 章 配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​

Red Hat Virtualization configuration files contain the following standard variables. Configuration items within these files must be enclosed in quotes ("). These configuration files reside in the /etc/xen directory.

表 9.1. 红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​

项​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​ 描​​​​​​​述​​​​​​​
pae
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​物​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​扩​​​​​​​展​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
apic
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​级​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​编​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​断​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
memory
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​ megabyte 为​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​小​​​​​​​
vcpus
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​ CPU 的​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
console
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​号​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
nic
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
vif
Lists the randomly-assigned MAC addresses and bridges assigned to use for the domain's network addresses.
disk
列​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​块​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​读​​​​​​​权​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​物​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
dhcp
用​​​​​​​ DHCP 启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
netmask
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ IP 掩​​​​​​​码​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
gateway
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ IP 网​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
acpi
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​级​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​电​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

第 10 章 管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ CPU

Red Hat Virtualization allows a domain's virtual CPUs to associate with one or more host CPUs. This can be used to allocate real resources among one or more guests. This approach allows Red Hat Virtualization to make optimal use of processor resources when employing dual-core, hyperthreading, or other advanced CPU technologies. If you are running I/O intensive tasks, its typically better to dedicate either a hyperthread or entire core to run domain0. The Red Hat Virtualization credit scheduler automatically rebalances virtual cpus between physical ones, to maximize system use. The Red Hat Virtualization system allows the credit scheduler to move CPUs around as necessary, as long as the virtual CPU is pinned to a physical CPU.

第 11 章 移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​

移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​从​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​物​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​搬​​​​​​​迁​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​另​​​​​​​外​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​ — offline 和​​​​​​​ live。​​​​​​​Offline 移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​暂​​​​​​​停​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​转​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​恢​​​​​​​复​​​​​​​执​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​从​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​另​​​​​​​外​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​Live 移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​做​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​事​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​,但​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​影​​​​​​​响​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​执​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ live 移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,域​​​​​​​继​​​​​​​续​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​活​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​,从​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​角​​​​​​​度​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​没​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​值​​​​​​​得​​​​​​​注​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​初​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​ live 移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​,两​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​ xend 守​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​足​​​​​​​够​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​资​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​(如​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​)来​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​纳​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​带​​​​​​​宽​​​​​​​(bandwidth)。​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​体​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​结​​​​​​​构​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​扩​​​​​​​展​​​​​​​(如​​​​​​​ i386-VT、​​​​​​​x86-64-VT、​​​​​​​x86-64-SVM 等​​​​​​​)且​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ L2 子​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
When a domain migrates its MAC and IP addresses move with it. Only virtual machines with the same layer-2 network and subnets will successfully migrate. If the destination node is on a different subnet, the administrator must manually configure a suitable EtherIP or IP tunnel in the remote node of domain0. The xend daemon stops the domain and copies the job over to the new node and restarts it. The Red Hat Virtualization RPM does not enable migration from any other host except the localhost (see the /etc/xend-config.sxp file for information). To allow the migration target to accept incoming migration requests from remote hosts, you must modify the target's xen-relocation-hosts-allow parameter. Be sure to carefully restrict which hosts are allowed to migrate, since there is no authentication.
既​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​涉​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​消​​​​​​​耗​​​​​​​较​​​​​​​久​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​开​​​​​​​放​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​连​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​连​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​留​​​​​​​,SSH 连​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​仍​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​Red Hat虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ iptables 规​​​​​​​则​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​允​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​传​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​连​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​允​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​连​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ iptables 规​​​​​​​则​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ xm migrate 命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​执​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ offline 移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​:
xm migrate domain-id [destination domain]
你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ xm migrate 命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​执​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ live 移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​:
xm  migrate domain-id -l [destination domain]

You may need to reconnect to the domain's console on the new machine. You can use the xm console command to reconnect.

第 12 章 配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​

把​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​体​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​复​​​​​​​杂​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​,且​​​​​​​依​​​​​​​赖​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​础​​​​​​​架​​​​​​​构​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​义​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​署​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​太​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​桥​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Each domain network interface is connected to a virtual network interface in dom0 by a point to point link. These devices are vif <domid> and <vifid>. vif1.0 for the first interface in domain 1; vif3.1 for the second interface in domain 3.
Domain0 处​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​,对​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​桥​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​速​​​​​​​率​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​等​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​采​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​标​​​​​​​准​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ Linux 传​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​xend 守​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​ shell 脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​执​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​初​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​桥​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​义​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​桥​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Red Hat Virtualization's virtual networking is controlled by the two shell scripts, network-bridge and vif-bridge. xend calls these scripts when certain events occur. Arguments can be passed to the scripts to provide additional contextual information. These scripts are located in the /etc/xen/scripts directory. You can change script properties by modifying the xend-config.sxp configuration file located in the /etc/xen directory.
network-bridge — 当​​​​​​​ xend 启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​停​​​​​​​止​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​初​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​停​​​​​​​止​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​,初​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​桥​​​​​​​ xen—br0 并​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​ eth0 移​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​桥​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,且​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​ xend 最​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​退​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​删​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​桥​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​ eth0,由​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​恢​​​​​​​复​​​​​​​原​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ IP 和​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​由​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
vif-bridge - 对​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​调​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​防​​​​​​​火​​​​​​​墙​​​​​​​规​​​​​​​则​​​​​​​且​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​够​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​ vif 加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​适​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​桥​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​Red Hat虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​,如​​​​​​​ network-route、​​​​​​​network-nat、​​​​​​​vif-route, 和​​​​​​​ vif-nat。​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​义​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​变​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​替​​​​​​​代​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

第 13 章 设​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​ Domain0 的​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​

When deploying Red Hat Virtualization on your corporate infrastructure, you must ensure that domain0 cannot be compromised. Domain0 is the privileged domain that handles system management. If domain0 is insecure, all other domains in the system are vulnerable. There are several ways to implement security you should know about when integrating Red Hat Virtualization into your systems. Together with other people in your organization,you should create a 'deployment plan' that contains the operating specifications and services that will run on Red Hat Virtualization, and what is needed to support these services. Here are some security issues to consider when putting together a deployment plan:
  • 只​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​小​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ domain0 里​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​太​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​越​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​,安​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​越​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ SeLINUX 帮​​​​​​​助​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​ domain0 的​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​防​​​​​​​火​​​​​​​墙​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​ domain0 的​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​采​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ default-reject 规​​​​​​​则​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​防​​​​​​​火​​​​​​​墙​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​助​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​避​​​​​​​免​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​ domain0 的​​​​​​​攻​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​ facing 服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​很​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 不​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​允​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​普​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​访​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​ domain0。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​允​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​普​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​访​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​ domain0,这​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​致​​​​​​​ domain0 易​​​​​​​受​​​​​​​攻​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​记​​​​​​​住​​​​​​​,domain0 是​​​​​​​专​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​,允​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​非​​​​​​​专​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​帐​​​​​​​号​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​访​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​降​​​​​​​低​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​级​​​​​​​别​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

第 14 章 存​​​​​​​储​​​​​​​

有​​​​​​​几​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​储​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​ domain0 的​​​​​​​物​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​块​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​(硬​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​)作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​块​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​(virtual block device,VBD)导​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​直​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​从​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ file-backed 虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​块​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​,红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ LVM 和​​​​​​​ blktap。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​标​​​​​​​准​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​协​​​​​​​议​​​​​​​,如​​​​​​​ NFS、​​​​​​​CLVM 或​​​​​​​ iSCSI 来​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​储​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

第 15 章 用​​​​​​​ virsh 管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virsh 程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ libvirt management API 构​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ xm 工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​替​​​​​​​代​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​Unprivileged 用​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​读​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​打​​​​​​​算​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ xend/qemu,你​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​ xend/qemu 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​,重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​,xend/qemu 将​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​ virsh 用​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​ xm 工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ virsh。​​​​​​​

15.1. 连​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​监​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virsh 来​​​​​​​初​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​监​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​话​​​​​​​:
virsh connect <name>
Where <name> is the machine name of the hypervisor. If you want to initiate a read—only connection, append the above command with —readonly.

15.2. 创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​从​​​​​​​ XML 机​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​义​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​话​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​xm 创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​:
virsh create <path to XML configuration file>

15.3. 配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​ XML 转​​​​​​​储​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virsh 为​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​执​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​转​​​​​​​储​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
virsh dumpxml [domain-id | domain-name | domain-uuid]
This command outputs the domain information (in XML) to stdout . If you save the data to a file, you can use the create option to recreate the virtual machine.

15.4. 挂​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virsh 来​​​​​​​挂​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​某​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​:
virsh suspend [domain-id | domain-name |domain-uuid]
When a domain is in a suspended state, it still consumes system RAM. There will also be no disk or network I/O when suspended. This operation is immediate and the virtual machine must be restarted with the resume option.

15.5. 恢​​​​​​​复​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virsh 来​​​​​​​恢​​​​​​​复​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​挂​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​:
virsh resume [domain-id | domain-name | domain-uuid]
这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​立​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​,虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​状​​​​​​​态​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​处​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ suspend 和​​​​​​​ resume 的​​​​​​​循​​​​​​​环​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

15.6. 保​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virsh 来​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​状​​​​​​​态​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​:
virsh save [domain-name][domain-id | domain-uuid][filename]
This stops the virtual machine you specify and saves the data to a file, which may take some time given the amount of memory in use by your virtual machine. You can restore the state of the virtual machine with the restore option.

15.7. 恢​​​​​​​复​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​

You can use virsh to restore a virtual machine that you previously saved with the virsh save option:
virsh restore [filename]
This restarts the saved virtual machine, which may take some time. The virtual machine's name and UUID are preserved but are allocated for a new id.

15.8. 关​​​​​​​闭​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virsh 来​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​闭​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​:
virsh shutdown [domain-id | domain-name | domain-uuid]
通​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​ xmdomain.cfg 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ on_shutdown 参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

15.9. 重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virsh 来​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​:
virsh reboot [domain-id | domain-name | domain-uuid]
通​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​ xmdomain.cfg 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ on_reboot 参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

15.10. 终​​​​​​​止​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virsh 来​​​​​​​终​​​​​​​止​​​​​​​某​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​:
virsh destroy [domain-name | domain-id | domain-uuid]
This command does an immediate ungraceful shutdown and stops any guest domain sessions (which could potentially lead to file corruptted filesystems still in use by the virtual machine). You should use the destroy option only when the virtual machine's operating system is non-responsive. For a paravirtualized virtual machine, you should use the shutdown option.

15.11. 把​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​转​​​​​​​换​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ Domain ID

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virsh 把​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​ UUID 转​​​​​​​换​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ Domain ID。​​​​​​​
virsh domid [domain-name | domain-uuid]

15.12. 把​​​​​​​ Domain ID 转​​​​​​​换​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virsh 把​​​​​​​ Domain ID 或​​​​​​​ UUID 转​​​​​​​换​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​:
virsh domname [domain-name | domain-uuid]

15.13. 把​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​转​​​​​​​换​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ UUID

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virsh 把​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​转​​​​​​​换​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ UUID:
virsh domuuid [domain-id | domain-uuid]

15.14. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virsh 来​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​ domain ID、​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​ UUID 识​​​​​​​别​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​:
virsh dominfo [domain-id | domain-name | domain-uuid]

15.15. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​节​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virsh 来​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​节​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​:
virsh nodeinfo
输​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​类​​​​​​​似​​​​​​​:
CPU model                    x86_64
CPU (s)                      8
CPU frequency                2895 Mhz
CPU socket(s)                2      
Core(s) per socket           2
Threads per core:            2
Numa cell(s)                 1
Memory size:                 1046528 kb
这​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​节​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

15.16. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virsh 来​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​状​​​​​​​态​​​​​​​:
virsh list domain-name [ ——inactive  |  —— -all]
——inactive 选​​​​​​​项​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​活​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​(已​​​​​​​经​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​义​​​​​​​但​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​活​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​— -all 选​​​​​​​项​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​,包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​活​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​活​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​类​​​​​​​似​​​​​​​:
ID                 Name                 State
————————————————
0                   Domain0             running
1                   Domain202           paused
2                   Domain010           inactive
3                   Domain9600          crashed
这​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​六​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​状​​​​​​​态​​​​​​​:
running  lists domains currently active on the CPU

blocked  lists domains that are blocked

paused   lists domains that are suspended

shutdown lists domains that are in process of shutting down
 
shutoff  lists domains that are completely down.

crashed  lists domains that are crashed

15.17. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​ CPU 信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virsh 来​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​ CPU 信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​:
virsh vcpuinfo [domain-id | domain-name | domain-uuid]

15.18. 配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​ CPU 关​​​​​​​联​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virsh 来​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​ CPU 和​​​​​​​物​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ CPU 的​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​:
virsh vcpupin [domain-id | domain-name | domain-uuid] [vcpu] , [cpulist]
这​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ [vcpu] 是​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​ VCPU 的​​​​​​​号​​​​​​​码​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​ [cpulist] 列​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​物​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​ CPU 序​​​​​​​号​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

15.19. 配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​ CPU 的​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​

You can use virsh to modify a Virtual Machine's number of CPUs:
virsh setvcpus [domain-name | domain-id | domain-uuid] [count]
注​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​,新​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​超​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

15.20. 配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​

You can use virsh to modify a domain's memory allocation:
virsh setmem [domain-id | domain-name]  [count]
You must specify the [count] in kilobytes. Note that the new count cannot exceed the amount you specified when you created the Virtual Machine. Values lower than 64 MB probably won't work. You can adjust the Virtual Machine memory as necessary.

15.21. 配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​

You can use virsh to modify a Virtual Machine's maximum memory:
virsh setmaxmem  [domain-name | domain-id | domain-uuid] [count]
You must specify the [count] in kilobytes. Note that the new count cannot exceed the amount you specified when you created the Virtual Machine. Values lower than 64 MB probably won't work. The maximum memory doesn't affect the current use of the Virtual Machine (unless the new value is lower which should shrink memory usage).

15.22. Managing Virtual Networks

You can use virsh to manage virtual networks. To list virtual networks:
virsh net-list
This command generates output similar to:
[root@domain ~]# virsh net-list
Name                 State      Autostart
-----------------------------------------
default              active     yes      
vnet1	             active     yes      
vnet2	             active     yes
To view network information for a specific virtual network:
virsh net-dumpxml [vnet name]
This displays information about a specified virtual network in XML format:
	
[root@domain ~]# virsh net-dumpxml vnet1
<network>
  <name>vnet1</name>
  <uuid>98361b46-1581-acb7-1643-85a412626e70</uuid>
  <forward dev='eth0'/>
  <bridge name='vnet0' stp='on' forwardDelay='0' />
  <ip address='192.168.100.1' netmask='255.255.255.0'>
    <dhcp>
      <range start='192.168.100.128' end='192.168.100.254' />
    </dhcp>
  </ip>
</network>
Other virsh commands used in managing virtual networks are:
  • virsh net-autostart [network name] — Autostart a network specified as [network name]
  • virsh net-create [XML file] — Generates and starts a new network using a preexisting XML file
  • virsh net-define [XML file] — Generates a new network from a preexisting XML file without starting it
  • virsh net-destroy [network name] — Destroy a network specified as [network name]
  • virsh net-name [network UUID] — Convert a specified [network UUID] to a network name
  • virsh net-uuid [network name — Convert a specified [network name] to a network UUID
  • virsh net-start [name of an inactive network] — Starts a previously undefined inactive network
  • virsh net-undefine [name of an inactive network] — Undefine an inactive network

第 16 章 用​​​​​​​ xend 管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​

xend 节​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​守​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​执​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​某​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​与​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​守​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​资​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​,而​​​​​​​且​​​​​​​ xend 必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​与​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​交​​​​​​​互​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​ xend 之​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​编​​​​​​​辑​​​​​​​ xend 的​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​ xend-config.sxp 来​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ etc/xen 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ xend-config.sxp 配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​禁​​​​​​​止​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​:

表 16.1. 红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ xend 配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​

项​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​ 描​​​​​​​述​​​​​​​
console-limit
Determines the console server's memory buffer limit and assigns values on a per-domain basis
min-mem
给​​​​​​​ domain0 保​​​​​​​留​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​小​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​(以​​​​​​​ MB 为​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​),如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ 0,则​​​​​​​值​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​变​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
dom0 cpus
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ domain0 使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ CPU 数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​(缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​ CPU)
enable-dump
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​发​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​崩​​​​​​​溃​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​否​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​转​​​​​​​储​​​​​​​(缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ 0)
external-migration-tool
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​处​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​外​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​(脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ etc/xen/scripts/external-device-migrate
logfile
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​志​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​(缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ /var/log/xend.log
loglevel
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​志​​​​​​​模​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​:DEBUG、​​​​​​​INFO、​​​​​​​WARNING、​​​​​​​ERROR 或​​​​​​​ CRITICAL(缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ DEBUG)
network-script
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​环​​​​​​​境​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​(脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ etc/xen/scripts 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​)
xend-http-server
是​​​​​​​否​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ http stream 数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​(缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ no)
xend-unix-server
启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ unix 域​​​​​​​套​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​(套​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​终​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​处​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​底​​​​​​​层​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​连​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​受​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​拒​​​​​​​绝​​​​​​​转​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​连​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​
xend-relocation-server
启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​跨​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ relocation 服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​(缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ no)
xend-unix-path
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ xend-unix-server 命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​(缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ var/lib/xend/xend-socket
xend-port
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ http 管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​(缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ 8000)
xend-relocation-port
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ relocation 服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​(缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ 8002)
xend-relocation-address
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​允​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​
xend-address
指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​套​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​绑​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​
在​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​校​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​ xend 是​​​​​​​否​​​​​​​正​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​,如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​没​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​,就​​​​​​​初​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​ xend 守​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
service xend start
你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ xend 来​​​​​​​停​​​​​​​止​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​守​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​:
service xend stop
这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​停​​​​​​​止​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​守​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
你​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ xend 来​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​守​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​:
service xend restart
守​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​再​​​​​​​次​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​检​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​ xend 守​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​状​​​​​​​态​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
service xend status
The output displays the daemon's status.

第 17 章 用​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​(Virtual Machine Manager)管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​

本​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​描​​​​​​​述​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​Red Hat虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​(VMM)窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​话​​​​​​​框​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​界​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

17.1. 虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​架​​​​​​​构​​​​​​​

红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​软​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​组​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​组​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​起​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​(VMM)提​​​​​​​供​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​视​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ VMM 来​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​义​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​执​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​,包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​ CPU、​​​​​​​监​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​恢​​​​​​​复​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​暂​​​​​​​停​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​继​​​​​​​续​​​​​​​执​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​闭​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​允​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​访​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​从​​​​​​​底​​​​​​​层​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​硬​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​抽​​​​​​​象​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​ CPU 和​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​资​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​处​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​资​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​,且​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​态​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​给​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​芯​​​​​​​片​​​​​​​级​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ Intel VT 和​​​​​​​ AMD Pacifica 硬​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​监​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

17.2. Open Connection 窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​

This window appears first and prompts the user to choose a hypervisor session. Non-privileged users can initiate a read-only session. Root users can start a session with full blown read-write status. For normal use, select the Local Xen host option. You start the Virtual Machine Manager test mode by selecting the Other hypervisor and then type test:///default in the URL field beneath. Once in test mode, you can connect to a libvirt dummy hypervisor. Note that although the Remote Xen host screen is visible, the functionality to connect to such a host is not implemented into Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.1.
Virtual Machine Manager Connection window

图 17.1. Virtual Machine Manager Connection window

17.3. 虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​

这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​给​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​资​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​(包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​ domain0),你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​决​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​哪​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​段​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​双​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​某​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​双​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Display 按​​​​​​​钮​​​​​​​,将​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ Details 窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​访​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​ File 菜​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Virtual Machine Manager main window

图 17.2. Virtual Machine Manager main window

17.4. 虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​ Details 窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​

This window displays graphs and statistics of a guest's live resource utilization data available from the Red Hat Virtualization Virtual Machine Manager. The UUID field displays the globally unique identifier for the virtual machines(s).
Virtual Machine Manager Details window

图 17.3. Virtual Machine Manager Details window

17.5. 虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​

This window displays a virtual machine's graphical console. Paravirtual and full virtual machines use different techniques to export their local virtual framebuffers, but both technologies use VNC to make them available to the Virtual Machine Manager's console window. If your virtual machine is set to require authentication, the Virtual Machine Graphical console prompts you for a password before the display appears.
图​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​

图 17.4. 图​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​

Your local desktop can intercept key combinations (for example, Ctrl+Alt+F11) to prevent them from being sent to the guest machine. You can use the Virtual Machine Manager's 'sticky key' capability to send these sequences. You must press any modifier key (like Ctrl or Alt) 3 times and the key you specify gets treated as active until the next non-modifier key is pressed. Then you can send Ctrl-Alt-F11 to the guest by entering the key sequence 'Ctrl Ctrl Ctrl Alt+F1'.

17.6. Starting the Virtual Machine Manager

要​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​话​​​​​​​,在​​​​​​​ Applications 菜​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​,点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ System Tools,然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ Virtual Machine Manager 。​​​​​​​
虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
Starting the Virtual Machine Manager

图 17.5. Starting the Virtual Machine Manager

17.7. 创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​

虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​(virt-manager)是​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​桌​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
You can use Red Hat's Virtual Machine Manager to:
  • 创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • Configure or adjust a domain's resource allocation and virtual hardware.
  • 统​​​​​​​计​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​资​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​利​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​资​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​利​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​嵌​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ VNC 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​浏​​​​​​​览​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

注意

You must install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.1, virt-manager, and the kernel packages on all systems that require virtualization. All systems then must be booted and running the Red Hat Virtualization kernel.
下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​监​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​企​​​​​​​业​​​​​​​ Linux 5 上​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​:

过程 17.1. 创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​

  1. 在​​​​​​​ Applications 菜​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​,选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ System Tools,然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ Virtual Machine Manager。​​​​​​​
    虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    Virtual Machine Manager window

    图 17.6. Virtual Machine Manager window

  2. 在​​​​​​​ File 菜​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​,选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ New machine。​​​​​​​
    选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

    图 17.7. 选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​

    创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  3. Click Forward.
    创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​

    图 17.8. 创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​

  4. Enter the name of the new virtual system and then click Forward.
    命​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​

    图 17.9. 命​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​

  5. 输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​质​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​kickstart 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Forward 。​​​​​​​
    定​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​质​​​​​​​

    图 17.10. 定​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​质​​​​​​​

  6. 安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​物​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​某​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

    注意

    这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    SELinux policy only allows xen disk images to reside in /var/lib/xen/images.
    Open a terminal and create the /xen directory and set the SELinux policy with the command restorecon -v /xen. Specify your location and the size of the virtual disk, then click Forward.
    分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​储​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​

    图 17.11. 分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​储​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​

  7. Select memory to allocate the guest and the number of virtual CPUs then click Forward.
    分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​ CPU

    图 17.12. 分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​ CPU

  8. Select Forward to open a console and the files start to install.
    分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​ CPU

    图 17.13. 分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​ CPU

  9. 在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​开​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​...

    图 17.14. 安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​开​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​...

    警告

    When installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.1 on a fully virtualized guest, do not use the kernel-xen kernel. Using this kernel on fully virtualized guests can cause your system to hang.
    If you are using an Installation Number when installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.1 on a fully virtualized guest, be sure to deselect the Virtualization package group during the installation. The Virtualization package group option installs the kernel-xen kernel.
    Note that paravirtualized guests are not affected by this issue. Paravirtualized guests always use the kernel-xen kernel.
  10. Type xm create -c xen-guest to start the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.1 guest. Right click on the guest in the Virtual Machine Manager and choose Open to open a virtual console.
    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.1 (guest)

    图 17.15. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.1 (guest)

  11. 输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​密​​​​​​​码​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​继​​​​​​​续​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

17.8. 恢​​​​​​​复​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​

在​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​,系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​Domain 0 是​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​条​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​,说​​​​​​​明​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​没​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
恢​​​​​​​复​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​话​​​​​​​:
  1. 在​​​​​​​ File 菜​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​,选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ Restore a saved machine。​​​​​​​
    Restoring a Virtual Machine

    图 17.16. Restoring a Virtual Machine

  2. 恢​​​​​​​复​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​话​​​​​​​

    图 17.17. 选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​话​​​​​​​

  3. 导​​​​​​​航​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​正​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​话​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  4. 点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Open。​​​​​​​
保​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
被​​​​​​​恢​​​​​​​复​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​话​​​​​​​

图 17.18. 被​​​​​​​恢​​​​​​​复​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​话​​​​​​​

17.9. Displaying Virtual Machine Details

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​监​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​活​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
To view a virtual system's details:
  1. 在​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​,高​​​​​​​亮​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​

    图 17.19. 选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​

  2. 在​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ Edit 菜​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​,选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ Machine Details (或​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​底​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Details 按​​​​​​​钮​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​
    显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​细​​​​​​​节​​​​​​​菜​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​

    图 17.20. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​细​​​​​​​节​​​​​​​菜​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​

    Virtual Machine Details Overview 窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ CPU 和​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​ Virtual Machine Details Overview

    图 17.21. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​ Virtual Machine Details Overview

  3. 在​​​​​​​ Virtual Machine Details 窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​,点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Hardware 页​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    Virtual Machine Details Hardware 窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​ Virtual Machine Details Hardware

    图 17.22. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​ Virtual Machine Details Hardware

  4. 在​​​​​​​ Hardware 页​​​​​​​,点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Processor 可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​处​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​处​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​

    图 17.23. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​处​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​

  5. 在​​​​​​​ Hardware 窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​,点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Memory 可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​

    图 17.24. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​

  6. 在​​​​​​​ Hardware 页​​​​​​​,点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Disk 可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​硬​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​

    图 17.25. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​

  7. 在​​​​​​​ Hardware 页​​​​​​​,点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Network 可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​

    图 17.26. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​

17.10. Configuring Status Monitoring

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​状​​​​​​​态​​​​​​​监​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
要​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​状​​​​​​​态​​​​​​​监​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​:
  1. 在​​​​​​​ Edit 菜​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​,选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ Preferences。​​​​​​​
    改​​​​​​​变​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​首​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​项​​​​​​​

    图 17.27. 改​​​​​​​变​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​首​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​项​​​​​​​

    虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​首​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​项​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  2. 在​​​​​​​状​​​​​​​态​​​​​​​监​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​框​​​​​​​,指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​希​​​​​​​望​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​隔​​​​​​​(以​​​​​​​秒​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​
    Configuring Status Monitoring

    图 17.28. Configuring Status Monitoring

  3. 在​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​,指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​怎​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​打​​​​​​​开​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

17.11. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​ Domain ID

查​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ domain ID:
  1. 在​​​​​​​ View 菜​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​,选​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ Domain ID 复​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​框​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​ Domain-ID

    图 17.29. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​ Domain-ID

  2. The Virtual Machine Manager lists the Domain ID's for all domains on your system.
    显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​ Domain-ID

    图 17.30. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​ Domain-ID

17.12. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​状​​​​​​​态​​​​​​​

查​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​状​​​​​​​态​​​​​​​:
  1. 在​​​​​​​ View 菜​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​,选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ Status 复​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​框​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​状​​​​​​​态​​​​​​​

    图 17.31. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​状​​​​​​​态​​​​​​​

  2. 虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​状​​​​​​​态​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​状​​​​​​​态​​​​​​​

    图 17.32. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​状​​​​​​​态​​​​​​​

17.13. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​ CPU

查​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​ CPU 的​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​:
  1. 在​​​​​​​ View 菜​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​,选​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ Virtual CPUs 复​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​框​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​ CPU

    图 17.33. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​ CPU

  2. 虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​ CPU。​​​​​​​
    显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​ CPU

    图 17.34. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​ CPU

17.14. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​ CPU 的​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​

要​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ CPU 使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​:
  1. 在​​​​​​​ View 菜​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,选​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ CPU Usage 复​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​框​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​ CPU 的​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​

    图 17.35. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​ CPU 的​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​

  2. 虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ CPU 使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​百​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​比​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​ CPU 的​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​

    图 17.36. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​ CPU 的​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​

17.15. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​

要​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​:
  1. 在​​​​​​​ View 菜​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,选​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ Memory Usage 复​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​框​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​

    图 17.37. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​

  2. 虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​(以​​​​​​​ MB 为​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​)使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​百​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​比​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
    显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​

    图 17.38. 显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​

17.16. Managing a Virtual Network

To configure a virtual network on your system:
  1. From the Edit menu, select Host Details.
    Selecting Host Details

    图 17.39. Selecting Host Details

  2. This will open the Host Details menu. Click the Virtual Networks tab.
    Virtual Network Configuration

    图 17.40. Virtual Network Configuration

  3. All available virtual networks are listed on the left-hand box of the menu. You can edit the configuration of a virtual network by selecting it from this box and editing as you see fit.

17.17. Creating a Virtual Network

To create a virtual network on your system:
  1. Open the Host Details menu (refer to 第 17.16 节 “Managing a Virtual Network”) and click the Add button.
    Virtual Network Configuration

    图 17.41. Virtual Network Configuration

    This will open the Create a new virtual network menu. Click Forward to continue.
    Creating a new virtual network

    图 17.42. Creating a new virtual network

  2. Enter an appropriate name for your virtual network and click Forward.
    Naming your virtual network

    图 17.43. Naming your virtual network

  3. Enter an IPv4 address space for your virtual network and click Forward.
    Choosing an IPv4 address space

    图 17.44. Choosing an IPv4 address space

  4. Define the DHCP range for your virtual network by specifying a Start and End range of IP addresses. Click Forward to continue.
    Selecting the DHCP range

    图 17.45. Selecting the DHCP range

  5. Select how the virtual network should connect to the physical network.
    Connecting to physical network

    图 17.46. Connecting to physical network

    If you select Forwarding to physical network, choose whether the Destination should be NAT to any physical device or NAT to physical device eth0.
    Click Forward to continue.
  6. You are now ready to create the network. Check the configuration of your network and click Finish.
    Ready to create network

    图 17.47. Ready to create network

  7. The new virtual network is now available in the Virtual Network tab of the Host Details menu.
    New virtual network is now available

    图 17.48. New virtual network is now available

第 18 章 红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​故​​​​​​​障​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​

本​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​涵​​​​​​​盖​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​遇​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​潜​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​题​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​志​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​研​​​​​​​究​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​及​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​析​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​题​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​般​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

18.1. 日​​​​​​​志​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​概​​​​​​​述​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​

When deploying Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.1 with Virtualization into your network infrastructure, the host's Virtualization software uses many specific directories for important configuration, log files, and other utilities. All the Red Hat Virtualization logs files are standard ASCII files, and easily accessable with any ASCII based editor:
  • 红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ /etc/xen/。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​ xend 守​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​放​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​处​​​​​​​(在​​​​​​​ /scripts 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​
  • 所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​故​​​​​​​障​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​志​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​放​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ /var/log/xen 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 你​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​道​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​放​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ /var/lib/xen 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ /proc 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ /proc/xen/ 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

18.2. 日​​​​​​​志​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​描​​​​​​​述​​​​​​​

红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​ xend 守​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​ qemu-dm 进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​特​​​​​​​征​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​志​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​写​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​ /var/log/xen/ 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​:
  • xend.log 是​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​ xend 守​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​收​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​志​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​,不​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​普​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​事​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​,还​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​执​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​(如​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​闭​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​销​​​​​​​毁​​​​​​​等​​​​​​​等​​​​​​​)都​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​此​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​ xend.log 通​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​跟​​​​​​​踪​​​​​​​事​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​题​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​第​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​着​​​​​​​手​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​详​​​​​​​细​​​​​​​条​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​条​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • xend-debug.log 是​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​ xend 和​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​(如​​​​​​​ framebuffer、​​​​​​​Python 脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​等​​​​​​​等​​​​​​​)的​​​​​​​事​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​记​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​志​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • xen-hotplug-log 是​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​热​​​​​​​插​​​​​​​拔​​​​​​​事​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​志​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​没​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​,事​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​记​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • qemu-dm.[PID].log 是​​​​​​​ qemu-dm 进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​志​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​志​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ ps 命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​挑​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​ qemu-dm 的​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​获​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​ qemu-dm 的​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​号​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​注​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​际​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ qemu-dm 进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ PID 来​​​​​​​代​​​​​​​替​​​​​​​ [PID]。​​​​​​​
如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​遇​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ /.virt-manager 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ virt-manager.log 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​寻​​​​​​​找​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​注​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​次​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​覆​​​​​​​盖​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​志​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​,在​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​,请​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​ virt-manager.log 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

18.3. 重​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​

当​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​环​​​​​​​境​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​跟​​​​​​​踪​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​决​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​题​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​记​​​​​​​住​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​几​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​志​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​:
  • 虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ /var/lib/xen/images 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • 当​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​ xend 守​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​ /var/lib/xen/xend-db 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ xend-database 。​​​​​​​
  • 虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​转​​​​​​​储​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​(使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ xm dump-core 命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​)位​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ /var/lib/xen/dumps 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • /etc/xen 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​资​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​xend 守​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ xend-config.sxp ,你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​施​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​范​​​​​​​围​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​ callout。​​​​​​​
  • proc 命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​另​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​允​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​收​​​​​​​集​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​资​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​ proc 条​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ /proc/xen 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
/proc/xen/capabilities
/proc/xen/balloon
/proc/xen/xenbus/

18.4. 故​​​​​​​障​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​

本​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​总​​​​​​​结​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​员​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​高​​​​​​​级​​​​​​​调​​​​​​​试​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​(关​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​,请​​​​​​​参​​​​​​​考​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​档​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​标​​​​​​​准​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​员​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​志​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​协​​​​​​​助​​​​​​​故​​​​​​​障​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​:
  • xentop
  • xm dmesg
  • xm log
  • vmstat
  • iostat
  • lsof
你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​标​​​​​​​准​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​员​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​志​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​协​​​​​​​助​​​​​​​故​​​​​​​障​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​:
  • XenOprofile
  • systemTap
  • crash
  • sysrq
  • sysrq t
  • sysrq w
你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​协​​​​​​​助​​​​​​​故​​​​​​​障​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​:
  • ifconfig
  • tcpdump
  • brctl
brctl 是​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​ Linux 内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​检​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​太​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​桥​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​执​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​拥​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​根​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​权​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​:
# brctl show 

bridge-name    bridge-id          STP  enabled  interfaces  
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
xenbr0             8000.feffffff       no        vif13.0
xenbr1             8000.ffffefff       yes       pddummy0
xenbr2             8000.ffffffef       no        vif0.0

# brctl showmacs xenbr0

port-no           mac-addr                  local?       ageing timer

1                 fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:           yes            0.00
2                 fe:ff:ff:fe:ff:           yes            0.00


# brctl showstp xenbr0

xenbr0 

bridge-id              8000.fefffffffff

designated-root        8000.fefffffffff

root-port              0                   path-cost             0

max-age                20.00               bridge-max-age        20.00

hello-time             2.00                bridge-hello-time     2.00

forward-delay          0.00                bridge-forward-delay  0.00

ageing-time            300.01

hello-timer            1.43                tcn-timer             0.00

topology-change-timer  0.00                gc-timer              0.02

18.5. 利​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​志​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​故​​​​​​​障​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​

When encountering issues with installing Red Hat Virtualization, you can refer to the host system's two logs to assist with troubleshooting. The xend.log file contains the same basic information as when you run the xm log command. It resides in the /var/log/ directory. Here is an example log entry for when you create a domain running a kernel:
[2006-12-27 02:23:02 xend] ERROR (SrvBase: 163) op=create: Error creating domain: (0, 'Error')
Traceback (most recent call list)
File "/usr/lib/python2.4/site-packages/xen/xend/server/SrvBase.py" line 107 in_perform val = op_method (op,req)
File
"/usr/lib/python2.4/site-packages/xen/xend/server/SrvDomainDir.py line 71 in op_create
raise XendError ("Error creating domain: " + str(ex))
XendError: Error creating domain: (0, 'Error')
其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​志​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​, xend-debug.log ,对​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​员​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​非​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​,因​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​比​​​​​​​ xend.log 更​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​详​​​​​​​细​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​题​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​:
ERROR: Will only load images built for Xen v3.0
ERROR: Actually saw: GUEST_OS=netbsd, GUEST_VER=2.0, XEN_VER=2.0; LOADER=generic, BSD_SYMTAB'
ERROR: Error constructing guest OS
当​​​​​​​呼​​​​​​​叫​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​技​​​​​​​术​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​人​​​​​​​员​​​​​​​联​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,请​​​​​​​记​​​​​​​得​​​​​​​附​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​日​​​​​​​志​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​拷​​​​​​​贝​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

18.6. 用​​​​​​​串​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​故​​​​​​​障​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​

串​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​决​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​难​​​​​​​度​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​题​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​很​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​崩​​​​​​​溃​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​,且​​​​​​​监​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​(hypervisor)产​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​没​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​办​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​跟​​​​​​​踪​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​,串​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​允​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​远​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​捕​​​​​​​获​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​ Xen 主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​串​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​远​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​捕​​​​​​​获​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​ grub.conf 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​项​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ com1 /dev/ttyS0 上​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​速​​​​​​​率​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ 38400-bps 的​​​​​​​串​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​:
title Red Hat Enterprise Linix (2.6.18-8.2080_RHEL5xen0)
		root (hd0,2)
		kernel /xen.gz-2.6.18-8.el5 com1=38400,8n1 
		module /vmlinuz-2.618-8.el5xen ro root=LABEL=/rhgb quiet console=xvc console=tty xencons=xvc 	
        	module /initrd-2.6.18-8.el5xen.img
The sync_console can help determine a problem that causes hangs with asynchronous hypervisor console output, and the "pnpacpi=off" works around a problem that breaks input on the serial console. The parameters "console=ttyS0" and "console=tty" means that kernel errors get logged with on both the normal VGA console and on the serial console. Then you can install and set up ttywatch to capture the data on a remote host connected by a standard null-modem cable. For example, on the remote host you could type:
ttywatch --name myhost --port /dev/ttyS0
这​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​ /dev/ttyS0 的​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​ /var/log/ttywatch/myhost.log 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

18.7. 对​​​​​​​半​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​访​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​

半​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​ Domain0 操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​:
xm console [domain name or number]
在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​ domain100 代​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​号​​​​​​​码​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ Virtual Machine Details 窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ View 菜​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ Serial Console。​​​​​​​

18.8. 对​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​访​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​

Full Virtualized guest operating systems automatically has a text console configured for use, but the difference is the kernel guest is not configured. To enable the guest virtual serial console to work with the Full Virtualized guest, you must modify the guest's grub.conf file, and include the 'console =ttyS0 console=tty0' parameter. This ensures that the kernel messages are sent to the virtual serial console (and the normal graphical console). If you plan to use the virtual serial console in a full virtualized guest, you must edit the configuration file in the /etc/xen/ directory. On the host domain, you can then access the text console by typing:
xm console
你​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​串​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ Virtual Machine Details 窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ View 菜​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ Serial Console。​​​​​​​

18.9. 实​​​​​​​施​​​​​​​ Lun 持​​​​​​​久​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​

如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​没​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​径​​​​​​​(multipath),你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ udev 来​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​施​​​​​​​ lun 持​​​​​​​久​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​施​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​,请​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​获​​​​​​​得​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​正​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ UUID。​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​旦​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​获​​​​​​​得​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​ UUID,你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​编​​​​​​​辑​​​​​​​ /etc 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ scsi_id 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​ lun 持​​​​​​​久​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​编​​​​​​​辑​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​打​​​​​​​开​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​注​​​​​​​释​​​​​​​掉​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​:
# options=-b
然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​代​​​​​​​替​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​:
# options=-g
这​​​​​​​告​​​​​​​诉​​​​​​​ udev 来​​​​​​​监​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​返​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​ UUID 的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​ SCSI 设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​,要​​​​​​​获​​​​​​​取​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​ UUID,键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​:
# scsi_id  -g  -s  /block/sdc
输​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​:
[root@devices] # scsi_id -g -s /block/sdc
*3600a0b80001327510000015427b625e*
这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​长​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​符​​​​​​​串​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ UUID。​​​​​​​既​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​ UUID 是​​​​​​​与​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​无​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​,检​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​径​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​ UUID 号​​​​​​​码​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,UUID 不​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​变​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​旦​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​已​​​​​​​经​​​​​​​检​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​径​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​规​​​​​​​则​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​规​​​​​​​则​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​编​​​​​​​辑​​​​​​​ /etc/udev/rules.d 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ 20-names.rules 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​规​​​​​​​则​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​遵​​​​​​​循​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​格​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​:
# KERNEL="sd*",  BUS="scsi",  PROGRAM="sbin/scsi_id", RESULT="UUID", NAME="devicename"
用​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​检​​​​​​​索​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ UUID 替​​​​​​​换​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ UUID 和​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​规​​​​​​​则​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​象​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​:
 KERNEL="sd*",  BUS="scsi",  PROGRAM="sbin/scsi_id", RESULT="3600a0b80001327510000015427b625e
", NAME="mydevicename"

这​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​致​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​匹​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​ /dev/sd* 的​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​检​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​给​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ UUID。​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​发​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​匹​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​叫​​​​​​​ /dev/devicename 的​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​节​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​节​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ /dev/mydevice 。​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​ /etc 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ rc.local 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​附​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​径​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​:
/sbin/start_udev
用​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​径​​​​​​​(MULTIPATH)实​​​​​​​施​​​​​​​ LUN 持​​​​​​​久​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​
要​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​径​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​环​​​​​​​境​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​施​​​​​​​ lun 持​​​​​​​久​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​义​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​径​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​别​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​编​​​​​​​辑​​​​​​​ /etc/ 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ multipath.conf 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​义​​​​​​​四​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​别​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​:
multipath  {  
             wwid       3600a0b80001327510000015427b625e
             alias      oramp1
}
multipath  {  
             wwid       3600a0b80001327510000015427b6
             alias      oramp2
}
multipath  {  
             wwid       3600a0b80001327510000015427b625e
             alias      oramp3
}
multipath  {  
             wwid       3600a0b80001327510000015427b625e
             alias      oramp4
}
这​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​义​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​四​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​ lun: /dev/mpath/oramp1、​​​​​​​/dev/mpath/oramp2、​​​​​​​/dev/mpath/oramp3 和​​​​​​​ dev/mpath/oramp4。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ /dev/mpath 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​ lun 的​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​,因​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ LUN 的​​​​​​​ wwid 创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​别​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

18.10. SELinux 的​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​事​​​​​​​宜​​​​​​​

本​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​环​​​​​​​境​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​施​​​​​​​ SELinux 必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​考​​​​​​​虑​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​事​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​署​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​订​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​增​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​ SELinux 策​​​​​​​略​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​ LVM 卷​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​底​​​​​​​层​​​​​​​块​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​卷​​​​​​​组​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​ SELinux 上​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
# semanage fcontext -a -t xen_image _t -f -b /dev/sda2
# restorecon /dev/sda2
布​​​​​​​尔​​​​​​​值​​​​​​​参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​ xend_disable_trans 使​​​​​​​ xend 在​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ unconfined 模​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​禁​​​​​​​止​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​比​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​整​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​我​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​议​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​标​​​​​​​记​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ xen_image_t。​​​​​​​

18.11. 访​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​独​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​访​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​据​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​闭​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​从​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​ dom0 访​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​损​​​​​​​害​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ kpartx 程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​处​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​ LVM 卷​​​​​​​组​​​​​​​:
yum install kpartx
kpartx -av /dev/xen/guest1
add map guest1p1 : 0 208782 linear /dev/xen/guest1 63
add map guest1p2: 0 16563015 linear /dev/xen/guest1 208845
要​​​​​​​访​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​另​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ LVM 卷​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ vgscan 对​​​​​​​ LVM 进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​扫​​​​​​​描​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ vgchange -ay 命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​激​​​​​​​活​​​​​​​那​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​卷​​​​​​​组​​​​​​​(缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ VolGroup00):
# kpartx -a /dev/xen/guest1
#vgscan
Reading all physical volumes . This may take a while...
Found volume group "VolGroup00" using metadata type 1vm2
# vgchange -ay VolGroup00
2 logical volume(s) in volume group VolGroup00 now active.
# lvs
LV VG Attr Lsize Origin Snap% Move Log Copy%
LogVol00 VolGroup00 -wi-a- 5.06G
LogVol01 VolGroup00 -wi-a- 800.00M
# mount /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 /mnt/
....
#umount /mnt/
#vgchange -an VolGroup00
#kpartx -d /dev/xen/guest1
你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​记​​​​​​​住​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ vgchange -an 来​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​逻​​​​​​​辑​​​​​​​卷​​​​​​​无​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ kpartx-d 来​​​​​​​删​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​且​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ losetup -d 删​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

18.12. 常​​​​​​​见​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​故​​​​​​​障​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​

当​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​试​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​ xend 服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,什​​​​​​​么​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​没​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​发​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ xm list1 后​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​看​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​:
Error: Error connecting to xend: Connection refused. Is xend running?
当​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​尝​​​​​​​试​​​​​​​手​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ xend start 时​​​​​​​,发​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​:
Error: Could not obtain handle on privileged command interfaces (2 = No such file or directory)
Traceback (most recent call last:)

File "/usr/sbin/xend/", line 33 in ?

from xen.xend.server. import SrvDaemon

File "/usr/lib/python2.4/site-packages/xen/xend/server/SrvDaemon.py" , line 26 in ?
		
from xen.xend import XendDomain

File "/usr//lib/python2.4/site-packages/xen/xend/XendDomain.py" , line 33, in ?

from xen.xend import XendDomainInfo
		
File "/usr/lib/python2.4/site-packages/xen/xend/image.py" , line37, in ?

import images

File "/usr/lib/python2.4/site-packages/xen/xend/image.py" , line30, in ?

xc = xen.lowlevel.xc.xc ()

RuntimeError: (2, 'No such file or directory' )
最​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​原​​​​​​​因​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​非​​​​​​​ xen-hypervisor 的​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​决​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​题​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ xen-hypervisor 内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​(或​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ grub.conf 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​ xen-hypervisor 内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​项​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​

18.13. 回​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​

如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​增​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​(缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​允​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​ 8 个​​​​​​​活​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ 8 个​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​ /etc/modprobe.conf 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​ modprobe.conf 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​:
options loop max_loop=64
你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​代​​​​​​​替​​​​​​​ 64。​​​​​​​注​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​,在​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​想​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​反​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​ phy: block device 或​​​​​​​ tap:aio 设​​​​​​​备​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​半​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​,把​​​​​​​ phy: device 或​​​​​​​ file: file 用​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​

18.14. 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​

When you attempt to create a guest, you receive an "Invalid argument" error message. This usually means that the kernel image you are trying to boot is incompatible with the hypervisor. An example of this would be if you were attempting to run a non-PAE FC5 kernel on a PAE only FC6 hypervisor.
当​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ yum update 来​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,grub.conf 里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​项​​​​​​​切​​​​​​​换​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​普​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​而​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
要​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​决​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​题​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​ /etc/sysconfig/kernel/ 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​ RPM。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ gb.conf 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​ kernel-xen 参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​项​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

18.15. 串​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​串​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​受​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​决​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​题​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​ grub.conf 里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​串​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​:
serial  --unit=1  --speed=115200
title RHEL5 i386 Xen (2.6.18-1.2910.el5xen)
root (hd0, 8)
kernel /boot/xen.gz-2.6.18-1.2910.el5 com2=115200,8n1
module /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.18-1.2910.el5xen to root=LABEL=RHEL5_i386 console=tty console=ttyS1115200
module /boot/initrd-2.8.6.18-12910.el5xen.img

title RHEL5 i386 xen (2.6.18.-1.2910.el5xen
root (hd0, 8)
kernel /boot/xen.gz-2.6.18-1.2910.el5 com2=115200 console=com2l
module /boot/vmlinuz2.6.18-1.2910.el5xen to root=LABEL=RHEL5_i386 console=xvc xencons=xvc
module /boot/ititrd-2.6.18-1.2910.el5xen.img
这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​ grub.conf 的​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​串​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​正​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​够​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ ttyS ,如​​​​​​​ ttyS0 。​​​​​​​

18.16. 网​​​​​​​桥​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​

Red Hat Virtualization can configure multiple Virtualization network bridges to use with multiple ethernet cards. To successfully configure multiple network bridges for ethernet cards, you must configure the second network interface by either using the system-config-network TUI/GUI, or by creating a new configuration file in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts . You should use a process to setup multiple Xen bridges. This is an example config file for a second NIC called 'eth1' :
#/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/fcfg-eth1
DEVICE=eth1
BOOTPROTO=static
ONBOOT=yes
USERCTL=no
IPV6INIT=no
PEERDNS=yes
TYPE=Ethernet
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
IPADDR=10.1.1.1
GATEWAY=10.1.1.254
ARP=yes
把​​​​​​​ /etc/xen/scripts/network-bridge 复​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​ /etc/xen/scripts/network-bridge.xen 。​​​​​​​
Edit /etc/xen/xend-config.sxp and add a line to your new network bridge script (this example uses "network-virtualization-multi-bridge" ).
在​​​​​​​ xend-config.sxp 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,加​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​与​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​:
network-script network-xen-multi-bridge
请​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​注​​​​​​​释​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​:
network-script network-bridge
如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​想​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​ Xen 网​​​​​​​桥​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​义​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​ Xen 网​​​​​​​桥​​​​​​​(称​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ xenbr0 和​​​​​​​ xenbr1 )并​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​附​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​ eth1 和​​​​​​​ eth0
# !/bin/sh
# network-xen-multi-bridge
# Exit if anything goes wrong
set -e
# First arg is operation.
OP=$1
shift
script=/etc/xen/scripts/network-bridge.xen
case ${OP} in
start)
$script start vifnum=1 bridge=xenbr1 netdev=eth1
$script start vifnum=0 bridge=xenbr0 netdev=eth0
;;
stop)
$script stop vifnum=1 bridge=xenbr1 netdev=eth1
$script stop vifnum=0 bridge=xenbr0 netdev=eth0
;;
status)
$script status vifnum=1 bridge=xenbr1 netdev=eth1
$script status vifnum=0 bridge=xenbr0 netdev=eth0
;;
*)
echo 'Unknown command: ' ${OP}
echo 'Valid commands are: start, stop, status'
exit 1
esac
如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​想​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​桥​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​复​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​/粘​​​​​​​贴​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

18.17. 笔​​​​​​​记​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​

The task of configuring your RHEL 5.1 loaded laptop for use on a network environment, presents a number of potential challenges. Most WiFi and wired connections switch constantly during any given day, and Red Hat Virtualization assumes it has access to the same interface consistently. This results in the system performing ifup/ifdown calls to the network interface in use by Red Hat Virtualization. WiFi cards are not the ideal network connection method since Red Hat Virtualization uses the default network interface.
The idea here is to create a 'dummy' network interface for Red Hat Virtualization to use.
This technique allows you to use a hidden IP address space for your guests and Virtual Machines. To do this operation successfully, you must use static IP addresses as DHCP does not listen for IP addresses on the dummy network. You also must configure NAT/IP masquerading to enable network access for your guests and Virtual Machines. You should attach a static IP when you create the 'dummy' network interface.
在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,接​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​称​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ dummy0,IP 地​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ 10.1.1.1。​​​​​​​脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​称​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​ ifcfg-dummy0 并​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
DEVICE =dummy0
BOOTPROTO=none
ONBOOT=yes
USERCTL=no
IPV6INIT=no
PEERDNS=yes
TYPE=Ethernet
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
IPADDR=10.1.1.1
ARP=yes
你​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​ xenbr0 绑​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​至​​​​​​​ dummy0 ,这​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​即​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​物​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​断​​​​​​​开​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​允​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​连​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
You will need to make additional modifications to the xend-config.sxp file. You must locate the ( network-script 'network-bridge' bridge=xenbr0 ) section and add include this in the end of the line:
netdev=dummy0
You must also make some modifications to your guest's domU networking configuration to enable the default gateway to point to dummy0. You must edit the DomU 'network' file that resides in the /etc/sysconfig/ directory to reflect the example below:
NETWORKING=yes
HOSTNAME=localhost.localdomain
GATEWAY=10.1.1.1
			
IPADDR=10.1.1.10
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ domain0 里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ NAT 是​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​好​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​ domU 就​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​访​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​公​​​​​​​共​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,即​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​无​​​​​​​线​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​绕​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​无​​​​​​​线​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​,要​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​法​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​ /etc/rc3.d 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ S99XenLaptopNAT 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
#!/bin/bash
#
# XenLaptopNAT  Startup script for Xen on Laptops
#
# chkconfig: - 99 01
# description: Start NAT for Xen Laptops
#
# PATH=/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin
# export PATH
GATEWAYDEV=`ip route | grep default | awk {'print $5'}`
iptables -F
case "$1" in
start)
if test -z "$GATEWAYDEV"; then
echo "No gateway device found"
else
echo "Masquerading using $GATEWAYDEV"
/sbin/iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o $GATEWAYDEV -j MASQUERADE
fi
echo "Enabling IP forwarding"
echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
echo "IP forwarding set to `cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward`"
echo "done."
;;
*)
echo "Usage: $0 {start|restart|status}"
;;
esac
如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​想​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​络​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​ /etc/rc3.d/S99XenLaptopNAT 的​​​​​​​软​​​​​​​链​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
在​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​ modprobe.conf 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​括​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​:
alias dummy0 dummy
options dummy numdummies=1

18.18. Starting Domains Automatically During System Boot

Starting Domains Automatically During System Boot
你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​域​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​种​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​ /etc/xen/auto 里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​符​​​​​​​号​​​​​​​链​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​向​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​自​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​按​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​排​​​​​​​列​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​,客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​越​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​,引​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​越​​​​​​​长​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​告​​​​​​​诉​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​怎​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​ rhel5vm01 使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​符​​​​​​​号​​​​​​​链​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​:
[root@python xen]# cd /etc/xen
[root@python xen]# cd auto
[root@python auto]# ls
[root@python auto]# ln -s ../rhel5vm01 .
[root@python auto]# ls -l

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 14 Dec 14 10:02 rhel5vm01 -> ../rhel5vm01

[root@python auto]#

18.19. 修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​ Domain0

To use Red Hat Virtualization to manage domain0, you will constantly making changes to the grub.conf configuration file, that resides in the /etc directory. Because of the large number of domains to manage, many system administrators prefer to use the 'cut and paste' method when editing grub.conf . If you do this, make sure that you include all five lines in the Virtualization entry (or this will create system errors). If you require Xen hypervisor specific values, you must add them to the 'xen' line. This example represents a correct grub.conf Virtualization entry:
# boot=/dev/sda/
default=0
timeout=15
#splashimage=(hd0, 0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
hiddenmenu
serial --unit=0 --speed=115200 --word=8 --parity=no --stop=1
terminal --timeout=10 serial console
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.17-1.2519.4.21. el5xen)
        root (hd0, 0)
	kernel /xen.gz-2.6.17-1.2519.4.21.el5 com1=115200,8n1
	module /vmlinuz-2.6.17-1.2519.4.21el5xen ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00
	module /initrd-2.6.17-1.2519.4.21.el5xen.img
For example, if you need to change your dom0 hypervisor's memory to 256MB at boot time, you must edit the 'xen' line and append it with the correct entry, 'dom0_mem=256M' . This example represents the respective grub.conf xen entry:
# boot=/dev/sda
default=0
timeout=15
#splashimage=(hd0,0)/grubs/splash.xpm.gz
hiddenmenu
serial --unit=0 --speed =115200 --word=8 --parity=no --stop=1
terminal --timeout=10 serial console
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.17-1.2519.4.21. el5xen)
        root (hd0,0)
	kernel /xen.gz-2.6.17-1.2519.4.21.el5 com1=115200,8n1 dom0_mem=256MB
	module /vmlinuz-2.6.17-1.2519.4.21.el5xen ro
	root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00
	module /initrd-2.6.17-1.2519.4.21.el5xen.img

18.20. 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​

When you install new guests using virt-manager (or virt-install) tool(s) from Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.1 with Virtualization, the guests configuration files (located in the /etc/xen directory) get modified and setup automatically. This configuration file example is for a para-virtualized guest:
name = "rhel5vm01"
memory = "2048"
disk = ['tap:aio:/xen/images/rhel5vm01.dsk,xvda,w',]
vif = ["type=ieomu, mac=00:16:3e:09:f0:12 bridge=xenbr0', 
       "type=ieomu, mac=00:16:3e:09:f0:13 ]
vnc = 1
vncunused = 1
uuid = "302bd9ce-4f60-fc67-9e40-7a77d9b4e1ed"
bootloader = "/usr/bin/pygrub"
vcpus=2
on_reboot = "restart"
on_crash = "restart"
Note that the serial="pty" is the default for the configuration file. This configuration file example is for a fully-virtualized guest:
name = "rhel5u5-86_64"
builder = "hvm"
memory = 500
disk = ['file:/xen/images/rhel5u5-x86_64.dsk.hda,w']
vif = [ 'type=ioemu, mac=00:16:3e:09:f0:12, bridge=xenbr0', 'type=ieomu, mac=00:16:3e:09:f0:13, bridge=xenbr1']
uuid = "b10372f9-91d7-ao5f-12ff-372100c99af5'
device_model = "/usr/lib64/xen/bin/qemu-dm"
kernel = "/usr/lib/xen/boot/hvmloader/"
vnc = 1
vncunused = 1
apic = 1
acpi = 1
pae = 1
vcpus =1
serial ="pty" # enable serial console
on_boot = 'restart'

18.21. 克​​​​​​​隆​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​

You can copy (or clone) an existing configuration file to create an all new guest. You must modify the name parameter of the guests' configuration file. The new, unique name then appears in the hypervisor and is viewable by the management utilities. You must generate an all new UUID as well (using the uuidgen(1) command). Then for the vif entries you must define a unique MAC address for each guest (if you are copying a guest configuration from an existing guest, you can create a script to handle it). For the xen bridge information, if you move an existing guest configuration file to a new host, you must update the xenbr entry to match your local networking configuration. For the Device entries, you must modify the entries in the 'disk=' section to point to the correct guest image.
You must also modify these system configuration settings on your guest. You must modify the HOSTNAME entry of the /etc/sysconfig/network file to match the new guest's hostname.
你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​ /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ HWADDR 地​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​,使​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​ ifconfig eth0 的​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​符​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​想​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​静​​​​​​​态​​​​​​​ IP 地​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​ IPADDR 条​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

18.22. 创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​ MAC 地​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​

红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​每​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​ MAC 地​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​虽​​​​​​​然​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​子​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​几​​​​​​​乎​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​无​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​仍​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​获​​​​​​​得​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ MAC 地​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​绕​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​题​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​编​​​​​​​写​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​ MAC 地​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​ MAC 地​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​脚​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​:
#! /usr/bin/python
# macgen.py script generates a MAC address for Xen guests
#
import random
mac = [ 0x00, 0x16, 0x3e,
random.randint(0x00, 0x7f),
random.randint(0x00, 0xff),
random.randint(0x00, 0xff) ]
print ':'.join(map(lambda x: "%02x" % x, mac))

Generates e.g.:
00:16:3e:66:f5:77
to stdout

18.23. 配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ Live 移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​

Red Hat Virtualization can migrate virtual machines between other servers running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.1 with Virtualization. Further, migration is performed in an offline method (using the xm migrate command). Live migration can be done from the same command. However there are some additional modifications that you must do to the xend-config configuration file. This example identifies the entries that you must modify to ensure a successful migration:
(xend-relocation-server yes)
The default for this parameter is 'no', which keeps the relocation/migration server deactivated (unless on a trusted network) and the domain virtual memory is exchanged in raw form without encryption.
(xend-relocation-port 8002)
这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​ xend 用​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​请​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​注​​​​​​​释​​​​​​​去​​​​​​​掉​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
(xend-relocation-address )
在​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​ xend-relocation-server 后​​​​​​​,这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​侦​​​​​​​听​​​​​​​ relocation 套​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​连​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​址​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​限​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​特​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
(xend-relocation-hosts-allow )
This parameter controls the host that communicates with the relocation port. If the value is empty, then all incoming connections are allowed. You must change this to a space-separated sequences of regular expressions (such as xend-relocation-hosts-allow- '^localhost\\.localdomain$' ). A host with a fully qualified domain name or IP address that matches these expressions are accepted.
在​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​,使​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​受​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​参​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

18.24. 翻​​​​​​​译​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​

你​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​收​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​:
failed domain creation due to memory shortage, unable to balloon domain0
如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​没​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​足​​​​​​​够​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​,域​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​Domain0 没​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​足​​​​​​​够​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​纳​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​创​​​​​​​建​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​检​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​ xend.log 里​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​:
[2006-12-21] 20:33:31 xend 3198] DEBUG (balloon:133) Balloon: 558432 Kib free; 0 to scrub; need 1048576; retries: 20
[2006-12-21] 20:33:31 xend. XendDomainInfo 3198] ERROR (XendDomainInfo: 202
Domain construction failed
You can check the amount of memory in use by domain0 by using the xm list Domain0 command. If domain0 is not ballooned down, you can use the command "xm mem-set Domain-0 NewMemSize" to check memory.
你​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​收​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​:
wrong kernel image: non-PAE kernel on a PAE
This message indicates that you are trying to run an unsupported guest kernel image on your Hypervisor. This happens when you try to boot a non-PAE paravirtual guest kernel on a RHEL 5.1 hypervisor. Red Hat Virtualization only supports guest kernels with PAE and 64bit architectures.
键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​:
[root@smith]# xm create -c va base

Using config file "va-base"
Error: (22, 'invalid argument')
[2006-12-14 14:55:46 xend.XendDomainInfo 3874] ERRORs
(XendDomainInfo:202) Domain construction failed

Traceback (most recent call last)
File "/usr/lib/python2.4/site-packages/xen/xend/XendDomainInfo.py", line 195 in create vm.initDomain()
File " /usr/lib/python2.4/site-packages/xen/xend/XendDomainInfo.py", line 1363 in initDomain raise VmError(str(exn))
VmError: (22, 'Invalid argument')
[2006-12-14 14:55:46 xend.XendDomainInfo 3874] DEBUG (XenDomainInfo: 1449]
XendDlomainInfo.destroy: domin=1
[2006-12-14 14:55:46 xend.XendDomainInfo 3874] DEBUG (XenDomainInfo: 1457]
XendDlomainInfo.destroy:Domain(1)
如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ 32 位​​​​​​​/非​​​​​​​ PAE 内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​半​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​,如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ 32 位​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ PAE 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​ 32 位​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ PAE 监​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​半​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​,如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ 64 位​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ PAE 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​ 64 位​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ PAE 监​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ 64 位​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​监​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ 64 位​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​RHEL 5 i686 里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ 32 位​​​​​​​ PAE 监​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ 32 位​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​ 32 位​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​64 位​​​​​​​监​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​只​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​ 64 位​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
This happens when you move the full virtualized HVM guest onto a RHEL 5.1 system. Your guest may fail to boot and you will see an error in the console screen. Check the PAE entry in your configuration file and ensure that pae=1.You should use a 32bit distibution.
你​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​收​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​:
Unable to open a connection to the Xen hypervisor or daemon
当​​​​​​​ virt-manager 程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,会​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​题​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​ /etc/hosts 配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​没​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​ localhost 条​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​产​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​请​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​认​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​否​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​ localhost 条​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ localhost 条​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​:
# Do not remove the following line, or various programs
# that require network functionality will fail.
localhost.localdomain localhost
下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​正​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ localhost 条​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​例​​​​​​​:
# Do not remove the following line, or various programs
# that require network functionality will fail.
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost
localhost.localdomain. localhost
你​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​收​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​(在​​​​​​​ xen-xend.log file 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​):
Bridge xenbr1 does not exist!
This happens when the guest's bridge is incorrectly configured and this forces the Xen hotplug scipts to timeout. If you move configuration files between hosts, you must ensure that you update the guest configuration files to reflect network topology and configuration modifications. When you attempt to start a guest that has an incorrect or non-existent Xen bridge configuration, you will receive the following errors:
[root@trumble virt]# xm create r5b2-mySQL01

Using config file " r5b2-mySQL01"
Going to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.18.-1.2747 .el5xen)
kernel: /vmlinuz-2.6.18-12747.el5xen
initrd: /initrd-2.6.18-1.2747.el5xen.img
Error: Device 0 (vif) could not be connected. Hotplug scripts not working.
另​​​​​​​外​​​​​​​,xend.log 里​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​:
[2006-11-14 15:07:08 xend 3875] DEBUG (DevController:143) Waiting for devices vif
[2006-11-14 15:07:08 xend 3875] DEBUG (DevController:149) Waiting for 0
[2006-11-14 15:07:08 xend 3875] DEBUG (DevController:464) hotplugStatusCallback

/local/domain/0/backend/vif/2/0/hotplug-status

[2006-11-14 15:08:09 xend.XendDomainInfo 3875] DEBUG (XendDomainInfo:1449) XendDomainInfo.destroy: domid=2
[2006-11-14 15:08:09 xend.XendDomainInfo 3875] DEBUG (XendDomainInfo:1457) XendDomainInfo.destroyDomain(2)
[2006-11-14 15:07:08 xend 3875] DEBUG (DevController:464) hotplugStatusCallback

/local/domain/0/backend/vif/2/0/hotplug-status
要​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​决​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​题​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​编​​​​​​​辑​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​,并​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​ vif 条​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​找​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ vif 条​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​,假​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​ xenbr0 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​桥​​​​​​​,正​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​设​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​:
# vif = ['mac=00:16:3e:49:1d:11, bridge=xenbr0',]
你​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​收​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​ python 错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​:
[root@python xen]# xm shutdown win2k3xen12
[root@python xen]# xm create win2k3xen12

Using config file "win2k3xen12".

/usr/lib64/python2.4/site-packages/xenxm/opts.py:520: Deprecation Warning:
Non ASCII character '\xc0' in file win2k3xen12 on line 1, but no encoding
declared; see http://www.python.org/peps/pep-0263.html for details

execfile (defconfig, globs, locs,)
Error: invalid syntax 9win2k3xen12, line1)
当​​​​​​​遇​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​无​​​​​​​效​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​(或​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​正​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​)配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,Python 生​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​错​​​​​​​误​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​决​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​题​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​正​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​正​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​,或​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​生​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

18.25. 关​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​故​​​​​​​障​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​除​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​线​​​​​​​资​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​

第 19 章 其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​资​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​

要​​​​​​​学​​​​​​​习​​​​​​​更​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​Red Hat Virtualization的​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​识​​​​​​​,请​​​​​​​参​​​​​​​考​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​资​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

19.1. 有​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​站​​​​​​​

  • http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/research/srg/netos/xen/Xen™ 半​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​项​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​站​​​​​​​,Red Hat Virtualization源​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​项​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​站​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​维​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ Xen 项​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​二​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​源​​​​​​​码​​​​​​​,它​​​​​​​也​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​他​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​息​​​​​​​,如​​​​​​​架​​​​​​​构​​​​​​​概​​​​​​​述​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​档​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ Xen 及​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​相​​​​​​​关​​​​​​​技​​​​​​​术​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​链​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • http://www.libvirt.org/ — 和​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​ OS 的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​框​​​​​​​架​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​交​​​​​​​互​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ libvirt 虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​ API 的​​​​​​​官​​​​​​​方​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​站​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  • http://virt-manager.et.redhat.com/Virtual Machine Manager (virt-manager) (一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​序​​​​​​​)的​​​​​​​项​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​网​​​​​​​站​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

19.2. 安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​档​​​​​​​

  • /usr/share/doc/xen-<version-number>/ —. This directory contains a wealth of information about the Xen para-virtualization hypervisor and associated management tools, including a look at various example configurations, hardware-specific information, and the current Xen upstream user documentation.
  • man virsh and /usr/share/doc/libvirt-<version-number> — Contains subcommands and options for the virsh virtual machine management utility as well as comprehensive information about the libvirt virtualization library API.
  • /usr/share/doc/gnome-applet-vm-<version-number> — Documentation for the GNOME graphical panel applet that monitors and manages locally-running virtual machines.
  • /usr/share/doc/libvirt-python-<version-number> — Provides details on the Python bindings for the libvirt library. The libvirt-python package allows python developers to create programs that interface with the libvirt virtualization management library.
  • /usr/share/doc/python-virtinst-<version-number> — Provides documentation on the virt-install command that helps in starting installations of Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux related distributions inside of virtual machines.
  • /usr/share/doc/virt-manager-<version-number> — Provides documentation on the Virtual Machine Manager, which provides a graphical tool for administering virtual machines.

附录 A. 实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​ 1

Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​
目​​​​​​​标​​​​​​​:安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​ RHEL 3、​​​​​​​4 或​​​​​​​ 5 和​​​​​​​ Windows XP Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
先​​​​​​​决​​​​​​​条​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​:带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​组​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​企​​​​​​​业​​​​​​​ Linux 5.0 工​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​站​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​具​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​ RHEL 3、​​​​​​​4 或​​​​​​​ 5 和​​​​​​​ Windows XP Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​ 1:检​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​ PAE 的​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​
你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​检​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​否​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​ PAE。​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ x86_64 或​​​​​​​ ia64 CPU 的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​结​​​​​​​构​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​半​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​(para-virtualized)客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ i386 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​,系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​ PAE 支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ CPU。​​​​​​​许​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​老​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​笔​​​​​​​记​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​(尤​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​基​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​ Pentium Mobile 或​​​​​​​ Centrino 的​​​​​​​笔​​​​​​​记​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​)不​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​ PAE。​​​​​​​
  1. 要​​​​​​​检​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ CPU 是​​​​​​​否​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​ PAE,键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​:
        grep pae /proc/cpuinfo
    
  2. 下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​显​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​ CPU 支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​ PAE。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​没​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​返​​​​​​​回​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​,说​​​​​​​明​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​ CPU 不​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​ PAE。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​所​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​练​​​​​​​习​​​​​​​都​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​求​​​​​​​带​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​ PAE 扩​​​​​​​展​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ i386 CPU 或​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ x86_64 和​​​​​​​ ia64。​​​​​​​
    
        flags :
        fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic mtrr pge mca cmov pat clflush dts acpi
        mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss tm pbe nx up est tm2
    
    
实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​ 2:用​​​​​​​ virt-install 安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​ RHEL5 Beta 2 Xen 半​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virt-install 安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​企​​​​​​​业​​​​​​​ Linux 5 Beta 2 的​​​​​​​ Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  1. 要​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​企​​​​​​​业​​​​​​​ Linux 5 Beta 2 的​​​​​​​ Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​,在​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​:virt-install。​​​​​​​
  2. 当​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​询​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​否​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​:no。​​​​​​​
  3. 输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ rhel5b2-pv1 所​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​称​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  4. 输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ 500 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  5. 输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ /xen/rhel5b2-pv1.img 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​(客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​
  6. 输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ 6 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​(客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​)大​​​​​​​小​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  7. 输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ yes 来​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  8. 输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ nfs:server:/path/to/rhel5b2 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  9. 安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​开​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​象​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  10. 在​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​结​​​​​​​束​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​,键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ /etc/xen/rhel5b2-pv1,并​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​:#vnc=1#vncunused=1sdl=1
  11. 使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​编​​​​​​​辑​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​ /etc/inittab,并​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​容​​​​​​​附​​​​​​​加​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​:init 5.#id:3:initdefault:id:5:initdefault:
实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​ 3:用​​​​​​​ virt-manager 安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​ RHEL5 Beta 2 Xen 半​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virt-manager 来​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​企​​​​​​​业​​​​​​​ Linux 5 Beta 2 的​​​​​​​ Xen 半​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  1. 要​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​企​​​​​​​业​​​​​​​ Linux 5 Beta 2 的​​​​​​​ Xen 半​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​,在​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​:virt-manager。​​​​​​​
  2. 在​​​​​​​ Open Connection 窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​,选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ Local Xen host,然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Connect。​​​​​​​
  3. Start Red Hat's Virtual Machine Manager application, and from the File menu, click on New.
  4. 点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Forward。​​​​​​​
  5. 键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ rhel5b2-pv2 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​,然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Forward。​​​​​​​
  6. 选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ Paravirtualized, 并​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Forward。​​​​​​​
  7. 键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ nfs:server:/path/to/rhel5b2 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​质​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ URL,然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Forward。​​​​​​​
  8. 选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ Simple File,键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ /xen/rhel5b2-pv2.img 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ 6000 MB,然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Forward。​​​​​​​
  9. 选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ 500 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​,然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Forward。​​​​​​​
  10. 点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Finish。​​​​​​​
虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​象​​​​​​​往​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​结​​​​​​​束​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​ 4:检​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​ Intel-VT 或​​​​​​​ AMD-V 的​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​检​​​​​​​查​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​否​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​ Intel-VT 或​​​​​​​ AMD-V 硬​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​操​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ Intel-VT 或​​​​​​​ AMD-V 的​​​​​​​ CPU。​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​合​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ HVM 层​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​些​​​​​​​ CPU。​​​​​​​
  1. To determine if your CPU has Intel-VT or AMD-V support, type the following command: egrep -e 'vmx|svm' /proc/cpuinfo
  2. 下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​ CPU 支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​ Intel-VT:
    .flags :
        fpu tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic mtrr mca cmov pat clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse
        sse2 ss ht tm pbe constant_tsc pni monitor vmx est tm2 xtpr
    
    如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​没​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​,则​​​​​​​表​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​ CPU 不​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​ Intel-VT 或​​​​​​​ AMD-V。​​​​​​​
  3. 要​​​​​​​知​​​​​​​道​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ CPU 是​​​​​​​否​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​ Intel-VT 或​​​​​​​ AMD-V,键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​:
    cat /sys/hypervisor/properties/capabilities
  4. The following output shows that Intel-VT support has been enabled in the BIOS. If the command returns nothing, then go into the BIOS Setup Utlility and look for a setting related to 'Virtualization', i.e. 'Intel(R) Virtualization Technology' under 'CPU' section on a IBM T60p. Enable and save the setting and do a power off to take effect.
    
    xen-3.0-x86_32p hvm-3.0-x86_32 hvm-3.0-x86_32p
    
    
实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​ 5:用​​​​​​​ virt-install 安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​ RHEL5 Beta 2 Xen 完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virt-install 安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​企​​​​​​​业​​​​​​​ Linux 5 Beta 2 Xen 完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  1. 要​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​企​​​​​​​业​​​​​​​ Linux 5 Beta 2 的​​​​​​​ Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​,在​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​:virt-install。​​​​​​​
  2. 当​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ yes。​​​​​​​
  3. 键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ rhel5b2-pv2 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  4. 键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ 500 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  5. 键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ /xen/rhel5b2-fv1.img 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​(客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​)。​​​​​​​
  6. 输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ 6 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​磁​​​​​​​盘​​​​​​​(客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​)大​​​​​​​小​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  7. 键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ yes 来​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​图​​​​​​​形​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  8. 键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ /dev/cdrom 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​ CD 映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  9. The VNC viewer appears within the installation window. If there is an error message that says “​​​​​​​main: Unable to connect to host: Connection refused (111)”​​​​​​​, then type the following command to proceed: vncviewer localhost:5900. VNC port 5900 refers to the first Xen guest that is running on VNC. If it doesn't work, you might need to use 5901, 5902, etc.
安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​开​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​象​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​ 6:用​​​​​​​ virt-manager 安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​ RHEL5 Beta 2 Xen 完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virt-manager 安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​企​​​​​​​业​​​​​​​ Linux 5 Beta 2 Xen 完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​:
  1. 要​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​企​​​​​​​业​​​​​​​ Linux 5 Beta 2 的​​​​​​​ Xen 半​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​,在​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​提​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​:virt-manager。​​​​​​​
  2. 在​​​​​​​ Open Connection 窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​,选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ Local Xen host,并​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Connect。​​​​​​​
  3. Start Red Hat's Virtual Machine Monitor application, and from the File menu, click on New.
  4. 点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Forward。​​​​​​​
  5. 键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ rhel5b2-fv2 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​,然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Forward。​​​​​​​
  6. 选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ Fully virtualized,并​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Forward。​​​​​​​
  7. 指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ CD-ROM 或​​​​​​​ DVD,并​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​质​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​径​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​从​​​​​​​ ISO 映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​话​​​​​​​,指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ ISO 映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Forward。​​​​​​​
  8. 选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ Simple File,键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ /xen/rhel5b2-fv2.img 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ 6000 MB,并​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Forward。​​​​​​​
  9. 选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ 500 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​,然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Forward。​​​​​​​
  10. 点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Finish 。​​​​​​​
  11. 然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
如​​​​​​​往​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​结​​​​​​​束​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​ 7:用​​​​​​​ virt-manager 安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​ RHEL3 Xen 完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virt-manager 安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​企​​​​​​​业​​​​​​​ Linux 3 Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  1. 在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​采​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​ 6 相​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​说​​​​​​​明​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​ 8:用​​​​​​​ virt-manager 安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​ RHEL4 Xen 完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virt-manager 安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​企​​​​​​​业​​​​​​​ Linux 4 Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  1. 在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​采​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​ 6 相​​​​​​​同​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​说​​​​​​​明​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​ 9:使​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virt-manager 安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​ Windows XP Xen 完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ virt-manager 安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​全​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ Windows XP Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  1. 要​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ Windows XP 主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​企​​​​​​​业​​​​​​​ Linux 5,在​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​:virt-manager。​​​​​​​
  2. 在​​​​​​​ Open Connection 窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ Local Xen host,然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Connect。​​​​​​​
  3. Start Red Hat's Virtual Machine Manager application, and from the File menu click on New.
  4. 点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Forward。​​​​​​​
  5. 键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ winxp 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​名​​​​​​​,然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Forward。​​​​​​​
  6. 选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ Fully virtualized,并​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Forward。​​​​​​​
  7. 指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ CD-ROM 或​​​​​​​ DVD,然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​介​​​​​​​质​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​路​​​​​​​径​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​从​​​​​​​ ISO 映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​,指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ ISO 映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Forward。​​​​​​​
  8. 选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ Simple File,键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ /xen/winxp.img 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​位​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​指​​​​​​​定​​​​​​​ 6000 MB,并​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Forward。​​​​​​​
  9. 选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ 1024 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​最​​​​​​​大​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​内​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​,然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ 2 作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ VCPU 的​​​​​​​数​​​​​​​量​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Forward 。​​​​​​​
  10. 点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Finish。​​​​​​​
  11. 虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​象​​​​​​​往​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​结​​​​​​​束​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  12. 选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​ C:\ 分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​格​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ FAT 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​格​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​企​​​​​​​业​​​​​​​ Linux 5 没​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​ NTFS 内​​​​​​​核​​​​​​​模​​​​​​​块​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​想​​​​​​​把​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​区​​​​​​​格​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ NTFS 格​​​​​​​式​​​​​​​,挂​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​或​​​​​​​写​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​ Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​简​​​​​​​单​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​事​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  13. 在​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​第​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​次​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​系​​​​​​​统​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​,编​​​​​​​辑​​​​​​​ winxp 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​映​​​​​​​像​​​​​​​: losetup /dev/loop0 /xen/winxp.imgkpartx -av /dev/loop0mount /dev/mapper/loop0p1 /mntcp -prv $WINDOWS/i386 /mnt/。​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​复​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ Windows 安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​部​​​​​​​分​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​能​​​​​​​遇​​​​​​​到​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​问​​​​​​​题​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  14. 键​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ xm create -c winxp/ 手​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​ Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  15. 在​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​者​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​,选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ winxp Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Open。​​​​​​​
  16. 虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​会​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​现​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​象​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​结​​​​​​​束​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  17. Whenever a 'Files Needed' dialog box appears, change the path GLOBALROOT\DEVICE\CDROM0\I386 to C:\I386. Depending on your installation, you may or may not see this problem. You may be prompted for missing files during the installation. Changing the path to C:\I386 should compensate for this problem.
  18. 如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​ Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​控​​​​​​​制​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​了​​​​​​​,点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ shutdown,进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​: /etc/xen/winxp:#vnc=1#vncunused=1sdl=1#vcpus=2 。​​​​​​​
  19. 重​​​​​​​复​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​ 14 并​​​​​​​象​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​常​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​样​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​

附录 B. 实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​ 2

Live 移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​
目​​​​​​​标​​​​​​​:在​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​执​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ live 移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
先​​​​​​​决​​​​​​​条​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​:两​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​附​​​​​​​带​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​平​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​红​​​​​​​帽​​​​​​​企​​​​​​​业​​​​​​​ Linux 5.0 Beta 2 的​​​​​​​工​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​站​​​​​​​,其​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​ Fedora Core 6 Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​执​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
说​​​​​​​明​​​​​​​:在​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​开​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​之​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​
在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​:一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​ Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​共​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​储​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ UTP 电​​​​​​​缆​​​​​​​连​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ NFS 导​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​共​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​储​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​功​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​放​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​共​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​储​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​应​​​​​​​该​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​ streaming 服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​当​​​​​​​ live 移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​ streaming 服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​断​​​​​​​地​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​ 2,这​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​虚​​​​​​​拟​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​被​​​​​​​称​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ host1 和​​​​​​​ host2 。​​​​​​​
步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​ 1:配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​ xend(两​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​ Xen 主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​)
在​​​​​​​本​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​ xend 来​​​​​​​作​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​ HTTP 服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​ relocation 服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​缺​​​​​​​省​​​​​​​情​​​​​​​况​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​,xend 守​​​​​​​护​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​不​​​​​​​初​​​​​​​始​​​​​​​化​​​​​​​ HTTP 服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​ UNIX 域​​​​​​​套​​​​​​​接​​​​​​​字​​​​​​​管​​​​​​​理​​​​​​​服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​(xm)并​​​​​​​与​​​​​​​ xend 进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​通​​​​​​​信​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​跨​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ live 移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​必​​​​​​​须​​​​​​​对​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​:
  1. 备​​​​​​​份​​​​​​​ xend-config.sxp 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​:
        cp -pr /etc/xen/xend-config.sxp /etc/xen/xend-config.sxp.default
    
  2. 编​​​​​​​辑​​​​​​​ /etc/xen/xend-config.sxp 并​​​​​​​进​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​:
    #(xend-unix-server yes)(xend-relocation-server
        yes)(xend-relocation-port 8002)(xend-relocation-address
        '')(xend-relocation-hosts-allow '')#(xend-relocation-hosts-allow '^localhost$
        ^localhost\\.localdomain$')
    
  3. 重​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​ xend:service 并​​​​​​​ xend restart。​​​​​​​
步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​ 2:通​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​ NFS 导​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​共​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​储​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​
在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​过​​​​​​​程​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​ NFS 并​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​导​​​​​​​出​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​共​​​​​​​享​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​储​​​​​​​空​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  1. 编​​​​​​​辑​​​​​​​ /etc/exports 并​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​含​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​:/xen *(rw,sync,no_root_squash)/
  2. 保​​​​​​​存​​​​​​​ /etc/exports 并​​​​​​​重​​​​​​​新​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​ NFS 服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​确​​​​​​​保​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​ default:service nfs startchkconfig nfs on 启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​ NFS 服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  3. 在​​​​​​​ host1 上​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​ NFS 服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​,我​​​​​​​们​​​​​​​就​​​​​​​可​​​​​​​以​​​​​​​挂​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​:host2:mount host1:/xen 。​​​​​​​
  4. 现​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ host1 上​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​ Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ fc6-pv1 (或​​​​​​​实​​​​​​​验​​​​​​​ 1 里​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ fc6-pv2 ):
    xm create -c fc6-pv1
    
步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​ 3:安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​ Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ streaming 服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​
在​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​,你​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​用​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​演​​​​​​​示​​​​​​​目​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​ streaming 服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​:gnump3d。​​​​​​​你​​​​​​​将​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ gnump3d,因​​​​​​​为​​​​​​​它​​​​​​​支​​​​​​​持​​​​​​​ OGG vorbis 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​且​​​​​​​易​​​​​​​于​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​和​​​​​​​修​​​​​​​改​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  1. 从​​​​​​​ http://www.gnump3d.org/ 下​​​​​​​载​​​​​​​ gnump3d-2.9.9.9.tar.bz2 tarball。​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​ gnump3d-2.9.9.9/ 目​​​​​​​录​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​解​​​​​​​压​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​ tarball 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​、​​​​​​​编​​​​​​​译​​​​​​​并​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​: gnump3d application:tar xvjf gnump3d-2.9.9.9.tar.bz2cd gnump3d-2.9.9.9/make install
  2. Create a /home/mp3 directory and copy TruthHappens.ogg from Red Hat's Truth Happens page to mkdir /home/mp3wget -c http://www.redhat.com/v/ogg/TruthHappens.ogg
  3. 输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​来​​​​​​​启​​​​​​​动​​​​​​​ streaming 服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​
     command:gnump3d
    
  4. 在​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​ Xen 主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​任​​​​​​​何​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​,运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ Movie Player。​​​​​​​如​​​​​​​果​​​​​​​没​​​​​​​有​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​,在​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ Movie Player 之​​​​​​​前​​​​​​​安​​​​​​​装​​​​​​​ totem 和​​​​​​​ iso-codecs 软​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​包​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Applications,然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​是​​​​​​​ Sound & Video,最​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​选​​​​​​​择​​​​​​​ Movie Player。​​​​​​​
  5. 点​​​​​​​击​​​​​​​ Movie,然​​​​​​​后​​​​​​​ Open Location,输​​​​​​​入​​​​​​​ http://guest:8888/TruthHappens.ogg。​​​​​​​
步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​ 4:执​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ live 移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​
  1. 在​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​ Xen 主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​其​​​​​​​中​​​​​​​一​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​运​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​ TruthHappens.ogg 文​​​​​​​件​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
  2. 执​​​​​​​行​​​​​​​从​​​​​​​ host1 到​​​​​​​ host2 的​​​​​​​ live 移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​:
    xm migrate –live fc6-pv1 host2
    
  3. 用​​​​​​​下​​​​​​​面​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​命​​​​​​​令​​​​​​​在​​​​​​​两​​​​​​​台​​​​​​​ Xen 主​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​上​​​​​​​打​​​​​​​开​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​窗​​​​​​​口​​​​​​​终​​​​​​​端​​​​​​​:
    watch -n1 xm list
    
  4. 观​​​​​​​察​​​​​​​ live 移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​注​​​​​​​意​​​​​​​完​​​​​​​成​​​​​​​这​​​​​​​个​​​​​​​移​​​​​​​植​​​​​​​需​​​​​​​要​​​​​​​多​​​​​​​少​​​​​​​时​​​​​​​间​​​​​​​。​​​​​​​
挑​​​​​​​战​​​​​​​性​​​​​​​的​​​​​​​步​​​​​​​骤​​​​​​​:在​​​​​​​ Xen 客​​​​​​​户​​​​​​​机​​​​​​​里​​​​​​​配​​​​​​​置​​​​​​​ VNC 服​​​​​​​务​​​​​​​器​​​​​​​
If time permits, from within the Xen guest, configure the VNC server to initiate when gdm starts up. Run VNC viewer and connect to the Xen guest. Play with the Xen guest when the live migration occurs. Attempt to pause/resume, and save/restore the Xen guest and observe what happens to the VNC viewer. If you connect to the VNC viewer via localhost:590x, and do a live migration, you won't be able to connect to the VNC viewer again when it dies. This is a known bug.

附录 C. Revision History

修订历史
修订 2.0-11.4002013-10-31Rüdiger Landmann
Rebuild with publican 4.0.0
修订 2.0-112012-07-18Anthony Towns
Rebuild for Publican 3.0
修订 5.1.0-10Fri Aug 3 2007Michael Hideo Smith
Resolves: #245684
Content Updates

法律通告

Copyright © 2007 Red Hat Inc..
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