28.4. Opzioni di kickstart

The following options can be placed in a kickstart file. If you prefer to use a graphical interface for creating your kickstart file, use the Kickstart Configurator application. Refer to Capitolo 29, Kickstart Configurator for details.

Nota

Se l'opzione è seguita dal carattere di uguale (=), dopo di esso occorre specificare un valore. Nei comandi di esempio, le opzioni in parentesi ([]) sono argomenti facoltativi per il comando.
autopart (facoltativo)
Automatically create partitions — 1 GB or more root (/) partition, a swap partition, and an appropriate boot partition for the architecture. One or more of the default partition sizes can be redefined with the part directive.
ignoredisk (facoltativo)
Causes the installer to ignore the specified disks. This is useful if you use autopartition and want to be sure that some disks are ignored. For example, without ignoredisk, attempting to deploy on a SAN-cluster the kickstart would fail, as the installer detects passive paths to the SAN that return no partition table.
L'opzione ignoredisk è molto utile se siete in possesso di percorsi multipli per i vostri dischi.
La sintassi è:
ignoredisk --drives=drive1,drive2,...
dove driveN è uno tra sda, sdb,..., hda,... ecc.
autostep (facoltativo)
Similar to interactive except it goes to the next screen for you. It is used mostly for debugging.
  • --autoscreenshot — Take a screenshot at every step during installation and copy the images over to /root/anaconda-screenshots after installation is complete. This is most useful for documentation.
auth o authconfig (necessari)
Sets up the authentication options for the system. It is similar to the authconfig command, which can be run after the install. By default, passwords are normally encrypted and are not shadowed.
  • --enablemd5 — Use md5 encryption for user passwords.
  • --enablenis — Turns on NIS support. By default, --enablenis uses whatever domain it finds on the network. A domain should almost always be set by hand with the --nisdomain= option.
  • --nisdomain= — NIS domain name to use for NIS services.
  • --nisserver= — Server to use for NIS services (broadcasts by default).
  • --useshadow or --enableshadow — Use shadow passwords.
  • --enableldap — Turns on LDAP support in /etc/nsswitch.conf, allowing your system to retrieve information about users (UIDs, home directories, shells, etc.) from an LDAP directory. To use this option, you must install the nss_ldap package. You must also specify a server and a base DN (distinguished name) with --ldapserver= and --ldapbasedn=.
  • --enableldapauth — Use LDAP as an authentication method. This enables the pam_ldap module for authentication and changing passwords, using an LDAP directory. To use this option, you must have the nss_ldap package installed. You must also specify a server and a base DN with --ldapserver= and --ldapbasedn=.
  • --ldapserver= — If you specified either --enableldap or --enableldapauth, use this option to specify the name of the LDAP server to use. This option is set in the /etc/ldap.conf file.
  • --ldapbasedn= — If you specified either --enableldap or --enableldapauth, use this option to specify the DN in your LDAP directory tree under which user information is stored. This option is set in the /etc/ldap.conf file.
  • --enableldaptls — Use TLS (Transport Layer Security) lookups. This option allows LDAP to send encrypted usernames and passwords to an LDAP server before authentication.
  • --enablekrb5 — Use Kerberos 5 for authenticating users. Kerberos itself does not know about home directories, UIDs, or shells. If you enable Kerberos, you must make users' accounts known to this workstation by enabling LDAP, NIS, or Hesiod or by using the /usr/sbin/useradd command. If you use this option, you must have the pam_krb5 package installed.
  • --krb5realm= — The Kerberos 5 realm to which your workstation belongs.
  • --krb5kdc= — The KDC (or KDCs) that serve requests for the realm. If you have multiple KDCs in your realm, separate their names with commas (,).
  • --krb5adminserver= — The KDC in your realm that is also running kadmind. This server handles password changing and other administrative requests. This server must be run on the master KDC if you have more than one KDC.
  • --enablehesiod — Enable Hesiod support for looking up user home directories, UIDs, and shells. More information on setting up and using Hesiod on your network is in /usr/share/doc/glibc-2.x.x/README.hesiod, which is included in the glibc package. Hesiod is an extension of DNS that uses DNS records to store information about users, groups, and various other items.
  • --hesiodlhs — The Hesiod LHS ("left-hand side") option, set in /etc/hesiod.conf. This option is used by the Hesiod library to determine the name to search DNS for when looking up information, similar to LDAP's use of a base DN.
  • --hesiodrhs — The Hesiod RHS ("right-hand side") option, set in /etc/hesiod.conf. This option is used by the Hesiod library to determine the name to search DNS for when looking up information, similar to LDAP's use of a base DN.

    Nota

    To look up user information for "jim", the Hesiod library looks up jim.passwd<LHS><RHS>, which should resolve to a TXT record that looks like what his passwd entry would look like (jim:*:501:501:Jungle Jim:/home/jim:/bin/bash). For groups, the situation is identical, except jim.group<LHS><RHS> would be used.
    Looking up users and groups by number is handled by making "501.uid" a CNAME for "jim.passwd", and "501.gid" a CNAME for "jim.group". Note that the library does not place a period . in front of the LHS and RHS values when performing a search. Therefore the LHS and RHS values need to have a period placed in front of them in order if they require this.
  • --enablesmbauth — Enables authentication of users against an SMB server (typically a Samba or Windows server). SMB authentication support does not know about home directories, UIDs, or shells. If you enable SMB, you must make users' accounts known to the workstation by enabling LDAP, NIS, or Hesiod or by using the /usr/sbin/useradd command to make their accounts known to the workstation. To use this option, you must have the pam_smb package installed.
  • --smbservers= — The name of the server(s) to use for SMB authentication. To specify more than one server, separate the names with commas (,).
  • --smbworkgroup= — The name of the workgroup for the SMB servers.
  • --enablecache — Enables the nscd service. The nscd service caches information about users, groups, and various other types of information. Caching is especially helpful if you choose to distribute information about users and groups over your network using NIS, LDAP, or hesiod.
bootloader (necessario)
Specifies how the boot loader should be installed. This option is required for both installations and upgrades.
  • --append= — Specifies kernel parameters. To specify multiple parameters, separate them with spaces. For example:
    bootloader --location=mbr --append="hdd=ide-scsi ide=nodma"
  • --driveorder — Specify which drive is first in the BIOS boot order. For example:
    bootloader --driveorder=sda,hda
  • --location= — Specifies where the boot record is written. Valid values are the following: mbr (the default), partition (installs the boot loader on the first sector of the partition containing the kernel), or none (do not install the boot loader).
  • --password= — If using GRUB, sets the GRUB boot loader password to the one specified with this option. This should be used to restrict access to the GRUB shell, where arbitrary kernel options can be passed.
  • --md5pass= — If using GRUB, similar to --password= except the password should already be encrypted.
  • --upgrade — Upgrade the existing boot loader configuration, preserving the old entries. This option is only available for upgrades.
clearpart (opzionale)
Removes partitions from the system, prior to creation of new partitions. By default, no partitions are removed.

Nota

Se usate il comando clearpart, allora non sarà possibile usare il comando --onpart su di una partizione logica.
  • --all — Erases all partitions from the system.
  • --drives= — Specifies which drives to clear partitions from. For example, the following clears all the partitions on the first two drives on the primary IDE controller:
    clearpart --drives=hda,hdb --all
  • --initlabel — Initializes the disk label to the default for your architecture (for example msdos for x86 and gpt for Itanium). It is useful so that the installation program does not ask if it should initialize the disk label if installing to a brand new hard drive.
  • --linux — Erases all Linux partitions.
  • --none (default) — Do not remove any partitions.
cmdline (opzionale)
Perform the installation in a completely non-interactive command line mode. Any prompts for interaction halts the install. This mode is useful on IBM System z systems with the x3270 console.
device (opzionale)
On most PCI systems, the installation program autoprobes for Ethernet and SCSI cards properly. On older systems and some PCI systems, however, kickstart needs a hint to find the proper devices. The device command, which tells the installation program to install extra modules, is in this format:
device <type> <moduleName> --opts=<options>
  • <type> — Replace with either scsi or eth.
  • <moduleName> — Replace with the name of the kernel module which should be installed.
  • --opts= — Mount options to use for mounting the NFS export. Any options that can be specified in /etc/fstab for an NFS mount are allowed. The options are listed in the nfs(5) man page. Multiple options are separated with a comma.
driverdisk (opzionale)
Driver diskettes can be used during kickstart installations. You must copy the driver diskettes's contents to the root directory of a partition on the system's hard drive. Then you must use the driverdisk command to tell the installation program where to look for the driver disk.
driverdisk <partition> [--type=<fstype>]
Alternativamente, può essere specificata una posizione di rete per il dischetto dell'unità:
driverdisk --source=ftp://path/to/dd.img
driverdisk --source=http://path/to/dd.img
driverdisk --source=nfs:host:/path/to/img
  • <partition> — Partition containing the driver disk.
  • --type= — File system type (for example, vfat or ext2).
firewall (opzionale)
This option corresponds to the Firewall Configuration screen in the installation program:
firewall --enabled|--disabled [--trust=] <device> [--port=]
  • --enabled or --enable — Reject incoming connections that are not in response to outbound requests, such as DNS replies or DHCP requests. If access to services running on this machine is needed, you can choose to allow specific services through the firewall.
  • --disabled or --disable — Do not configure any iptables rules.
  • --trust= — Listing a device here, such as eth0, allows all traffic coming from that device to go through the firewall. To list more than one device, use --trust eth0 --trust eth1. Do NOT use a comma-separated format such as --trust eth0, eth1.
  • <incoming> — Replace with one or more of the following to allow the specified services through the firewall.
    • --ssh
    • --telnet
    • --smtp
    • --http
    • --ftp
  • --port= — You can specify that ports be allowed through the firewall using the port:protocol format. For example, to allow IMAP access through your firewall, specify imap:tcp. Numeric ports can also be specified explicitly; for example, to allow UDP packets on port 1234 through, specify 1234:udp. To specify multiple ports, separate them by commas.
firstboot (opzionale)
Determine whether the Setup Agent starts the first time the system is booted. If enabled, the firstboot package must be installed. If not specified, this option is disabled by default.
  • --enable or --enabled — The Setup Agent is started the first time the system boots.
  • --disable or --disabled — The Setup Agent is not started the first time the system boots.
  • --reconfig — Enable the Setup Agent to start at boot time in reconfiguration mode. This mode enables the language, mouse, keyboard, root password, security level, time zone, and networking configuration options in addition to the default ones.
halt (opzionale)
Halt the system after the installation has successfully completed. This is similar to a manual installation, where anaconda displays a message and waits for the user to press a key before rebooting. During a kickstart installation, if no completion method is specified, the reboot option is used as default.
L'opzione halt è equivalente al comando shutdown -h.
Per altri metodi di completamento consultate le opzioni kickstart poweroff, reboot, e shutdown.
graphical (opzionale)
Perform the kickstart installation in graphical mode. This is the default.
install (opzionale)
Tells the system to install a fresh system rather than upgrade an existing system. This is the default mode. For installation, you must specify the type of installation from cdrom, harddrive, nfs, or url (for FTP or HTTP installations). The install command and the installation method command must be on separate lines.
  • cdrom — Install from the first CD-ROM drive on the system.
  • harddrive — Install from a Red Hat installation tree on a local drive, which must be either vfat or ext2.
    • --biospart=
      Partizione BIOS da installare da (ad esempio 82).
    • --partition=
      Partizione da installare da (ad esempio sdb2).
    • --dir=
      Directory contenente la directory variant dell'albero d'installazione.
    Per esempio:
    harddrive --partition=hdb2 --dir=/tmp/install-tree
  • nfs — Install from the NFS server specified.
    • --server=
      Server dal quale installare (hostname o IP).
    • --dir=
      Directory contenente la directory variant dell'albero d'installazione.
    • --opts=
      Opzioni di montaggio da usare per montare l'esportazione NFS. (opzionale)
    Per esempio:
    nfs --server=nfsserver.example.com --dir=/tmp/install-tree
  • url — Install from an installation tree on a remote server via FTP or HTTP.
    Per esempio:
    url --url http://<server>/<dir>
    or:
    url --url ftp://<username>:<password>@<server>/<dir>
interactive (opzionale)
Uses the information provided in the kickstart file during the installation, but allow for inspection and modification of the values given. You are presented with each screen of the installation program with the values from the kickstart file. Either accept the values by clicking Next or change the values and click Next to continue. Refer to the autostep command.
iscsi (opzionale)
issci --ipaddr= [options].
  • --target
  • --port=
  • --user=
  • --password=
key (opzionale)
Specify an installation key, which is needed to aid in package selection and identify your system for support purposes. This command is Red Hat Enterprise Linux-specific; it has no meaning for Fedora and will be ignored.
  • --skip — Skip entering a key. Usually if the key command is not given, anaconda will pause at this step to prompt for a key. This option allows automated installation to continue if you do not have a key or do not want to provide one.
keyboard (necessario)
Sets system keyboard type. Here is the list of available keyboards on i386, Itanium, and Alpha machines:
be-latin1, bg, br-abnt2, cf, cz-lat2, cz-us-qwertz, de, de-latin1, 
de-latin1-nodeadkeys, dk, dk-latin1, dvorak, es, et, fi, fi-latin1, 
fr, fr-latin0, fr-latin1, fr-pc, fr_CH, fr_CH-latin1, gr, hu, hu101, 
is-latin1, it, it-ibm, it2, jp106, la-latin1, mk-utf, no, no-latin1, 
pl, pt-latin1, ro_win, ru, ru-cp1251, ru-ms, ru1, ru2,  ru_win, 
se-latin1, sg, sg-latin1, sk-qwerty, slovene, speakup,  speakup-lt, 
sv-latin1, sg, sg-latin1, sk-querty, slovene, trq, ua,  uk, us, us-acentos
Il file /usr/lib/python2.2/site-packages/rhpl/keyboard_models.py contiene anche questo elenco ed è parte del pacchetto rhpl.
lang (required)
Imposta la lingua da utilizzare durante l'installazione insieme alla lingua predefinita da utilizzare sul sistema installato. Per esempio, per impostare la lingua su Inglese, il file kickstart dovrebbe contenere la seguente riga:
ling en_US
Il file /usr/share/system-config-language/locale-list fornisce un elenco di codici validi della lingua nella prima colonna di ogni riga, e fà parte del pacchetto system-config-language.
Alcune lingue (principalmente il cinese, il giapponese, il coreano e le lingue indiane) non sono supportate durante l'installazione in modalità di testo. Se una di queste lingue viene specificata usando il comando lang, l'installazione continuerà in inglese anche se il sistema in esecuzione avrà come default la lingua specificata.
langsupport (deprecated)
La parola chiave langsupport non viene più supportata ed il suo utilizzo genera un messaggio d'errore visualizzato sulla schermata, causando l'arresto dell'installazione. Invece di utilizzare langsupport, sarà necessario ora elencare i gruppi di supporto del pacchetto per tutte le lingue da supportare, nella sezione %packages del vostro file kickstart. Per esempio, l'aggiunta del supporto per la lingua francese, significherà aggiungere quanto segue a %packages:
@french-support
logvol (optional)
Crea un volume logico per la gestione LVM (Logical Volume Managment) con la sintassi:
logvol <mntpoint> --vgname=<name> --size=<size> --name=<name> <options>
Le opzioni sono elencate qui di seguito:
  • --noformat — Use an existing logical volume and do not format it.
  • --useexisting — Use an existing logical volume and reformat it.
  • --fstype= — Sets the file system type for the logical volume. Valid values are ext2, ext3, swap, and vfat.
  • --fsoptions= — Specifies a free form string of options to be used when mounting the filesystem. This string will be copied into the /etc/fstab file of the installed system and should be enclosed in quotes.
  • --bytes-per-inode= — Specifies the size of inodes on the filesystem to be made on the logical volume. Not all filesystems support this option, so it is silently ignored for those cases.
  • --grow= — Tells the logical volume to grow to fill available space (if any), or up to the maximum size setting.
  • --maxsize= — The maximum size in megabytes when the logical volume is set to grow. Specify an integer value here, and do not append the number with MB.
  • --recommended= — Determine the size of the logical volume automatically.
  • --percent= — Specify the size of the logical volume as a percentage of available space in the volume group.
Crea innanzi tutto la partizione, quindi il gruppo di volume logico e infine il volume logico stesso. Per esempio:
part pv.01 --size 3000 
volgroup myvg pv.01
logvol / --vgname=myvg --size=2000 --name=rootvol
logging (optional)
Questo comando controlla l'error logging di anaconda durante l'installazione. Non presenta alcun effetto sul sistema installato.
  • --host= — Send logging information to the given remote host, which must be running a syslogd process configured to accept remote logging.
  • --port= — If the remote syslogd process uses a port other than the default, it may be specified with this option.
  • --level= — One of debug, info, warning, error, or critical.
    Specifica il livello minimo di messaggi visualizzati su tty3. Tuttavia tutti i messaggi verranno ancora inviati al log file indipendentemente da questo livello.
mediacheck (optional)
Se presente, tale comando forzerà anaconda ad eseguire il mediacheck sul media d'installazione. Esso ha bisogno della presenza dell'utene durante l'installazione, per questo motivo è disabilitato per default.
monitor (optional)
Se il comando monitor non viene fornito, anaconda userà X in modo da rilevare automaticamente le impostazioni del vostro monitor. È consigliato provare questo comando prima di configurare manualmente il vostro monitor.
  • --hsync= — Specifies the horizontal sync frequency of the monitor.
  • --monitor= — Use specified monitor; monitor name should be from the list of monitors in /usr/share/hwdata/MonitorsDB from the hwdata package. The list of monitors can also be found on the X Configuration screen of the Kickstart Configurator. This is ignored if --hsync or --vsync is provided. If no monitor information is provided, the installation program tries to probe for it automatically.
  • --noprobe= — Do not try to probe the monitor.
  • --vsync= — Specifies the vertical sync frequency of the monitor.
mouse (deprecated)
The mouse keyword is deprecated.
network (optional)
Configura le informazioni di rete per il sistema. Se l'installazione kickstart non necessita di networking (in altre parole non viene installato attraverso NFS, HTTP o FTP), esso non viene configurato per il sistema. Se l'installazione ha bisogno del networking ma non è stata fornita alcuna informazione di rete all'interno del file di kickstart, il programma d'installazione suppone che l'installazione viene eseguita attraverso eth0, tramite un indirizzo IP dinamico (BOOTP/DHCP), e configura il sistema finale installato in modo da determinare dinamicamente il proprio indirizzo IP. L'opzione network configura le informazioni del networking per le installazioni kickstart e per il sistema installato tramite una rete.
  • --bootproto= — One of dhcp, bootp, or static.
    Assume come default dhcp. bootp e dhcp vengono trattati allo stesso modo.
    Il metodo DHCP si serve di un server DHCP per ottenere la propria configurazione di rete. Com'è intuibile, il metodo BOOTP si serve di un server BOOTP. Per indicare al sistema di utilizzare DHCP:
    network --bootproto=dhcp
    Invece, per indicare alla macchina di utilizzare BOOTP per ottenere i parametri di configurazione per la propria rete, inserite la linea che segue nel file kickstart:
    network --bootproto=bootp
    The static method requires that you enter all the required networking information in the kickstart file. As the name implies, this information is static and are used during and after the installation. The line for static networking is more complex, as you must include all network configuration information on one line. You must specify the IP address, netmask, gateway, and nameserver. For example: (the "\" indicates that this should be read as one continuous line):
    network --bootproto=static --ip=10.0.2.15 --netmask=255.255.255.0 \
    --gateway=10.0.2.254 --nameserver=10.0.2.1
    
    Se utilizzate il metodo statico, dovete tenere presente le due restrizioni qui sotto indicate:
    • Tutte le informazioni statiche sulla configurazione del networking devono essere specificate su un'unica riga. Non è possibile, per esempio, andare a capo usando un backslash ("\").
    • You can also configure multiple nameservers here. To do so, specify them as a comma-delimited list in the command line. For example:
      network --bootproto=static --ip=10.0.2.15 --netmask=255.255.255.0 \
      --gateway=10.0.2.254 --nameserver 192.168.2.1,192.168.3.1
      
  • --device= — Used to select a specific Ethernet device for installation. Note that using --device= is not effective unless the kickstart file is a local file (such as ks=floppy), since the installation program configures the network to find the kickstart file. For example:
    network --bootproto=dhcp --device=eth0
  • --ip= — IP address for the machine to be installed.
  • --gateway= — Default gateway as an IP address.
  • --nameserver= — Primary nameserver, as an IP address.
  • --nodns — Do not configure any DNS server.
  • --netmask= — Netmask for the installed system.
  • --hostname= — Hostname for the installed system.
  • --ethtool= — Specifies additional low-level settings for the network device which will be passed to the ethtool program.
  • --essid= — The network ID for wireless networks.
  • --wepkey= — The encryption key for wireless networks.
  • --onboot= — Whether or not to enable the device at boot time.
  • --class= — The DHCP class.
  • --mtu= — The MTU of the device.
  • --noipv4 — Disable IPv4 on this device.
  • --noipv6 — Disable IPv6 on this device.
multipath (optional)
multipath --name= --device= --rule=
part or partition (required for installs, ignored for upgrades)
Crea una partizione sul sistema.
Se esistono sul sistema più di una installazione Red Hat Enterprise Linux su diverse partizioni, il programma d'installazione richiede all'utente quale installazione deve aggiornare.

Avvertimento

Tutte le partizioni create sono formattate come parte del processo d'installazione, a meno che non vengono usati --noformat e --onpart.
For a detailed example of part in action, refer to Sezione 28.4.1, «Esempio di partizionamento avanzato».
  • <mntpoint> — The <mntpoint> is where the partition is mounted and must be of one of the following forms:
    • /<path>
      Per esempio, /, /usr, /home
    • swap
      La partizione viene usata come spazio di swap.
      Per determinare automaticamente la dimensione della partizione swap, usate l'opzione --recommended:
      swap --recommended
      La dimensione minima della partizione swap generata automaticamente non è inferiore nè maggiore del doppio, della RAM presente nel sistema.
    • raid.<id>
      La partizione è usata per il software RAID (consultate raid).
    • pv.<id>
      La partizione viene usata per LVM (consultate logvol).
  • --size= — The minimum partition size in megabytes. Specify an integer value here such as 500. Do not append the number with MB.
  • --grow — Tells the partition to grow to fill available space (if any), or up to the maximum size setting.
  • --maxsize= — The maximum partition size in megabytes when the partition is set to grow. Specify an integer value here, and do not append the number with MB.
  • --noformat — Tells the installation program not to format the partition, for use with the --onpart command.
  • --onpart= or --usepart= — Put the partition on the already existing device. For example:
    partition /home --onpart=hda1
    inserisce /home su /dev/hda1, il quale deve essere già esistente.
  • --ondisk= or --ondrive= — Forces the partition to be created on a particular disk. For example, --ondisk=sdb puts the partition on the second SCSI disk on the system.
  • --asprimary — Forces automatic allocation of the partition as a primary partition, or the partitioning fails.
  • --type= (replaced by fstype) — This option is no longer available. Use fstype.
  • --fstype= — Sets the file system type for the partition. Valid values are ext2, ext3, swap, and vfat.
  • --start= — Specifies the starting cylinder for the partition. It requires that a drive be specified with --ondisk= or ondrive=. It also requires that the ending cylinder be specified with --end= or the partition size be specified with --size=.
  • --end= — Specifies the ending cylinder for the partition. It requires that the starting cylinder be specified with --start=.
  • --bytes-per-inode= — Specifies the size of inodes on the filesystem to be made on the partition. Not all filesystems support this option, so it is silently ignored for those cases.
  • --recommended — Determine the size of the partition automatically.
  • --onbiosdisk — Forces the partition to be created on a particular disk as discovered by the BIOS.

Nota

Se per qualche motivo il partizionamento fallisce, verranno visualizzati alcuni messaggi diagnostici sulla console virtule 3.
poweroff (optional)
Arrestate e spegnete il sistema dopo aver completato l'installazione. Normalmente durante una installazione manuale, anaconda visualizza un messaggio ed attende che l'utente prema un tasto prima di riavviare il sistema. Durante l'installazione kickstart, se non è stato specificato alcun metodo di completamento, verrà usata come default l'opzione reboot.
L'opzione poweroff è simile al comando shutdown -p.

Nota

The poweroff option is highly dependent on the system hardware in use. Specifically, certain hardware components such as the BIOS, APM (advanced power management), and ACPI (advanced configuration and power interface) must be able to interact with the system kernel. Contact your manufacturer for more information on you system's APM/ACPI abilities.
Per altri metodi di completamento, consultate le opzioni kickstart halt, reboot, e shutdown.
raid (optional)
Assembla un dispositivo RAID software. Questo comando ha la forma seguente:
raid <mntpoint> --level=<level> --device=<mddevice> <partitions*>
  • <mntpoint> — Location where the RAID file system is mounted. If it is /, the RAID level must be 1 unless a boot partition (/boot) is present. If a boot partition is present, the /boot partition must be level 1 and the root (/) partition can be any of the available types. The <partitions*> (which denotes that multiple partitions can be listed) lists the RAID identifiers to add to the RAID array.
  • --level= — RAID level to use (0, 1, or 5).
  • --device= — Name of the RAID device to use (such as md0 or md1). RAID devices range from md0 to md15, and each may only be used once.
  • --bytes-per-inode= — Specifies the size of inodes on the filesystem to be made on the RAID device. Not all filesystems support this option, so it is silently ignored for those cases.
  • --spares= — Specifies the number of spare drives allocated for the RAID array. Spare drives are used to rebuild the array in case of drive failure.
  • --fstype= — Sets the file system type for the RAID array. Valid values are ext2, ext3, swap, and vfat.
  • --fsoptions= — Specifies a free form string of options to be used when mounting the filesystem. This string will be copied into the /etc/fstab file of the installed system and should be enclosed in quotes.
  • --noformat — Use an existing RAID device and do not format the RAID array.
  • --useexisting — Use an existing RAID device and reformat it.
Il seguente esempio mostra come creare una partizione RAID level 1 per /, e RAID level 5 per /usr, assumendo la presenza di tre dischi SCSI sul sistema. Verranno create altresì tre partizioni swap, una su ogni unità.
part raid.01 --size=60 --ondisk=sda
part raid.02 --size=60 --ondisk=sdb 
part raid.03 --size=60 --ondisk=sdc
part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sda  
part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sdb  
part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sdc
part raid.11 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sda  
part raid.12 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sdb  
part raid.13 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sdc
raid / --level=1 --device=md0 raid.01 raid.02 raid.03  
raid /usr --level=5 --device=md1 raid.11 raid.12 raid.13
For a detailed example of raid in action, refer to Sezione 28.4.1, «Esempio di partizionamento avanzato».
reboot (optional)
Esegue il riavvio dopo aver completato l'installazione (nessun argomento). Normalmente kickstart visualizza un messaggio ed attende che l'utente prema un tasto prima di riavviare il sistema.
L'opzione reboot è quasi equivalente al comando shutdown -r.

Nota

L'utilizzo dell'opzione reboot potrebbe generare un loop dell'installazione, in base al metodo ed al media d'installazione.
L'opzione reboot è il metodo di completamento predefinito se nessun altro metodo è stato esplicitamente specificato nel file kickstart.
Per altri metodi di completamento consultate le opzioni kickstart halt, poweroff, e shutdown.
repo (optional)
Configura repository yum aggiuntive che possono essere utilizzate come fonti per l'installazione dei pacchetti. È possibile specificare righe repo multiple.
repo --name=<repoid> [--baseurl=<url>| --mirrorlist=<url>]
  • --name= — The repo id. This option is required.
  • --baseurl= — The URL for the repository. The variables that may be used in yum repo config files are not supported here. You may use one of either this option or --mirrorlist, not both.
  • --mirrorlist= — The URL pointing at a list of mirrors for the repository. The variables that may be used in yum repo config files are not supported here. You may use one of either this option or --baseurl, not both.
rootpw (necessario)
Sets the system's root password to the <password> argument.
rootpw [--iscrypted] <password>
  • --iscrypted — If this is present, the password argument is assumed to already be encrypted.
selinux (opzionale)
Sets the state of SELinux on the installed system. SELinux defaults to enforcing in anaconda.
selinux [--disabled|--enforcing|--permissive]
  • --enforcing — Enables SELinux with the default targeted policy being enforced.

    Nota

    Se l'opzione selinux non è presente nel file kickstart, SELinux viene abilitato ed impostato su --enforcing per default.
  • --permissive — Outputs warnings based on the SELinux policy, but does not actually enforce the policy.
  • --disabled — Disables SELinux completely on the system.
Per maggiori informazioni su SELinux per Red Hat Enterprise Linux, consultate Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
services (opzionale)
Modifies the default set of services that will run under the default runlevel. The services listed in the disabled list will be disabled before the services listed in the enabled list are enabled.
  • --disabled — Disable the services given in the comma separated list.
  • --enabled — Enable the services given in the comma separated list.
shutdown (opzionale)
Shut down the system after the installation has successfully completed. During a kickstart installation, if no completion method is specified, the reboot option is used as default.
L'opzione shutdown è equivalente al comando shutdown.
Per altri metodi di completamento, consultate le opzioni kickstart halt, reboot, e poweroff.
skipx (opzionale)
If present, X is not configured on the installed system.
text (opzionale)
Perform the kickstart installation in text mode. Kickstart installations are performed in graphical mode by default.
timezone (necessario)
Sets the system time zone to <timezone> which may be any of the time zones listed by timeconfig.
timezone [--utc] <timezone>
  • --utc — If present, the system assumes the hardware clock is set to UTC (Greenwich Mean) time.
upgrade (opzionale)
Tells the system to upgrade an existing system rather than install a fresh system. You must specify one of cdrom, harddrive, nfs, or url (for FTP and HTTP) as the location of the installation tree. Refer to install for details.
user (opzionale)
Creates a new user on the system.
user --name=<username> [--groups=<list>] [--homedir=<homedir>] [--password=<password>] [--iscrypted] [--shell=<shell>] [--uid=<uid>]
  • --name= — Provides the name of the user. This option is required.
  • --groups= — In addition to the default group, a comma separated list of group names the user should belong to.
  • --homedir= — The home directory for the user. If not provided, this defaults to /home/<username>.
  • --password= — The new user's password. If not provided, the account will be locked by default.
  • --iscrypted= — Is the password provided by --password already encrypted or not?
  • --shell= — The user's login shell. If not provided, this defaults to the system default.
  • --uid= — The user's UID. If not provided, this defaults to the next available non-system UID.
vnc (optional)
Allows the graphical installation to be viewed remotely via VNC. This method is usually preferred over text mode, as there are some size and language limitations in text installs. With no options, this command will start a VNC server on the machine with no password and will print out the command that needs to be run to connect a remote machine.
vnc [--host=<hostname>] [--port=<port>] [--password=<password>]
  • --host= — Instead of starting a VNC server on the install machine, connect to the VNC viewer process listening on the given hostname.
  • --port= — Provide a port that the remote VNC viewer process is listening on. If not provided, anaconda will use the VNC default.
  • --password= — Set a password which must be provided to connect to the VNC session. This is optional, but recommended.
volgroup (opzionale)
Use to create a Logical Volume Management (LVM) group with the syntax:
volgroup <name> <partition> <options>
Le opzioni sono elencate qui di seguito:
  • --noformat — Use an existing volume group and do not format it.
  • --useexisting — Use an existing volume group and reformat it.
  • --pesize= — Set the size of the physical extents.
Crea innanzi tutto la partizione, quindi il gruppo di volume logico e infine il volume logico stesso. Per esempio:
part pv.01 --size 3000 
volgroup myvg pv.01 
logvol / --vgname=myvg --size=2000 --name=rootvol
For a detailed example of volgroup in action, refer to Sezione 28.4.1, «Esempio di partizionamento avanzato».
xconfig (opzionale)
Configures the X Window System. If this option is not given, the user must configure X manually during the installation, if X was installed; this option should not be used if X is not installed on the final system.
  • --driver — Specify the X driver to use for the video hardware.
  • --videoram= — Specifies the amount of video RAM the video card has.
  • --defaultdesktop= — Specify either GNOME or KDE to set the default desktop (assumes that GNOME Desktop Environment and/or KDE Desktop Environment has been installed through %packages).
  • --startxonboot — Use a graphical login on the installed system.
  • --resolution= — Specify the default resolution for the X Window System on the installed system. Valid values are 640x480, 800x600, 1024x768, 1152x864, 1280x1024, 1400x1050, 1600x1200. Be sure to specify a resolution that is compatible with the video card and monitor.
  • --depth= — Specify the default color depth for the X Window System on the installed system. Valid values are 8, 16, 24, and 32. Be sure to specify a color depth that is compatible with the video card and monitor.
zerombr (opzionale)
If zerombr is specified any invalid partition tables found on disks are initialized. This destroys all of the contents of disks with invalid partition tables.
Note that in previous versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, this command was specified as zerombr yes. This form is now deprecated; you should now simply specify zerombr in your kickstart file instead.
zfcp (opzionale)
Define a Fiber channel device (IBM System z).
zfcp [--devnum=<devnum>] [--fcplun=<fcplun>] [--scsiid=<scsiid>] [--scsilun=<scsilun>] [--wwpn=<wwpn>]
%include (optional)
Use the %include /path/to/file command to include the contents of another file in the kickstart file as though the contents were at the location of the %include command in the kickstart file.

28.4.1. Esempio di partizionamento avanzato

Il seguente è un esempio integrato singolo che mostra le opzioni kickstart clearpart, raid, part, volgroup, e logvol in azione:
clearpart --drives=hda,hdc --initlabel  
# Raid 1 IDE config 
part raid.11    --size 1000     --asprimary     --ondrive=hda 
part raid.12    --size 1000     --asprimary     --ondrive=hda 
part raid.13    --size 2000     --asprimary     --ondrive=hda 
part raid.14    --size 8000                     --ondrive=hda 
part raid.15    --size 1 --grow                 --ondrive=hda             
part raid.21    --size 1000     --asprimary     --ondrive=hdc 
part raid.22    --size 1000     --asprimary     --ondrive=hdc 
part raid.23    --size 2000     --asprimary     --ondrive=hdc 
part raid.24    --size 8000                     --ondrive=hdc 
part raid.25    --size 1 --grow                 --ondrive=hdc  

# You can add --spares=x  
raid /          --fstype ext3 --device md0 --level=RAID1 raid.11 raid.21 
raid /safe      --fstype ext3 --device md1 --level=RAID1 raid.12 raid.22 
raid swap       --fstype swap --device md2 --level=RAID1 raid.13 raid.23 
raid /usr       --fstype ext3 --device md3 --level=RAID1 raid.14 raid.24 
raid pv.01      --fstype ext3 --device md4 --level=RAID1 raid.15 raid.25  

# LVM configuration so that we can resize /var and /usr/local later 
volgroup sysvg pv.01     
logvol /var             --vgname=sysvg  --size=8000     --name=var 
logvol /var/freespace   --vgname=sysvg  --size=8000     --name=freespacetouse 
logvol /usr/local       --vgname=sysvg  --size=1 --grow --name=usrlocal
Questo esempio avanzato implementa LVM attraverso RAID, insieme alla possibilità di ridimensionare le varie directory per una espansione futura.