OpenShift Virtualization

OpenShift Container Platform 4.8

OpenShift Virtualization installation, usage, and release notes

Red Hat OpenShift Documentation Team

Abstract

This document provides information about how to use OpenShift Virtualization in OpenShift Container Platform.

Chapter 1. About OpenShift Virtualization

Learn about OpenShift Virtualization’s capabilities and support scope.

1.1. What you can do with OpenShift Virtualization

OpenShift Virtualization is an add-on to OpenShift Container Platform that allows you to run and manage virtual machine workloads alongside container workloads.

OpenShift Virtualization adds new objects into your OpenShift Container Platform cluster via Kubernetes custom resources to enable virtualization tasks. These tasks include:

  • Creating and managing Linux and Windows virtual machines
  • Connecting to virtual machines through a variety of consoles and CLI tools
  • Importing and cloning existing virtual machines
  • Managing network interface controllers and storage disks attached to virtual machines
  • Live migrating virtual machines between nodes

An enhanced web console provides a graphical portal to manage these virtualized resources alongside the OpenShift Container Platform cluster containers and infrastructure.

OpenShift Virtualization is tested with OpenShift Container Storage (OCS) and designed to use with OCS features for the best experience.

You can use OpenShift Virtualization with the OVN-Kubernetes, OpenShift SDN, or one of the other certified default Container Network Interface (CNI) network providers listed in Certified OpenShift CNI Plug-ins.

1.1.1. OpenShift Virtualization supported cluster version

OpenShift Virtualization 4.8 is supported for use on OpenShift Container Platform 4.8 clusters.

Chapter 2. Start here with OpenShift Virtualization

Use the following tables to find content to help you learn about and use OpenShift Virtualization.

2.1. Cluster administrator

2.2. Virtualization administrator

2.3. Virtual machine administrator / developer

Chapter 3. OpenShift Virtualization release notes

3.1. About Red Hat OpenShift Virtualization

Red Hat OpenShift Virtualization enables you to bring traditional virtual machines (VMs) into OpenShift Container Platform where they run alongside containers, and are managed as native Kubernetes objects.

OpenShift Virtualization is represented by the OpenShift Virtualization logo.

You can use OpenShift Virtualization with either the OVN-Kubernetes or the OpenShiftSDN default Container Network Interface (CNI) network provider.

Learn more about what you can do with OpenShift Virtualization.

3.1.1. OpenShift Virtualization supported cluster version

OpenShift Virtualization 4.8 is supported for use on OpenShift Container Platform 4.8 clusters.

3.1.2. Supported guest operating systems

OpenShift Virtualization guests can use the following operating systems:

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, 7, and 8.
  • Microsoft Windows Server 2012 R2, 2016, and 2019.
  • Microsoft Windows 10.

Other operating system templates shipped with OpenShift Virtualization are not supported.

3.2. Making open source more inclusive

Red Hat is committed to replacing problematic language in our code, documentation, and web properties. We are beginning with these four terms: master, slave, blacklist, and whitelist. Because of the enormity of this endeavor, these changes will be implemented gradually over several upcoming releases. For more details, see our CTO Chris Wright’s message.

3.3. New and changed features

  • OpenShift Virtualization is certified in Microsoft’s Windows Server Virtualization Validation Program (SVVP) to run Windows Server workloads.

    The SVVP Certification applies to:

    • Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS workers. In the Microsoft SVVP Catalog, they are named Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform 4 on RHEL CoreOS.
    • Intel and AMD CPUs.
  • The Containerized Data Importer (CDI) now uses the OpenShift Container Platform cluster-wide proxy configuration.
  • OpenShift Virtualization now supports third-party Container Network Interface (CNI) plug-ins that are certified by Red Hat for use with OpenShift Container Platform.
  • OpenShift Virtualization now provides metrics for monitoring how infrastructure resources are consumed in the cluster. You can use the OpenShift Container Platform monitoring dashboard to query metrics for the following resources:

    • vCPU
    • Network
    • Storage
    • Guest memory swapping
  • If a Windows virtual machine is created from a template or has predefined Hyper-V capabilities, it can now only be scheduled to Hyper-V capable nodes.

3.3.1. Quick starts

  • Quick start tours are available for several OpenShift Virtualization features. To view the tours, click the Help icon ? in the menu bar on the header of the OpenShift Virtualization console and then select Quick Starts. You can filter the available tours by entering the virtualization keyword in the Filter field.

3.3.2. Networking

  • OpenShift Virtualization now supports live migration of virtual machines that are attached to an SR-IOV network interface if the sriovLiveMigration feature gate is enabled in the HyperConverged custom resource (CR).

3.3.3. Storage

  • Cloning a data volume into a different namespace is now faster and more efficient when using storage that supports Container Storage Interface (CSI) snapshots. The Containerized Data Importer (CDI) uses CSI snapshots, when they are available, to improve performance when you create a virtual machine from a template.
  • When the fstrim or blkdiscard commands are run on a virtual disk, the discard requests are passed to the underlying storage device. If the storage provider supports the Pass Discard feature, the discard requests free up storage capacity.
  • You can now specify data volumes by using the storage API. The storage API, unlike the PVC API, allows the system to optimize accessModes, volumeMode, and storage capacity when allocating storage.

3.4. Deprecated and removed features

3.4.1. Deprecated features

Deprecated features are included in the current release and supported. However, they will be removed in a future release and are not recommended for new deployments.

  • Importing a single virtual machine from Red Hat Virtualization (RHV) or VMware is deprecated in the current release and will be removed in OpenShift Virtualization 4.9. This feature is replaced by the Migration Toolkit for Virtualization.

3.5. Notable technical changes

  • OpenShift Virtualization now configures IPv6 addresses when running on clusters that have dual-stack networking enabled. You can create a service that uses IPv4, IPv6, or both IP address families, if dual-stack networking is enabled for the underlying OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • KubeMacPool is now enabled by default when you install OpenShift Virtualization. You can disable a MAC address pool for a namespace by adding the mutatevirtualmachines.kubemacpool.io=ignore label to the namespace. Re-enable KubeMacPool for the namespace by removing the label.

3.6. Technology Preview features

Some features in this release are currently in Technology Preview. These experimental features are not intended for production use. Note the following scope of support on the Red Hat Customer Portal for these features:

Technology Preview Features Support Scope

3.7. Known issues

  • If you initially deployed OpenShift Virtualization version 2.4.z or earlier, upgrading to version 4.8 fails with the following message:

    risk of data loss updating hyperconvergeds.hco.kubevirt.io: new CRD removes
    version v1alpha1 that is listed as a stored version on the existing CRD

    This bug does not affect clusters where OpenShift Virtualization was initially deployed at version 2.5.0 or later. (BZ#1986989)

    • As a workaround, remove the v1alpha1 version from the HyperConverged custom resource definition (CRD) and resume the upgrade process:

      1. Open a proxy connection to the cluster by running the following command:

        $ oc proxy &
      2. Remove the v1alpha1 version from .status.storedVersions on the HyperConverged CRD by running the following command:

        $ curl --header "Content-Type: application/json-patch+json" --request PATCH http://localhost:8001/apis/apiextensions.k8s.io/v1/customresourcedefinitions/hyperconvergeds.hco.kubevirt.io/status --data '[{"op": "replace", "path": "/status/storedVersions", "value":["v1beta1"]}]'
      3. Resume the upgrade process by running the following command:

        $ curl --header "Content-Type: application/json-patch+json" --request PATCH http://localhost:8001/apis/operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1/namespaces/openshift-cnv/installplans/$(oc get installplan -n openshift-cnv | grep kubevirt-hyperconverged-operator.v4.8.0 | cut -d' ' -f1)/status --data '[{"op": "remove", "path": "/status/conditions"},{"op": "remove", "path": "/status/message"},{"op": "replace", "path": "/status/phase", "value": "Installing"}]'
      4. Kill the oc proxy process by running the following command:

        $ kill $(ps -C "oc proxy" -o pid=)
      5. Optional: Monitor the upgrade status by running the following command:

        $ oc get csv
  • If you delete OpenShift Virtualization-provided templates in version 4.8 or later, the templates are automatically recreated by the OpenShift Virtualization Operator. However, if you delete OpenShift Virtualization-provided templates created before version 4.8, those earlier templates are not automatically recreated after deletion. As a result, any edit or update to a virtual machine referencing a deleted earlier template will fail.
  • If a cloning operation is initiated before the source is available to be cloned, the operation stalls indefinitely. This is because the clone authorization expires before the cloning operation starts. (BZ#1855182)

    • As a workaround, delete the DataVolume object that is requesting the clone. When the source is available, recreate the DataVolume object that you deleted so that the cloning operation can complete successfully.
  • If your OpenShift Container Platform cluster uses OVN-Kubernetes as the default Container Network Interface (CNI) provider, you cannot attach a Linux bridge or bonding to the default interface of a host because of a change in the host network topology of OVN-Kubernetes. (BZ#1885605)

    • As a workaround, you can use a secondary network interface connected to your host, or switch to the OpenShift SDN default CNI provider.
  • Running virtual machines that cannot be live migrated might block an OpenShift Container Platform cluster upgrade. This includes virtual machines that use hostpath-provisioner storage or SR-IOV network interfaces. (BZ#1858777)

    • As a workaround, you can reconfigure the virtual machines so that they can be powered off during a cluster upgrade. In the spec section of the virtual machine configuration file:

      1. Remove the evictionStrategy: LiveMigrate field. See Configuring virtual machine eviction strategy for more information on how to configure eviction strategy.
      2. Set the runStrategy field to Always.
  • Live migration fails when nodes have different CPU models. Even in cases where nodes have the same physical CPU model, differences introduced by microcode updates have the same effect. This is because the default settings trigger host CPU passthrough behavior, which is incompatible with live migration. (BZ#1760028)

    • As a workaround, set the default CPU model by running the following command:

      Note

      You must make this change before starting the virtual machines that support live migration.

      $ oc annotate --overwrite -n openshift-cnv hyperconverged kubevirt-hyperconverged kubevirt.kubevirt.io/jsonpatch='[
        {
            "op": "add",
            "path": "/spec/configuration/cpuModel",
            "value": "<cpu_model>" 1
        }
      ]'
      1
      Replace <cpu_model> with the actual CPU model value. You can determine this value by running oc describe node <node> for all nodes and looking at the cpu-model-<name> labels. Select the CPU model that is present on all of your nodes.
  • If you enter the wrong credentials for the RHV Manager while importing a RHV VM, the Manager might lock the admin user account because the vm-import-operator tries repeatedly to connect to the RHV API. (BZ#1887140)

    • To unlock the account, log in to the Manager and enter the following command:

      $ ovirt-aaa-jdbc-tool user unlock admin
  • If you run OpenShift Virtualization 2.6.5 with OpenShift Container Platform 4.8, various issues occur. You can avoid these issues by upgrading OpenShift Virtualization to version 4.8.

    • In the web console, if you navigate to the Virtualization page and select CreateWith YAML the following error message is displayed:

      The server doesn't have a resource type "kind: VirtualMachine, apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1"
      • As a workaround, edit the VirtualMachine manifest so the apiVersion is kubevirt.io/v1alpha3. For example:

        apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1alpha3
        kind: VirtualMachine
        metadata:
          annotations:
        ...

        (BZ#1979114)

    • If you use the Customize wizard to create a VM, the following error message is displayed:

      Error creating virtual machine
    • When connecting to the VNC console by using the OpenShift Virtualization web console, the VNC console always fails to respond.

      • As a workaround, create the virtual machine from the CLI or upgrade to OpenShift Virtualization 4.8.

        (BZ#1977037)

Chapter 4. Installing OpenShift Virtualization

4.1. Configuring your cluster for OpenShift Virtualization

Before you install OpenShift Virtualization, ensure that your OpenShift Container Platform cluster meets the following requirements:

  • Your cluster must be installed on bare metal infrastructure with Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) workers. You can use any installation method including user-provisioned, installer-provisioned, or assisted installer to deploy your cluster.
Note

OpenShift Virtualization only supports RHCOS worker nodes. RHEL 7 or RHEL 8 nodes are not supported.

  • Additionally, there are two options to maintain high availability (HA) of virtual machines:

    • Use installer-provisioned infrastructure and deploy machine health checks.

      Note

      In OpenShift Virtualization clusters installed using installer-provisioned infrastructure and with MachineHealthCheck properly configured, if a node fails the MachineHealthCheck and becomes unavailable to the cluster, it is recycled. What happens next with VMs that ran on the failed node depends on a series of conditions. See About RunStrategies for virtual machines for more detailed information about the potential outcomes and how RunStrategies affect those outcomes.

    • If you are not using installer-provisioned infrastructure, use either a monitoring system or a qualified human to monitor node availability. When a node is lost, shut it down and run oc delete node <lost_node>.

      Note

      Without an external monitoring system or a qualified human monitoring node health, virtual machines lose high availability.

  • Shared storage is required to enable live migration.
  • You must manage your Compute nodes according to the number and size of the virtual machines that you want to host in the cluster.
  • To deploy OpenShift Virtualization in a disconnected environment, you must configure Operator Lifecycle Manager on restricted networks.
  • When using a disconnected cluster on a restricted network, you must configure proxy support in Operator Lifecycle Manager to access the Red Hat-provided OperatorHub. Using a proxy allows the cluster to fetch the OpenShift Virtualization Operator.
  • If your cluster uses worker nodes from multiple CPU vendors, live migration failures can occur. For example, a virtual machine with an AMD CPU might attempt to live-migrate to a node with an Intel CPU and likely fail migration. To avoid this, label nodes with a vendor-specific label, such as Vendor=Intel or Vendor=AMD, and set node affinity on your virtual machines to ensure successful migration. See Configuring a required node affinity rule for more information.
  • All CPUs must be supported by Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 and meet the following requirements:

    • Intel 64 or AMD64 CPU extensions are supported
    • Intel VT or AMD-V hardware virtualization extensions are enabled
    • The no-execute (NX) flag is enabled

OpenShift Virtualization works with OpenShift Container Platform by default, but the following installation configurations are recommended:

Note

To obtain an evaluation version of OpenShift Container Platform, download a trial from the OpenShift Container Platform home page.

4.1.1. Additional hardware requirements for OpenShift Virtualization

OpenShift Virtualization is an add-on to OpenShift Container Platform and imposes additional overhead that you must account for when planning a cluster. Each cluster machine must accommodate the following overhead requirements in addition to the OpenShift Container Platform requirements. Oversubscribing the physical resources in a cluster can affect performance.

Important

The numbers noted in this documentation are based on Red Hat’s test methodology and setup. These numbers can vary based on your own individual setup and environments.

4.1.1.1. Memory overhead

Calculate the memory overhead values for OpenShift Virtualization by using the equations below.

Cluster memory overhead

Memory overhead per infrastructure node ≈ 150 MiB

Memory overhead per worker node ≈ 360 MiB

Additionally, OpenShift Virtualization environment resources require a total of 2179 MiB of RAM that is spread across all infrastructure nodes.

Virtual machine memory overhead

Memory overhead per virtual machine ≈ (1.002 * requested memory) + 146 MiB  \
                + 8 * (number of vCPUs) \ 1
             + 16 MiB * (number of graphics devices) 2

1
Number of virtual CPUs requested by the virtual machine
2
Number of virtual graphics cards requested by the virtual machine

If your environment includes a Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV) network device or a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), allocate 1 GiB additional memory overhead for each device.

4.1.1.2. CPU overhead

Calculate the cluster processor overhead requirements for OpenShift Virtualization by using the equation below. The CPU overhead per virtual machine depends on your individual setup.

Cluster CPU overhead

CPU overhead for infrastructure nodes ≈ 4 cores

OpenShift Virtualization increases the overall utilization of cluster level services such as logging, routing, and monitoring. To account for this workload, ensure that nodes that host infrastructure components have capacity allocated for 4 additional cores (4000 millicores) distributed across those nodes.

CPU overhead for worker nodes ≈ 2 cores + CPU overhead per virtual machine

Each worker node that hosts virtual machines must have capacity for 2 additional cores (2000 millicores) for OpenShift Virtualization management workloads in addition to the CPUs required for virtual machine workloads.

Virtual machine CPU overhead

If dedicated CPUs are requested, there is a 1:1 impact on the cluster CPU overhead requirement. Otherwise, there are no specific rules about how many CPUs a virtual machine requires.

4.1.1.3. Storage overhead

Use the guidelines below to estimate storage overhead requirements for your OpenShift Virtualization environment.

Cluster storage overhead

Aggregated storage overhead per node ≈ 10 GiB

10 GiB is the estimated on-disk storage impact for each node in the cluster when you install OpenShift Virtualization.

Virtual machine storage overhead

Storage overhead per virtual machine depends on specific requests for resource allocation within the virtual machine. The request could be for ephemeral storage on the node or storage resources hosted elsewhere in the cluster. OpenShift Virtualization does not currently allocate any additional ephemeral storage for the running container itself.

4.1.1.4. Example

As a cluster administrator, if you plan to host 10 virtual machines in the cluster, each with 1 GiB of RAM and 2 vCPUs, the memory impact across the cluster is 11.68 GiB. The estimated on-disk storage impact for each node in the cluster is 10 GiB and the CPU impact for worker nodes that host virtual machine workloads is a minimum of 2 cores.

4.2. Planning your environment according to OpenShift Virtualization object maximums

You can plan your OpenShift Virtualization 4.8 cluster by considering tested object maximums. Guidelines for object maximums are based on the largest possible cluster. For smaller clusters, the maximums are lower. In most cases, exceeding these numbers results in lower overall performance. It does not necessarily mean that the cluster will fail.

The maximum number of virtual machines in a node is determined by a number of variables that include the virtual machines' CPUs, memory, and network characteristics.

4.2.1. Tested cluster maximums for OpenShift Virtualization

OpenShift Virtualization 4.8 was tested with bare metal Installer Provisioned Infrastructure (IPI). The following table shows the tested cluster maximums for the OpenShift Virtualization 4.8 release.

Object typeOpenShift Virtualization 4.8 cluster maximums

Number of nodes

10

Number of virtual machines

1000

Number of virtual machines per node

100

4.2.2. Additional resources

4.3. Specifying nodes for OpenShift Virtualization components

Specify the nodes where you want to deploy OpenShift Virtualization Operators, workloads, and controllers by configuring node placement rules.

Note

You can configure node placement for some components after installing OpenShift Virtualization, but there must not be virtual machines present if you want to configure node placement for workloads.

4.3.1. About node placement for virtualization components

You might want to customize where OpenShift Virtualization deploys its components to ensure that:

  • Virtual machines only deploy on nodes that are intended for virtualization workloads.
  • Operators only deploy on infrastructure nodes.
  • Certain nodes are unaffected by OpenShift Virtualization. For example, you have workloads unrelated to virtualization running on your cluster, and you want those workloads to be isolated from OpenShift Virtualization.

4.3.1.1. How to apply node placement rules to virtualization components

You can specify node placement rules for a component by editing the corresponding object directly or by using the web console.

  • For the OpenShift Virtualization Operators that Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) deploys, edit the OLM Subscription object directly. Currently, you cannot configure node placement rules for the Subscription object by using the web console.
  • For components that the OpenShift Virtualization Operators deploy, edit the HyperConverged object directly or configure it by using the web console during OpenShift Virtualization installation.
  • For the hostpath provisioner, edit the HostPathProvisioner object directly or configure it by using the web console.

    Warning

    You must schedule the hostpath provisioner and the virtualization components on the same nodes. Otherwise, virtualization pods that use the hostpath provisioner cannot run.

Depending on the object, you can use one or more of the following rule types:

nodeSelector
Allows pods to be scheduled on nodes that are labeled with the key-value pair or pairs that you specify in this field. The node must have labels that exactly match all listed pairs.
affinity
Enables you to use more expressive syntax to set rules that match nodes with pods. Affinity also allows for more nuance in how the rules are applied. For example, you can specify that a rule is a preference, rather than a hard requirement, so that pods are still scheduled if the rule is not satisfied.
tolerations
Allows pods to be scheduled on nodes that have matching taints. If a taint is applied to a node, that node only accepts pods that tolerate the taint.

4.3.1.2. Node placement in the OLM Subscription object

To specify the nodes where OLM deploys the OpenShift Virtualization Operators, edit the Subscription object during OpenShift Virtualization installation. You can include node placement rules in the spec.config field, as shown in the following example:

apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
kind: Subscription
metadata:
  name: hco-operatorhub
  namespace: openshift-cnv
spec:
  source: redhat-operators
  sourceNamespace: openshift-marketplace
  name: kubevirt-hyperconverged
  startingCSV: kubevirt-hyperconverged-operator.v4.8.2
  channel: "stable"
  config: 1
1
The config field supports nodeSelector and tolerations, but it does not support affinity.

4.3.1.3. Node placement in the HyperConverged object

To specify the nodes where OpenShift Virtualization deploys its components, you can include the nodePlacement object in the HyperConverged Cluster custom resource (CR) file that you create during OpenShift Virtualization installation. You can include nodePlacement under the spec.infra and spec.workloads fields, as shown in the following example:

apiVersion: hco.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
kind: HyperConverged
metadata:
  name: kubevirt-hyperconverged
  namespace: openshift-cnv
spec:
  infra:
    nodePlacement: 1
    ...
  workloads:
    nodePlacement:
    ...
1
The nodePlacement fields support nodeSelector, affinity, and tolerations fields.

4.3.1.4. Node placement in the HostPathProvisioner object

You can configure node placement rules in the spec.workload field of the HostPathProvisioner object that you create when you install the hostpath provisioner.

apiVersion: hostpathprovisioner.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
kind: HostPathProvisioner
metadata:
  name: hostpath-provisioner
spec:
  imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
  pathConfig:
    path: "</path/to/backing/directory>"
    useNamingPrefix: false
  workload: 1
1
The workload field supports nodeSelector, affinity, and tolerations fields.

4.3.1.5. Additional resources

4.3.1.5.1. Node placement rules
4.3.1.5.2. Installing OpenShift Virtualization
4.3.1.5.3. Configuring the hostpath provisioner

4.3.2. Example manifests

The following example YAML files use nodePlacement, affinity, and tolerations objects to customize node placement for OpenShift Virtualization components.

4.3.2.1. Operator Lifecycle Manager Subscription object

4.3.2.1.1. Example: Node placement with nodeSelector in the OLM Subscription object

In this example, nodeSelector is configured so that OLM places the OpenShift Virtualization Operators on nodes that are labeled with example.io/example-infra-key = example-infra-value.

apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
kind: Subscription
metadata:
  name: hco-operatorhub
  namespace: openshift-cnv
spec:
  source: redhat-operators
  sourceNamespace: openshift-marketplace
  name: kubevirt-hyperconverged
  startingCSV: kubevirt-hyperconverged-operator.v4.8.2
  channel: "stable"
  config:
    nodeSelector:
      example.io/example-infra-key: example-infra-value
4.3.2.1.2. Example: Node placement with tolerations in the OLM Subscription object

In this example, nodes that are reserved for OLM to deploy OpenShift Virtualization Operators are labeled with the key=virtualization:NoSchedule taint. Only pods with the matching tolerations are scheduled to these nodes.

apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
kind: Subscription
metadata:
  name: hco-operatorhub
  namespace: openshift-cnv
spec:
  source: redhat-operators
  sourceNamespace: openshift-marketplace
  name: kubevirt-hyperconverged
  startingCSV: kubevirt-hyperconverged-operator.v4.8.2
  channel: "stable"
  config:
    tolerations:
    - key: "key"
      operator: "Equal"
      value: "virtualization"
      effect: "NoSchedule"

4.3.2.2. HyperConverged object

4.3.2.2.1. Example: Node placement with nodeSelector in the HyperConverged Cluster CR

In this example, nodeSelector is configured so that infrastructure resources are placed on nodes that are labeled with example.io/example-infra-key = example-infra-value and workloads are placed on nodes labeled with example.io/example-workloads-key = example-workloads-value.

apiVersion: hco.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
kind: HyperConverged
metadata:
  name: kubevirt-hyperconverged
  namespace: openshift-cnv
spec:
  infra:
    nodePlacement:
      nodeSelector:
        example.io/example-infra-key: example-infra-value
  workloads:
    nodePlacement:
      nodeSelector:
        example.io/example-workloads-key: example-workloads-value
4.3.2.2.2. Example: Node placement with affinity in the HyperConverged Cluster CR

In this example, affinity is configured so that infrastructure resources are placed on nodes that are labeled with example.io/example-infra-key = example-value and workloads are placed on nodes labeled with example.io/example-workloads-key = example-workloads-value. Nodes that have more than eight CPUs are preferred for workloads, but if they are not available, pods are still scheduled.

apiVersion: hco.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
kind: HyperConverged
metadata:
  name: kubevirt-hyperconverged
  namespace: openshift-cnv
spec:
  infra:
    nodePlacement:
      affinity:
        nodeAffinity:
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
            nodeSelectorTerms:
            - matchExpressions:
              - key: example.io/example-infra-key
                operator: In
                values:
                - example-infra-value
  workloads:
    nodePlacement:
      affinity:
        nodeAffinity:
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
            nodeSelectorTerms:
            - matchExpressions:
              - key: example.io/example-workloads-key
                operator: In
                values:
                - example-workloads-value
          preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
          - weight: 1
            preference:
              matchExpressions:
              - key: example.io/num-cpus
                operator: gt
                values:
                - 8
4.3.2.2.3. Example: Node placement with tolerations in the HyperConverged Cluster CR

In this example, nodes that are reserved for OpenShift Virtualization components are labeled with the key=virtualization:NoSchedule taint. Only pods with the matching tolerations are scheduled to these nodes.

apiVersion: hco.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
kind: HyperConverged
metadata:
  name: kubevirt-hyperconverged
  namespace: openshift-cnv
spec:
  workloads:
    nodePlacement:
      tolerations:
      - key: "key"
        operator: "Equal"
        value: "virtualization"
        effect: "NoSchedule"

4.3.2.3. HostPathProvisioner object

4.3.2.3.1. Example: Node placement with nodeSelector in the HostPathProvisioner object

In this example, nodeSelector is configured so that workloads are placed on nodes labeled with example.io/example-workloads-key = example-workloads-value.

apiVersion: hostpathprovisioner.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
kind: HostPathProvisioner
metadata:
  name: hostpath-provisioner
spec:
  imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
  pathConfig:
    path: "</path/to/backing/directory>"
    useNamingPrefix: false
  workload:
    nodeSelector:
      example.io/example-workloads-key: example-workloads-value

4.4. Installing OpenShift Virtualization using the web console

Install OpenShift Virtualization to add virtualization functionality to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

You can use the OpenShift Container Platform 4.8 web console to subscribe to and deploy the OpenShift Virtualization Operators.

4.4.1. Installing the OpenShift Virtualization Operator

You can install the OpenShift Virtualization Operator from the OpenShift Container Platform web console.

Prerequisites

  • Install OpenShift Container Platform 4.8 on your cluster.
  • Log in to the OpenShift Container Platform web console as a user with cluster-admin permissions.

Procedure

  1. From the Administrator perspective, click OperatorsOperatorHub.
  2. In the Filter by keyword field, type OpenShift Virtualization.
  3. Select the OpenShift Virtualization tile.
  4. Read the information about the Operator and click Install.
  5. On the Install Operator page:

    1. Select stable from the list of available Update Channel options. This ensures that you install the version of OpenShift Virtualization that is compatible with your OpenShift Container Platform version.
    2. For Installed Namespace, ensure that the Operator recommended namespace option is selected. This installs the Operator in the mandatory openshift-cnv namespace, which is automatically created if it does not exist.

      Warning

      Attempting to install the OpenShift Virtualization Operator in a namespace other than openshift-cnv causes the installation to fail.

    3. For Approval Strategy, it is highly recommended that you select Automatic, which is the default value, so that OpenShift Virtualization automatically updates when a new version is available in the stable update channel.

      While it is possible to select the Manual approval strategy, this is inadvisable because of the high risk that it presents to the supportability and functionality of your cluster. Only select Manual if you fully understand these risks and cannot use Automatic.

      Warning

      Because OpenShift Virtualization is only supported when used with the corresponding OpenShift Container Platform version, missing OpenShift Virtualization updates can cause your cluster to become unsupported.

  6. Click Install to make the Operator available to the openshift-cnv namespace.
  7. When the Operator installs successfully, click Create HyperConverged.
  8. Optional: Configure Infra and Workloads node placement options for OpenShift Virtualization components.
  9. Click Create to launch OpenShift Virtualization.

Verification

  • Navigate to the WorkloadsPods page and monitor the OpenShift Virtualization pods until they are all Running. After all the pods display the Running state, you can use OpenShift Virtualization.

4.4.2. Next steps

You might want to additionally configure the following components:

  • The hostpath provisioner is a local storage provisioner designed for OpenShift Virtualization. If you want to configure local storage for virtual machines, you must enable the hostpath provisioner first.

4.5. Installing OpenShift Virtualization using the CLI

Install OpenShift Virtualization to add virtualization functionality to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster. You can subscribe to and deploy the OpenShift Virtualization Operators by using the command line to apply manifests to your cluster.

Note

To specify the nodes where you want OpenShift Virtualization to install its components, configure node placement rules.

4.5.1. Prerequisites

  • Install OpenShift Container Platform 4.8 on your cluster.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in as a user with cluster-admin privileges.

4.5.2. Subscribing to the OpenShift Virtualization catalog by using the CLI

Before you install OpenShift Virtualization, you must subscribe to the OpenShift Virtualization catalog. Subscribing gives the openshift-cnv namespace access to the OpenShift Virtualization Operators.

To subscribe, configure Namespace, OperatorGroup, and Subscription objects by applying a single manifest to your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Create a YAML file that contains the following manifest:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Namespace
    metadata:
      name: openshift-cnv
    ---
    apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1
    kind: OperatorGroup
    metadata:
      name: kubevirt-hyperconverged-group
      namespace: openshift-cnv
    spec:
      targetNamespaces:
        - openshift-cnv
    ---
    apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
    kind: Subscription
    metadata:
      name: hco-operatorhub
      namespace: openshift-cnv
    spec:
      source: redhat-operators
      sourceNamespace: openshift-marketplace
      name: kubevirt-hyperconverged
      startingCSV: kubevirt-hyperconverged-operator.v4.8.2
      channel: "stable" 1
    1
    Using the stable channel ensures that you install the version of OpenShift Virtualization that is compatible with your OpenShift Container Platform version.
  2. Create the required Namespace, OperatorGroup, and Subscription objects for OpenShift Virtualization by running the following command:

    $ oc apply -f <file name>.yaml
Note

You can configure certificate rotation parameters in the YAML file.

4.5.3. Deploying the OpenShift Virtualization Operator by using the CLI

You can deploy the OpenShift Virtualization Operator by using the oc CLI.

Prerequisites

  • An active subscription to the OpenShift Virtualization catalog in the openshift-cnv namespace.

Procedure

  1. Create a YAML file that contains the following manifest:

    apiVersion: hco.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
    kind: HyperConverged
    metadata:
      name: kubevirt-hyperconverged
      namespace: openshift-cnv
    spec:
  2. Deploy the OpenShift Virtualization Operator by running the following command:

    $ oc apply -f <file_name>.yaml

Verification

  • Ensure that OpenShift Virtualization deployed successfully by watching the PHASE of the cluster service version (CSV) in the openshift-cnv namespace. Run the following command:

    $ watch oc get csv -n openshift-cnv

    The following output displays if deployment was successful:

    Example output

    NAME                                      DISPLAY                    VERSION   REPLACES   PHASE
    kubevirt-hyperconverged-operator.v4.8.2   OpenShift Virtualization   4.8.2                Succeeded

4.5.4. Next steps

You might want to additionally configure the following components:

  • The hostpath provisioner is a local storage provisioner designed for OpenShift Virtualization. If you want to configure local storage for virtual machines, you must enable the hostpath provisioner first.

4.6. Installing the virtctl client

The virtctl client is a command-line utility for managing OpenShift Virtualization resources. It is available for Linux, macOS, and Windows distributions.

You can install the virtctl client from the OpenShift Virtualization web console or by enabling the OpenShift Virtualization repository and installing the kubevirt-virtctl package.

4.6.1. Installing the virtctl client from the web console

You can download the virtctl client from the Red Hat Customer Portal, which is linked to in your OpenShift Virtualization web console in the Command Line Tools page.

Prerequisites

  • You must have an activated OpenShift Container Platform subscription to access the download page on the Customer Portal.

Procedure

  1. Access the Customer Portal by clicking the question circle icon, which is in the upper-right corner of the web console, and selecting Command Line Tools.
  2. Ensure you have the appropriate version for your cluster selected from the Version: list.
  3. Download the virtctl client for your distribution. All downloads are in tar.gz format.
  4. Extract the tarball. The following CLI command extracts it into the same directory as the tarball and is applicable for all distributions:

    $ tar -xvf <virtctl-version-distribution.arch>.tar.gz
  5. For Linux and macOS:

    1. Navigate the extracted folder hierachy and make the virtctl binary executable:

      $ chmod +x <virtctl-file-name>
    2. Move the virtctl binary to a directory on your PATH.

      1. To check your path, run:

        $ echo $PATH
  6. For Windows users:

    1. Navigate the extracted folder hierarchy and double-click the virtctl executable file to install the client.

4.6.2. Enabling OpenShift Virtualization repositories

Red Hat offers OpenShift Virtualization repositories for both Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7:

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 repository: cnv-4.8-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 repository: rhel-7-server-cnv-4.8-rpms

The process for enabling the repository in subscription-manager is the same in both platforms.

Procedure

  • Enable the appropriate OpenShift Virtualization repository for your system by running the following command:

    # subscription-manager repos --enable <repository>

4.6.3. Installing the virtctl client

Install the virtctl client from the kubevirt-virtctl package.

Procedure

  • Install the kubevirt-virtctl package:

    # yum install kubevirt-virtctl

4.6.4. Additional resources

Using the CLI tools for OpenShift Virtualization.

4.7. Uninstalling OpenShift Virtualization using the web console

You can uninstall OpenShift Virtualization by using the OpenShift Container Platform web console.

4.7.1. Prerequisites

4.7.2. Deleting the OpenShift Virtualization Operator Deployment custom resource

To uninstall OpenShift Virtualization, you must first delete the OpenShift Virtualization Operator Deployment custom resource.

Prerequisites

  • Create the OpenShift Virtualization Operator Deployment custom resource.

Procedure

  1. From the OpenShift Container Platform web console, select openshift-cnv from the Projects list.
  2. Navigate to the OperatorsInstalled Operators page.
  3. Click OpenShift Virtualization.
  4. Click the OpenShift Virtualization Operator Deployment tab.
  5. Click the Options menu kebab in the row containing the kubevirt-hyperconverged custom resource. In the expanded menu, click Delete HyperConverged Cluster.
  6. Click Delete in the confirmation window.
  7. Navigate to the WorkloadsPods page to verify that only the Operator pods are running.
  8. Open a terminal window and clean up the remaining resources by running the following command:

    $ oc delete apiservices v1alpha3.subresources.kubevirt.io -n openshift-cnv

4.7.3. Deleting the OpenShift Virtualization catalog subscription

To finish uninstalling OpenShift Virtualization, delete the OpenShift Virtualization catalog subscription.

Prerequisites

  • An active subscription to the OpenShift Virtualization catalog

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the OperatorsOperatorHub page.
  2. Search for OpenShift Virtualization and then select it.
  3. Click Uninstall.
Note

You can now delete the openshift-cnv namespace.

4.7.4. Deleting a namespace using the web console

You can delete a namespace by using the OpenShift Container Platform web console.

Note

If you do not have permissions to delete the namespace, the Delete Namespace option is not available.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to AdministrationNamespaces.
  2. Locate the namespace that you want to delete in the list of namespaces.
  3. On the far right side of the namespace listing, select Delete Namespace from the Options menu kebab .
  4. When the Delete Namespace pane opens, enter the name of the namespace that you want to delete in the field.
  5. Click Delete.

4.8. Uninstalling OpenShift Virtualization using the CLI

You can uninstall OpenShift Virtualization by using the OpenShift Container Platform CLI.

4.8.1. Prerequisites

4.8.2. Deleting OpenShift Virtualization

You can delete OpenShift Virtualization by using the CLI.

Prerequisites

  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Access to a OpenShift Virtualization cluster using an account with cluster-admin permissions.
Note

When you delete the subscription of the OpenShift Virtualization operator in the OLM by using the CLI, the ClusterServiceVersion (CSV) object is not deleted from the cluster. To completely uninstall OpenShift Virtualization, you must explicitly delete the CSV.

Procedure

  1. Delete the HyperConverged custom resource:

    $ oc delete HyperConverged kubevirt-hyperconverged -n openshift-cnv
  2. Delete the subscription of the OpenShift Virtualization operator in the Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM):

    $ oc delete subscription kubevirt-hyperconverged -n openshift-cnv
  3. Set the cluster service version (CSV) name for OpenShift Virtualization as an environment variable:

    $ CSV_NAME=$(oc get csv -n openshift-cnv -o=custom-columns=:metadata.name)
  4. Delete the CSV from the OpenShift Virtualization cluster by specifying the CSV name from the previous step:

    $ oc delete csv ${CSV_NAME} -n openshift-cnv

    OpenShift Virtualization is uninstalled when a confirmation message indicates that the CSV was deleted successfully:

    Example output

    clusterserviceversion.operators.coreos.com "kubevirt-hyperconverged-operator.v4.8.2" deleted

Chapter 5. Upgrading OpenShift Virtualization

Learn how Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) delivers z-stream and minor version updates for OpenShift Virtualization.

5.1. About upgrading OpenShift Virtualization

5.1.1. How OpenShift Virtualization upgrades work

  • Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) manages the lifecycle of the OpenShift Virtualization Operator. The Marketplace Operator, which is deployed during OpenShift Container Platform installation, makes external Operators available to your cluster.
  • OLM provides z-stream and minor version updates for OpenShift Virtualization. Minor version updates become available when you upgrade OpenShift Container Platform to the next minor version. You cannot upgrade OpenShift Virtualization to the next minor version without first upgrading OpenShift Container Platform.
  • OpenShift Virtualization subscriptions use a single update channel that is named stable. The stable channel ensures that your OpenShift Virtualization and OpenShift Container Platform versions are compatible.
  • If your subscription’s approval strategy is set to Automatic, the upgrade process starts as soon as a new version of the Operator is available in the stable channel. It is highly recommended to use the Automatic approval strategy to maintain a supportable environment. Each minor version of OpenShift Virtualization is only supported if you run the corresponding OpenShift Container Platform version. For example, you must run OpenShift Virtualization 4.8 on OpenShift Container Platform 4.8.

    • Though it is possible to select the Manual approval strategy, this is not recommended because it risks the supportability and functionality of your cluster. With the Manual approval strategy, you must manually approve every pending update. If OpenShift Container Platform and OpenShift Virtualization updates are out of sync, your cluster becomes unsupported.
  • The amount of time an update takes to complete depends on your network connection. Most automatic updates complete within fifteen minutes.

5.1.2. How OpenShift Virtualization upgrades affect your cluster

  • Upgrading does not interrupt virtual machine workloads.

    • Virtual machine pods are not restarted or migrated during an upgrade. If you need to update the virt-launcher pod, you must restart or live migrate the virtual machine.

      Note

      Each virtual machine has a virt-launcher pod that runs the virtual machine instance. The virt-launcher pod runs an instance of libvirt, which is used to manage the virtual machine process.

  • Upgrading does not interrupt network connections.
  • Data volumes and their associated persistent volume claims are preserved during upgrade.

    Important

    If you have virtual machines running that cannot be live migrated, they might block an OpenShift Container Platform cluster upgrade. This includes virtual machines that use hostpath provisioner storage or SR-IOV network interfaces that have the sriovLiveMigration feature gate disabled.

    As a workaround, you can reconfigure the virtual machines so that they can be powered off automatically during a cluster upgrade. Remove the evictionStrategy: LiveMigrate field and set the runStrategy field to Always.

5.2. Manually approving a pending Operator upgrade

If an installed Operator has the approval strategy in its subscription set to Manual, when new updates are released in its current update channel, the update must be manually approved before installation can begin.

Prerequisites

  • An Operator previously installed using Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM).

Procedure

  1. In the Administrator perspective of the OpenShift Container Platform web console, navigate to Operators → Installed Operators.
  2. Operators that have a pending upgrade display a status with Upgrade available. Click the name of the Operator you want to upgrade.
  3. Click the Subscription tab. Any upgrades requiring approval are displayed next to Upgrade Status. For example, it might display 1 requires approval.
  4. Click 1 requires approval, then click Preview Install Plan.
  5. Review the resources that are listed as available for upgrade. When satisfied, click Approve.
  6. Navigate back to the Operators → Installed Operators page to monitor the progress of the upgrade. When complete, the status changes to Succeeded and Up to date.

5.3. Monitoring upgrade status

The best way to monitor OpenShift Virtualization upgrade status is to watch the cluster service version (CSV) PHASE. You can also monitor the CSV conditions in the web console or by running the command provided here.

Note

The PHASE and conditions values are approximations that are based on available information.

Prerequisites

  • Log in to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Procedure

  1. Run the following command:

    $ oc get csv -n openshift-cnv
  2. Review the output, checking the PHASE field. For example:

    Example output

    VERSION  REPLACES                                        PHASE
    4.8.0    kubevirt-hyperconverged-operator.v2.6.5         Installing
    4.8.1    kubevirt-hyperconverged-operator.v4.8.0         Replacing

  3. Optional: Monitor the aggregated status of all OpenShift Virtualization component conditions by running the following command:

    $ oc get hco -n openshift-cnv kubevirt-hyperconverged \
    -o=jsonpath='{range .status.conditions[*]}{.type}{"\t"}{.status}{"\t"}{.message}{"\n"}{end}'

    A successful upgrade results in the following output:

    Example output

    ReconcileComplete  True  Reconcile completed successfully
    Available          True  Reconcile completed successfully
    Progressing        False Reconcile completed successfully
    Degraded           False Reconcile completed successfully
    Upgradeable        True  Reconcile completed successfully

5.4. Additional resources

Chapter 6. Additional security privileges granted for kubevirt-controller and virt-launcher

The kubevirt-controller and virt-launcher pods are granted some SELinux policies and Security Context Constraints privileges that are in addition to typical pod owners. These privileges enable virtual machines to use OpenShift Virtualization features.

6.1. Extended SELinux policies for virt-launcher pods

The container_t SELinux policy for virt-launcher pods is extended with the following rules:

  • allow process self (tun_socket (relabelfrom relabelto attach_queue))
  • allow process sysfs_t (file (write))
  • allow process hugetlbfs_t (dir (add_name create write remove_name rmdir setattr))
  • allow process hugetlbfs_t (file (create unlink))

These rules enable the following virtualization features:

  • Relabel and attach queues to its own TUN sockets, which is required to support network multi-queue. Multi-queue enables network performance to scale as the number of available vCPUs increases.
  • Allows virt-launcher pods to write information to sysfs (/sys) files, which is required to enable Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV).
  • Read/write hugetlbfs entries, which is required to support huge pages. Huge pages are a method of managing large amounts of memory by increasing the memory page size.

6.2. Additional OpenShift Container Platform security context constraints and Linux capabilities for the kubevirt-controller service account

Security context constraints (SCCs) control permissions for pods. These permissions include actions that a pod, a collection of containers, can perform and what resources it can access. You can use SCCs to define a set of conditions that a pod must run with to be accepted into the system.

The kubevirt-controller is a cluster controller that creates the virt-launcher pods for virtual machines in the cluster. These virt-launcher pods are granted permissions by the kubevirt-controller service account.

6.2.1. Additional SCCs granted to the kubevirt-controller service account

The kubevirt-controller service account is granted additional SCCs and Linux capabilities so that it can create virt-launcher pods with the appropriate permissions. These extended permissions allow virtual machines to take advantage of OpenShift Virtualization features that are beyond the scope of typical pods.

The kubevirt-controller service account is granted the following SCCs:

  • scc.AllowHostDirVolumePlugin = true
    This allows virtual machines to use the hostpath volume plug-in.
  • scc.AllowPrivilegedContainer = false
    This ensures the virt-launcher pod is not run as a privileged container.
  • scc.AllowedCapabilities = []corev1.Capability{"NET_ADMIN", "NET_RAW", "SYS_NICE"}
    This provides the following additional Linux capabilities NET_ADMIN, NET_RAW, and SYS_NICE.

6.2.2. Viewing the SCC and RBAC definitions for the kubevirt-controller

You can view the SecurityContextConstraints definition for the kubevirt-controller by using the oc tool:

$ oc get scc kubevirt-controller -o yaml

You can view the RBAC definition for the kubevirt-controller clusterrole by using the oc tool:

$ oc get clusterrole kubevirt-controller -o yaml

6.3. Additional resources

  • The Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization Tuning and Optimization Guide has more information on network multi-queue and huge pages.
  • The capabilities man page has more information on the Linux capabilities.
  • The sysfs(5) man page has more information on sysfs.
  • The OpenShift Container Platform Authentication guide has more information on Security Context Constraints.

Chapter 7. Using the CLI tools

The two primary CLI tools used for managing resources in the cluster are:

  • The OpenShift Virtualization virtctl client
  • The OpenShift Container Platform oc client

7.1. Prerequisites

7.2. Virtctl client commands

The virtctl client is a command-line utility for managing OpenShift Virtualization resources. The following table contains the virtctl commands used throughout the OpenShift Virtualization documentation.

To view a list of options that you can use with a command, run it with the -h or --help flag. For example:

$ virtctl image-upload -h

Table 7.1. virtctl client commands

CommandDescription

virtctl start <vm_name>

Start a virtual machine.

virtctl stop <vm_name>

Stop a virtual machine.

virtctl pause vm|vmi <object_name>

Pause a virtual machine or virtual machine instance. The machine state is kept in memory.

virtctl unpause vm|vmi <object_name>

Unpause a virtual machine or virtual machine instance.

virtctl migrate <vm_name>

Migrate a virtual machine.

virtctl restart <vm_name>

Restart a virtual machine.

virtctl expose <vm_name>

Create a service that forwards a designated port of a virtual machine or virtual machine instance and expose the service on the specified port of the node.

virtctl console <vmi_name>

Connect to a serial console of a virtual machine instance.

virtctl vnc --kubeconfig=$KUBECONFIG <vmi_name>

Open a VNC (Virtual Network Client) connection to a virtual machine instance. Access the graphical console of a virtual machine instance through a VNC which requires a remote viewer on your local machine.

virtctl vnc --kubeconfig=$KUBECONFIG --proxy-only=true <vmi-name>

Display the port number and connect manually to the virtual machine instance by using any viewer through the VNC connection.

virtctl vnc --kubeconfig=$KUBECONFIG --port=<port-number> <vmi-name>

Specify a port number to run the proxy on the specified port, if that port is available. If a port number is not specified, the proxy runs on a random port.

virtctl image-upload dv <datavolume_name> --image-path=</path/to/image> --no-create

Upload a virtual machine image to a data volume that already exists.

virtctl image-upload dv <datavolume_name> --size=<datavolume_size> --image-path=</path/to/image>

Upload a virtual machine image to a new data volume.

virtctl version

Display the client and server version information.

virtctl help

Display a descriptive list of virtctl commands.

virtctl fslist <vmi_name>

Return a full list of file systems available on the guest machine.

virtctl guestosinfo <vmi_name>

Return guest agent information about the operating system.

virtctl userlist <vmi_name>

Return a full list of logged-in users on the guest machine.

7.3. OpenShift Container Platform client commands

The OpenShift Container Platform oc client is a command-line utility for managing OpenShift Container Platform resources, including the VirtualMachine (vm) and VirtualMachineInstance (vmi) object types.

Note

You can use the -n <namespace> flag to specify a different project.

Table 7.2. oc commands

CommandDescription

oc login -u <user_name>

Log in to the OpenShift Container Platform cluster as <user_name>.

oc get <object_type>

Display a list of objects for the specified object type in the current project.

oc describe <object_type> <resource_name>

Display details of the specific resource in the current project.

oc create -f <object_config>

Create a resource in the current project from a file name or from stdin.

oc edit <object_type> <resource_name>

Edit a resource in the current project.

oc delete <object_type> <resource_name>

Delete a resource in the current project.

For more comprehensive information on oc client commands, see the OpenShift Container Platform CLI tools documentation.

Chapter 8. Virtual machines

8.1. Creating virtual machines

Use one of these procedures to create a virtual machine:

Warning

Do not create virtual machines in openshift-* namespaces. Instead, create a new namespace or use an existing namespace without the openshift prefix.

When you create virtual machines from the web console, select a virtual machine template that is configured with a boot source. Virtual machine templates with a boot source are labeled as Available boot source or they display a customized label text. Using templates with an available boot source expedites the process of creating virtual machines.

Templates without a boot source are labeled as Boot source required. You can use these templates if you complete the steps for adding a boot source to the virtual machine.

8.1.1. Using a Quick Start to create a virtual machine

The web console provides Quick Starts with instructional guided tours for creating virtual machines. You can access the Quick Starts catalog by selecting the Help menu in the Administrator perspective to view the Quick Starts catalog. When you click on a Quick Start tile and begin the tour, the system guides you through the process.

Tasks in a Quick Start begin with selecting a Red Hat template. Then, you can add a boot source and import the operating system image. Finally, you can save the custom template and use it to create a virtual machine.

Quick Start tours for creating virtual machines include the following:

  • Creating a Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machine
  • Creating a Windows 10 virtual machine
  • Importing a VMWare virtual machine

Prerequisites

  • Access to the website where you can download the URL link for the operating system image.

Procedure

  1. In the web console, select Quick Starts from the Help menu.
  2. Click on a tile in the Quick Starts catalog. For example: Creating a Red Hat Linux Enterprise Linux virtual machine.
  3. Follow the instructions in the guided tour and complete the tasks for importing an operating system image and creating a virtual machine. The Virtual Machines tab displays the virtual machine.

8.1.2. Running the virtual machine wizard to create a virtual machine

The web console features a wizard that guides you through the process of selecting a virtual machine template and creating a virtual machine. Red Hat virtual machine templates are preconfigured with an operating system image, default settings for the operating system, flavor (CPU and memory), and workload type (server). When templates are configured with a boot source, they are labeled with a customized label text or the default label text Available boot source. These templates are then ready to be used for creating virtual machines.

You can select a template from the list of preconfigured templates, review the settings, and create a virtual machine in the Create virtual machine from template wizard. If you choose to customize your virtual machine, the wizard guides you through the General, Networking, Storage, Advanced, and Review steps. All required fields displayed by the wizard are marked by a *.

Create network interface controllers (NICs) and storage disks later and attach them to virtual machines.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. From the Virtual Machines tab or the Templates tab, click Create and select Virtual Machine with Wizard.
  3. Select a template that is configured with a boot source.
  4. Click Next to go to the Review and create step.
  5. Clear the Start this virtual machine after creation checkbox if you do not want to start the virtual machine now.
  6. Click Create virtual machine and exit the wizard or continue with the wizard to customize the virtual machine.
  7. Click Customize virtual machine to go to the General step.

    1. Optional: Edit the Name field to specify a custom name for the virtual machine.
    2. Optional: In the Description field, add a description.
  8. Click Next to go to the Networking step. A nic0 NIC is attached by default.

    1. Optional: Click Add Network Interface to create additional NICs.
    2. Optional: You can remove any or all NICs by clicking the Options menu kebab and selecting Delete. A virtual machine does not need a NIC attached to be created. You can create NICs after the virtual machine has been created.
  9. Click Next to go to the Storage step.

    1. Optional: Click Add Disk to create additional disks. These disks can be removed by clicking the Options menu kebab and selecting Delete.
    2. Optional: Click the Options menu kebab to edit the disk and save your changes.
  10. Click Next to go to the Advanced step to review the details for Cloud-init and configure SSH access.

    Note

    Statically inject an SSH key by using the custom script in cloud-init or in the wizard. This allows you to securely and remotely manage virtual machines and manage and transfer information. This step is strongly recommended to secure your VM. 

  11. Click Next to go to the Review step and review the settings for the virtual machine.
  12. Click Create Virtual Machine.
  13. Click See virtual machine details to view the Overview for this virtual machine.

    The virtual machine is listed in the Virtual Machines tab.

Refer to the virtual machine wizard fields section when running the web console wizard.

8.1.2.1. Virtual machine wizard fields

NameParameterDescription

Name

 

The name can contain lowercase letters (a-z), numbers (0-9), and hyphens (-), up to a maximum of 253 characters. The first and last characters must be alphanumeric. The name must not contain uppercase letters, spaces, periods (.), or special characters.

Description

 

Optional description field.

Operating System

 

The operating system that is selected for the virtual machine in the template. You cannot edit this field when creating a virtual machine from a template.

Boot Source

Import via URL (creates PVC)

Import content from an image available from an HTTP or S3 endpoint. Example: Obtaining a URL link from the web page with the operating system image.

Clone existing PVC (creates PVC)

Select an existent persistent volume claim available on the cluster and clone it.

Import via Registry (creates PVC)

Provision virtual machine from a bootable operating system container located in a registry accessible from the cluster. Example: kubevirt/cirros-registry-disk-demo.

PXE (network boot - adds network interface)

Boot an operating system from a server on the network. Requires a PXE bootable network attachment definition.

Persistent Volume Claim project

 

Project name that you want to use for cloning the PVC.

Persistent Volume Claim name

 

PVC name that should apply to this virtual machine template if you are cloning an existing PVC.

Mount this as a CD-ROM boot source

 

A CD-ROM requires an additional disk for installing the operating system. Select the checkbox to add a disk and customize it later.

Flavor

Tiny, Small, Medium, Large, Custom

Presets the amount of CPU and memory in a virtual machine template with predefined values that are allocated to the virtual machine, depending on the operating system associated with that template.

If you choose a default template, you can override the cpus and memsize values in the template using custom values to create a custom template. Alternatively, you can create a custom template by modifying the cpus and memsize values in the Details tab on the WorkloadsVirtualization page.

Workload Type

Note

If you choose the incorrect Workload Type, there could be performance or resource utilization issues (such as a slow UI).

Desktop

A virtual machine configuration for use on a desktop. Ideal for consumption on a small scale. Recommended for use with the web console.

Server

Balances performance and it is compatible with a wide range of server workloads.

High-Performance

A virtual machine configuration that is optimized for high-performance workloads.

Start this virtual machine after creation.

 

This checkbox is selected by default and the virtual machine starts running after creation. Clear the checkbox if you do not want the virtual machine to start when it is created.

8.1.2.2. Networking fields

NameDescription

Name

Name for the network interface controller.

Model

Indicates the model of the network interface controller. Supported values are e1000e and virtio.

Network

List of available network attachment definitions.

Type

List of available binding methods. For the default pod network, masquerade is the only recommended binding method. For secondary networks, use the bridge binding method. The masquerade method is not supported for non-default networks. Select SR-IOV if you configured an SR-IOV network device and defined that network in the namespace.

MAC Address

MAC address for the network interface controller. If a MAC address is not specified, one is assigned automatically.

8.1.2.3. Storage fields

NameSelectionDescription

Source

Blank (creates PVC)

Create an empty disk.

Import via URL (creates PVC)

Import content via URL (HTTP or S3 endpoint).

Use an existing PVC

Use a PVC that is already available in the cluster.

Clone existing PVC (creates PVC)

Select an existing PVC available in the cluster and clone it.

Import via Registry (creates PVC)

Import content via container registry.

Container (ephemeral)

Upload content from a container located in a registry accessible from the cluster. The container disk should be used only for read-only filesystems such as CD-ROMs or temporary virtual machines.

Name

 

Name of the disk. The name can contain lowercase letters (a-z), numbers (0-9), hyphens (-), and periods (.), up to a maximum of 253 characters. The first and last characters must be alphanumeric. The name must not contain uppercase letters, spaces, or special characters.

Size

 

Size of the disk in GiB.

Type

 

Type of disk. Example: Disk or CD-ROM

Interface

 

Type of disk device. Supported interfaces are virtIO, SATA, and SCSI.

Storage Class

 

The storage class that is used to create the disk.

Advanced → Volume Mode

 

Defines whether the persistent volume uses a formatted file system or raw block state. Default is Filesystem.

Advanced → Access Mode

 

Access mode of the persistent volume. Supported access modes are Single User (RWO), Shared Access (RWX), and Read Only (ROX).

Advanced storage settings

The following advanced storage settings are available for Blank, Import via URL, and Clone existing PVC disks. These parameters are optional. If you do not specify these parameters, the system uses the default values from the kubevirt-storage-class-defaults config map.

NameParameterDescription

Volume Mode

Filesystem

Stores the virtual disk on a file system-based volume.

Block

Stores the virtual disk directly on the block volume. Only use Block if the underlying storage supports it.

Access Mode

Single User (RWO)

The disk can be mounted as read/write by a single node.

Shared Access (RWX)

The disk can be mounted as read/write by many nodes.

Note

This is required for some features, such as live migration of virtual machines between nodes.

Read Only (ROX)

The disk can be mounted as read-only by many nodes.

8.1.2.4. Cloud-init fields

NameDescription

Hostname

Sets a specific hostname for the virtual machine.

Authorized SSH Keys

The user’s public key that is copied to ~/.ssh/authorized_keys on the virtual machine.

Custom script

Replaces other options with a field in which you paste a custom cloud-init script.

For more information on the kubevirt-storage-class-defaults config map, see Storage defaults for data volumes.

8.1.3. Pasting in a pre-configured YAML file to create a virtual machine

Create a virtual machine by writing or pasting a YAML configuration file. A valid example virtual machine configuration is provided by default whenever you open the YAML edit screen.

If your YAML configuration is invalid when you click Create, an error message indicates the parameter in which the error occurs. Only one error is shown at a time.

Note

Navigating away from the YAML screen while editing cancels any changes to the configuration you have made.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Click Create and select Virtual Machine With YAML.
  4. Write or paste your virtual machine configuration in the editable window.

    1. Alternatively, use the example virtual machine provided by default in the YAML screen.
  5. Optional: Click Download to download the YAML configuration file in its present state.
  6. Click Create to create the virtual machine.

The virtual machine is listed in the Virtual Machines tab.

8.1.4. Using the CLI to create a virtual machine

Procedure

The spec object of the virtual machine configuration file references the virtual machine settings, such as the number of cores and the amount of memory, the disk type, and the volumes to use.

  1. Attach the virtual machine disk to the virtual machine by referencing the relevant PVC claimName as a volume.
  2. To create a virtual machine with the OpenShift Container Platform client, run this command:

    $ oc create -f <vm.yaml>
  3. Since virtual machines are created in a Stopped state, run a virtual machine instance by starting it.
Note

A ReplicaSet's purpose is often used to guarantee the availability of a specified number of identical pods. ReplicaSet is not currently supported in OpenShift Virtualization.

Table 8.1. Domain settings

SettingDescription

Cores

The number of cores inside the virtual machine. Must be a value greater than or equal to 1.

Memory

The amount of RAM that is allocated to the virtual machine by the node. Specify a value in M for Megabyte or Gi for Gigabyte.

Disks

The name of the volume that is referenced. Must match the name of a volume.

Table 8.2. Volume settings

SettingDescription

Name

The name of the volume, which must be a DNS label and unique within the virtual machine.

PersistentVolumeClaim

The PVC to attach to the virtual machine. The claimName of the PVC must be in the same project as the virtual machine.

8.1.5. Virtual machine storage volume types

Storage volume typeDescription

ephemeral

A local copy-on-write (COW) image that uses a network volume as a read-only backing store. The backing volume must be a PersistentVolumeClaim. The ephemeral image is created when the virtual machine starts and stores all writes locally. The ephemeral image is discarded when the virtual machine is stopped, restarted, or deleted. The backing volume (PVC) is not mutated in any way.

persistentVolumeClaim

Attaches an available PV to a virtual machine. Attaching a PV allows for the virtual machine data to persist between sessions.

Importing an existing virtual machine disk into a PVC by using CDI and attaching the PVC to a virtual machine instance is the recommended method for importing existing virtual machines into OpenShift Container Platform. There are some requirements for the disk to be used within a PVC.

dataVolume

Data volumes build on the persistentVolumeClaim disk type by managing the process of preparing the virtual machine disk via an import, clone, or upload operation. VMs that use this volume type are guaranteed not to start until the volume is ready.

Specify type: dataVolume or type: "". If you specify any other value for type, such as persistentVolumeClaim, a warning is displayed, and the virtual machine does not start.

cloudInitNoCloud

Attaches a disk that contains the referenced cloud-init NoCloud data source, providing user data and metadata to the virtual machine. A cloud-init installation is required inside the virtual machine disk.

containerDisk

References an image, such as a virtual machine disk, that is stored in the container image registry. The image is pulled from the registry and attached to the virtual machine as a disk when the virtual machine is launched.

A containerDisk volume is not limited to a single virtual machine and is useful for creating large numbers of virtual machine clones that do not require persistent storage.

Only RAW and QCOW2 formats are supported disk types for the container image registry. QCOW2 is recommended for reduced image size.

Note

A containerDisk volume is ephemeral. It is discarded when the virtual machine is stopped, restarted, or deleted. A containerDisk volume is useful for read-only file systems such as CD-ROMs or for disposable virtual machines.

emptyDisk

Creates an additional sparse QCOW2 disk that is tied to the life-cycle of the virtual machine interface. The data survives guest-initiated reboots in the virtual machine but is discarded when the virtual machine stops or is restarted from the web console. The empty disk is used to store application dependencies and data that otherwise exceeds the limited temporary file system of an ephemeral disk.

The disk capacity size must also be provided.

8.1.6. About RunStrategies for virtual machines

A RunStrategy for virtual machines determines a virtual machine instance’s (VMI) behavior, depending on a series of conditions. The spec.runStrategy setting exists in the virtual machine configuration process as an alternative to the spec.running setting. The spec.runStrategy setting allows greater flexibility for how VMIs are created and managed, in contrast to the spec.running setting with only true or false responses. However, the two settings are mutually exclusive. Only either spec.running or spec.runStrategy can be used. An error occurs if both are used.

There are four defined RunStrategies.

Always
A VMI is always present when a virtual machine is created. A new VMI is created if the original stops for any reason, which is the same behavior as spec.running: true.
RerunOnFailure
A VMI is re-created if the previous instance fails due to an error. The instance is not re-created if the virtual machine stops successfully, such as when it shuts down.
Manual
The start, stop, and restart virtctl client commands can be used to control the VMI’s state and existence.
Halted
No VMI is present when a virtual machine is created, which is the same behavior as spec.running: false.

Different combinations of the start, stop and restart virtctl commands affect which RunStrategy is used.

The following table follows a VM’s transition from different states. The first column shows the VM’s initial RunStrategy. Each additional column shows a virtctl command and the new RunStrategy after that command is run.

Initial RunStrategystartstoprestart

Always

-

Halted

Always

RerunOnFailure

-

Halted

RerunOnFailure

Manual

Manual

Manual

Manual

Halted

Always

-

-

Note

In OpenShift Virtualization clusters installed using installer-provisioned infrastructure, when a node fails the MachineHealthCheck and becomes unavailable to the cluster, VMs with a RunStrategy of Always or RerunOnFailure are rescheduled on a new node.

apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualMachine
spec:
  RunStrategy: Always 1
  template:
...
1
The VMI’s current RunStrategy setting.

8.1.7. Additional resources

8.2. Editing virtual machines

You can update a virtual machine configuration using either the YAML editor in the web console or the OpenShift CLI on the command line. You can also update a subset of the parameters in the Virtual Machine Details screen.

8.2.1. Editing a virtual machine in the web console

Edit select values of a virtual machine in the web console by clicking the pencil icon next to the relevant field. Other values can be edited using the CLI.

Labels and annotations are editable for both preconfigured Red Hat templates and your custom virtual machine templates. All other values are editable only for custom virtual machine templates that users have created using the Red Hat templates or the Create Virtual Machine Template wizard.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Select a virtual machine.
  4. Click the Details tab.
  5. Click the pencil icon to make a field editable.
  6. Make the relevant changes and click Save.
Note

If the virtual machine is running, changes to Boot Order or Flavor will not take effect until you restart the virtual machine.

You can view pending changes by clicking View Pending Changes on the right side of the relevant field. The Pending Changes banner at the top of the page displays a list of all changes that will be applied when the virtual machine restarts.

8.2.2. Editing a virtual machine YAML configuration using the web console

You can edit the YAML configuration of a virtual machine in the web console. Some parameters cannot be modified. If you click Save with an invalid configuration, an error message indicates the parameter that cannot be changed.

If you edit the YAML configuration while the virtual machine is running, changes will not take effect until you restart the virtual machine.

Note

Navigating away from the YAML screen while editing cancels any changes to the configuration you have made.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Select a virtual machine.
  3. Click the YAML tab to display the editable configuration.
  4. Optional: You can click Download to download the YAML file locally in its current state.
  5. Edit the file and click Save.

A confirmation message shows that the modification has been successful and includes the updated version number for the object.

8.2.3. Editing a virtual machine YAML configuration using the CLI

Use this procedure to edit a virtual machine YAML configuration using the CLI.

Prerequisites

  • You configured a virtual machine with a YAML object configuration file.
  • You installed the oc CLI.

Procedure

  1. Run the following command to update the virtual machine configuration:

    $ oc edit <object_type> <object_ID>
  2. Open the object configuration.
  3. Edit the YAML.
  4. If you edit a running virtual machine, you need to do one of the following:

    • Restart the virtual machine.
    • Run the following command for the new configuration to take effect:

      $ oc apply <object_type> <object_ID>

8.2.4. Adding a virtual disk to a virtual machine

Use this procedure to add a virtual disk to a virtual machine.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Select a virtual machine to open the Virtual Machine Overview screen.
  4. Click the Disks tab.
  5. In the Add Disk window, specify the Source, Name, Size, Type, Interface, and Storage Class.

    1. Optional: In the Advanced list, specify the Volume Mode and Access Mode for the virtual disk. If you do not specify these parameters, the system uses the default values from the kubevirt-storage-class-defaults config map.
  6. Click Add.
Note

If the virtual machine is running, the new disk is in the pending restart state and will not be attached until you restart the virtual machine.

The Pending Changes banner at the top of the page displays a list of all changes that will be applied when the virtual machine restarts.

For more information on the kubevirt-storage-class-defaults config map, see Storage defaults for data volumes.

8.2.4.1. Storage fields

NameSelectionDescription

Source

Blank (creates PVC)

Create an empty disk.

Import via URL (creates PVC)

Import content via URL (HTTP or S3 endpoint).

Use an existing PVC

Use a PVC that is already available in the cluster.

Clone existing PVC (creates PVC)

Select an existing PVC available in the cluster and clone it.

Import via Registry (creates PVC)

Import content via container registry.

Container (ephemeral)

Upload content from a container located in a registry accessible from the cluster. The container disk should be used only for read-only filesystems such as CD-ROMs or temporary virtual machines.

Name

 

Name of the disk. The name can contain lowercase letters (a-z), numbers (0-9), hyphens (-), and periods (.), up to a maximum of 253 characters. The first and last characters must be alphanumeric. The name must not contain uppercase letters, spaces, or special characters.

Size

 

Size of the disk in GiB.

Type

 

Type of disk. Example: Disk or CD-ROM

Interface

 

Type of disk device. Supported interfaces are virtIO, SATA, and SCSI.

Storage Class

 

The storage class that is used to create the disk.

Advanced → Volume Mode

 

Defines whether the persistent volume uses a formatted file system or raw block state. Default is Filesystem.

Advanced → Access Mode

 

Access mode of the persistent volume. Supported access modes are Single User (RWO), Shared Access (RWX), and Read Only (ROX).

Advanced storage settings

The following advanced storage settings are available for Blank, Import via URL, and Clone existing PVC disks. These parameters are optional. If you do not specify these parameters, the system uses the default values from the kubevirt-storage-class-defaults config map.

NameParameterDescription

Volume Mode

Filesystem

Stores the virtual disk on a file system-based volume.

Block

Stores the virtual disk directly on the block volume. Only use Block if the underlying storage supports it.

Access Mode

Single User (RWO)

The disk can be mounted as read/write by a single node.

Shared Access (RWX)

The disk can be mounted as read/write by many nodes.

Note

This is required for some features, such as live migration of virtual machines between nodes.

Read Only (ROX)

The disk can be mounted as read-only by many nodes.

8.2.5. Adding a network interface to a virtual machine

Use this procedure to add a network interface to a virtual machine.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Select a virtual machine to open the Virtual Machine Overview screen.
  4. Click the Network Interfaces tab.
  5. Click Add Network Interface.
  6. In the Add Network Interface window, specify the Name, Model, Network, Type, and MAC Address of the network interface.
  7. Click Add.
Note

If the virtual machine is running, the new network interface is in the pending restart state and changes will not take effect until you restart the virtual machine.

The Pending Changes banner at the top of the page displays a list of all changes that will be applied when the virtual machine restarts.

8.2.5.1. Networking fields

NameDescription

Name

Name for the network interface controller.

Model

Indicates the model of the network interface controller. Supported values are e1000e and virtio.

Network

List of available network attachment definitions.

Type

List of available binding methods. For the default pod network, masquerade is the only recommended binding method. For secondary networks, use the bridge binding method. The masquerade method is not supported for non-default networks. Select SR-IOV if you configured an SR-IOV network device and defined that network in the namespace.

MAC Address

MAC address for the network interface controller. If a MAC address is not specified, one is assigned automatically.

8.2.6. Editing CD-ROMs for Virtual Machines

Use the following procedure to edit CD-ROMs for virtual machines.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Select a virtual machine to open the Virtual Machine Overview screen.
  4. Click the Disks tab.
  5. Click the Options menu kebab for the CD-ROM that you want to edit and select Edit.
  6. In the Edit CD-ROM window, edit the fields: Source, Persistent Volume Claim, Name, Type, and Interface.
  7. Click Save.

8.3. Editing boot order

You can update the values for a boot order list by using the web console or the CLI.

With Boot Order in the Virtual Machine Overview page, you can:

  • Select a disk or network interface controller (NIC) and add it to the boot order list.
  • Edit the order of the disks or NICs in the boot order list.
  • Remove a disk or NIC from the boot order list, and return it back to the inventory of bootable sources.

8.3.1. Adding items to a boot order list in the web console

Add items to a boot order list by using the web console.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Select a virtual machine to open the Virtual Machine Overview screen.
  4. Click the Details tab.
  5. Click the pencil icon that is located on the right side of Boot Order. If a YAML configuration does not exist, or if this is the first time that you are creating a boot order list, the following message displays: No resource selected. VM will attempt to boot from disks by order of appearance in YAML file.
  6. Click Add Source and select a bootable disk or network interface controller (NIC) for the virtual machine.
  7. Add any additional disks or NICs to the boot order list.
  8. Click Save.
Note

If the virtual machine is running, changes to Boot Order will not take effect until you restart the virtual machine.

You can view pending changes by clicking View Pending Changes on the right side of the Boot Order field. The Pending Changes banner at the top of the page displays a list of all changes that will be applied when the virtual machine restarts.

8.3.2. Editing a boot order list in the web console

Edit the boot order list in the web console.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Select a virtual machine to open the Virtual Machine Overview screen.
  4. Click the Details tab.
  5. Click the pencil icon that is located on the right side of Boot Order.
  6. Choose the appropriate method to move the item in the boot order list:

    • If you do not use a screen reader, hover over the arrow icon next to the item that you want to move, drag the item up or down, and drop it in a location of your choice.
    • If you use a screen reader, press the Up Arrow key or Down Arrow key to move the item in the boot order list. Then, press the Tab key to drop the item in a location of your choice.
  7. Click Save.
Note

If the virtual machine is running, changes to the boot order list will not take effect until you restart the virtual machine.

You can view pending changes by clicking View Pending Changes on the right side of the Boot Order field. The Pending Changes banner at the top of the page displays a list of all changes that will be applied when the virtual machine restarts.

8.3.3. Editing a boot order list in the YAML configuration file

Edit the boot order list in a YAML configuration file by using the CLI.

Procedure

  1. Open the YAML configuration file for the virtual machine by running the following command:

    $ oc edit vm example
  2. Edit the YAML file and modify the values for the boot order associated with a disk or network interface controller (NIC). For example:

    disks:
      - bootOrder: 1 1
        disk:
          bus: virtio
        name: containerdisk
      - disk:
          bus: virtio
        name: cloudinitdisk
      - cdrom:
          bus: virtio
        name: cd-drive-1
    interfaces:
      - boot Order: 2 2
        macAddress: '02:96:c4:00:00'
        masquerade: {}
        name: default
    1
    The boot order value specified for the disk.
    2
    The boot order value specified for the network interface controller.
  3. Save the YAML file.
  4. Click reload the content to apply the updated boot order values from the YAML file to the boot order list in the web console.

8.3.4. Removing items from a boot order list in the web console

Remove items from a boot order list by using the web console.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Select a virtual machine to open the Virtual Machine Overview screen.
  4. Click the Details tab.
  5. Click the pencil icon that is located on the right side of Boot Order.
  6. Click the Remove icon delete next to the item. The item is removed from the boot order list and saved in the list of available boot sources. If you remove all items from the boot order list, the following message displays: No resource selected. VM will attempt to boot from disks by order of appearance in YAML file.
Note

If the virtual machine is running, changes to Boot Order will not take effect until you restart the virtual machine.

You can view pending changes by clicking View Pending Changes on the right side of the Boot Order field. The Pending Changes banner at the top of the page displays a list of all changes that will be applied when the virtual machine restarts.

8.4. Deleting virtual machines

You can delete a virtual machine from the web console or by using the oc command line interface.

8.4.1. Deleting a virtual machine using the web console

Deleting a virtual machine permanently removes it from the cluster.

Note

When you delete a virtual machine, the data volume it uses is automatically deleted.

Procedure

  1. In the OpenShift Virtualization console, click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Click the Options menu kebab of the virtual machine that you want to delete and select Delete Virtual Machine.

    • Alternatively, click the virtual machine name to open the Virtual Machine Overview screen and click ActionsDelete Virtual Machine.
  4. In the confirmation pop-up window, click Delete to permanently delete the virtual machine.

8.4.2. Deleting a virtual machine by using the CLI

You can delete a virtual machine by using the oc command line interface (CLI). The oc client enables you to perform actions on multiple virtual machines.

Note

When you delete a virtual machine, the data volume it uses is automatically deleted.

Prerequisites

  • Identify the name of the virtual machine that you want to delete.

Procedure

  • Delete the virtual machine by running the following command:

    $ oc delete vm <vm_name>
    Note

    This command only deletes objects that exist in the current project. Specify the -n <project_name> option if the object you want to delete is in a different project or namespace.

8.5. Managing virtual machine instances

If you have standalone virtual machine instances (VMIs) that were created independently outside of the OpenShift Virtualization environment, you can manage them by using the web console or the command-line interface (CLI).

8.5.1. About virtual machine instances

A virtual machine instance (VMI) is a representation of a running virtual machine (VM). When a VMI is owned by a VM or by another object, you manage it through its owner in the web console or by using the oc command-line interface (CLI).

A standalone VMI is created and started independently with a script, through automation, or by using other methods in the CLI. In your environment, you might have standalone VMIs that were developed and started outside of the OpenShift Virtualization environment. You can continue to manage those standalone VMIs by using the CLI. You can also use the web console for specific tasks associated with standalone VMIs:

  • List standalone VMIs and their details.
  • Edit labels and annotations for a standalone VMI.
  • Delete a standalone VMI.

When you delete a VM, the associated VMI is automatically deleted. You delete a standalone VMI directly because it is not owned by VMs or other objects.

Note

Before you uninstall OpenShift Virtualization, list and view the standalone VMIs by using the CLI or the web console. Then, delete any outstanding VMIs.

8.5.2. Listing all virtual machine instances using the CLI

You can list all virtual machine instances (VMIs) in your cluster, including standalone VMIs and those owned by virtual machines, by using the oc command-line interface (CLI).

Procedure

  • List all VMIs by running the following command:

    $ oc get vmis

8.5.3. Listing standalone virtual machine instances using the web console

Using the web console, you can list and view standalone virtual machine instances (VMIs) in your cluster that are not owned by virtual machines (VMs).

Note

VMIs that are owned by VMs or other objects are not displayed in the web console. The web console displays only standalone VMIs. If you want to list all VMIs in your cluster, you must use the CLI.

Procedure

  • Click Workloads → Virtualization from the side menu. A list of VMs and standalone VMIs displays. You can identify standalone VMIs by the dark colored badges that display next to the virtual machine instance names.

8.5.4. Editing a standalone virtual machine instance using the web console

You can edit annotations and labels for a standalone virtual machine instance (VMI) using the web console. Other items displayed in the Details page for a standalone VMI are not editable.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu. A list of virtual machines (VMs) and standalone VMIs displays.
  2. Click the name of a standalone VMI to open the Virtual Machine Instance Overview screen.
  3. Click the Details tab.
  4. Click the pencil icon that is located on the right side of Annotations.
  5. Make the relevant changes and click Save.
Note

To edit labels for a standalone VMI, click Actions and select Edit Labels. Make the relevant changes and click Save.

8.5.5. Deleting a standalone virtual machine instance using the CLI

You can delete a standalone virtual machine instance (VMI) by using the oc command-line interface (CLI).

Prerequisites

  • Identify the name of the VMI that you want to delete.

Procedure

  • Delete the VMI by running the following command:

    $ oc delete vmi <vmi_name>

8.5.6. Deleting a standalone virtual machine instance using the web console

Delete a standalone virtual machine instance (VMI) from the web console.

Procedure

  1. In the OpenShift Container Platform web console, click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the ⋮ button of the standalone virtual machine instance (VMI) that you want to delete and select Delete Virtual Machine Instance.

    • Alternatively, click the name of the standalone VMI. The Virtual Machine Instance Overview page displays.
  3. Select ActionsDelete Virtual Machine Instance.
  4. In the confirmation pop-up window, click Delete to permanently delete the standalone VMI.

8.6. Controlling virtual machine states

You can stop, start, restart, and unpause virtual machines from the web console.

Note

To control virtual machines from the command-line interface (CLI), use the virtctl client.

8.6.1. Starting a virtual machine

You can start a virtual machine from the web console.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Find the row that contains the virtual machine that you want to start.
  4. Navigate to the appropriate menu for your use case:

    • To stay on this page, where you can perform actions on multiple virtual machines:

      1. Click the Options menu kebab located at the far right end of the row.
    • To view comprehensive information about the selected virtual machine before you start it:

      1. Access the Virtual Machine Overview screen by clicking the name of the virtual machine.
      2. Click Actions.
  5. Select Start Virtual Machine.
  6. In the confirmation window, click Start to start the virtual machine.
Note

When you start virtual machine that is provisioned from a URL source for the first time, the virtual machine has a status of Importing while OpenShift Virtualization imports the container from the URL endpoint. Depending on the size of the image, this process might take several minutes.

8.6.2. Restarting a virtual machine

You can restart a running virtual machine from the web console.

Important

To avoid errors, do not restart a virtual machine while it has a status of Importing.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Find the row that contains the virtual machine that you want to restart.
  4. Navigate to the appropriate menu for your use case:

    • To stay on this page, where you can perform actions on multiple virtual machines:

      1. Click the Options menu kebab located at the far right end of the row.
    • To view comprehensive information about the selected virtual machine before you restart it:

      1. Access the Virtual Machine Overview screen by clicking the name of the virtual machine.
      2. Click Actions.
  5. Select Restart Virtual Machine.
  6. In the confirmation window, click Restart to restart the virtual machine.

8.6.3. Stopping a virtual machine

You can stop a virtual machine from the web console.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Find the row that contains the virtual machine that you want to stop.
  4. Navigate to the appropriate menu for your use case:

    • To stay on this page, where you can perform actions on multiple virtual machines:

      1. Click the Options menu kebab located at the far right end of the row.
    • To view comprehensive information about the selected virtual machine before you stop it:

      1. Access the Virtual Machine Overview screen by clicking the name of the virtual machine.
      2. Click Actions.
  5. Select Stop Virtual Machine.
  6. In the confirmation window, click Stop to stop the virtual machine.

8.6.4. Unpausing a virtual machine

You can unpause a paused virtual machine from the web console.

Prerequisites

  • At least one of your virtual machines must have a status of Paused.

    Note

    You can pause virtual machines by using the virtctl client.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Find the row that contains the virtual machine that you want to unpause.
  4. Navigate to the appropriate menu for your use case:

    • To stay on this page, where you can perform actions on multiple virtual machines:

      1. In the Status column, click Paused.
    • To view comprehensive information about the selected virtual machine before you unpause it:

      1. Access the Virtual Machine Overview screen by clicking the name of the virtual machine.
      2. Click the pencil icon that is located on the right side of Status.
  5. In the confirmation window, click Unpause to unpause the virtual machine.

8.7. Accessing virtual machine consoles

OpenShift Virtualization provides different virtual machine consoles that you can use to accomplish different product tasks. You can access these consoles through the web console and by using CLI commands.

8.7.1. About virtual machine console sessions

You can connect to the VNC and serial consoles of a running virtual machine from the Console tab on the Virtual Machine Details page of the web console.

The VNC Console opens by default when you navigate to the Console tab. You can open a connection to the serial console by clicking the VNC Console drop-down list and selecting Serial Console.

Console sessions remain active in the background unless they are disconnected. To ensure that only one console session is open at a time, click the Disconnect before switching check box before switching consoles.

You can open the active console session in a detached window by clicking the Open Console in New Window button or by clicking ActionsOpen Console.

Options for the VNC Console

  • Send key combinations to the virtual machine by clicking Send Key.

Options for the Serial Console

  • Manually disconnect the Serial Console session from the virtual machine by clicking Disconnect.
  • Manually open a Serial Console session to the virtual machine by clicking Reconnect.

8.7.2. Connecting to the virtual machine with the web console

8.7.2.1. Connecting to the terminal

You can connect to a virtual machine by using the web console.

Procedure

  1. Ensure you are in the correct project. If not, click the Project list and select the appropriate project.
  2. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  3. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  4. Select a virtual machine to open the Virtual Machine Overview screen.
  5. In the Details tab, click the virt-launcher-<vm-name> pod.
  6. Click the Terminal tab. If the terminal is blank, select the terminal and press any key to initiate connection.

8.7.2.2. Connecting to the serial console

Connect to the Serial Console of a running virtual machine from the Console tab in the Virtual Machine Overview screen of the web console.

Procedure

  1. In the OpenShift Virtualization console, click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Select a virtual machine to open the Virtual Machine Overview page.
  4. Click Console. The VNC console opens by default.
  5. Click the VNC Console drop-down list and select Serial Console.
  6. Optional: Open the serial console in a separate window by clicking Open Console in New Window.

8.7.2.3. Connecting to the VNC console

Connect to the VNC console of a running virtual machine from the Console tab in the Virtual Machine Overview screen of the web console.

Procedure

  1. In the OpenShift Virtualization console, click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Select a virtual machine to open the Virtual Machine Overview page.
  4. Click the Console tab. The VNC console opens by default.
  5. Optional: Open the VNC console in a separate window by clicking Open Console in New Window.

8.7.2.4. Connecting to the RDP console

The desktop viewer console, which utilizes the Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP), provides a better console experience for connecting to Windows virtual machines.

To connect to a Windows virtual machine with RDP, download the console.rdp file for the virtual machine from the Consoles tab in the Virtual Machine Details screen of the web console and supply it to your preferred RDP client.

Prerequisites

  • A running Windows virtual machine with the QEMU guest agent installed. The qemu-guest-agent is included in the VirtIO drivers.
  • A layer-2 NIC attached to the virtual machine.
  • An RDP client installed on a machine on the same network as the Windows virtual machine.

Procedure

  1. In the OpenShift Virtualization console, click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Select a Windows virtual machine to open the Virtual Machine Overview screen.
  4. Click the Console tab.
  5. In the Console list, select Desktop Viewer.
  6. In the Network Interface list, select the layer-2 NIC.
  7. Click Launch Remote Desktop to download the console.rdp file.
  8. Open an RDP client and reference the console.rdp file. For example, using remmina:

    $ remmina --connect /path/to/console.rdp
  9. Enter the Administrator user name and password to connect to the Windows virtual machine.

8.7.3. Accessing virtual machine consoles by using CLI commands

8.7.3.1. Accessing a virtual machine instance via SSH

You can use SSH to access a virtual machine (VM) after you expose port 22 on it.

The virtctl expose command forwards a virtual machine instance (VMI) port to a node port and creates a service for enabled access. The following example creates the fedora-vm-ssh service that forwards traffic from a specific port of cluster nodes to port 22 of the <fedora-vm> virtual machine.

Prerequisites

  • You must be in the same project as the VMI.
  • The VMI you want to access must be connected to the default pod network by using the masquerade binding method.
  • The VMI you want to access must be running.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Procedure

  1. Run the following command to create the fedora-vm-ssh service:

    $ virtctl expose vm <fedora-vm> --port=22 --name=fedora-vm-ssh --type=NodePort 1
    1
    <fedora-vm> is the name of the VM that you run the fedora-vm-ssh service on.
  2. Check the service to find out which port the service acquired:

    $ oc get svc

Example output

NAME            TYPE       CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)           AGE
fedora-vm-ssh   NodePort   127.0.0.1      <none>        22:32551/TCP   6s

+ In this example, the service acquired the 32551 port.

  1. Log in to the VMI via SSH. Use the ipAddress of any of the cluster nodes and the port that you found in the previous step:

    $ ssh username@<node_IP_address> -p 32551

8.7.3.2. Accessing a virtual machine via SSH with YAML configurations

You can enable an SSH connection to a virtual machine (VM) without the need to run the virtctl expose command. When the YAML file for the VM and the YAML file for the service are configured and applied, the service forwards the SSH traffic to the VM.

The following examples show the configurations for the VM’s YAML file and the service YAML file.

Prerequisites

  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Create a namespace for the VM’s YAML file by using the oc create namespace command and specifying a name for the namespace.

Procedure

  1. In the YAML file for the VM, add the label and a value for exposing the service for SSH connections. Enable the masquerade feature for the interface:

    Example VirtualMachine definition

    ...
    apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1
    kind: VirtualMachine
    metadata:
      namespace: ssh-ns 1
      name: vm-ssh
    spec:
      running: false
      template:
        metadata:
          labels:
            kubevirt.io/vm: vm-ssh
            special: vm-ssh 2
        spec:
          domain:
            devices:
              disks:
              - disk:
                  bus: virtio
                name: containerdisk
              - disk:
                  bus: virtio
                name: cloudinitdisk
              interfaces:
              - masquerade: {} 3
                name: testmasquerade 4
              rng: {}
            machine:
              type: ""
            resources:
              requests:
                memory: 1024M
          networks:
          - name: testmasquerade
            pod: {}
          volumes:
          - name: containerdisk
            containerDisk:
              image: kubevirt/fedora-cloud-container-disk-demo
          - name: cloudinitdisk
            cloudInitNoCloud:
              userData: |
                #!/bin/bash
                echo "fedora" | passwd fedora --stdin
    ...

    1
    Name of the namespace created by the oc create namespace command.
    2
    Label used by the service to identify the virtual machine instances that are enabled for SSH traffic connections. The label can be any key:value pair that is added as a label to this YAML file and as a selector in the service YAML file.
    3
    The interface type is masquerade.
    4
    The name of this interface is testmasquerade.
  2. Create the VM:

    $ oc create -f <path_for_the_VM_YAML_file>
  3. Start the VM:

    $ virtctl start vm-ssh
  4. In the YAML file for the service, specify the service name, port number, and the target port.

    Example Service definition

    ...
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Service
    metadata:
      name: svc-ssh 1
      namespace: ssh-ns 2
    spec:
      ports:
      - targetPort: 22 3
        protocol: TCP
        port: 27017
      selector:
        special: vm-ssh 4
      type: NodePort
    ...

    1
    Name of the SSH service.
    2
    Name of the namespace created by the oc create namespace command.
    3
    The target port number for the SSH connection.
    4
    The selector name and value must match the label specified in the YAML file for the VM.
  5. Create the service:

    $ oc create -f <path_for_the_service_YAML_file>
  6. Verify that the VM is running:

    $ oc get vmi

    Example output

    NAME    AGE     PHASE       IP              NODENAME
    vm-ssh 6s       Running     10.244.196.152  node01

  7. Check the service to find out which port the service acquired:

    $ oc get svc

    Example output

    NAME            TYPE       CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)           AGE
    svc-ssh     NodePort       10.106.236.208 <none>        27017:30093/TCP   22s

    In this example, the service acquired the port number 30093.

  8. Run the following command to obtain the IP address for the node:

    $ oc get node <node_name> -o wide

    Example output

    NAME    STATUS   ROLES   AGE    VERSION          INTERNAL-IP      EXTERNAL-IP
    node01  Ready    worker  6d22h  v1.20.0+5f82cdb  192.168.55.101   <none>

  9. Log in to the VM via SSH by specifying the IP address of the node where the VM is running and the port number. Use the port number displayed by the oc get svc command and the IP address of the node displayed by the oc get node command. The following example shows the ssh command with the username, node’s IP address, and the port number:

    $ ssh fedora@192.168.55.101 -p 30093

8.7.3.3. Accessing the serial console of a virtual machine instance

The virtctl console command opens a serial console to the specified virtual machine instance.

Prerequisites

  • The virt-viewer package must be installed.
  • The virtual machine instance you want to access must be running.

Procedure

  • Connect to the serial console with virtctl:

    $ virtctl console <VMI>

8.7.3.4. Accessing the graphical console of a virtual machine instances with VNC

The virtctl client utility can use the remote-viewer function to open a graphical console to a running virtual machine instance. This capability is included in the virt-viewer package.

Prerequisites

  • The virt-viewer package must be installed.
  • The virtual machine instance you want to access must be running.
Note

If you use virtctl via SSH on a remote machine, you must forward the X session to your machine.

Procedure

  1. Connect to the graphical interface with the virtctl utility:

    $ virtctl vnc <VMI>
  2. If the command failed, try using the -v flag to collect troubleshooting information:

    $ virtctl vnc <VMI> -v 4

8.7.3.5. Connecting to a Windows virtual machine with an RDP console

The Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) provides a better console experience for connecting to Windows virtual machines.

To connect to a Windows virtual machine with RDP, specify the IP address of the attached L2 NIC to your RDP client.

Prerequisites

  • A running Windows virtual machine with the QEMU guest agent installed. The qemu-guest-agent is included in the VirtIO drivers.
  • A layer 2 NIC attached to the virtual machine.
  • An RDP client installed on a machine on the same network as the Windows virtual machine.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the OpenShift Virtualization cluster through the oc CLI tool as a user with an access token.

    $ oc login -u <user> https://<cluster.example.com>:8443
  2. Use oc describe vmi to display the configuration of the running Windows virtual machine.

    $ oc describe vmi <windows-vmi-name>

    Example output

    ...
    spec:
      networks:
      - name: default
        pod: {}
      - multus:
          networkName: cnv-bridge
        name: bridge-net
    ...
    status:
      interfaces:
      - interfaceName: eth0
        ipAddress: 198.51.100.0/24
        ipAddresses:
          198.51.100.0/24
        mac: a0:36:9f:0f:b1:70
        name: default
      - interfaceName: eth1
        ipAddress: 192.0.2.0/24
        ipAddresses:
          192.0.2.0/24
          2001:db8::/32
        mac: 00:17:a4:77:77:25
        name: bridge-net
    ...

  3. Identify and copy the IP address of the layer 2 network interface. This is 192.0.2.0 in the above example, or 2001:db8:: if you prefer IPv6.
  4. Open an RDP client and use the IP address copied in the previous step for the connection.
  5. Enter the Administrator user name and password to connect to the Windows virtual machine.

8.8. Triggering virtual machine failover by resolving a failed node

If a node fails and machine health checks are not deployed on your cluster, virtual machines (VMs) with RunStrategy: Always configured are not automatically relocated to healthy nodes. To trigger VM failover, you must manually delete the Node object.

Note

If you installed your cluster by using installer-provisioned infrastructure and you properly configured machine health checks:

  • Failed nodes are automatically recycled.
  • Virtual machines with RunStrategy set to Always or RerunOnFailure are automatically scheduled on healthy nodes.

8.8.1. Prerequisites

  • A node where a virtual machine was running has the NotReady condition.
  • The virtual machine that was running on the failed node has RunStrategy set to Always.
  • You have installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

8.8.2. Deleting nodes from a bare metal cluster

When you delete a node using the CLI, the node object is deleted in Kubernetes, but the pods that exist on the node are not deleted. Any bare pods not backed by a replication controller become inaccessible to OpenShift Container Platform. Pods backed by replication controllers are rescheduled to other available nodes. You must delete local manifest pods.

Procedure

Delete a node from an OpenShift Container Platform cluster running on bare metal by completing the following steps:

  1. Mark the node as unschedulable:

    $ oc adm cordon <node_name>
  2. Drain all pods on the node:

    $ oc adm drain <node_name> --force=true

    This step might fail if the node is offline or unresponsive. Even if the node does not respond, it might still be running a workload that writes to shared storage. To avoid data corruption, power down the physical hardware before you proceed.

  3. Delete the node from the cluster:

    $ oc delete node <node_name>

    Although the node object is now deleted from the cluster, it can still rejoin the cluster after reboot or if the kubelet service is restarted. To permanently delete the node and all its data, you must decommission the node.

  4. If you powered down the physical hardware, turn it back on so that the node can rejoin the cluster.

8.8.3. Verifying virtual machine failover

After all resources are terminated on the unhealthy node, a new virtual machine instance (VMI) is automatically created on a healthy node for each relocated VM. To confirm that the VMI was created, view all VMIs by using the oc CLI.

8.8.3.1. Listing all virtual machine instances using the CLI

You can list all virtual machine instances (VMIs) in your cluster, including standalone VMIs and those owned by virtual machines, by using the oc command-line interface (CLI).

Procedure

  • List all VMIs by running the following command:

    $ oc get vmis

8.9. Installing the QEMU guest agent on virtual machines

The QEMU guest agent is a daemon that runs on the virtual machine and passes information to the host about the virtual machine, users, file systems, and secondary networks.

8.9.1. Installing QEMU guest agent on a Linux virtual machine

The qemu-guest-agent is widely available and available by default in Red Hat virtual machines. Install the agent and start the service

Procedure

  1. Access the virtual machine command line through one of the consoles or by SSH.
  2. Install the QEMU guest agent on the virtual machine:

    $ yum install -y qemu-guest-agent
  3. Ensure the service is persistent and start it:

    $ systemctl enable --now qemu-guest-agent

You can also install and start the QEMU guest agent by using the custom script field in the cloud-init section of the wizard when creating either virtual machines or virtual machines templates in the web console.

8.9.2. Installing QEMU guest agent on a Windows virtual machine

For Windows virtual machines, the QEMU guest agent is included in the VirtIO drivers, which can be installed using one of the following procedures:

8.9.2.1. Installing VirtIO drivers on an existing Windows virtual machine

Install the VirtIO drivers from the attached SATA CD drive to an existing Windows virtual machine.

Note

This procedure uses a generic approach to adding drivers to Windows. The process might differ slightly between versions of Windows. See the installation documentation for your version of Windows for specific installation steps.

Procedure

  1. Start the virtual machine and connect to a graphical console.
  2. Log in to a Windows user session.
  3. Open Device Manager and expand Other devices to list any Unknown device.

    1. Open the Device Properties to identify the unknown device. Right-click the device and select Properties.
    2. Click the Details tab and select Hardware Ids in the Property list.
    3. Compare the Value for the Hardware Ids with the supported VirtIO drivers.
  4. Right-click the device and select Update Driver Software.
  5. Click Browse my computer for driver software and browse to the attached SATA CD drive, where the VirtIO drivers are located. The drivers are arranged hierarchically according to their driver type, operating system, and CPU architecture.
  6. Click Next to install the driver.
  7. Repeat this process for all the necessary VirtIO drivers.
  8. After the driver installs, click Close to close the window.
  9. Reboot the virtual machine to complete the driver installation.

8.9.2.2. Installing VirtIO drivers during Windows installation

Install the VirtIO drivers from the attached SATA CD driver during Windows installation.

Note

This procedure uses a generic approach to the Windows installation and the installation method might differ between versions of Windows. See the documentation for the version of Windows that you are installing.

Procedure

  1. Start the virtual machine and connect to a graphical console.
  2. Begin the Windows installation process.
  3. Select the Advanced installation.
  4. The storage destination will not be recognized until the driver is loaded. Click Load driver.
  5. The drivers are attached as a SATA CD drive. Click OK and browse the CD drive for the storage driver to load. The drivers are arranged hierarchically according to their driver type, operating system, and CPU architecture.
  6. Repeat the previous two steps for all required drivers.
  7. Complete the Windows installation.

8.10. Viewing the QEMU guest agent information for virtual machines

When the QEMU guest agent runs on the virtual machine, you can use the web console to view information about the virtual machine, users, file systems, and secondary networks.

8.10.1. Prerequisites

8.10.2. About the QEMU guest agent information in the web console

When the QEMU guest agent is installed, the Details pane within the Virtual Machine Overview tab and the Details tab display information about the hostname, operating system, time zone, and logged in users.

The Virtual Machine Overview shows information about the guest operating system installed on the virtual machine. The Details tab displays a table with information for logged in users. The Disks tab displays a table with information for file systems.

Note

If the QEMU guest agent is not installed, the Virtual Machine Overview tab and the Details tab display information about the operating system that was specified when the virtual machine was created.

8.10.3. Viewing the QEMU guest agent information in the web console

You can use the web console to view information for virtual machines that is passed by the QEMU guest agent to the host.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtual Machines from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Select a virtual machine name to open the Virtual Machine Overview screen and view the Details pane.
  4. Click Logged in users to view the Details tab that shows information for users.
  5. Click the Disks tab to view information about the file systems.

8.11. Managing config maps, secrets, and service accounts in virtual machines

You can use secrets, config maps, and service accounts to pass configuration data to virtual machines. For example, you can:

  • Give a virtual machine access to a service that requires credentials by adding a secret to the virtual machine.
  • Store non-confidential configuration data in a config map so that a pod or another object can consume the data.
  • Allow a component to access the API server by associating a service account with that component.
Note

OpenShift Virtualization exposes secrets, config maps, and service accounts as virtual machine disks so that you can use them across platforms without additional overhead.

8.11.1. Adding a secret, config map, or service account to a virtual machine

Add a secret, config map, or service account to a virtual machine by using the OpenShift Container Platform web console.

Prerequisites

  • The secret, config map, or service account that you want to add must exist in the same namespace as the target virtual machine.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Select a virtual machine to open the Virtual Machine Overview screen.
  4. Click the Environment tab.
  5. Click Select a resource and select a secret, config map, or service account from the list. A six character serial number is automatically generated for the selected resource.
  6. Click Save.
  7. Optional. Add another object by clicking Add Config Map, Secret or Service Account.
Note
  1. You can reset the form to the last saved state by clicking Reload.
  2. The Environment resources are added to the virtual machine as disks. You can mount the secret, config map, or service account as you would mount any other disk.
  3. If the virtual machine is running, changes will not take effect until you restart the virtual machine. The newly added resources are marked as pending changes for both the Environment and Disks tab in the Pending Changes banner at the top of the page.

Verification

  1. From the Virtual Machine Overview page, click the Disks tab.
  2. Check to ensure that the secret, config map, or service account is included in the list of disks.
  3. Optional. Choose the appropriate method to apply your changes:

    1. If the virtual machine is running, restart the virtual machine by clicking ActionsRestart Virtual Machine.
    2. If the virtual machine is stopped, start the virtual machine by clicking ActionsStart Virtual Machine.

You can now mount the secret, config map, or service account as you would mount any other disk.

8.11.2. Removing a secret, config map, or service account from a virtual machine

Remove a secret, config map, or service account from a virtual machine by using the OpenShift Container Platform web console.

Prerequisites

  • You must have at least one secret, config map, or service account that is attached to a virtual machine.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Select a virtual machine to open the Virtual Machine Overview screen.
  4. Click the Environment tab.
  5. Find the item that you want to delete in the list, and click the Remove button delete on the right side of the item.
  6. Click Save.
Note

You can reset the form to the last saved state by clicking Reload.

Verification

  1. From the Virtual Machine Overview page, click the Disks tab.
  2. Check to ensure that the secret, config map, or service account that you removed is no longer included in the list of disks.

8.11.3. Additional resources

8.12. Installing VirtIO driver on an existing Windows virtual machine

8.12.1. Understanding VirtIO drivers

VirtIO drivers are paravirtualized device drivers required for Microsoft Windows virtual machines to run in OpenShift Virtualization. The supported drivers are available in the container-native-virtualization/virtio-win container disk of the Red Hat Ecosystem Catalog.

The container-native-virtualization/virtio-win container disk must be attached to the virtual machine as a SATA CD drive to enable driver installation. You can install VirtIO drivers during Windows installation on the virtual machine or added to an existing Windows installation.

After the drivers are installed, the container-native-virtualization/virtio-win container disk can be removed from the virtual machine.

See also: Installing Virtio drivers on a new Windows virtual machine.

8.12.2. Supported VirtIO drivers for Microsoft Windows virtual machines

Table 8.3. Supported drivers

Driver nameHardware IDDescription

viostor

VEN_1AF4&DEV_1001
VEN_1AF4&DEV_1042

The block driver. Sometimes displays as an SCSI Controller in the Other devices group.

viorng

VEN_1AF4&DEV_1005
VEN_1AF4&DEV_1044

The entropy source driver. Sometimes displays as a PCI Device in the Other devices group.

NetKVM

VEN_1AF4&DEV_1000
VEN_1AF4&DEV_1041

The network driver. Sometimes displays as an Ethernet Controller in the Other devices group. Available only if a VirtIO NIC is configured.

8.12.3. Adding VirtIO drivers container disk to a virtual machine

OpenShift Virtualization distributes VirtIO drivers for Microsoft Windows as a container disk, which is available from the Red Hat Ecosystem Catalog. To install these drivers to a Windows virtual machine, attach the container-native-virtualization/virtio-win container disk to the virtual machine as a SATA CD drive in the virtual machine configuration file.

Prerequisites

  • Download the container-native-virtualization/virtio-win container disk from the Red Hat Ecosystem Catalog. This is not mandatory, because the container disk will be downloaded from the Red Hat registry if it not already present in the cluster, but it can reduce installation time.

Procedure

  1. Add the container-native-virtualization/virtio-win container disk as a cdrom disk in the Windows virtual machine configuration file. The container disk will be downloaded from the registry if it is not already present in the cluster.

    spec:
      domain:
        devices:
          disks:
            - name: virtiocontainerdisk
              bootOrder: 2 1
              cdrom:
                bus: sata
    volumes:
      - containerDisk:
          image: container-native-virtualization/virtio-win
        name: virtiocontainerdisk
    1
    OpenShift Virtualization boots virtual machine disks in the order defined in the VirtualMachine configuration file. You can either define other disks for the virtual machine before the container-native-virtualization/virtio-win container disk or use the optional bootOrder parameter to ensure the virtual machine boots from the correct disk. If you specify the bootOrder for a disk, it must be specified for all disks in the configuration.
  2. The disk is available once the virtual machine has started:

    • If you add the container disk to a running virtual machine, use oc apply -f <vm.yaml> in the CLI or reboot the virtual machine for the changes to take effect.
    • If the virtual machine is not running, use virtctl start <vm>.

After the virtual machine has started, the VirtIO drivers can be installed from the attached SATA CD drive.

8.12.4. Installing VirtIO drivers on an existing Windows virtual machine

Install the VirtIO drivers from the attached SATA CD drive to an existing Windows virtual machine.

Note

This procedure uses a generic approach to adding drivers to Windows. The process might differ slightly between versions of Windows. See the installation documentation for your version of Windows for specific installation steps.

Procedure

  1. Start the virtual machine and connect to a graphical console.
  2. Log in to a Windows user session.
  3. Open Device Manager and expand Other devices to list any Unknown device.

    1. Open the Device Properties to identify the unknown device. Right-click the device and select Properties.
    2. Click the Details tab and select Hardware Ids in the Property list.
    3. Compare the Value for the Hardware Ids with the supported VirtIO drivers.
  4. Right-click the device and select Update Driver Software.
  5. Click Browse my computer for driver software and browse to the attached SATA CD drive, where the VirtIO drivers are located. The drivers are arranged hierarchically according to their driver type, operating system, and CPU architecture.
  6. Click Next to install the driver.
  7. Repeat this process for all the necessary VirtIO drivers.
  8. After the driver installs, click Close to close the window.
  9. Reboot the virtual machine to complete the driver installation.

8.12.5. Removing the VirtIO container disk from a virtual machine

After installing all required VirtIO drivers to the virtual machine, the container-native-virtualization/virtio-win container disk no longer needs to be attached to the virtual machine. Remove the container-native-virtualization/virtio-win container disk from the virtual machine configuration file.

Procedure

  1. Edit the configuration file and remove the disk and the volume.

    $ oc edit vm <vm-name>
    spec:
      domain:
        devices:
          disks:
            - name: virtiocontainerdisk
              bootOrder: 2
              cdrom:
                bus: sata
    volumes:
      - containerDisk:
          image: container-native-virtualization/virtio-win
        name: virtiocontainerdisk
  2. Reboot the virtual machine for the changes to take effect.

8.13. Installing VirtIO driver on a new Windows virtual machine

8.13.1. Prerequisites

8.13.2. Understanding VirtIO drivers

VirtIO drivers are paravirtualized device drivers required for Microsoft Windows virtual machines to run in OpenShift Virtualization. The supported drivers are available in the container-native-virtualization/virtio-win container disk of the Red Hat Ecosystem Catalog.

The container-native-virtualization/virtio-win container disk must be attached to the virtual machine as a SATA CD drive to enable driver installation. You can install VirtIO drivers during Windows installation on the virtual machine or added to an existing Windows installation.

After the drivers are installed, the container-native-virtualization/virtio-win container disk can be removed from the virtual machine.

See also: Installing VirtIO driver on an existing Windows virtual machine.

8.13.3. Supported VirtIO drivers for Microsoft Windows virtual machines

Table 8.4. Supported drivers

Driver nameHardware IDDescription

viostor

VEN_1AF4&DEV_1001
VEN_1AF4&DEV_1042

The block driver. Sometimes displays as an SCSI Controller in the Other devices group.

viorng

VEN_1AF4&DEV_1005
VEN_1AF4&DEV_1044

The entropy source driver. Sometimes displays as a PCI Device in the Other devices group.

NetKVM

VEN_1AF4&DEV_1000
VEN_1AF4&DEV_1041

The network driver. Sometimes displays as an Ethernet Controller in the Other devices group. Available only if a VirtIO NIC is configured.

8.13.4. Adding VirtIO drivers container disk to a virtual machine

OpenShift Virtualization distributes VirtIO drivers for Microsoft Windows as a container disk, which is available from the Red Hat Ecosystem Catalog. To install these drivers to a Windows virtual machine, attach the container-native-virtualization/virtio-win container disk to the virtual machine as a SATA CD drive in the virtual machine configuration file.

Prerequisites

  • Download the container-native-virtualization/virtio-win container disk from the Red Hat Ecosystem Catalog. This is not mandatory, because the container disk will be downloaded from the Red Hat registry if it not already present in the cluster, but it can reduce installation time.

Procedure

  1. Add the container-native-virtualization/virtio-win container disk as a cdrom disk in the Windows virtual machine configuration file. The container disk will be downloaded from the registry if it is not already present in the cluster.

    spec:
      domain:
        devices:
          disks:
            - name: virtiocontainerdisk
              bootOrder: 2 1
              cdrom:
                bus: sata
    volumes:
      - containerDisk:
          image: container-native-virtualization/virtio-win
        name: virtiocontainerdisk
    1
    OpenShift Virtualization boots virtual machine disks in the order defined in the VirtualMachine configuration file. You can either define other disks for the virtual machine before the container-native-virtualization/virtio-win container disk or use the optional bootOrder parameter to ensure the virtual machine boots from the correct disk. If you specify the bootOrder for a disk, it must be specified for all disks in the configuration.
  2. The disk is available once the virtual machine has started:

    • If you add the container disk to a running virtual machine, use oc apply -f <vm.yaml> in the CLI or reboot the virtual machine for the changes to take effect.
    • If the virtual machine is not running, use virtctl start <vm>.

After the virtual machine has started, the VirtIO drivers can be installed from the attached SATA CD drive.

8.13.5. Installing VirtIO drivers during Windows installation

Install the VirtIO drivers from the attached SATA CD driver during Windows installation.

Note

This procedure uses a generic approach to the Windows installation and the installation method might differ between versions of Windows. See the documentation for the version of Windows that you are installing.

Procedure

  1. Start the virtual machine and connect to a graphical console.
  2. Begin the Windows installation process.
  3. Select the Advanced installation.
  4. The storage destination will not be recognized until the driver is loaded. Click Load driver.
  5. The drivers are attached as a SATA CD drive. Click OK and browse the CD drive for the storage driver to load. The drivers are arranged hierarchically according to their driver type, operating system, and CPU architecture.
  6. Repeat the previous two steps for all required drivers.
  7. Complete the Windows installation.

8.13.6. Removing the VirtIO container disk from a virtual machine

After installing all required VirtIO drivers to the virtual machine, the container-native-virtualization/virtio-win container disk no longer needs to be attached to the virtual machine. Remove the container-native-virtualization/virtio-win container disk from the virtual machine configuration file.

Procedure

  1. Edit the configuration file and remove the disk and the volume.

    $ oc edit vm <vm-name>
    spec:
      domain:
        devices:
          disks:
            - name: virtiocontainerdisk
              bootOrder: 2
              cdrom:
                bus: sata
    volumes:
      - containerDisk:
          image: container-native-virtualization/virtio-win
        name: virtiocontainerdisk
  2. Reboot the virtual machine for the changes to take effect.

8.14. Advanced virtual machine management

8.14.1. Specifying nodes for virtual machines

You can place virtual machines (VMs) on specific nodes by using node placement rules.

8.14.1.1. About node placement for virtual machines

To ensure that virtual machines (VMs) run on appropriate nodes, you can configure node placement rules. You might want to do this if:

  • You have several VMs. To ensure fault tolerance, you want them to run on different nodes.
  • You have two chatty VMs. To avoid redundant inter-node routing, you want the VMs to run on the same node.
  • Your VMs require specific hardware features that are not present on all available nodes.
  • You have a pod that adds capabilities to a node, and you want to place a VM on that node so that it can use those capabilities.
Note

Virtual machine placement relies on any existing node placement rules for workloads. If workloads are excluded from specific nodes on the component level, virtual machines cannot be placed on those nodes.

You can use the following rule types in the spec field of a VirtualMachine manifest:

nodeSelector
Allows virtual machines to be scheduled on nodes that are labeled with the key-value pair or pairs that you specify in this field. The node must have labels that exactly match all listed pairs.
affinity

Enables you to use more expressive syntax to set rules that match nodes with virtual machines. For example, you can specify that a rule is a preference, rather than a hard requirement, so that virtual machines are still scheduled if the rule is not satisfied. Pod affinity, pod anti-affinity, and node affinity are supported for virtual machine placement. Pod affinity works for virtual machines because the VirtualMachine workload type is based on the Pod object.

Note

Affinity rules only apply during scheduling. OpenShift Container Platform does not reschedule running workloads if the constraints are no longer met.

tolerations
Allows virtual machines to be scheduled on nodes that have matching taints. If a taint is applied to a node, that node only accepts virtual machines that tolerate the taint.

8.14.1.2. Node placement examples

The following example YAML file snippets use nodePlacement, affinity, and tolerations fields to customize node placement for virtual machines.

8.14.1.2.1. Example: VM node placement with nodeSelector

In this example, the virtual machine requires a node that has metadata containing both example-key-1 = example-value-1 and example-key-2 = example-value-2 labels.

Warning

If there are no nodes that fit this description, the virtual machine is not scheduled.

Example VM manifest

metadata:
  name: example-vm-node-selector
apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualMachine
spec:
  nodeSelector:
    example-key-1: example-value-1
    example-key-2: example-value-2
...

8.14.1.2.2. Example: VM node placement with pod affinity and pod anti-affinity

In this example, the VM must be scheduled on a node that has a running pod with the label example-key-1 = example-value-1. If there is no such pod running on any node, the VM is not scheduled.

If possible, the VM is not scheduled on a node that has any pod with the label example-key-2 = example-value-2. However, if all candidate nodes have a pod with this label, the scheduler ignores this constraint.

Example VM manifest

metadata:
  name: example-vm-pod-affinity
apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualMachine
spec:
  affinity:
    podAffinity:
      requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution: 1
      - labelSelector:
          matchExpressions:
          - key: example-key-1
            operator: In
            values:
            - example-value-1
        topologyKey: kubernetes.io/hostname
    podAntiAffinity:
      preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution: 2
      - weight: 100
        podAffinityTerm:
          labelSelector:
            matchExpressions:
            - key: example-key-2
              operator: In
              values:
              - example-value-2
          topologyKey: kubernetes.io/hostname
...

1
If you use the requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution rule type, the VM is not scheduled if the constraint is not met.
2
If you use the preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution rule type, the VM is still scheduled if the constraint is not met, as long as all required constraints are met.
8.14.1.2.3. Example: VM node placement with node affinity

In this example, the VM must be scheduled on a node that has the label example.io/example-key = example-value-1 or the label example.io/example-key = example-value-2. The constraint is met if only one of the labels is present on the node. If neither label is present, the VM is not scheduled.

If possible, the scheduler avoids nodes that have the label example-node-label-key = example-node-label-value. However, if all candidate nodes have this label, the scheduler ignores this constraint.

Example VM manifest

metadata:
  name: example-vm-node-affinity
apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualMachine
spec:
  affinity:
    nodeAffinity:
      requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution: 1
        nodeSelectorTerms:
        - matchExpressions:
          - key: example.io/example-key
            operator: In
            values:
            - example-value-1
            - example-value-2
      preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution: 2
      - weight: 1
        preference:
          matchExpressions:
          - key: example-node-label-key
            operator: In
            values:
            - example-node-label-value
...

1
If you use the requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution rule type, the VM is not scheduled if the constraint is not met.
2
If you use the preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution rule type, the VM is still scheduled if the constraint is not met, as long as all required constraints are met.
8.14.1.2.4. Example: VM node placement with tolerations

In this example, nodes that are reserved for virtual machines are already labeled with the key=virtualization:NoSchedule taint. Because this virtual machine has matching tolerations, it can schedule onto the tainted nodes.

Note

A virtual machine that tolerates a taint is not required to schedule onto a node with that taint.

Example VM manifest

metadata:
  name: example-vm-tolerations
apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualMachine
spec:
  tolerations:
  - key: "key"
    operator: "Equal"
    value: "virtualization"
    effect: "NoSchedule"
...

8.14.1.3. Additional resources

8.14.2. Automating management tasks

You can automate OpenShift Virtualization management tasks by using Red Hat Ansible Automation Platform. Learn the basics by using an Ansible Playbook to create a new virtual machine.

8.14.2.1. About Red Hat Ansible Automation

Ansible is an automation tool used to configure systems, deploy software, and perform rolling updates. Ansible includes support for OpenShift Virtualization, and Ansible modules enable you to automate cluster management tasks such as template, persistent volume claim, and virtual machine operations.

Ansible provides a way to automate OpenShift Virtualization management, which you can also accomplish by using the oc CLI tool or APIs. Ansible is unique because it allows you to integrate KubeVirt modules with other Ansible modules.

8.14.2.2. Automating virtual machine creation

You can use the kubevirt_vm Ansible Playbook to create virtual machines in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster using Red Hat Ansible Automation Platform.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Edit an Ansible Playbook YAML file so that it includes the kubevirt_vm task:

      kubevirt_vm:
        namespace:
        name:
        cpu_cores:
        memory:
        disks:
          - name:
            volume:
              containerDisk:
                image:
            disk:
              bus:
    Note

    This snippet only includes the kubevirt_vm portion of the playbook.

  2. Edit the values to reflect the virtual machine you want to create, including the namespace, the number of cpu_cores, the memory, and the disks. For example:

      kubevirt_vm:
        namespace: default
        name: vm1
        cpu_cores: 1
        memory: 64Mi
        disks:
          - name: containerdisk
            volume:
              containerDisk:
                image: kubevirt/cirros-container-disk-demo:latest
            disk:
              bus: virtio
  3. If you want the virtual machine to boot immediately after creation, add state: running to the YAML file. For example:

      kubevirt_vm:
        namespace: default
        name: vm1
        state: running 1
        cpu_cores: 1
    1
    Changing this value to state: absent deletes the virtual machine, if it already exists.
  4. Run the ansible-playbook command, using your playbook’s file name as the only argument:

    $ ansible-playbook create-vm.yaml
  5. Review the output to determine if the play was successful:

    Example output

    (...)
    TASK [Create my first VM] ************************************************************************
    changed: [localhost]
    
    PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************************************************
    localhost                  : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0    ignored=0

  6. If you did not include state: running in your playbook file and you want to boot the VM now, edit the file so that it includes state: running and run the playbook again:

    $ ansible-playbook create-vm.yaml

To verify that the virtual machine was created, try to access the VM console.

8.14.2.3. Example: Ansible Playbook for creating virtual machines

You can use the kubevirt_vm Ansible Playbook to automate virtual machine creation.

The following YAML file is an example of the kubevirt_vm playbook. It includes sample values that you must replace with your own information if you run the playbook.

---
- name: Ansible Playbook 1
  hosts: localhost
  connection: local
  tasks:
    - name: Create my first VM
      kubevirt_vm:
        namespace: default
        name: vm1
        cpu_cores: 1
        memory: 64Mi
        disks:
          - name: containerdisk
            volume:
              containerDisk:
                image: kubevirt/cirros-container-disk-demo:latest
            disk:
              bus: virtio

8.14.3. Using EFI mode for virtual machines

You can boot a virtual machine (VM) in Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) mode.

8.14.3.1. About EFI mode for virtual machines

Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI), like legacy BIOS, initializes hardware components and operating system image files when a computer starts. EFI supports more modern features and customization options than BIOS, enabling faster boot times.

It stores all the information about initialization and startup in a file with a .efi extension, which is stored on a special partition called EFI System Partition (ESP). The ESP also contains the boot loader programs for the operating system that is installed on the computer.

Note

OpenShift Virtualization only supports a virtual machine (VM) with Secure Boot when using EFI mode. If Secure Boot is not enabled, the VM crashes repeatedly. However, the VM might not support Secure Boot. Before you boot a VM, verify that it supports Secure Boot by checking the VM settings.

8.14.3.2. Booting virtual machines in EFI mode

You can configure a virtual machine to boot in EFI mode by editing the VM or VMI manifest.

Prerequisites

  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Procedure

  1. Create a YAML file that defines a VM object or a Virtual Machine Instance (VMI) object. Use the firmware stanza of the example YAML file:

    Booting in EFI mode with secure boot active

      apiversion: kubevirt.io/v1
      kind: VirtualMachineInstance
      metadata:
        labels:
          special: vmi-secureboot
        name: vmi-secureboot
      spec:
        domain:
          devices:
            disks:
            - disk:
                bus: virtio
              name: containerdisk
          features:
            acpi: {}
            smm:
              enabled: true 1
          firmware:
            bootloader:
              efi:
                secureBoot: true 2
    ...

    1
    OpenShift Virtualization requires System Management Mode (SMM) to be enabled for Secure Boot in EFI mode to occur.
    2
    OpenShift Virtualization only supports a virtual machine (VM) with Secure Boot when using EFI mode. If Secure Boot is not enabled, the VM crashes repeatedly. However, the VM might not support Secure Boot. Before you boot a VM, verify that it supports Secure Boot by checking the VM settings.
  2. Apply the manifest to your cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml

8.14.4. Configuring PXE booting for virtual machines

PXE booting, or network booting, is available in OpenShift Virtualization. Network booting allows a computer to boot and load an operating system or other program without requiring a locally attached storage device. For example, you can use it to choose your desired OS image from a PXE server when deploying a new host.

8.14.4.1. Prerequisites

  • A Linux bridge must be connected.
  • The PXE server must be connected to the same VLAN as the bridge.

8.14.4.2. OpenShift Virtualization networking glossary

OpenShift Virtualization provides advanced networking functionality by using custom resources and plug-ins.

The following terms are used throughout OpenShift Virtualization documentation:

Container Network Interface (CNI)
a Cloud Native Computing Foundation project, focused on container network connectivity. OpenShift Virtualization uses CNI plug-ins to build upon the basic Kubernetes networking functionality.
Multus
a "meta" CNI plug-in that allows multiple CNIs to exist so that a pod or virtual machine can use the interfaces it needs.
Custom resource definition (CRD)
a Kubernetes API resource that allows you to define custom resources, or an object defined by using the CRD API resource.
Network attachment definition
a CRD introduced by the Multus project that allows you to attach pods, virtual machines, and virtual machine instances to one or more networks.
Preboot eXecution Environment (PXE)
an interface that enables an administrator to boot a client machine from a server over the network. Network booting allows you to remotely load operating systems and other software onto the client.

8.14.4.3. PXE booting with a specified MAC address

As an administrator, you can boot a client over the network by first creating a NetworkAttachmentDefinition object for your PXE network. Then, reference the network attachment definition in your virtual machine instance configuration file before you start the virtual machine instance. You can also specify a MAC address in the virtual machine instance configuration file, if required by the PXE server.

Prerequisites

  • A Linux bridge must be connected.
  • The PXE server must be connected to the same VLAN as the bridge.

Procedure

  1. Configure a PXE network on the cluster:

    1. Create the network attachment definition file for PXE network pxe-net-conf:

      apiVersion: "k8s.cni.cncf.io/v1"
      kind: NetworkAttachmentDefinition
      metadata:
        name: pxe-net-conf
      spec:
        config: '{
          "cniVersion": "0.3.1",
          "name": "pxe-net-conf",
          "plugins": [
            {
              "type": "cnv-bridge",
              "bridge": "br1",
              "vlan": 1 1
            },
            {
              "type": "cnv-tuning" 2
            }
          ]
        }'
      1
      Optional: The VLAN tag.
      2
      The cnv-tuning plug-in provides support for custom MAC addresses.
      Note

      The virtual machine instance will be attached to the bridge br1 through an access port with the requested VLAN.

  2. Create the network attachment definition by using the file you created in the previous step:

    $ oc create -f pxe-net-conf.yaml
  3. Edit the virtual machine instance configuration file to include the details of the interface and network.

    1. Specify the network and MAC address, if required by the PXE server. If the MAC address is not specified, a value is assigned automatically.

      Ensure that bootOrder is set to 1 so that the interface boots first. In this example, the interface is connected to a network called <pxe-net>:

      interfaces:
      - masquerade: {}
        name: default
      - bridge: {}
        name: pxe-net
        macAddress: de:00:00:00:00:de
        bootOrder: 1
      Note

      Boot order is global for interfaces and disks.

    2. Assign a boot device number to the disk to ensure proper booting after operating system provisioning.

      Set the disk bootOrder value to 2:

      devices:
        disks:
        - disk:
            bus: virtio
          name: containerdisk
          bootOrder: 2
    3. Specify that the network is connected to the previously created network attachment definition. In this scenario, <pxe-net> is connected to the network attachment definition called <pxe-net-conf>:

      networks:
      - name: default
        pod: {}
      - name: pxe-net
        multus:
          networkName: pxe-net-conf
  4. Create the virtual machine instance:

    $ oc create -f vmi-pxe-boot.yaml

Example output

  virtualmachineinstance.kubevirt.io "vmi-pxe-boot" created

  1. Wait for the virtual machine instance to run:

    $ oc get vmi vmi-pxe-boot -o yaml | grep -i phase
      phase: Running
  2. View the virtual machine instance using VNC:

    $ virtctl vnc vmi-pxe-boot
  3. Watch the boot screen to verify that the PXE boot is successful.
  4. Log in to the virtual machine instance:

    $ virtctl console vmi-pxe-boot
  5. Verify the interfaces and MAC address on the virtual machine and that the interface connected to the bridge has the specified MAC address. In this case, we used eth1 for the PXE boot, without an IP address. The other interface, eth0, got an IP address from OpenShift Container Platform.

    $ ip addr

Example output

...
3. eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc noop state DOWN group default qlen 1000
   link/ether de:00:00:00:00:de brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

8.14.4.4. Template: Virtual machine instance configuration file for PXE booting

apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualMachineInstance
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: null
  labels:
    special: vmi-pxe-boot
  name: vmi-pxe-boot
spec:
  domain:
    devices:
      disks:
      - disk:
          bus: virtio
        name: containerdisk
        bootOrder: 2
      - disk:
          bus: virtio
        name: cloudinitdisk
      interfaces:
      - masquerade: {}
        name: default
      - bridge: {}
        name: pxe-net
        macAddress: de:00:00:00:00:de
        bootOrder: 1
    machine:
      type: ""
    resources:
      requests:
        memory: 1024M
  networks:
  - name: default
    pod: {}
  - multus:
      networkName: pxe-net-conf
    name: pxe-net
  terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 0
  volumes:
  - name: containerdisk
    containerDisk:
      image: kubevirt/fedora-cloud-container-disk-demo
  - cloudInitNoCloud:
      userData: |
        #!/bin/bash
        echo "fedora" | passwd fedora --stdin
    name: cloudinitdisk
status: {}

8.14.5. Managing guest memory

If you want to adjust guest memory settings to suit a specific use case, you can do so by editing the guest’s YAML configuration file. OpenShift Virtualization allows you to configure guest memory overcommitment and disable guest memory overhead accounting.

Warning

The following procedures increase the chance that virtual machine processes will be killed due to memory pressure. Proceed only if you understand the risks.

8.14.5.1. Configuring guest memory overcommitment

If your virtual workload requires more memory than available, you can use memory overcommitment to allocate all or most of the host’s memory to your virtual machine instances (VMIs). Enabling memory overcommitment means that you can maximize resources that are normally reserved for the host.

For example, if the host has 32 GB RAM, you can use memory overcommitment to fit 8 virtual machines (VMs) with 4 GB RAM each. This allocation works under the assumption that the virtual machines will not use all of their memory at the same time.

Important

Memory overcommitment increases the potential for virtual machine processes to be killed due to memory pressure (OOM killed).

The potential for a VM to be OOM killed varies based on your specific configuration, node memory, available swap space, virtual machine memory consumption, the use of kernel same-page merging (KSM), and other factors.

Procedure

  1. To explicitly tell the virtual machine instance that it has more memory available than was requested from the cluster, edit the virtual machine configuration file and set spec.domain.memory.guest to a higher value than spec.domain.resources.requests.memory. This process is called memory overcommitment.

    In this example, 1024M is requested from the cluster, but the virtual machine instance is told that it has 2048M available. As long as there is enough free memory available on the node, the virtual machine instance will consume up to 2048M.

    kind: VirtualMachine
    spec:
      template:
        domain:
        resources:
            requests:
              memory: 1024M
        memory:
            guest: 2048M
    Note

    The same eviction rules as those for pods apply to the virtual machine instance if the node is under memory pressure.

  2. Create the virtual machine:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml

8.14.5.2. Disabling guest memory overhead accounting

A small amount of memory is requested by each virtual machine instance in addition to the amount that you request. This additional memory is used for the infrastructure that wraps each VirtualMachineInstance process.

Though it is not usually advisable, it is possible to increase the virtual machine instance density on the node by disabling guest memory overhead accounting.

Important

Disabling guest memory overhead accounting increases the potential for virtual machine processes to be killed due to memory pressure (OOM killed).

The potential for a VM to be OOM killed varies based on your specific configuration, node memory, available swap space, virtual machine memory consumption, the use of kernel same-page merging (KSM), and other factors.

Procedure

  1. To disable guest memory overhead accounting, edit the YAML configuration file and set the overcommitGuestOverhead value to true. This parameter is disabled by default.

    kind: VirtualMachine
    spec:
      template:
        domain:
        resources:
            overcommitGuestOverhead: true
            requests:
              memory: 1024M
    Note

    If overcommitGuestOverhead is enabled, it adds the guest overhead to memory limits, if present.

  2. Create the virtual machine:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml

8.14.6. Using huge pages with virtual machines

You can use huge pages as backing memory for virtual machines in your cluster.

8.14.6.1. Prerequisites

8.14.6.2. What huge pages do

Memory is managed in blocks known as pages. On most systems, a page is 4Ki. 1Mi of memory is equal to 256 pages; 1Gi of memory is 256,000 pages, and so on. CPUs have a built-in memory management unit that manages a list of these pages in hardware. The Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) is a small hardware cache of virtual-to-physical page mappings. If the virtual address passed in a hardware instruction can be found in the TLB, the mapping can be determined quickly. If not, a TLB miss occurs, and the system falls back to slower, software-based address translation, resulting in performance issues. Since the size of the TLB is fixed, the only way to reduce the chance of a TLB miss is to increase the page size.

A huge page is a memory page that is larger than 4Ki. On x86_64 architectures, there are two common huge page sizes: 2Mi and 1Gi. Sizes vary on other architectures. To use huge pages, code must be written so that applications are aware of them. Transparent Huge Pages (THP) attempt to automate the management of huge pages without application knowledge, but they have limitations. In particular, they are limited to 2Mi page sizes. THP can lead to performance degradation on nodes with high memory utilization or fragmentation due to defragmenting efforts of THP, which can lock memory pages. For this reason, some applications may be designed to (or recommend) usage of pre-allocated huge pages instead of THP.

In OpenShift Virtualization, virtual machines can be configured to consume pre-allocated huge pages.

8.14.6.3. Configuring huge pages for virtual machines

You can configure virtual machines to use pre-allocated huge pages by including the memory.hugepages.pageSize and resources.requests.memory parameters in your virtual machine configuration.

The memory request must be divisible by the page size. For example, you cannot request 500Mi memory with a page size of 1Gi.

Note

The memory layouts of the host and the guest OS are unrelated. Huge pages requested in the virtual machine manifest apply to QEMU. Huge pages inside the guest can only be configured based on the amount of available memory of the virtual machine instance.

If you edit a running virtual machine, the virtual machine must be rebooted for the changes to take effect.

Prerequisites

  • Nodes must have pre-allocated huge pages configured.

Procedure

  1. In your virtual machine configuration, add the resources.requests.memory and memory.hugepages.pageSize parameters to the spec.domain. The following configuration snippet is for a virtual machine that requests a total of 4Gi memory with a page size of 1Gi:

    kind: VirtualMachine
    ...
    spec:
      domain:
        resources:
          requests:
            memory: "4Gi" 1
        memory:
          hugepages:
            pageSize: "1Gi" 2
    ...
    1
    The total amount of memory requested for the virtual machine. This value must be divisible by the page size.
    2
    The size of each huge page. Valid values for x86_64 architecture are 1Gi and 2Mi. The page size must be smaller than the requested memory.
  2. Apply the virtual machine configuration:

    $ oc apply -f <virtual_machine>.yaml

8.14.7. Enabling dedicated resources for virtual machines

To improve performance, you can dedicate node resources, such as CPU, to a virtual machine.

8.14.7.1. About dedicated resources

When you enable dedicated resources for your virtual machine, your virtual machine’s workload is scheduled on CPUs that will not be used by other processes. By using dedicated resources, you can improve the performance of the virtual machine and the accuracy of latency predictions.

8.14.7.2. Prerequisites

  • The CPU Manager must be configured on the node. Verify that the node has the cpumanager = true label before scheduling virtual machine workloads.
  • The virtual machine must be powered off.

8.14.7.3. Enabling dedicated resources for a virtual machine

You can enable dedicated resources for a virtual machine in the Details tab. Virtual machines that were created by using a Red Hat template or the wizard can be enabled with dedicated resources.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtual Machines from the side menu.
  2. Select a virtual machine to open the Virtual Machine tab.
  3. Click the Details tab.
  4. Click the pencil icon to the right of the Dedicated Resources field to open the Dedicated Resources window.
  5. Select Schedule this workload with dedicated resources (guaranteed policy).
  6. Click Save.

8.14.8. Scheduling virtual machines

You can schedule a virtual machine (VM) on a node by ensuring that the VM’s CPU model and policy attribute are matched for compatibility with the CPU models and policy attributes supported by the node.

8.14.8.1. Understanding policy attributes

You can schedule a virtual machine (VM) by specifying a policy attribute and a CPU feature that is matched for compatibility when the VM is scheduled on a node. A policy attribute specified for a VM determines how that VM is scheduled on a node.

Policy attributeDescription

force

The VM is forced to be scheduled on a node. This is true even if the host CPU does not support the VM’s CPU.

require

Default policy that applies to a VM if the VM is not configured with a specific CPU model and feature specification. If a node is not configured to support CPU node discovery with this default policy attribute or any one of the other policy attributes, VMs are not scheduled on that node. Either the host CPU must support the VM’s CPU or the hypervisor must be able to emulate the supported CPU model.

optional

The VM is added to a node if that VM is supported by the host’s physical machine CPU.

disable

The VM cannot be scheduled with CPU node discovery.

forbid

The VM is not scheduled even if the feature is supported by the host CPU and CPU node discovery is enabled.

8.14.8.2. Setting a policy attribute and CPU feature

You can set a policy attribute and CPU feature for each virtual machine (VM) to ensure that it is scheduled on a node according to policy and feature. The CPU feature that you set is verified to ensure that it is supported by the host CPU or emulated by the hypervisor.

Procedure

  • Edit the domain spec of your VM configuration file. The following example sets the CPU feature and the require policy for a virtual machine instance (VMI):

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: VirtualMachine
    metadata:
      name: myvmi
    spec:
      domain:
        cpu:
          features:
          - name: apic 1
            policy: require 2
    1
    Name of the CPU feature for the VM or VMI.
    2
    Policy attribute for the VM or VMI.

8.14.8.3. Scheduling virtual machines with the supported CPU model

You can configure a CPU model for a virtual machine (VM) or a virtual machine instance (VMI) to schedule it on a node where its CPU model is supported.

Procedure

  • Edit the domain spec of your virtual machine configuration file. The following example shows a specific CPU model defined for a VMI:

    apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1alpha3
    kind: VirtualMachineInstance
    metadata:
      name: myvmi
    spec:
      domain:
        cpu:
          model: Conroe 1
    1
    CPU model for the VMI.

8.14.8.4. Scheduling virtual machines with the host model

When the CPU model for a virtual machine (VM) is set to host-model, the VM inherits the CPU model of the node where it is scheduled.

Procedure

  • Edit the domain spec of your VM configuration file. The following example shows host-model being specified for the virtual machine instance (VMI):

    apiVersion: kubevirt/v1alpha3
    kind: VirtualMachineInstance
    metadata:
      name: myvmi
    spec:
      domain:
        cpu:
          model: host-model 1
    1
    The VM or VMI that inherits the CPU model of the node where it is scheduled.

8.14.9. Configuring PCI passthrough

The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) passthrough feature enables you to access and manage hardware devices from a virtual machine. When PCI passthrough is configured, the PCI devices function as if they were physically attached to the guest operating system.

Cluster administrators can expose and manage host devices that are permitted to be used in the cluster by using the oc command-line interface (CLI).

8.14.9.1. About preparing a host device for PCI passthrough

To prepare a host device for PCI passthrough by using the CLI, create a MachineConfig object and add kernel arguments to enable the Input-Output Memory Management Unit (IOMMU). Bind the PCI device to the Virtual Function I/O (VFIO) driver and then expose it in the cluster by editing the permittedHostDevices field of the HyperConverged custom resource (CR). The permittedHostDevices list is empty when you first install the OpenShift Virtualization Operator.

To remove a PCI host device from the cluster by using the CLI, delete the PCI device information from the HyperConverged CR.

8.14.9.1.1. Adding kernel arguments to enable the IOMMU driver

To enable the IOMMU (Input-Output Memory Management Unit) driver in the kernel, create the MachineConfig object and add the kernel arguments.

Prerequisites

  • Administrative privilege to a working OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Intel or AMD CPU hardware.
  • Intel Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O extensions or AMD IOMMU in the BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) is enabled.

Procedure

  1. Create a MachineConfig object that identifies the kernel argument. The following example shows a kernel argument for an Intel CPU.

    apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
    kind: MachineConfig
    metadata:
      labels:
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: worker 1
      name: 100-worker-iommu 2
    spec:
      config:
        ignition:
          version: 3.2.0
      kernelArguments:
          - intel_iommu=on 3
    ...
    1
    Applies the new kernel argument only to worker nodes.
    2
    The name indicates the ranking of this kernel argument (100) among the machine configs and its purpose. If you have an AMD CPU, specify the kernel argument as amd_iommu=on.
    3
    Identifies the kernel argument as intel_iommu for an Intel CPU.
  2. Create the new MachineConfig object:

    $ oc create -f 100-worker-kernel-arg-iommu.yaml

Verification

  • Verify that the new MachineConfig object was added.

    $ oc get MachineConfig
8.14.9.1.2. Binding PCI devices to the VFIO driver

To bind PCI devices to the VFIO (Virtual Function I/O) driver, obtain the values for vendor-ID and device-ID from each device and create a list with the values. Add this list to the MachineConfig object. The MachineConfig Operator generates the /etc/modprobe.d/vfio.conf on the nodes with the PCI devices, and binds the PCI devices to the VFIO driver.

Prerequisites

  • You added kernel arguments to enable IOMMU for the CPU.

Procedure

  1. Run the lspci command to obtain the vendor-ID and the device-ID for the PCI device.

    $ lspci -nnv | grep -i nvidia

    Example output

    02:01.0 3D controller [0302]: NVIDIA Corporation GV100GL [Tesla V100 PCIe 32GB] [10de:1eb8] (rev a1)

  2. Create a Butane config file, 100-worker-vfiopci.bu, binding the PCI device to the VFIO driver.

    Note

    See "Creating machine configs with Butane" for information about Butane.

    Example

    variant: openshift
    version: 4.8.0
    metadata:
      name: 100-worker-vfiopci
      labels:
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: worker 1
    storage:
      files:
      - path: /etc/modprobe.d/vfio.conf
        mode: 0644
        overwrite: true
        contents:
          inline: |
            options vfio-pci ids=10de:1eb8 2
      - path: /etc/modules-load.d/vfio-pci.conf 3
        mode: 0644
        overwrite: true
        contents:
          inline: vfio-pci

    1
    Applies the new kernel argument only to worker nodes.
    2
    Specify the previously determined vendor-ID value (10de) and the device-ID value (1eb8) to bind a single device to the VFIO driver. You can add a list of multiple devices with their vendor and device information.
    3
    The file that loads the vfio-pci kernel module on the worker nodes.
  3. Use Butane to generate a MachineConfig object file, 100-worker-vfiopci.yaml, containing the configuration to be delivered to the worker nodes:

    $ butane 100-worker-vfiopci.bu -o 100-worker-vfiopci.yaml
  4. Apply the MachineConfig object to the worker nodes:

    $ oc apply -f 100-worker-vfiopci.yaml
  5. Verify that the MachineConfig object was added.

    $ oc get MachineConfig

    Example output

    NAME                             GENERATEDBYCONTROLLER                      IGNITIONVERSION  AGE
    00-master                        d3da910bfa9f4b599af4ed7f5ac270d55950a3a1   3.2.0            25h
    00-worker                        d3da910bfa9f4b599af4ed7f5ac270d55950a3a1   3.2.0            25h
    01-master-container-runtime      d3da910bfa9f4b599af4ed7f5ac270d55950a3a1   3.2.0            25h
    01-master-kubelet                d3da910bfa9f4b599af4ed7f5ac270d55950a3a1   3.2.0            25h
    01-worker-container-runtime      d3da910bfa9f4b599af4ed7f5ac270d55950a3a1   3.2.0            25h
    01-worker-kubelet                d3da910bfa9f4b599af4ed7f5ac270d55950a3a1   3.2.0            25h
    100-worker-iommu                                                            3.2.0            30s
    100-worker-vfiopci-configuration                                            3.2.0            30s

Verification

  • Verify that the VFIO driver is loaded.

    $ lspci -nnk -d 10de:

    The output confirms that the VFIO driver is being used.

    Example output

    04:00.0 3D controller [0302]: NVIDIA Corporation GP102GL [Tesla P40] [10de:1eb8] (rev a1)
            Subsystem: NVIDIA Corporation Device [10de:1eb8]
            Kernel driver in use: vfio-pci
            Kernel modules: nouveau

8.14.9.1.3. Exposing PCI host devices in the cluster using the CLI

To expose PCI host devices in the cluster, add details about the PCI devices to the spec.permittedHostDevices.pciHostDevices array of the HyperConverged custom resource (CR).

Procedure

  1. Edit the HyperConverged CR in your default editor by running the following command:

    $ oc edit hyperconverged kubevirt-hyperconverged -n openshift-cnv
  2. Add the PCI device information to the spec.permittedHostDevices.pciHostDevices array. For example:

    Example configuration file

    apiVersion: hco.kubevirt.io/v1
    kind: HyperConverged
    metadata:
      name: kubevirt-hyperconverged
      namespace: openshift-cnv
    spec:
      permittedHostDevices: 1
        pciHostDevices: 2
        - pciDeviceSelector: "10DE:1DB6" 3
          resourceName: "nvidia.com/GV100GL_Tesla_V100" 4
        - pciDeviceSelector: "10DE:1EB8"
          resourceName: "nvidia.com/TU104GL_Tesla_T4"
        - pciDeviceSelector: "8086:6F54"
          resourceName: "intel.com/qat"
          externalResourceProvider: true 5
    ...

    1
    The host devices that are permitted to be used in the cluster.
    2
    The list of PCI devices available on the node.
    3
    The vendor-ID and the device-ID required to identify the PCI device.
    4
    The name of a PCI host device.
    5
    Optional: Setting this field to true indicates that the resource is provided by an external device plug-in. OpenShift Virtualization allows the usage of this device in the cluster but leaves the allocation and monitoring to an external device plug-in.
    Note

    The above example snippet shows two PCI host devices that are named nvidia.com/GV100GL_Tesla_V100 and nvidia.com/TU104GL_Tesla_T4 added to the list of permitted host devices in the HyperConverged CR. These devices have been tested and verified to work with OpenShift Virtualization.

  3. Save your changes and exit the editor.

Verification

  • Verify that the PCI host devices were added to the node by running the following command. The example output shows that there is one device each associated with the nvidia.com/GV100GL_Tesla_V100, nvidia.com/TU104GL_Tesla_T4, and intel.com/qat resource names.

    $ oc describe node <node_name>

    Example output

    Capacity:
      cpu:                            64
      devices.kubevirt.io/kvm:        110
      devices.kubevirt.io/tun:        110
      devices.kubevirt.io/vhost-net:  110
      ephemeral-storage:              915128Mi
      hugepages-1Gi:                  0
      hugepages-2Mi:                  0
      memory:                         131395264Ki
      nvidia.com/GV100GL_Tesla_V100   1
      nvidia.com/TU104GL_Tesla_T4     1
      intel.com/qat:                  1
      pods:                           250
    Allocatable:
      cpu:                            63500m
      devices.kubevirt.io/kvm:        110
      devices.kubevirt.io/tun:        110
      devices.kubevirt.io/vhost-net:  110
      ephemeral-storage:              863623130526
      hugepages-1Gi:                  0
      hugepages-2Mi:                  0
      memory:                         130244288Ki
      nvidia.com/GV100GL_Tesla_V100   1
      nvidia.com/TU104GL_Tesla_T4     1
      intel.com/qat:                  1
      pods:                           250

8.14.9.1.4. Removing PCI host devices from the cluster using the CLI

To remove a PCI host device from the cluster, delete the information for that device from the HyperConverged custom resource (CR).

Procedure

  1. Edit the HyperConverged CR in your default editor by running the following command:

    $ oc edit hyperconverged kubevirt-hyperconverged -n openshift-cnv
  2. Remove the PCI device information from the spec.permittedHostDevices.pciHostDevices array by deleting the pciDeviceSelector, resourceName and externalResourceProvider (if applicable) fields for the appropriate device. In this example, the intel.com/qat resource has been deleted.

    Example configuration file

    apiVersion: hco.kubevirt.io/v1
    kind: HyperConverged
    metadata:
      name: kubevirt-hyperconverged
      namespace: openshift-cnv
    spec:
      permittedHostDevices:
        pciHostDevices:
        - pciDeviceSelector: "10DE:1DB6"
          resourceName: "nvidia.com/GV100GL_Tesla_V100"
        - pciDeviceSelector: "10DE:1EB8"
          resourceName: "nvidia.com/TU104GL_Tesla_T4"
    ...

  3. Save your changes and exit the editor.

Verification

  • Verify that the PCI host device was removed from the node by running the following command. The example output shows that there are zero devices associated with the intel.com/qat resource name.

    $ oc describe node <node_name>

    Example output

    Capacity:
      cpu:                            64
      devices.kubevirt.io/kvm:        110
      devices.kubevirt.io/tun:        110
      devices.kubevirt.io/vhost-net:  110
      ephemeral-storage:              915128Mi
      hugepages-1Gi:                  0
      hugepages-2Mi:                  0
      memory:                         131395264Ki
      nvidia.com/GV100GL_Tesla_V100   1
      nvidia.com/TU104GL_Tesla_T4     1
      intel.com/qat:                  0
      pods:                           250
    Allocatable:
      cpu:                            63500m
      devices.kubevirt.io/kvm:        110
      devices.kubevirt.io/tun:        110
      devices.kubevirt.io/vhost-net:  110
      ephemeral-storage:              863623130526
      hugepages-1Gi:                  0
      hugepages-2Mi:                  0
      memory:                         130244288Ki
      nvidia.com/GV100GL_Tesla_V100   1
      nvidia.com/TU104GL_Tesla_T4     1
      intel.com/qat:                  0
      pods:                           250

8.14.9.2. Configuring virtual machines for PCI passthrough

After the PCI devices have been added to the cluster, you can assign them to virtual machines. The PCI devices are now available as if they are physically connected to the virtual machines.

8.14.9.2.1. Assigning a PCI device to a virtual machine

When a PCI device is available in a cluster, you can assign it to a virtual machine and enable PCI passthrough.

Procedure

  • Assign the PCI device to a virtual machine as a host device.

    Example

    apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1
    kind: VirtualMachine
    spec:
      domain:
        devices:
          hostDevices:
          - deviceName: nvidia.com/TU104GL_Tesla_T4 1
            name: hostdevices1

    1
    The name of the PCI device that is permitted on the cluster as a host device. The virtual machine can access this host device.

Verification

  • Use the following command to verify that the host device is available from the virtual machine.

    $ lspci -nnk | grep NVIDIA

    Example output

    $ 02:01.0 3D controller [0302]: NVIDIA Corporation GV100GL [Tesla V100 PCIe 32GB] [10de:1eb8] (rev a1)

8.14.9.3. Additional resources

8.14.10. Configuring a watchdog

Expose a watchdog by configuring the virtual machine (VM) for a watchdog device, installing the watchdog, and starting the watchdog service.

8.14.10.1. Prerequisites

  • The virtual machine must have kernel support for an i6300esb watchdog device. Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) images support i6300esb.

8.14.10.2. Defining a watchdog device

Define how the watchdog proceeds when the operating system (OS) no longer responds.

Table 8.5. Available actions

poweroff

The virtual machine (VM) powers down immediately. If spec.running is set to true, or spec.runStrategy is not set to manual, then the VM reboots.

reset

The VM reboots in place and the guest OS cannot react. Because the length of time required for the guest OS to reboot can cause liveness probes to timeout, use of this option is discouraged. This timeout can extend the time it takes the VM to reboot if cluster-level protections notice the liveness probe failed and forcibly reschedule it.

shutdown

The VM gracefully powers down by stopping all services.

Procedure

  1. Create a YAML file with the following contents:

    apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1
    kind: VirtualMachine
    metadata:
      labels:
        kubevirt.io/vm: vm2-rhel84-watchdog
      name: <vm-name>
    spec:
      running: false
      template:
        metadata:
         labels:
            kubevirt.io/vm: vm2-rhel84-watchdog
        spec:
          domain:
            devices:
              watchdog:
                name: <watchdog>
                i6300esb:
                  action: "poweroff" 1
    ...
    1
    Specify the watchdog action (poweroff, reset, or shutdown).

    The example above configures the i6300esb watchdog device on a RHEL8 VM with the poweroff action and exposes the device as /dev/watchdog.

    This device can now be used by the watchdog binary.

  2. Apply the YAML file to your cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc apply -f <file_name>.yaml
Important

This procedure is provided for testing watchdog functionality only and must not be run on production machines.

  1. Run the following command to verify that the VM is connected to the watchdog device:

    $ lspci | grep watchdog -i
  2. Run one of the following commands to confirm the watchdog is active:

    • Trigger a kernel panic:

      # echo c > /proc/sysrq-trigger
    • Terminate the watchdog service:

      # pkill -9 watchdog

8.14.10.3. Installing a watchdog device

Install the watchdog package on your virtual machine and start the watchdog service.

Procedure

  1. As a root user, install the watchdog package and dependencies:

    # yum install watchdog
  2. Uncomment the following line in the /etc/watchdog.conf file, and save the changes:

    #watchdog-device = /dev/watchdog
  3. Enable the watchdog service to start on boot:

    # systemctl enable --now watchdog.service

8.14.10.4. Additional resources

8.15. Importing virtual machines

8.15.1. TLS certificates for data volume imports

8.15.1.1. Adding TLS certificates for authenticating data volume imports

TLS certificates for registry or HTTPS endpoints must be added to a config map to import data from these sources. This config map must be present in the namespace of the destination data volume.

Create the config map by referencing the relative file path for the TLS certificate.

Procedure

  1. Ensure you are in the correct namespace. The config map can only be referenced by data volumes if it is in the same namespace.

    $ oc get ns
  2. Create the config map:

    $ oc create configmap <configmap-name> --from-file=</path/to/file/ca.pem>

8.15.1.2. Example: Config map created from a TLS certificate

The following example is of a config map created from ca.pem TLS certificate.

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: tls-certs
data:
  ca.pem: |
    -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
    ... <base64 encoded cert> ...
    -----END CERTIFICATE-----

8.15.2. Importing virtual machine images with data volumes

Use the Containerized Data Importer (CDI) to import a virtual machine image into a persistent volume claim (PVC) by using a data volume. You can attach a data volume to a virtual machine for persistent storage.

The virtual machine image can be hosted at an HTTP or HTTPS endpoint, or built into a container disk and stored in a container registry.

Important

When you import a disk image into a PVC, the disk image is expanded to use the full storage capacity that is requested in the PVC. To use this space, the disk partitions and file system(s) in the virtual machine might need to be expanded.

The resizing procedure varies based on the operating system installed on the virtual machine. See the operating system documentation for details.

8.15.2.1. Prerequisites

8.15.2.2. CDI supported operations matrix

This matrix shows the supported CDI operations for content types against endpoints, and which of these operations requires scratch space.

Content typesHTTPHTTPSHTTP basic authRegistryUpload

KubeVirt (QCOW2)

✓ QCOW2
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2**
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2*
□ GZ
□ XZ

✓ QCOW2*
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

KubeVirt (RAW)

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW*
□ GZ
□ XZ

✓ RAW*
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ Supported operation

□ Unsupported operation

* Requires scratch space

** Requires scratch space if a custom certificate authority is required

Note

CDI now uses the OpenShift Container Platform cluster-wide proxy configuration.

8.15.2.3. About data volumes

DataVolume objects are custom resources that are provided by the Containerized Data Importer (CDI) project. Data volumes orchestrate import, clone, and upload operations that are associated with an underlying persistent volume claim (PVC). Data volumes are integrated with OpenShift Virtualization, and they prevent a virtual machine from being started before the PVC has been prepared.

8.15.2.4. Importing a virtual machine image into a persistent volume claim by using a data volume

You can import a virtual machine image into a persistent volume claim (PVC) by using a data volume.

The virtual machine image can be hosted at an HTTP or HTTPS endpoint, or the image can be built into a container disk and stored in a container registry.

To create a virtual machine from an imported virtual machine image, specify the image or container disk endpoint in the VirtualMachine configuration file before you create the virtual machine.

Prerequisites

  • You have installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Your cluster has at least one available persistent volume.
  • To import a virtual machine image you must have the following:

    • A virtual machine disk image in RAW, ISO, or QCOW2 format, optionally compressed by using xz or gz.
    • An HTTP endpoint where the image is hosted, along with any authentication credentials needed to access the data source. For example: http://www.example.com/path/to/data
  • To import a container disk you must have the following:

    • A container disk built from a virtual machine image stored in your container image registry, along with any authentication credentials needed to access the data source. For example: docker://registry.example.com/container-image

Procedure

  1. Optional: If your data source requires authentication credentials, edit the endpoint-secret.yaml file, and apply the updated configuration to the cluster:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Secret
    metadata:
      name: <endpoint-secret>
      labels:
        app: containerized-data-importer
    type: Opaque
    data:
      accessKeyId: "" 1
      secretKey:   "" 2
    1
    Optional: your key or user name, base64 encoded
    2
    Optional: your secret or password, base64 encoded
    $ oc apply -f endpoint-secret.yaml
  2. Edit the virtual machine configuration file, specifying the data source for the virtual machine image you want to import. In this example, a Fedora image is imported from an http source:

    apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1alpha3
    kind: VirtualMachine
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: null
      labels:
        kubevirt.io/vm: vm-fedora-datavolume
      name: vm-fedora-datavolume
    spec:
      dataVolumeTemplates:
      - metadata:
          creationTimestamp: null
          name: fedora-dv
        spec:
          pvc:
            accessModes:
            - ReadWriteOnce
            resources:
              requests:
                storage: 10Gi
            storageClassName: local
          source:
            http: 1
              url: "https://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/fedora/linux/releases/33/Cloud/x86_64/images/Fedora-Cloud-Base-33-1.2.x86_64.qcow2" 2
              secretRef: "" 3
              certConfigMap: "" 4
        status: {}
      running: true
      template:
        metadata:
          creationTimestamp: null
          labels:
            kubevirt.io/vm: vm-fedora-datavolume
        spec:
          domain:
            devices:
              disks:
              - disk:
                  bus: virtio
                name: datavolumedisk1
            machine:
              type: "" 5
            resources:
              requests:
                memory: 1.5Gi
          terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 60
          volumes:
          - dataVolume:
              name: fedora-dv
            name: datavolumedisk1
    status: {}
    1
    The source type to import the image from. This example uses an HTTP endpoint. To import a container disk from a registry, replace http with registry.
    2
    The source of the virtual machine image you want to import. This example references a virtual machine image at an HTTP endpoint. An example of a container registry endpoint is url: "docker://kubevirt/fedora-cloud-container-disk-demo:latest".
    3
    The secretRef parameter is optional.
    4
    The certConfigMap is required for communicating with servers that use self-signed certificates or certificates not signed by the system CA bundle. The referenced config map must be in the same namespace as the data volume.
    5
    Specify type: dataVolume or type: "". If you specify any other value for type, such as persistentVolumeClaim, a warning is displayed, and the virtual machine does not start.
  3. Create the virtual machine:

    $ oc create -f vm-<name>-datavolume.yaml
    Note

    The oc create command creates the data volume and the virtual machine. The CDI controller creates an underlying PVC with the correct annotation, and the import process begins. When the import completes, the data volume status changes to Succeeded, and the virtual machine is allowed to start.

    Data volume provisioning happens in the background, so there is no need to monitor it. You can start the virtual machine, and it will not run until the import is complete.

Verification

  1. The importer pod downloads the virtual machine image or container disk from the specified URL and stores it on the provisioned PV. View the status of the importer pod by running the following command:

    $ oc get pods
  2. Monitor the data volume status until it shows Succeeded by running the following command:

    $ oc describe dv <datavolume-name> 1
    1
    The name of the data volume as specified under dataVolumeTemplates.metadata.name in the virtual machine configuration file. In the example configuration above, this is fedora-dv.
  3. To verify that provisioning is complete and that the VMI has started, try accessing its serial console by running the following command:

    $ virtctl console <vm-fedora-datavolume>

8.15.2.5. Additional resources

8.15.3. Importing virtual machine images to block storage with data volumes

You can import an existing virtual machine image into your OpenShift Container Platform cluster. OpenShift Virtualization uses data volumes to automate the import of data and the creation of an underlying persistent volume claim (PVC).

Important

When you import a disk image into a PVC, the disk image is expanded to use the full storage capacity that is requested in the PVC. To use this space, the disk partitions and file system(s) in the virtual machine might need to be expanded.

The resizing procedure varies based on the operating system that is installed on the virtual machine. See the operating system documentation for details.

8.15.3.1. Prerequisites

8.15.3.2. About data volumes

DataVolume objects are custom resources that are provided by the Containerized Data Importer (CDI) project. Data volumes orchestrate import, clone, and upload operations that are associated with an underlying persistent volume claim (PVC). Data volumes are integrated with OpenShift Virtualization, and they prevent a virtual machine from being started before the PVC has been prepared.

8.15.3.3. About block persistent volumes

A block persistent volume (PV) is a PV that is backed by a raw block device. These volumes do not have a file system and can provide performance benefits for virtual machines by reducing overhead.

Raw block volumes are provisioned by specifying volumeMode: Block in the PV and persistent volume claim (PVC) specification.

8.15.3.4. Creating a local block persistent volume

Create a local block persistent volume (PV) on a node by populating a file and mounting it as a loop device. You can then reference this loop device in a PV manifest as a Block volume and use it as a block device for a virtual machine image.

Procedure

  1. Log in as root to the node on which to create the local PV. This procedure uses node01 for its examples.
  2. Create a file and populate it with null characters so that it can be used as a block device. The following example creates a file loop10 with a size of 2Gb (20 100Mb blocks):

    $ dd if=/dev/zero of=<loop10> bs=100M count=20
  3. Mount the loop10 file as a loop device.

    $ losetup </dev/loop10>d3 <loop10> 1 2
    1
    File path where the loop device is mounted.
    2
    The file created in the previous step to be mounted as the loop device.
  4. Create a PersistentVolume manifest that references the mounted loop device.

    kind: PersistentVolume
    apiVersion: v1
    metadata:
      name: <local-block-pv10>
      annotations:
    spec:
      local:
        path: </dev/loop10> 1
      capacity:
        storage: <2Gi>
      volumeMode: Block 2
      storageClassName: local 3
      accessModes:
        - ReadWriteOnce
      persistentVolumeReclaimPolicy: Delete
      nodeAffinity:
        required:
          nodeSelectorTerms:
          - matchExpressions:
            - key: kubernetes.io/hostname
              operator: In
              values:
              - <node01> 4
    1
    The path of the loop device on the node.
    2
    Specifies it is a block PV.
    3
    Optional: Set a storage class for the PV. If you omit it, the cluster default is used.
    4
    The node on which the block device was mounted.
  5. Create the block PV.

    # oc create -f <local-block-pv10.yaml>1
    1
    The file name of the persistent volume created in the previous step.

8.15.3.5. Importing a virtual machine image to a block persistent volume using data volumes

You can import an existing virtual machine image into your OpenShift Container Platform cluster. OpenShift Virtualization uses data volumes to automate the importing data and the creation of an underlying persistent volume claim (PVC). You can then reference the data volume in a virtual machine manifest.

Prerequisites

  • A virtual machine disk image, in RAW, ISO, or QCOW2 format, optionally compressed by using xz or gz.
  • An HTTP or s3 endpoint where the image is hosted, along with any authentication credentials needed to access the data source
  • At least one available block PV.

Procedure

  1. If your data source requires authentication credentials, edit the endpoint-secret.yaml file, and apply the updated configuration to the cluster.

    1. Edit the endpoint-secret.yaml file with your preferred text editor:

      apiVersion: v1
      kind: Secret
      metadata:
        name: <endpoint-secret>
        labels:
          app: containerized-data-importer
      type: Opaque
      data:
        accessKeyId: "" 1
        secretKey:   "" 2
      1
      Optional: your key or user name, base64 encoded
      2
      Optional: your secret or password, base64 encoded
    2. Update the secret by running the following command:

      $ oc apply -f endpoint-secret.yaml
  2. Create a DataVolume manifest that specifies the data source for the image you want to import and volumeMode: Block so that an available block PV is used.

    apiVersion: cdi.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
    kind: DataVolume
    metadata:
      name: <import-pv-datavolume> 1
    spec:
      storageClassName: local 2
      source:
          http:
             url: <http://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/fedora/linux/releases/28/Cloud/x86_64/images/Fedora-Cloud-Base-28-1.1.x86_64.qcow2> 3
             secretRef: <endpoint-secret> 4
      pvc:
        volumeMode: Block 5
        accessModes:
          - ReadWriteOnce
        resources:
          requests:
            storage: <2Gi>
    1
    The name of the data volume.
    2
    Optional: Set the storage class or omit it to accept the cluster default.
    3
    The HTTP source of the image to import.
    4
    Only required if the data source requires authentication.
    5
    Required for importing to a block PV.
  3. Create the data volume to import the virtual machine image by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <import-pv-datavolume.yaml>1
    1
    The file name of the data volume that you created in the previous step.

8.15.3.6. CDI supported operations matrix

This matrix shows the supported CDI operations for content types against endpoints, and which of these operations requires scratch space.

Content typesHTTPHTTPSHTTP basic authRegistryUpload

KubeVirt (QCOW2)

✓ QCOW2
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2**
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2*
□ GZ
□ XZ

✓ QCOW2*
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

KubeVirt (RAW)

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW*
□ GZ
□ XZ

✓ RAW*
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ Supported operation

□ Unsupported operation

* Requires scratch space

** Requires scratch space if a custom certificate authority is required

Note

CDI now uses the OpenShift Container Platform cluster-wide proxy configuration.

8.15.3.7. Additional resources

8.15.4. Importing a single Red Hat Virtualization virtual machine

You can import a single Red Hat Virtualization (RHV) virtual machine into OpenShift Virtualization by using the VM Import wizard or the CLI.

Important

Importing a RHV VM is a deprecated feature. Deprecated functionality is still included in OpenShift Virtualization and continues to be supported; however, it will be removed in a future release of this product and is not recommended for new deployments.

For the most recent list of major functionality that has been deprecated or removed within OpenShift Virtualization, refer to the Deprecated and removed features section of the OpenShift Virtualization release notes.

This feature will be replaced by the Migration Toolkit for Virtualization.

8.15.4.1. OpenShift Virtualization storage feature matrix

The following table describes the OpenShift Virtualization storage types that support VM import.

Table 8.6. OpenShift Virtualization storage feature matrix

 RHV VM import

OpenShift Container Storage: RBD block-mode volumes

Yes

OpenShift Virtualization hostpath provisioner

No

Other multi-node writable storage

Yes [1]

Other single-node writable storage

Yes [2]

  1. PVCs must request a ReadWriteMany access mode.
  2. PVCs must request a ReadWriteOnce access mode.

8.15.4.2. Prerequisites for importing a virtual machine

Importing a virtual machine from Red Hat Virtualization (RHV) into OpenShift Virtualization has the following prerequisites:

  • You must have admin user privileges.
  • Storage:

    • The OpenShift Virtualization local and shared persistent storage classes must support VM import.
    • If you are using Ceph RBD block-mode volumes and the available storage space is too small for the virtual disk, the import process bar stops at 75% for more than 20 minutes and the migration does not succeed. No error message is displayed in the web console. BZ#1910019
  • Networks:

    • The RHV and OpenShift Virtualization networks must either have the same name or be mapped to each other.
    • The RHV VM network interface must be e1000, rtl8139, or virtio.
  • VM disks:

    • The disk interface must be sata, virtio_scsi, or virtio.
    • The disk must not be configured as a direct LUN.
    • The disk status must not be illegal or locked.
    • The storage type must be image.
    • SCSI reservation must be disabled.
    • ScsiGenericIO must be disabled.
  • VM configuration:

    • If the VM uses GPU resources, the nodes providing the GPUs must be configured.
    • The VM must not be configured for vGPU resources.
    • The VM must not have snapshots with disks in an illegal state.
    • The VM must not have been created with OpenShift Container Platform and subsequently added to RHV.
    • The VM must not be configured for USB devices.
    • The watchdog model must not be diag288.

8.15.4.3. Importing a virtual machine with the VM Import wizard

You can import a single virtual machine with the VM Import wizard.

Procedure

  1. In the web console, click WorkloadsVirtual Machines.
  2. Click Create Virtual Machine and select Import with Wizard.
  3. Select Red Hat Virtualization (RHV) from the Provider list.
  4. Select Connect to New Instance or a saved RHV instance.

    • If you select Connect to New Instance, fill in the following fields:

      • API URL: For example, https://<RHV_Manager_FQDN>/ovirt-engine/api
      • CA certificate: Click Browse to upload the RHV Manager CA certificate or paste the CA certificate into the field.

        View the CA certificate by running the following command:

        $ openssl s_client -connect <RHV_Manager_FQDN>:443 -showcerts < /dev/null

        The CA certificate is the second certificate in the output.

      • Username: RHV Manager user name, for example, ocpadmin@internal
      • Password: RHV Manager password
    • If you select a saved RHV instance, the wizard connects to the RHV instance using the saved credentials.
  5. Click Check and Save and wait for the connection to complete.

    Note

    The connection details are stored in a secret. If you add a provider with an incorrect URL, user name, or password, click WorkloadsSecrets and delete the provider secret.

  6. Select a cluster and a virtual machine.
  7. Click Next.
  8. In the Review screen, review your settings.
  9. Optional: You can select Start virtual machine on creation.
  10. Click Edit to update the following settings:

    • GeneralName: The VM name is limited to 63 characters.
    • GeneralDescription: Optional description of the VM.

      • Storage Class: Select NFS or ocs-storagecluster-ceph-rbd.

        If you select ocs-storagecluster-ceph-rbd, you must set the Volume Mode of the disk to Block.

      • AdvancedVolume Mode: Select Block.
    • AdvancedVolume Mode: Select Block.
    • NetworkingNetwork: You can select a network from a list of available network attachment definition objects.
  11. Click Import or Review and Import, if you have edited the import settings.

    A Successfully created virtual machine message and a list of resources created for the virtual machine are displayed. The virtual machine appears in WorkloadsVirtual Machines.

Virtual machine wizard fields
NameParameterDescription

Name

 

The name can contain lowercase letters (a-z), numbers (0-9), and hyphens (-), up to a maximum of 253 characters. The first and last characters must be alphanumeric. The name must not contain uppercase letters, spaces, periods (.), or special characters.

Description

 

Optional description field.

Operating System

 

The operating system that is selected for the virtual machine in the template. You cannot edit this field when creating a virtual machine from a template.

Boot Source

Import via URL (creates PVC)

Import content from an image available from an HTTP or S3 endpoint. Example: Obtaining a URL link from the web page with the operating system image.

Clone existing PVC (creates PVC)

Select an existent persistent volume claim available on the cluster and clone it.

Import via Registry (creates PVC)

Provision virtual machine from a bootable operating system container located in a registry accessible from the cluster. Example: kubevirt/cirros-registry-disk-demo.

PXE (network boot - adds network interface)

Boot an operating system from a server on the network. Requires a PXE bootable network attachment definition.

Persistent Volume Claim project

 

Project name that you want to use for cloning the PVC.

Persistent Volume Claim name

 

PVC name that should apply to this virtual machine template if you are cloning an existing PVC.

Mount this as a CD-ROM boot source

 

A CD-ROM requires an additional disk for installing the operating system. Select the checkbox to add a disk and customize it later.

Flavor

Tiny, Small, Medium, Large, Custom

Presets the amount of CPU and memory in a virtual machine template with predefined values that are allocated to the virtual machine, depending on the operating system associated with that template.

If you choose a default template, you can override the cpus and memsize values in the template using custom values to create a custom template. Alternatively, you can create a custom template by modifying the cpus and memsize values in the Details tab on the WorkloadsVirtualization page.

Workload Type

Note

If you choose the incorrect Workload Type, there could be performance or resource utilization issues (such as a slow UI).

Desktop

A virtual machine configuration for use on a desktop. Ideal for consumption on a small scale. Recommended for use with the web console.

Server

Balances performance and it is compatible with a wide range of server workloads.

High-Performance

A virtual machine configuration that is optimized for high-performance workloads.

Start this virtual machine after creation.

 

This checkbox is selected by default and the virtual machine starts running after creation. Clear the checkbox if you do not want the virtual machine to start when it is created.

Networking fields
NameDescription

Name

Name for the network interface controller.

Model

Indicates the model of the network interface controller. Supported values are e1000e and virtio.

Network

List of available network attachment definitions.

Type

List of available binding methods. For the default pod network, masquerade is the only recommended binding method. For secondary networks, use the bridge binding method. The masquerade method is not supported for non-default networks. Select SR-IOV if you configured an SR-IOV network device and defined that network in the namespace.

MAC Address

MAC address for the network interface controller. If a MAC address is not specified, one is assigned automatically.

Storage fields
NameSelectionDescription

Source

Blank (creates PVC)

Create an empty disk.

Import via URL (creates PVC)

Import content via URL (HTTP or S3 endpoint).

Use an existing PVC

Use a PVC that is already available in the cluster.

Clone existing PVC (creates PVC)

Select an existing PVC available in the cluster and clone it.

Import via Registry (creates PVC)

Import content via container registry.

Container (ephemeral)

Upload content from a container located in a registry accessible from the cluster. The container disk should be used only for read-only filesystems such as CD-ROMs or temporary virtual machines.

Name

 

Name of the disk. The name can contain lowercase letters (a-z), numbers (0-9), hyphens (-), and periods (.), up to a maximum of 253 characters. The first and last characters must be alphanumeric. The name must not contain uppercase letters, spaces, or special characters.

Size

 

Size of the disk in GiB.

Type

 

Type of disk. Example: Disk or CD-ROM

Interface

 

Type of disk device. Supported interfaces are virtIO, SATA, and SCSI.

Storage Class

 

The storage class that is used to create the disk.

Advanced → Volume Mode

 

Defines whether the persistent volume uses a formatted file system or raw block state. Default is Filesystem.

Advanced storage settings
NameParameterDescription

Volume Mode

Filesystem

Stores the virtual disk on a file system-based volume.

Block

Stores the virtual disk directly on the block volume. Only use Block if the underlying storage supports it.

Access Mode [1]

Single User (RWO)

The disk can be mounted as read/write by a single node.

Shared Access (RWX)

The disk can be mounted as read/write by many nodes.

Read Only (ROX)

The disk can be mounted as read-only by many nodes.

  1. You can change the access mode by using the command line interface.

8.15.4.4. Importing a virtual machine with the CLI

You can import a virtual machine with the CLI by creating the Secret and VirtualMachineImport custom resources (CRs). The Secret CR stores the RHV Manager credentials and CA certificate. The VirtualMachineImport CR defines the parameters of the VM import process.

Optional: You can create a ResourceMapping CR that is separate from the VirtualMachineImport CR. A ResourceMapping CR provides greater flexibility, for example, if you import additional RHV VMs.

Important

The default target storage class must be NFS. Cinder does not support RHV VM import.

Procedure

  1. Create the Secret CR by running the following command:

    $ cat <<EOF | oc create -f -
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Secret
    metadata:
      name: rhv-credentials
      namespace: default 1
    type: Opaque
    stringData:
      ovirt: |
        apiUrl: <api_endpoint> 2
        username: ocpadmin@internal
        password: 3
        caCert: |
          -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
          4
          -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    EOF
    1
    Optional. You can specify a different namespace in all the CRs.
    2
    Specify the API endpoint of the RHV Manager, for example, \"https://www.example.com:8443/ovirt-engine/api"
    3
    Specify the password for ocpadmin@internal.
    4
    Specify the RHV Manager CA certificate. You can obtain the CA certificate by running the following command:
    $ openssl s_client -connect :443 -showcerts < /dev/null
  2. Optional: Create a ResourceMapping CR if you want to separate the resource mapping from the VirtualMachineImport CR by running the following command:

    $ cat <<EOF | kubectl create -f -
    apiVersion: v2v.kubevirt.io/v1alpha1
    kind: ResourceMapping
    metadata:
      name: resourcemapping_example
      namespace: default
    spec:
      ovirt:
        networkMappings:
          - source:
              name: <rhv_logical_network>/<vnic_profile> 1
            target:
              name: <target_network> 2
            type: pod
        storageMappings: 3
          - source:
              name: <rhv_storage_domain> 4
            target:
              name: <target_storage_class> 5
            volumeMode: <volume_mode> 6
    EOF
    1
    Specify the RHV logical network and vNIC profile.
    2
    Specify the OpenShift Virtualization network.
    3
    If storage mappings are specified in both the ResourceMapping and the VirtualMachineImport CRs, the VirtualMachineImport CR takes precedence.
    4
    Specify the RHV storage domain.
    5
    Specify nfs or ocs-storagecluster-ceph-rbd.
    6
    If you specified the ocs-storagecluster-ceph-rbd storage class, you must specify Block as the volume mode.
  3. Create the VirtualMachineImport CR by running the following command:

    $ cat <<EOF | oc create -f -
    apiVersion: v2v.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
    kind: VirtualMachineImport
    metadata:
      name: vm-import
      namespace: default
    spec:
      providerCredentialsSecret:
        name: rhv-credentials
        namespace: default
    # resourceMapping: 1
    #   name: resourcemapping-example
    #   namespace: default
      targetVmName: vm_example 2
      startVm: true
      source:
        ovirt:
          vm:
            id: <source_vm_id> 3
            name: <source_vm_name> 4
          cluster:
            name: <source_cluster_name> 5
          mappings: 6
            networkMappings:
              - source:
                  name: <source_logical_network>/<vnic_profile> 7
                target:
                  name: <target_network> 8
                type: pod
            storageMappings: 9
              - source:
                  name: <source_storage_domain> 10
                target:
                  name: <target_storage_class> 11
                accessMode: <volume_access_mode> 12
            diskMappings:
              - source:
                  id: <source_vm_disk_id> 13
                target:
                  name: <target_storage_class> 14
    EOF
    1
    If you create a ResourceMapping CR, uncomment the resourceMapping section.
    2
    Specify the target VM name.
    3
    Specify the source VM ID, for example, 80554327-0569-496b-bdeb-fcbbf52b827b. You can obtain the VM ID by entering https://www.example.com/ovirt-engine/api/vms/ in a web browser on the Manager machine to list all VMs. Locate the VM you want to import and its corresponding VM ID. You do not need to specify a VM name or cluster name.
    4
    If you specify the source VM name, you must also specify the source cluster. Do not specify the source VM ID.
    5
    If you specify the source cluster, you must also specify the source VM name. Do not specify the source VM ID.
    6
    If you create a ResourceMapping CR, comment out the mappings section.
    7
    Specify the logical network and vNIC profile of the source VM.
    8
    Specify the OpenShift Virtualization network.
    9
    If storage mappings are specified in both the ResourceMapping and the VirtualMachineImport CRs, the VirtualMachineImport CR takes precedence.
    10
    Specify the source storage domain.
    11
    Specify the target storage class.
    12
    Specify ReadWriteOnce, ReadWriteMany, or ReadOnlyMany. If no access mode is specified, {virt} determines the correct volume access mode based on the HostMigration mode setting of the RHV VM or on the virtual disk access mode:
    • If the RHV VM migration mode is Allow manual and automatic migration, the default access mode is ReadWriteMany.
    • If the RHV virtual disk access mode is ReadOnly, the default access mode is ReadOnlyMany.
    • For all other settings, the default access mode is ReadWriteOnce.
    13
    Specify the source VM disk ID, for example, 8181ecc1-5db8-4193-9c92-3ddab3be7b05. You can obtain the disk ID by entering https://www.example.com/ovirt-engine/api/vms/vm23 in a web browser on the Manager machine and reviewing the VM details.
    14
    Specify the target storage class.
  4. Follow the progress of the virtual machine import to verify that the import was successful:

    $ oc get vmimports vm-import -n default

    The output indicating a successful import resembles the following example:

    Example output

    ...
    status:
      conditions:
      - lastHeartbeatTime: "2020-07-22T08:58:52Z"
        lastTransitionTime: "2020-07-22T08:58:52Z"
        message: Validation completed successfully
        reason: ValidationCompleted
        status: "True"
        type: Valid
      - lastHeartbeatTime: "2020-07-22T08:58:52Z"
        lastTransitionTime: "2020-07-22T08:58:52Z"
        message: 'VM specifies IO Threads: 1, VM has NUMA tune mode specified: interleave'
        reason: MappingRulesVerificationReportedWarnings
        status: "True"
        type: MappingRulesVerified
      - lastHeartbeatTime: "2020-07-22T08:58:56Z"
        lastTransitionTime: "2020-07-22T08:58:52Z"
        message: Copying virtual machine disks
        reason: CopyingDisks
        status: "True"
        type: Processing
      dataVolumes:
      - name: fedora32-b870c429-11e0-4630-b3df-21da551a48c0
      targetVmName: fedora32

8.15.4.4.1. Creating a config map for importing a VM

You can create a config map to map the Red Hat Virtualization (RHV) virtual machine operating system to an OpenShift Virtualization template if you want to override the default vm-import-controller mapping or to add additional mappings.

The default vm-import-controller config map contains the following RHV operating systems and their corresponding common OpenShift Virtualization templates.

Table 8.7. Operating system and template mapping

RHV VM operating systemOpenShift Virtualization template

rhel_6_10_plus_ppc64

rhel6.10

rhel_6_ppc64

rhel6.10

rhel_6

rhel6.10

rhel_6x64

rhel6.10

rhel_6_9_plus_ppc64

rhel6.9

rhel_7_ppc64

rhel7.7

rhel_7_s390x

rhel7.7

rhel_7x64

rhel7.7

rhel_8x64

rhel8.1

sles_11_ppc64

opensuse15.0

sles_11

opensuse15.0

sles_12_s390x

opensuse15.0

ubuntu_12_04

ubuntu18.04

ubuntu_12_10

ubuntu18.04

ubuntu_13_04

ubuntu18.04

ubuntu_13_10

ubuntu18.04

ubuntu_14_04_ppc64

ubuntu18.04

ubuntu_14_04

ubuntu18.04

ubuntu_16_04_s390x

ubuntu18.04

windows_10

win10

windows_10x64

win10

windows_2003

win10

windows_2003x64

win10

windows_2008R2x64

win2k8

windows_2008

win2k8

windows_2008x64

win2k8

windows_2012R2x64

win2k12r2

windows_2012x64

win2k12r2

windows_2016x64

win2k16

windows_2019x64

win2k19

windows_7

win10

windows_7x64

win10

windows_8

win10

windows_8x64

win10

windows_xp

win10

Procedure

  1. In a web browser, identify the REST API name of the RHV VM operating system by navigating to http://<RHV_Manager_FQDN>/ovirt-engine/api/vms/<VM_ID>. The operating system name appears in the <os> section of the XML output, as shown in the following example:

    ...
    <os>
    ...
    <type>rhel_8x64</type>
    </os>
  2. View a list of the available OpenShift Virtualization templates:

    $ oc get templates -n openshift --show-labels | tr ',' '\n' | grep os.template.kubevirt.io | sed -r 's#os.template.kubevirt.io/(.*)=.*#\1#g' | sort -u

    Example output

    fedora31
    fedora32
    ...
    rhel8.1
    rhel8.2
    ...

  3. If an OpenShift Virtualization template that matches the RHV VM operating system does not appear in the list of available templates, create a template with the OpenShift Virtualization web console.
  4. Create a config map to map the RHV VM operating system to the OpenShift Virtualization template:

    $ cat <<EOF | oc create -f -
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: ConfigMap
    metadata:
      name: os-configmap
      namespace: default 1
    data:
      guestos2common: |
        "Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server": "rhel"
        "CentOS Linux": "centos"
        "Fedora": "fedora"
        "Ubuntu": "ubuntu"
        "openSUSE": "opensuse"
      osinfo2common: |
        "<rhv-operating-system>": "<vm-template>" 2
    EOF
    1
    Optional: You can change the value of the namespace parameter.
    2
    Specify the REST API name of the RHV operating system and its corresponding VM template as shown in the following example.

    Config map example

    $ cat <<EOF | oc apply -f -
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: ConfigMap
    metadata:
      name: os-configmap
      namespace: default
    data:
      osinfo2common: |
        "other_linux": "fedora31"
    EOF

  5. Verify that the custom config map was created:

    $ oc get cm -n default os-configmap -o yaml
  6. Patch the vm-import-controller-config config map to apply the new config map:

    $ oc patch configmap vm-import-controller-config -n openshift-cnv --patch '{
        "data": {
            "osConfigMap.name": "os-configmap",
            "osConfigMap.namespace": "default" 1
        }
    }'
    1
    Update the namespace if you changed it in the config map.
  7. Verify that the template appears in the OpenShift Virtualization web console:

    1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
    2. Click the Virtual Machine Templates tab and find the template in the list.

8.15.4.5. Troubleshooting a virtual machine import

8.15.4.5.1. Logs

You can check the VM Import Controller pod log for errors.

Procedure

  1. View the VM Import Controller pod name by running the following command:

    $ oc get pods -n <namespace> | grep import 1
    1
    Specify the namespace of your imported virtual machine.

    Example output

    vm-import-controller-f66f7d-zqkz7            1/1     Running     0          4h49m

  2. View the VM Import Controller pod log by running the following command:

    $ oc logs <vm-import-controller-f66f7d-zqkz7> -f -n <namespace> 1
    1
    Specify the VM Import Controller pod name and the namespace.
8.15.4.5.2. Error messages

The following error message might appear:

  • The following error message is displayed in the VM Import Controller pod log and the progress bar stops at 10% if the OpenShift Virtualization storage PV is not suitable:

    Failed to bind volumes: provisioning failed for PVC

    You must use a compatible storage class. The Cinder storage class is not supported.

8.15.4.5.3. Known issues
  • If you are using Ceph RBD block-mode volumes and the available storage space is too small for the virtual disk, the import process bar stops at 75% for more than 20 minutes and the migration does not succeed. No error message is displayed in the web console. BZ#1910019

8.15.5. Importing a single VMware virtual machine or template

You can import a VMware vSphere 6.5, 6.7, or 7.0 VM or VM template into OpenShift Virtualization by using the VM Import wizard. If you import a VM template, OpenShift Virtualization creates a virtual machine based on the template.

Important

Importing a VMware VM is a deprecated feature. Deprecated functionality is still included in OpenShift Virtualization and continues to be supported; however, it will be removed in a future release of this product and is not recommended for new deployments.

For the most recent list of major functionality that has been deprecated or removed within OpenShift Virtualization, refer to the Deprecated and removed features section of the OpenShift Virtualization release notes.

This feature will be replaced by the Migration Toolkit for Virtualization.

8.15.5.1. OpenShift Virtualization storage feature matrix

The following table describes the OpenShift Virtualization storage types that support VM import.

Table 8.8. OpenShift Virtualization storage feature matrix

 VMware VM import

OpenShift Container Storage: RBD block-mode volumes

Yes

OpenShift Virtualization hostpath provisioner

Yes

Other multi-node writable storage

Yes [1]

Other single-node writable storage

Yes [2]

  1. PVCs must request a ReadWriteMany access mode.
  2. PVCs must request a ReadWriteOnce access mode.

8.15.5.2. Preparing a VDDK image

The import process uses the VMware Virtual Disk Development Kit (VDDK) to copy the VMware virtual disk.

You can download the VDDK SDK, create a VDDK image, upload the image to an image registry, and add it to the spec.vddkInitImage field of the HyperConverged custom resource (CR).

You can configure either an internal OpenShift Container Platform image registry or a secure external image registry for the VDDK image. The registry must be accessible to your OpenShift Virtualization environment.

Note

Storing the VDDK image in a public registry might violate the terms of the VMware license.

8.15.5.2.1. Configuring an internal image registry

You can configure the internal OpenShift Container Platform image registry on bare metal by updating the Image Registry Operator configuration.

You can access the registry directly, from within the OpenShift Container Platform cluster, or externally, by exposing the registry with a route.

Changing the image registry’s management state

To start the image registry, you must change the Image Registry Operator configuration’s managementState from Removed to Managed.

Procedure

  • Change managementState Image Registry Operator configuration from Removed to Managed. For example:

    $ oc patch configs.imageregistry.operator.openshift.io cluster --type merge --patch '{"spec":{"managementState":"Managed"}}'
Configuring registry storage for bare metal and other manual installations

As a cluster administrator, following installation you must configure your registry to use storage.

Prerequisites

  • You have access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • You have a cluster that uses manually-provisioned Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) nodes, such as bare metal.
  • You have provisioned persistent storage for your cluster, such as Red Hat OpenShift Container Storage.

    Important

    OpenShift Container Platform supports ReadWriteOnce access for image registry storage when you have only one replica. To deploy an image registry that supports high availability with two or more replicas, ReadWriteMany access is required.

  • Must have 100Gi capacity.

Procedure

  1. To configure your registry to use storage, change the spec.storage.pvc in the configs.imageregistry/cluster resource.

    Note

    When using shared storage, review your security settings to prevent outside access.

  2. Verify that you do not have a registry pod:

    $ oc get pod -n openshift-image-registry
    Note

    If the storage type is emptyDIR, the replica number cannot be greater than 1.

  3. Check the registry configuration:

    $ oc edit configs.imageregistry.operator.openshift.io

    Example output

    storage:
      pvc:
        claim:

    Leave the claim field blank to allow the automatic creation of an image-registry-storage PVC.

  4. Check the clusteroperator status:

    $ oc get clusteroperator image-registry
  5. Ensure that your registry is set to managed to enable building and pushing of images.

    • Run:

      $ oc edit configs.imageregistry/cluster

      Then, change the line

      managementState: Removed

      to

      managementState: Managed
Accessing registry directly from the cluster

You can access the registry from inside the cluster.

Procedure

Access the registry from the cluster by using internal routes:

  1. Access the node by getting the node’s address:

    $ oc get nodes
    $ oc debug nodes/<node_address>
  2. To enable access to tools such as oc and podman on the node, run the following command:

    sh-4.2# chroot /host
  3. Log in to the container image registry by using your access token:

    sh-4.2# oc login -u kubeadmin -p <password_from_install_log> https://api-int.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>:6443
    sh-4.2# podman login -u kubeadmin -p $(oc whoami -t) image-registry.openshift-image-registry.svc:5000

    You should see a message confirming login, such as:

    Login Succeeded!
    Note

    You can pass any value for the user name; the token contains all necessary information. Passing a user name that contains colons will result in a login failure.

    Since the Image Registry Operator creates the route, it will likely be similar to default-route-openshift-image-registry.<cluster_name>.

  4. Perform podman pull and podman push operations against your registry:

    Important

    You can pull arbitrary images, but if you have the system:registry role added, you can only push images to the registry in your project.

    In the following examples, use:

    ComponentValue

    <registry_ip>

    172.30.124.220

    <port>

    5000

    <project>

    openshift

    <image>

    image

    <tag>

    omitted (defaults to latest)

    1. Pull an arbitrary image:

      $ podman pull name.io/image
    2. Tag the new image with the form <registry_ip>:<port>/<project>/<image>. The project name must appear in this pull specification for OpenShift Container Platform to correctly place and later access the image in the registry:

      $ podman tag name.io/image image-registry.openshift-image-registry.svc:5000/openshift/image
      Note

      You must have the system:image-builder role for the specified project, which allows the user to write or push an image. Otherwise, the podman push in the next step will fail. To test, you can create a new project to push the image.

    3. Push the newly tagged image to your registry:

      $ podman push image-registry.openshift-image-registry.svc:5000/openshift/image
Exposing a secure registry manually

Instead of logging in to the OpenShift Container Platform registry from within the cluster, you can gain external access to it by exposing it with a route. This allows you to log in to the registry from outside the cluster using the route address, and to tag and push images to an existing project by using the route host.

Prerequisites:

  • The following prerequisites are automatically performed:

    • Deploy the Registry Operator.
    • Deploy the Ingress Operator.

Procedure

You can expose the route by using DefaultRoute parameter in the configs.imageregistry.operator.openshift.io resource or by using custom routes.

To expose the registry using DefaultRoute:

  1. Set DefaultRoute to True:

    $ oc patch configs.imageregistry.operator.openshift.io/cluster --patch '{"spec":{"defaultRoute":true}}' --type=merge
  2. Log in with podman:

    $ HOST=$(oc get route default-route -n openshift-image-registry --template='{{ .spec.host }}')
    $ podman login -u kubeadmin -p $(oc whoami -t) --tls-verify=false $HOST 1
    1
    --tls-verify=false is needed if the cluster’s default certificate for routes is untrusted. You can set a custom, trusted certificate as the default certificate with the Ingress Operator.

To expose the registry using custom routes:

  1. Create a secret with your route’s TLS keys:

    $ oc create secret tls public-route-tls \
        -n openshift-image-registry \
        --cert=</path/to/tls.crt> \
        --key=</path/to/tls.key>

    This step is optional. If you do not create a secret, the route uses the default TLS configuration from the Ingress Operator.

  2. On the Registry Operator:

    spec:
      routes:
        - name: public-routes
          hostname: myregistry.mycorp.organization
          secretName: public-route-tls
    ...
    Note

    Only set secretName if you are providing a custom TLS configuration for the registry’s route.

8.15.5.2.2. Configuring an external image registry

If you use an external image registry for the VDDK image, you can add the external image registry’s certificate authorities to the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Optionally, you can create a pull secret from your Docker credentials and add it to your service account.

Adding certificate authorities to the cluster

You can add certificate authorities (CA) to the cluster for use when pushing and pulling images with the following procedure.

Prerequisites

  • You must have cluster administrator privileges.
  • You must have access to the public certificates of the registry, usually a hostname/ca.crt file located in the /etc/docker/certs.d/ directory.

Procedure

  1. Create a ConfigMap in the openshift-config namespace containing the trusted certificates for the registries that use self-signed certificates. For each CA file, ensure the key in the ConfigMap is the hostname of the registry in the hostname[..port] format:

    $ oc create configmap registry-cas -n openshift-config \
    --from-file=myregistry.corp.com..5000=/etc/docker/certs.d/myregistry.corp.com:5000/ca.crt \
    --from-file=otherregistry.com=/etc/docker/certs.d/otherregistry.com/ca.crt
  2. Update the cluster image configuration:

    $ oc patch image.config.openshift.io/cluster --patch '{"spec":{"additionalTrustedCA":{"name":"registry-cas"}}}' --type=merge
Allowing pods to reference images from other secured registries

The .dockercfg $HOME/.docker/config.json file for Docker clients is a Docker credentials file that stores your authentication information if you have previously logged into a secured or insecure registry.

To pull a secured container image that is not from OpenShift Container Platform’s internal registry, you must create a pull secret from your Docker credentials and add it to your service account.

Procedure

  • If you already have a .dockercfg file for the secured registry, you can create a secret from that file by running:

    $ oc create secret generic <pull_secret_name> \
        --from-file=.dockercfg=<path/to/.dockercfg> \
        --type=kubernetes.io/dockercfg
  • Or if you have a $HOME/.docker/config.json file:

    $ oc create secret generic <pull_secret_name> \
        --from-file=.dockerconfigjson=<path/to/.docker/config.json> \
        --type=kubernetes.io/dockerconfigjson
  • If you do not already have a Docker credentials file for the secured registry, you can create a secret by running:

    $ oc create secret docker-registry <pull_secret_name> \
        --docker-server=<registry_server> \
        --docker-username=<user_name> \
        --docker-password=<password> \
        --docker-email=<email>
  • To use a secret for pulling images for pods, you must add the secret to your service account. The name of the service account in this example should match the name of the service account the pod uses. The default service account is default:

    $ oc secrets link default <pull_secret_name> --for=pull
8.15.5.2.3. Creating and using a VDDK image

You can download the VMware Virtual Disk Development Kit (VDDK), build a VDDK image, and push the VDDK image to your image registry. You then add the VDDK image to the spec.vddkInitImage field of the HyperConverged custom resource (CR).

Prerequisites

  • You must have access to an OpenShift Container Platform internal image registry or a secure external registry.

Procedure

  1. Create and navigate to a temporary directory:

    $ mkdir /tmp/<dir_name> && cd /tmp/<dir_name>
  2. In a browser, navigate to VMware code and click SDKs.
  3. Under Compute Virtualization, click Virtual Disk Development Kit (VDDK).
  4. Select the VDDK version that corresponds to your VMware vSphere version, for example, VDDK 7.0 for vSphere 7.0, click Download, and then save the VDDK archive in the temporary directory.
  5. Extract the VDDK archive:

    $ tar -xzf VMware-vix-disklib-<version>.x86_64.tar.gz
  6. Create a Dockerfile:

    $ cat > Dockerfile <<EOF
    FROM busybox:latest
    COPY vmware-vix-disklib-distrib /vmware-vix-disklib-distrib
    RUN mkdir -p /opt
    ENTRYPOINT ["cp", "-r", "/vmware-vix-disklib-distrib", "/opt"]
    EOF
  7. Build the image:

    $ podman build . -t <registry_route_or_server_path>/vddk:<tag> 1
    1
    Specify your image registry:
    • For an internal OpenShift Container Platform registry, use the internal registry route, for example, image-registry.openshift-image-registry.svc:5000/openshift/vddk:<tag>.
    • For an external registry, specify the server name, path, and tag, for example, server.example.com:5000/vddk:<tag>.
  8. Push the image to the registry:

    $ podman push <registry_route_or_server_path>/vddk:<tag>
  9. Ensure that the image is accessible to your OpenShift Virtualization environment.
  10. Edit the HyperConverged CR in the openshift-cnv project:

    $ oc edit hco -n openshift-cnv kubevirt-hyperconverged
  11. Add the vddkInitImage parameter to the spec stanza:

    apiVersion: hco.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
    kind: HyperConverged
    metadata:
      name: kubevirt-hyperconverged
      namespace: openshift-cnv
    spec:
      vddkInitImage: <registry_route_or_server_path>/vddk:<tag>

8.15.5.3. Importing a virtual machine with the VM Import wizard

You can import a single virtual machine with the VM Import wizard.

You can also import a VM template. If you import a VM template, OpenShift Virtualization creates a virtual machine based on the template.

Prerequisites

  • You must have admin user privileges.
  • The VMware Virtual Disk Development Kit (VDDK) image must be in an image registry that is accessible to your OpenShift Virtualization environment.
  • The VDDK image must be added to the spec.vddkInitImage field of the HyperConverged custom resource (CR).
  • The VM must be powered off.
  • Virtual disks must be connected to IDE or SCSI controllers. If virtual disks are connected to a SATA controller, you can change them to IDE controllers and then migrate the VM.
  • The OpenShift Virtualization local and shared persistent storage classes must support VM import.
  • The OpenShift Virtualization storage must be large enough to accommodate the virtual disk.

    Warning

    If you are using Ceph RBD block-mode volumes, the storage must be large enough to accommodate the virtual disk. If the disk is too large for the available storage, the import process fails and the PV that is used to copy the virtual disk is not released. You will not be able to import another virtual machine or to clean up the storage because there are insufficient resources to support object deletion. To resolve this situation, you must add more object storage devices to the storage back end.

  • The OpenShift Virtualization egress network policy must allow the following traffic:

    DestinationProtocolPort

    VMware ESXi hosts

    TCP

    443

    VMware ESXi hosts

    TCP

    902

    VMware vCenter

    TCP

    5840

Procedure

  1. In the web console, click WorkloadsVirtual Machines.
  2. Click Create Virtual Machine and select Import with Wizard.
  3. Select VMware from the Provider list.
  4. Select Connect to New Instance or a saved vCenter instance.

    • If you select Connect to New Instance, enter the vCenter hostname, Username, and Password.
    • If you select a saved vCenter instance, the wizard connects to the vCenter instance using the saved credentials.
  5. Click Check and Save and wait for the connection to complete.

    Note

    The connection details are stored in a secret. If you add a provider with an incorrect hostname, user name, or password, click WorkloadsSecrets and delete the provider secret.

  6. Select a virtual machine or a template.
  7. Click Next.
  8. In the Review screen, review your settings.
  9. Click Edit to update the following settings:

    • General:

      • Description
      • Operating System
      • Flavor
      • Memory
      • CPUs
      • Workload Profile
    • Networking:

      • Name
      • Model
      • Network
      • Type
      • MAC Address
    • Storage: Click the Options menu kebab of the VM disk and select Edit to update the following fields:

      • Name
      • Source: For example, Import Disk.
      • Size
      • Interface
      • Storage Class: Select NFS or ocs-storagecluster-ceph-rbd (ceph-rbd).

        If you select ocs-storagecluster-ceph-rbd, you must set the Volume Mode of the disk to Block.

        Other storage classes might work, but they are not officially supported.

      • AdvancedVolume Mode: Select Block.
      • AdvancedAccess Mode
    • AdvancedCloud-init:

      • Form: Enter the Hostname and Authenticated SSH Keys.
      • Custom script: Enter the cloud-init script in the text field.
    • AdvancedVirtual Hardware: You can attach a virtual CD-ROM to the imported virtual machine.
  10. Click Import or Review and Import, if you have edited the import settings.

    A Successfully created virtual machine message and a list of resources created for the virtual machine are displayed. The virtual machine appears in WorkloadsVirtual Machines.

Virtual machine wizard fields
NameParameterDescription

Name

 

The name can contain lowercase letters (a-z), numbers (0-9), and hyphens (-), up to a maximum of 253 characters. The first and last characters must be alphanumeric. The name must not contain uppercase letters, spaces, periods (.), or special characters.

Description

 

Optional description field.

Operating System

 

The operating system that is selected for the virtual machine in the template. You cannot edit this field when creating a virtual machine from a template.

Boot Source

Import via URL (creates PVC)

Import content from an image available from an HTTP or S3 endpoint. Example: Obtaining a URL link from the web page with the operating system image.

Clone existing PVC (creates PVC)

Select an existent persistent volume claim available on the cluster and clone it.

Import via Registry (creates PVC)

Provision virtual machine from a bootable operating system container located in a registry accessible from the cluster. Example: kubevirt/cirros-registry-disk-demo.

PXE (network boot - adds network interface)

Boot an operating system from a server on the network. Requires a PXE bootable network attachment definition.

Persistent Volume Claim project

 

Project name that you want to use for cloning the PVC.

Persistent Volume Claim name

 

PVC name that should apply to this virtual machine template if you are cloning an existing PVC.

Mount this as a CD-ROM boot source

 

A CD-ROM requires an additional disk for installing the operating system. Select the checkbox to add a disk and customize it later.

Flavor

Tiny, Small, Medium, Large, Custom

Presets the amount of CPU and memory in a virtual machine template with predefined values that are allocated to the virtual machine, depending on the operating system associated with that template.

If you choose a default template, you can override the cpus and memsize values in the template using custom values to create a custom template. Alternatively, you can create a custom template by modifying the cpus and memsize values in the Details tab on the WorkloadsVirtualization page.

Workload Type

Note

If you choose the incorrect Workload Type, there could be performance or resource utilization issues (such as a slow UI).

Desktop

A virtual machine configuration for use on a desktop. Ideal for consumption on a small scale. Recommended for use with the web console.

Server

Balances performance and it is compatible with a wide range of server workloads.

High-Performance

A virtual machine configuration that is optimized for high-performance workloads.

Start this virtual machine after creation.

 

This checkbox is selected by default and the virtual machine starts running after creation. Clear the checkbox if you do not want the virtual machine to start when it is created.

Cloud-init fields
NameDescription

Hostname

Sets a specific hostname for the virtual machine.

Authorized SSH Keys

The user’s public key that is copied to ~/.ssh/authorized_keys on the virtual machine.

Custom script

Replaces other options with a field in which you paste a custom cloud-init script.

Networking fields
NameDescription

Name

Name for the network interface controller.

Model

Indicates the model of the network interface controller. Supported values are e1000e and virtio.

Network

List of available network attachment definitions.

Type

List of available binding methods. For the default pod network, masquerade is the only recommended binding method. For secondary networks, use the bridge binding method. The masquerade method is not supported for non-default networks. Select SR-IOV if you configured an SR-IOV network device and defined that network in the namespace.

MAC Address

MAC address for the network interface controller. If a MAC address is not specified, one is assigned automatically.

Storage fields
NameSelectionDescription

Source

Blank (creates PVC)

Create an empty disk.

Import via URL (creates PVC)

Import content via URL (HTTP or S3 endpoint).

Use an existing PVC

Use a PVC that is already available in the cluster.

Clone existing PVC (creates PVC)

Select an existing PVC available in the cluster and clone it.

Import via Registry (creates PVC)

Import content via container registry.

Container (ephemeral)

Upload content from a container located in a registry accessible from the cluster. The container disk should be used only for read-only filesystems such as CD-ROMs or temporary virtual machines.

Name

 

Name of the disk. The name can contain lowercase letters (a-z), numbers (0-9), hyphens (-), and periods (.), up to a maximum of 253 characters. The first and last characters must be alphanumeric. The name must not contain uppercase letters, spaces, or special characters.

Size

 

Size of the disk in GiB.

Type

 

Type of disk. Example: Disk or CD-ROM

Interface

 

Type of disk device. Supported interfaces are virtIO, SATA, and SCSI.

Storage Class

 

The storage class that is used to create the disk.

Advanced → Volume Mode

 

Defines whether the persistent volume uses a formatted file system or raw block state. Default is Filesystem.

Advanced → Access Mode

 

Access mode of the persistent volume. Supported access modes are Single User (RWO), Shared Access (RWX), and Read Only (ROX).

Advanced storage settings

The following advanced storage settings are available for Blank, Import via URL, and Clone existing PVC disks. These parameters are optional. If you do not specify these parameters, the system uses the default values from the kubevirt-storage-class-defaults config map.

NameParameterDescription

Volume Mode

Filesystem

Stores the virtual disk on a file system-based volume.

Block

Stores the virtual disk directly on the block volume. Only use Block if the underlying storage supports it.

Access Mode

Single User (RWO)

The disk can be mounted as read/write by a single node.

Shared Access (RWX)

The disk can be mounted as read/write by many nodes.

Note

This is required for some features, such as live migration of virtual machines between nodes.

Read Only (ROX)

The disk can be mounted as read-only by many nodes.

8.15.5.3.1. Updating the NIC name of an imported virtual machine

You must update the NIC name of a virtual machine that you imported from VMware to conform to OpenShift Virtualization naming conventions.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the virtual machine.
  2. Navigate to the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts directory.
  3. Rename the network configuration file:

    $ mv vmnic0 ifcfg-eth0 1
    1
    The first network configuration file is named ifcfg-eth0. Additional network configuration files are numbered sequentially, for example, ifcfg-eth1, ifcfg-eth2.
  4. Update the NAME and DEVICE parameters in the network configuration file:

    NAME=eth0
    DEVICE=eth0
  5. Restart the network:

    $ systemctl restart network

8.15.5.4. Troubleshooting a virtual machine import

8.15.5.4.1. Logs

You can check the V2V Conversion pod log for errors.

Procedure

  1. View the V2V Conversion pod name by running the following command:

    $ oc get pods -n <namespace> | grep v2v 1
    1
    Specify the namespace of your imported virtual machine.

    Example output

    kubevirt-v2v-conversion-f66f7d-zqkz7            1/1     Running     0          4h49m

  2. View the V2V Conversion pod log by running the following command:

    $ oc logs <kubevirt-v2v-conversion-f66f7d-zqkz7> -f -n <namespace> 1
    1
    Specify the VM Conversion pod name and the namespace.
8.15.5.4.2. Error messages

The following error messages might appear:

  • If the VMware VM is not shut down before import, the imported virtual machine displays the error message, Readiness probe failed in the OpenShift Container Platform console and the V2V Conversion pod log displays the following error message:

    INFO - have error: ('virt-v2v error: internal error: invalid argument: libvirt domain ‘v2v_migration_vm_1’ is running or paused. It must be shut down in order to perform virt-v2v conversion',)"
  • The following error message is displayed in the OpenShift Container Platform console if a non-admin user tries to import a VM:

    Could not load config map vmware-to-kubevirt-os in kube-public namespace
    Restricted Access: configmaps "vmware-to-kubevirt-os" is forbidden: User cannot get resource "configmaps" in API group "" in the namespace "kube-public"

    Only an admin user can import a VM.

8.16. Cloning virtual machines

8.16.1. Enabling user permissions to clone data volumes across namespaces

The isolating nature of namespaces means that users cannot by default clone resources between namespaces.

To enable a user to clone a virtual machine to another namespace, a user with the cluster-admin role must create a new cluster role. Bind this cluster role to a user to enable them to clone virtual machines to the destination namespace.

8.16.1.1. Prerequisites

  • Only a user with the cluster-admin role can create cluster roles.

8.16.1.2. About data volumes

DataVolume objects are custom resources that are provided by the Containerized Data Importer (CDI) project. Data volumes orchestrate import, clone, and upload operations that are associated with an underlying persistent volume claim (PVC). Data volumes are integrated with OpenShift Virtualization, and they prevent a virtual machine from being started before the PVC has been prepared.

8.16.1.3. Creating RBAC resources for cloning data volumes

Create a new cluster role that enables permissions for all actions for the datavolumes resource.

Procedure

  1. Create a ClusterRole manifest:

    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRole
    metadata:
      name: <datavolume-cloner> 1
    rules:
    - apiGroups: ["cdi.kubevirt.io"]
      resources: ["datavolumes/source"]
      verbs: ["*"]
    1
    Unique name for the cluster role.
  2. Create the cluster role in the cluster:

    $ oc create -f <datavolume-cloner.yaml> 1
    1
    The file name of the ClusterRole manifest created in the previous step.
  3. Create a RoleBinding manifest that applies to both the source and destination namespaces and references the cluster role created in the previous step.

    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: RoleBinding
    metadata:
      name: <allow-clone-to-user> 1
      namespace: <Source namespace> 2
    subjects:
    - kind: ServiceAccount
      name: default
      namespace: <Destination namespace> 3
    roleRef:
      kind: ClusterRole
      name: datavolume-cloner 4
      apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
    1
    Unique name for the role binding.
    2
    The namespace for the source data volume.
    3
    The namespace to which the data volume is cloned.
    4
    The name of the cluster role created in the previous step.
  4. Create the role binding in the cluster:

    $ oc create -f <datavolume-cloner.yaml> 1
    1
    The file name of the RoleBinding manifest created in the previous step.

8.16.2. Cloning a virtual machine disk into a new data volume

You can clone the persistent volume claim (PVC) of a virtual machine disk into a new data volume by referencing the source PVC in your data volume configuration file.

Warning

Cloning operations between different volume modes are supported, such as cloning from a persistent volume (PV) with volumeMode: Block to a PV with volumeMode: Filesystem.

However, you can only clone between different volume modes if they are of the contentType: kubevirt.

Tip

When you enable preallocation globally, or for a single data volume, the Containerized Data Importer (CDI) preallocates disk space during cloning. Preallocation enhances write performance. For more information, see Using preallocation for data volumes.

8.16.2.1. Prerequisites

8.16.2.2. About data volumes

DataVolume objects are custom resources that are provided by the Containerized Data Importer (CDI) project. Data volumes orchestrate import, clone, and upload operations that are associated with an underlying persistent volume claim (PVC). Data volumes are integrated with OpenShift Virtualization, and they prevent a virtual machine from being started before the PVC has been prepared.

8.16.2.3. Cloning the persistent volume claim of a virtual machine disk into a new data volume

You can clone a persistent volume claim (PVC) of an existing virtual machine disk into a new data volume. The new data volume can then be used for a new virtual machine.

Note

When a data volume is created independently of a virtual machine, the lifecycle of the data volume is independent of the virtual machine. If the virtual machine is deleted, neither the data volume nor its associated PVC is deleted.

Prerequisites

  • Determine the PVC of an existing virtual machine disk to use. You must power down the virtual machine that is associated with the PVC before you can clone it.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Procedure

  1. Examine the virtual machine disk you want to clone to identify the name and namespace of the associated PVC.
  2. Create a YAML file for a data volume that specifies the name of the new data volume, the name and namespace of the source PVC, and the size of the new data volume.

    For example:

    apiVersion: cdi.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
    kind: DataVolume
    metadata:
      name: <cloner-datavolume> 1
    spec:
      source:
        pvc:
          namespace: "<source-namespace>" 2
          name: "<my-favorite-vm-disk>" 3
      pvc:
        accessModes:
          - ReadWriteOnce
        resources:
          requests:
            storage: <2Gi> 4
    1
    The name of the new data volume.
    2
    The namespace where the source PVC exists.
    3
    The name of the source PVC.
    4
    The size of the new data volume. You must allocate enough space, or the cloning operation fails. The size must be the same as or larger than the source PVC.
  3. Start cloning the PVC by creating the data volume:

    $ oc create -f <cloner-datavolume>.yaml
    Note

    Data volumes prevent a virtual machine from starting before the PVC is prepared, so you can create a virtual machine that references the new data volume while the PVC clones.

8.16.2.4. Template: Data volume clone configuration file

example-clone-dv.yaml

apiVersion: cdi.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
kind: DataVolume
metadata:
  name: "example-clone-dv"
spec:
  source:
      pvc:
        name: source-pvc
        namespace: example-ns
  pvc:
    accessModes:
      - ReadWriteOnce
    resources:
      requests:
        storage: "1G"

8.16.2.5. CDI supported operations matrix

This matrix shows the supported CDI operations for content types against endpoints, and which of these operations requires scratch space.

Content typesHTTPHTTPSHTTP basic authRegistryUpload

KubeVirt (QCOW2)

✓ QCOW2
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2**
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2*
□ GZ
□ XZ

✓ QCOW2*
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

KubeVirt (RAW)

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW*
□ GZ
□ XZ

✓ RAW*
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ Supported operation

□ Unsupported operation

* Requires scratch space

** Requires scratch space if a custom certificate authority is required

8.16.3. Cloning a virtual machine by using a data volume template

You can create a new virtual machine by cloning the persistent volume claim (PVC) of an existing VM. By including a dataVolumeTemplate in your virtual machine configuration file, you create a new data volume from the original PVC.

Warning

Cloning operations between different volume modes are supported, such as cloning from a persistent volume (PV) with volumeMode: Block to a PV with volumeMode: Filesystem.

However, you can only clone between different volume modes if they are of the contentType: kubevirt.

Tip

When you enable preallocation globally, or for a single data volume, the Containerized Data Importer (CDI) preallocates disk space during cloning. Preallocation enhances write performance. For more information, see Using preallocation for data volumes.

8.16.3.1. Prerequisites

8.16.3.2. About data volumes

DataVolume objects are custom resources that are provided by the Containerized Data Importer (CDI) project. Data volumes orchestrate import, clone, and upload operations that are associated with an underlying persistent volume claim (PVC). Data volumes are integrated with OpenShift Virtualization, and they prevent a virtual machine from being started before the PVC has been prepared.

8.16.3.3. Creating a new virtual machine from a cloned persistent volume claim by using a data volume template

You can create a virtual machine that clones the persistent volume claim (PVC) of an existing virtual machine into a data volume. Reference a dataVolumeTemplate in the virtual machine manifest and the source PVC is cloned to a data volume, which is then automatically used for the creation of the virtual machine.

Note

When a data volume is created as part of the data volume template of a virtual machine, the lifecycle of the data volume is then dependent on the virtual machine. If the virtual machine is deleted, the data volume and associated PVC are also deleted.

Prerequisites

  • Determine the PVC of an existing virtual machine disk to use. You must power down the virtual machine that is associated with the PVC before you can clone it.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Procedure

  1. Examine the virtual machine you want to clone to identify the name and namespace of the associated PVC.
  2. Create a YAML file for a VirtualMachine object. The following virtual machine example clones my-favorite-vm-disk, which is located in the source-namespace namespace. The 2Gi data volume called favorite-clone is created from my-favorite-vm-disk.

    For example:

    apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1alpha3
    kind: VirtualMachine
    metadata:
      labels:
        kubevirt.io/vm: vm-dv-clone
      name: vm-dv-clone 1
    spec:
      running: false
      template:
        metadata:
          labels:
            kubevirt.io/vm: vm-dv-clone
        spec:
          domain:
            devices:
              disks:
              - disk:
                  bus: virtio
                name: root-disk
            resources:
              requests:
                memory: 64M
          volumes:
          - dataVolume:
              name: favorite-clone
            name: root-disk
      dataVolumeTemplates:
      - metadata:
          name: favorite-clone
        spec:
          pvc:
            accessModes:
            - ReadWriteOnce
            resources:
              requests:
                storage: 2Gi
          source:
            pvc:
              namespace: "source-namespace"
              name: "my-favorite-vm-disk"
    1
    The virtual machine to create.
  3. Create the virtual machine with the PVC-cloned data volume:

    $ oc create -f <vm-clone-datavolumetemplate>.yaml

8.16.3.4. Template: Data volume virtual machine configuration file

example-dv-vm.yaml

apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualMachine
metadata:
  labels:
    kubevirt.io/vm: example-vm
  name: example-vm
spec:
  dataVolumeTemplates:
  - metadata:
      name: example-dv
    spec:
      pvc:
        accessModes:
        - ReadWriteOnce
        resources:
          requests:
            storage: 1G
      source:
          http:
             url: "" 1
  running: false
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        kubevirt.io/vm: example-vm
    spec:
      domain:
        cpu:
          cores: 1
        devices:
          disks:
          - disk:
              bus: virtio
            name: example-dv-disk
        machine:
          type: q35
        resources:
          requests:
            memory: 1G
      terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 0
      volumes:
      - dataVolume:
          name: example-dv
        name: example-dv-disk
1
The HTTP source of the image you want to import, if applicable.

8.16.3.5. CDI supported operations matrix

This matrix shows the supported CDI operations for content types against endpoints, and which of these operations requires scratch space.

Content typesHTTPHTTPSHTTP basic authRegistryUpload

KubeVirt (QCOW2)

✓ QCOW2
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2**
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2*
□ GZ
□ XZ

✓ QCOW2*
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

KubeVirt (RAW)

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW*
□ GZ
□ XZ

✓ RAW*
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ Supported operation

□ Unsupported operation

* Requires scratch space

** Requires scratch space if a custom certificate authority is required

8.16.4. Cloning a virtual machine disk into a new block storage data volume

You can clone the persistent volume claim (PVC) of a virtual machine disk into a new block data volume by referencing the source PVC in your data volume configuration file.

Warning

Cloning operations between different volume modes are supported, such as cloning from a persistent volume (PV) with volumeMode: Block to a PV with volumeMode: Filesystem.

However, you can only clone between different volume modes if they are of the contentType: kubevirt.

Tip

When you enable preallocation globally, or for a single data volume, the Containerized Data Importer (CDI) preallocates disk space during cloning. Preallocation enhances write performance. For more information, see Using preallocation for data volumes.

8.16.4.1. Prerequisites

8.16.4.2. About data volumes

DataVolume objects are custom resources that are provided by the Containerized Data Importer (CDI) project. Data volumes orchestrate import, clone, and upload operations that are associated with an underlying persistent volume claim (PVC). Data volumes are integrated with OpenShift Virtualization, and they prevent a virtual machine from being started before the PVC has been prepared.

8.16.4.3. About block persistent volumes

A block persistent volume (PV) is a PV that is backed by a raw block device. These volumes do not have a file system and can provide performance benefits for virtual machines by reducing overhead.

Raw block volumes are provisioned by specifying volumeMode: Block in the PV and persistent volume claim (PVC) specification.

8.16.4.4. Creating a local block persistent volume

Create a local block persistent volume (PV) on a node by populating a file and mounting it as a loop device. You can then reference this loop device in a PV manifest as a Block volume and use it as a block device for a virtual machine image.

Procedure

  1. Log in as root to the node on which to create the local PV. This procedure uses node01 for its examples.
  2. Create a file and populate it with null characters so that it can be used as a block device. The following example creates a file loop10 with a size of 2Gb (20 100Mb blocks):

    $ dd if=/dev/zero of=<loop10> bs=100M count=20
  3. Mount the loop10 file as a loop device.

    $ losetup </dev/loop10>d3 <loop10> 1 2
    1
    File path where the loop device is mounted.
    2
    The file created in the previous step to be mounted as the loop device.
  4. Create a PersistentVolume manifest that references the mounted loop device.

    kind: PersistentVolume
    apiVersion: v1
    metadata:
      name: <local-block-pv10>
      annotations:
    spec:
      local:
        path: </dev/loop10> 1
      capacity:
        storage: <2Gi>
      volumeMode: Block 2
      storageClassName: local 3
      accessModes:
        - ReadWriteOnce
      persistentVolumeReclaimPolicy: Delete
      nodeAffinity:
        required:
          nodeSelectorTerms:
          - matchExpressions:
            - key: kubernetes.io/hostname
              operator: In
              values:
              - <node01> 4
    1
    The path of the loop device on the node.
    2
    Specifies it is a block PV.
    3
    Optional: Set a storage class for the PV. If you omit it, the cluster default is used.
    4
    The node on which the block device was mounted.
  5. Create the block PV.

    # oc create -f <local-block-pv10.yaml>1
    1
    The file name of the persistent volume created in the previous step.

8.16.4.5. Cloning the persistent volume claim of a virtual machine disk into a new data volume

You can clone a persistent volume claim (PVC) of an existing virtual machine disk into a new data volume. The new data volume can then be used for a new virtual machine.

Note

When a data volume is created independently of a virtual machine, the lifecycle of the data volume is independent of the virtual machine. If the virtual machine is deleted, neither the data volume nor its associated PVC is deleted.

Prerequisites

  • Determine the PVC of an existing virtual machine disk to use. You must power down the virtual machine that is associated with the PVC before you can clone it.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • At least one available block persistent volume (PV) that is the same size as or larger than the source PVC.

Procedure

  1. Examine the virtual machine disk you want to clone to identify the name and namespace of the associated PVC.
  2. Create a YAML file for a data volume that specifies the name of the new data volume, the name and namespace of the source PVC, volumeMode: Block so that an available block PV is used, and the size of the new data volume.

    For example:

    apiVersion: cdi.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
    kind: DataVolume
    metadata:
      name: <cloner-datavolume> 1
    spec:
      source:
        pvc:
          namespace: "<source-namespace>" 2
          name: "<my-favorite-vm-disk>" 3
      pvc:
        accessModes:
          - ReadWriteOnce
        resources:
          requests:
            storage: <2Gi> 4
        volumeMode: Block 5
    1
    The name of the new data volume.
    2
    The namespace where the source PVC exists.
    3
    The name of the source PVC.
    4
    The size of the new data volume. You must allocate enough space, or the cloning operation fails. The size must be the same as or larger than the source PVC.
    5
    Specifies that the destination is a block PV
  3. Start cloning the PVC by creating the data volume:

    $ oc create -f <cloner-datavolume>.yaml
    Note

    Data volumes prevent a virtual machine from starting before the PVC is prepared, so you can create a virtual machine that references the new data volume while the PVC clones.

8.16.4.6. CDI supported operations matrix

This matrix shows the supported CDI operations for content types against endpoints, and which of these operations requires scratch space.

Content typesHTTPHTTPSHTTP basic authRegistryUpload

KubeVirt (QCOW2)

✓ QCOW2
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2**
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2*
□ GZ
□ XZ

✓ QCOW2*
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

KubeVirt (RAW)

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW*
□ GZ
□ XZ

✓ RAW*
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ Supported operation

□ Unsupported operation

* Requires scratch space

** Requires scratch space if a custom certificate authority is required

8.17. Virtual machine networking

8.17.1. Using the default pod network for virtual machines

You can use the default pod network with OpenShift Virtualization. To do so, you must use the masquerade binding method. It is the only recommended binding method for use with the default pod network. Do not use masquerade mode with non-default networks.

For secondary networks, use the bridge binding method.

8.17.1.1. Configuring masquerade mode from the command line

You can use masquerade mode to hide a virtual machine’s outgoing traffic behind the pod IP address. Masquerade mode uses Network Address Translation (NAT) to connect virtual machines to the pod network backend through a Linux bridge.

Enable masquerade mode and allow traffic to enter the virtual machine by editing your virtual machine configuration file.

Prerequisites

  • The virtual machine must be configured to use DHCP to acquire IPv4 addresses. The examples below are configured to use DHCP.

Procedure

  1. Edit the interfaces spec of your virtual machine configuration file:

    kind: VirtualMachine
    spec:
      domain:
        devices:
          interfaces:
            - name: red
              masquerade: {} 1
              ports:
                - port: 80 2
      networks:
      - name: red
        pod: {}
    1
    Connect using masquerade mode
    2
    Allow incoming traffic on port 80
  2. Create the virtual machine:

    $ oc create -f <vm-name>.yaml

8.17.1.2. Configuring masquerade mode with dual-stack (IPv4 and IPv6)

You can configure a new virtual machine to use both IPv6 and IPv4 on the default pod network by using cloud-init.

The IPv6 network address must be statically set to fd10:0:2::2/120 with a default gateway of fd10:0:2::1 in the virtual machine configuration. These are used by the virt-launcher pod to route IPv6 traffic to the virtual machine and are not used externally.

When the virtual machine is running, incoming and outgoing traffic for the virtual machine is routed to both the IPv4 address and the unique IPv6 address of the virt-launcher pod. The virt-launcher pod then routes the IPv4 traffic to the DHCP address of the virtual machine, and the IPv6 traffic to the statically set IPv6 address of the virtual machine.

Prerequisites

  • The OpenShift Container Platform cluster must use the OVN-Kubernetes Container Network Interface (CNI) network provider configured for dual-stack.

Procedure

  1. In a new virtual machine configuration, include an interface with masquerade and configure the IPv6 address and default gateway by using cloud-init.

    apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1alpha3
    kind: VirtualMachine
    metadata:
      name: example-vm-ipv6
    ...
              interfaces:
                - name: red
                  masquerade: {} 1
                  ports:
                    - port: 80 2
          networks:
          - name: red
            pod: {}
          volumes:
          - cloudInitNoCloud:
              networkData: |
                version: 2
                ethernets:
                  eth0:
                    dhcp4: true
                    addresses: [ fd10:0:2::2/120 ] 3
                    gateway6: fd10:0:2::1 4
    1
    Connect using masquerade mode.
    2
    Allows incoming traffic on port 80 to the virtual machine.
    3
    You must use the IPv6 address fd10:0:2::2/120.
    4
    You must use the gateway fd10:0:2::1.
  2. Create the virtual machine in the namespace:

    $ oc create -f example-vm-ipv6.yaml

Verification

  • To verify that IPv6 has been configured, start the virtual machine and view the interface status of the virtual machine instance to ensure it has an IPv6 address:
$ oc get vmi <vmi-name> -o jsonpath="{.status.interfaces[*].ipAddresses}"

8.17.1.3. Selecting binding method

If you create a virtual machine from the OpenShift Virtualization web console wizard, select the required binding method from the Networking screen.

8.17.1.3.1. Networking fields
NameDescription

Name

Name for the network interface controller.

Model

Indicates the model of the network interface controller. Supported values are e1000e and virtio.

Network

List of available network attachment definitions.

Type

List of available binding methods. For the default pod network, masquerade is the only recommended binding method. For secondary networks, use the bridge binding method. The masquerade method is not supported for non-default networks. Select SR-IOV if you configured an SR-IOV network device and defined that network in the namespace.

MAC Address

MAC address for the network interface controller. If a MAC address is not specified, one is assigned automatically.

8.17.1.4. Virtual machine configuration examples for the default network

8.17.1.4.1. Template: Virtual machine configuration file
apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualMachine
metadata:
  name: example-vm
  namespace: default
spec:
  running: false
  template:
    spec:
      domain:
        devices:
          disks:
            - name: containerdisk
              disk:
                bus: virtio
            - name: cloudinitdisk
              disk:
                bus: virtio
          interfaces:
          - masquerade: {}
            name: default
        resources:
          requests:
            memory: 1024M
      networks:
        - name: default
          pod: {}
      volumes:
        - name: containerdisk
          containerDisk:
            image: kubevirt/fedora-cloud-container-disk-demo
        - name: cloudinitdisk
          cloudInitNoCloud:
            userData: |
              #!/bin/bash
              echo "fedora" | passwd fedora --stdin
8.17.1.4.2. Template: Windows virtual machine instance configuration file
apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualMachineInstance
metadata:
  labels:
    special: vmi-windows
  name: vmi-windows
spec:
  domain:
    clock:
      timer:
        hpet:
          present: false
        hyperv: {}
        pit:
          tickPolicy: delay
        rtc:
          tickPolicy: catchup
      utc: {}
    cpu:
      cores: 2
    devices:
      disks:
      - disk:
          bus: sata
        name: pvcdisk
      interfaces:
      - masquerade: {}
        model: e1000
        name: default
    features:
      acpi: {}
      apic: {}
      hyperv:
        relaxed: {}
        spinlocks:
          spinlocks: 8191
        vapic: {}
    firmware:
      uuid: 5d307ca9-b3ef-428c-8861-06e72d69f223
    machine:
      type: q35
    resources:
      requests:
        memory: 2Gi
  networks:
  - name: default
    pod: {}
  terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 0
  volumes:
  - name: pvcdisk
    persistentVolumeClaim:
      claimName: disk-windows

8.17.1.5. Creating a service from a virtual machine

Create a service from a running virtual machine by first creating a Service object to expose the virtual machine.

Note

If IPv4 and IPv6 dual-stack networking is enabled for your cluster, you can create a service that uses IPv4, IPv6, or both, by defining the spec.ipFamilyPolicy and the spec.ipFamilies fields in the Service object.

The spec.ipFamilyPolicy field can be set to one of the following values:

  • SingleStack: The control plane assigns a cluster IP address for the service based on the first configured service cluster IP range.
  • PreferDualStack: The control plane assigns both IPv4 and IPv6 cluster IP addresses for the service on clusters that have dual-stack configured.
  • RequireDualStack: This option fails for clusters that do not have dual-stack networking enabled. For clusters that have dual-stack configured, the behavior is the same as when the value is set to PreferDualStack. The control plane allocates cluster IP addresses from both IPv4 and IPv6 address ranges.

You can define which IP family to use for single-stack or define the order of IP families for dual-stack by setting the spec.ipFamilies field to one of the following array values:

  • [IPv4]
  • [IPv6]
  • [IPv4, IPv6]
  • [IPv6, IPv4]

The ClusterIP service type exposes the virtual machine internally, within the cluster. The NodePort or LoadBalancer service types expose the virtual machine externally, outside of the cluster.

This procedure presents an example of how to create, connect to, and expose a Service object of type: ClusterIP as a virtual machine-backed service.

Note

ClusterIP is the default service type, if the service type is not specified.

Procedure

  1. Edit the virtual machine YAML as follows:

    apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1alpha3
    kind: VirtualMachine
    metadata:
      name: vm-ephemeral
      namespace: example-namespace
    spec:
      running: false
      template:
        metadata:
          labels:
            special: key 1
        spec:
          domain:
            devices:
              disks:
                - name: containerdisk
                  disk:
                    bus: virtio
                - name: cloudinitdisk
                  disk:
                    bus: virtio
              interfaces:
              - masquerade: {}
                name: default
            resources:
              requests:
                memory: 1024M
          networks:
            - name: default
              pod: {}
          volumes:
            - name: containerdisk
              containerDisk:
                image: kubevirt/fedora-cloud-container-disk-demo
            - name: cloudinitdisk
              cloudInitNoCloud:
                userData: |
                  #!/bin/bash
                  echo "fedora" | passwd fedora --stdin
    1
    Add the label special: key in the spec.template.metadata.labels section.
    Note

    Labels on a virtual machine are passed through to the pod. The labels on the VirtualMachine configuration, for example special: key, must match the labels in the Service YAML selector attribute, which you create later in this procedure.

  2. Save the virtual machine YAML to apply your changes.
  3. Edit the Service YAML to configure the settings necessary to create and expose the Service object:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Service
    metadata:
      name: vmservice 1
      namespace: example-namespace 2
    spec:
      ports:
      - port: 27017
        protocol: TCP
        targetPort: 22 3
      selector:
        special: key 4
      type: ClusterIP 5
    1
    Specify the name of the service you are creating and exposing.
    2
    Specify namespace in the metadata section of the Service YAML that corresponds to the namespace you specify in the virtual machine YAML.
    3
    Add targetPort: 22, exposing the service on SSH port 22.
    4
    In the spec section of the Service YAML, add special: key to the selector attribute, which corresponds to the labels you added in the virtual machine YAML configuration file.
    5
    In the spec section of the Service YAML, add type: ClusterIP for a ClusterIP service. To create and expose other types of services externally, outside of the cluster, such as NodePort and LoadBalancer, replace type: ClusterIP with type: NodePort or type: LoadBalancer, as appropriate.
  4. Save the Service YAML to store the service configuration.
  5. Create the ClusterIP service:

    $ oc create -f <service_name>.yaml
  6. Start the virtual machine. If the virtual machine is already running, restart it.
  7. Query the Service object to verify it is available and is configured with type ClusterIP.

    Verification

    • Run the oc get service command, specifying the namespace that you reference in the virtual machine and Service YAML files.

      $ oc get service -n example-namespace

      Example output

      NAME        TYPE        CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)     AGE
      vmservice   ClusterIP   172.30.3.149   <none>        27017/TCP   2m

      • As shown from the output, vmservice is running.
      • The TYPE displays as ClusterIP, as you specified in the Service YAML.
  8. Establish a connection to the virtual machine that you want to use to back your service. Connect from an object inside the cluster, such as another virtual machine.

    1. Edit the virtual machine YAML as follows:

      apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1alpha3
      kind: VirtualMachine
      metadata:
        name: vm-connect
        namespace: example-namespace
      spec:
        running: false
        template:
          spec:
            domain:
              devices:
                disks:
                  - name: containerdisk
                    disk:
                      bus: virtio
                  - name: cloudinitdisk
                    disk:
                      bus: virtio
                interfaces:
                - masquerade: {}
                  name: default
              resources:
                requests:
                  memory: 1024M
            networks:
              - name: default
                pod: {}
            volumes:
              - name: containerdisk
                containerDisk:
                  image: kubevirt/fedora-cloud-container-disk-demo
              - name: cloudinitdisk
                cloudInitNoCloud:
                  userData: |
                    #!/bin/bash
                    echo "fedora" | passwd fedora --stdin
    2. Run the oc create command to create a second virtual machine, where file.yaml is the name of the virtual machine YAML:

      $ oc create -f <file.yaml>
    3. Start the virtual machine.
    4. Connect to the virtual machine by running the following virtctl command:

      $ virtctl -n example-namespace console <new-vm-name>
      Note

      For service type LoadBalancer, use the vinagre client to connect your virtual machine by using the public IP and port. External ports are dynamically allocated when using service type LoadBalancer.

    5. Run the ssh command to authenticate the connection, where 172.30.3.149 is the ClusterIP of the service and fedora is the user name of the virtual machine:

      $ ssh fedora@172.30.3.149 -p 27017

      Verification

      • You receive the command prompt of the virtual machine backing the service you want to expose. You now have a service backed by a running virtual machine.

8.17.2. Attaching a virtual machine to multiple networks

You can attach virtual machines to multiple networks by using Linux bridges. You can also import virtual machines with existing workloads that depend on access to multiple interfaces.

To attach a virtual machine to an additional network:

  1. Configure a bridge network attachment definition for a namespace in the web console or CLI.
  2. Attach the virtual machine to the network attachment definition by using either the web console or the CLI:

    • In the web console, create a NIC for a new or existing virtual machine.
    • In the CLI, include the network information in the virtual machine configuration.

8.17.2.1. OpenShift Virtualization networking glossary

OpenShift Virtualization provides advanced networking functionality by using custom resources and plug-ins.

The following terms are used throughout OpenShift Virtualization documentation:

Container Network Interface (CNI)
a Cloud Native Computing Foundation project, focused on container network connectivity. OpenShift Virtualization uses CNI plug-ins to build upon the basic Kubernetes networking functionality.
Multus
a "meta" CNI plug-in that allows multiple CNIs to exist so that a pod or virtual machine can use the interfaces it needs.
Custom resource definition (CRD)
a Kubernetes API resource that allows you to define custom resources, or an object defined by using the CRD API resource.
Network attachment definition
a CRD introduced by the Multus project that allows you to attach pods, virtual machines, and virtual machine instances to one or more networks.
Preboot eXecution Environment (PXE)
an interface that enables an administrator to boot a client machine from a server over the network. Network booting allows you to remotely load operating systems and other software onto the client.

8.17.2.2. Creating a network attachment definition

8.17.2.2.1. Prerequisites
  • A Linux bridge must be configured and attached on every node. See the node networking section for more information.
Warning

Configuring ipam in a network attachment definition for virtual machines is not supported.

8.17.2.2.2. Creating a Linux bridge network attachment definition in the web console

The network attachment definition is a custom resource that exposes layer-2 devices to a specific namespace in your OpenShift Virtualization cluster.

Network administrators can create network attachment definitions to provide existing layer-2 networking to pods and virtual machines.

Procedure

  1. In the web console, click NetworkingNetwork Attachment Definitions.
  2. Click Create Network Attachment Definition .
  3. Enter a unique Name and optional Description.
  4. Click the Network Type list and select CNV Linux bridge.
  5. Enter the name of the bridge in the Bridge Name field.
  6. Optional: If the resource has VLAN IDs configured, enter the ID numbers in the VLAN Tag Number field.
  7. Click Create.
8.17.2.2.3. Creating a Linux bridge network attachment definition in the CLI

As a network administrator, you can configure a network attachment definition of type cnv-bridge to provide Layer-2 networking to pods and virtual machines.

Note

The network attachment definition must be in the same namespace as the pod or virtual machine.

Procedure

  1. Create a network attachment definition manifest. The manifest must have the following contents, modified to match your configuration:

    apiVersion: "k8s.cni.cncf.io/v1"
    kind: NetworkAttachmentDefinition
    metadata:
      name: <a-bridge-network> 1
      annotations:
        k8s.v1.cni.cncf.io/resourceName: bridge.network.kubevirt.io/<bridge-interface> 2
    spec:
      config: '{
        "cniVersion": "0.3.1",
        "name": "<a-bridge-network>", 3
        "type": "cnv-bridge", 4
        "bridge": "<bridge-interface>", 5
        "vlan": 1 6
      }'
    1
    The name for the NetworkAttachmentDefinition object.
    2
    Optional: Annotation key-value pair for node selection, where bridge-interface is the name of a bridge configured on some nodes. If you add this annotation to your network attachment definition, your virtual machine instances will only run on the nodes that have the bridge-interface bridge connected.
    3
    The name for the configuration. It is recommended to match the configuration name to the name value of the network attachment definition.
    4
    The actual name of the Container Network Interface (CNI) plug-in that provides the network for this network attachment definition. Do not change this field unless you want to use a different CNI.
    5
    The name of the Linux bridge configured on the node.
    6
    Optional: The VLAN tag.
  2. Create the network attachment definition:

    $ oc create -f <network-attachment-definition.yaml> 1
    1
    Where <network-attachment-definition.yaml> is the file name of the network attachment definition manifest.

Verification

  • Verify that the network attachment definition is created by running either oc get network-attachment-definition <name> or oc get net-attach-def <name>. For example:

    $ oc get network-attachment-definition <a-bridge-network> 1
    1
    Where <a-bridge-network> is the name specified in the network attachment definition config.

8.17.2.3. Attaching the virtual machine to the additional network

8.17.2.3.1. Creating a NIC for a virtual machine in the web console

Create and attach additional NICs to a virtual machine from the web console.

Procedure

  1. In the correct project in the OpenShift Virtualization console, click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Select a virtual machine to open the Virtual Machine Overview screen.
  4. Click Network Interfaces to display the NICs already attached to the virtual machine.
  5. Click Add Network Interface to create a new slot in the list.
  6. Use the Network drop-down list to select the network attachment definition for the additional network.
  7. Fill in the Name, Model, Type, and MAC Address for the new NIC.
  8. Click the Add button to save and attach the NIC to the virtual machine.
8.17.2.3.2. Networking fields
NameDescription

Name

Name for the network interface controller.

Model

Indicates the model of the network interface controller. Supported values are e1000e and virtio.

Network

List of available network attachment definitions.

Type

List of available binding methods. For the default pod network, masquerade is the only recommended binding method. For secondary networks, use the bridge binding method. The masquerade method is not supported for non-default networks. Select SR-IOV if you configured an SR-IOV network device and defined that network in the namespace.

MAC Address

MAC address for the network interface controller. If a MAC address is not specified, one is assigned automatically.

8.17.2.3.3. Attaching a virtual machine to a secondary network in the CLI

Attach a virtual machine to a secondary network by adding a bridge interface and specifying a network attachment definition in the virtual machine configuration.

This procedure uses a YAML file to demonstrate editing the configuration and applying the updated file to the cluster. You can alternatively use the oc edit <object> <name> command to edit an existing virtual machine.

Prerequisites

  • Shut down the virtual machine before editing the configuration. If you edit a running virtual machine, you must restart the virtual machine for the changes to take effect.

Procedure

  1. Create or edit a virtual machine configuration that you want to connect to the bridge network. Add the bridge interface to the spec.template.spec.domain.devices.interfaces list and the network attachment definition to the spec.template.spec.networks list. The name of the interfaces entry must be the same as the networks entry. The following example adds a bridge interface called bridge-net that connects to the a-bridge-network network attachment definition:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: VirtualMachine
    metadata:
        name: example-vm
    spec:
      template:
        spec:
          domain:
            devices:
              interfaces:
                - masquerade: {}
                  name: default
                - bridge: {}
                  name: bridge-net 1
    ...
          networks:
            - name: default
              pod: {}
            - name: bridge-net 2
              multus:
                networkName: <network-namespace>/<a-bridge-network> 3
    ...
    1
    The name of the bridge interface.
    2
    The name of the bridge interface. This value must match the name value of the corresponding spec.template.spec.networks entry.
    3
    The name of the network attachment definition, prefixed by the namespace where it exists. The namespace must be either the default namespace or the same namespace where the VM is to be created.
  2. Apply the configuration:

    $ oc apply -f <example-vm.yaml>
  3. Optional: If you edited a running virtual machine, you must restart it for the changes to take effect.

8.17.2.4. Additional resources

8.17.3. Configuring IP addresses for virtual machines

You can configure either dynamically or statically provisioned IP addresses for virtual machines.

Prerequisites

  • The virtual machine can connect to a secondary network
  • To configure a dynamic IP for the virtual machine, you must have a DHCP server available on the secondary network.

8.17.3.1. Configuring an IP address for a new virtual machine using cloud-init

You can use cloud-init to configure an IP address when you create a virtual machine. The IP address can be dynamically or statically provisioned.

Procedure

  • Create a virtual machine configuration and include the cloud-init network details in the spec.volumes.cloudInitNoCloud.networkData field of the virtual machine configuration:

    1. To configure a dynamic IP, specify the interface name and the dhcp4 boolean:

      kind: VirtualMachine
      spec:
      ...
        volumes:
        - cloudInitNoCloud:
            networkData: |
              version: 2
              ethernets:
                eth1: 1
                  dhcp4: true 2
      1
      The interface name.
      2
      Uses DHCP to provision an IPv4 address.
    2. To configure a static IP, specify the interface name and the IP address:

      kind: VirtualMachine
      spec:
      ...
        volumes:
        - cloudInitNoCloud:
            networkData: |
              version: 2
              ethernets:
                eth1: 1
                  addresses:
                  - 10.10.10.14/24 2
      1
      The interface name.
      2
      The static IP address for the virtual machine.

8.17.4. Configuring an SR-IOV network device for virtual machines

You can configure a Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV) device for virtual machines in your cluster. This process is similar but not identical to configuring an SR-IOV device for OpenShift Container Platform.

Note

Live migration is supported for virtual machines that are attached to an SR-IOV network interface only if the sriovLiveMigration feature gate is enabled in the HyperConverged Cluster custom resource (CR). When the spec.featureGates.sriovLiveMigration field is set to true, the virt-launcher pod runs with the SYS_RESOURCE capability. This might degrade its security.

8.17.4.1. Prerequisites

8.17.4.2. Automated discovery of SR-IOV network devices

The SR-IOV Network Operator searches your cluster for SR-IOV capable network devices on worker nodes. The Operator creates and updates a SriovNetworkNodeState custom resource (CR) for each worker node that provides a compatible SR-IOV network device.

The CR is assigned the same name as the worker node. The status.interfaces list provides information about the network devices on a node.

Important

Do not modify a SriovNetworkNodeState object. The Operator creates and manages these resources automatically.

8.17.4.2.1. Example SriovNetworkNodeState object

The following YAML is an example of a SriovNetworkNodeState object created by the SR-IOV Network Operator:

An SriovNetworkNodeState object

apiVersion: sriovnetwork.openshift.io/v1
kind: SriovNetworkNodeState
metadata:
  name: node-25 1
  namespace: openshift-sriov-network-operator
  ownerReferences:
  - apiVersion: sriovnetwork.openshift.io/v1
    blockOwnerDeletion: true
    controller: true
    kind: SriovNetworkNodePolicy
    name: default
spec:
  dpConfigVersion: "39824"
status:
  interfaces: 2
  - deviceID: "1017"
    driver: mlx5_core
    mtu: 1500
    name: ens785f0
    pciAddress: "0000:18:00.0"
    totalvfs: 8
    vendor: 15b3
  - deviceID: "1017"
    driver: mlx5_core
    mtu: 1500
    name: ens785f1
    pciAddress: "0000:18:00.1"
    totalvfs: 8
    vendor: 15b3
  - deviceID: 158b
    driver: i40e
    mtu: 1500
    name: ens817f0
    pciAddress: 0000:81:00.0
    totalvfs: 64
    vendor: "8086"
  - deviceID: 158b
    driver: i40e
    mtu: 1500
    name: ens817f1
    pciAddress: 0000:81:00.1
    totalvfs: 64
    vendor: "8086"
  - deviceID: 158b
    driver: i40e
    mtu: 1500
    name: ens803f0
    pciAddress: 0000:86:00.0
    totalvfs: 64
    vendor: "8086"
  syncStatus: Succeeded

1
The value of the name field is the same as the name of the worker node.
2
The interfaces stanza includes a list of all of the SR-IOV devices discovered by the Operator on the worker node.

8.17.4.3. Configuring SR-IOV network devices

The SR-IOV Network Operator adds the SriovNetworkNodePolicy.sriovnetwork.openshift.io CustomResourceDefinition to OpenShift Container Platform. You can configure an SR-IOV network device by creating a SriovNetworkNodePolicy custom resource (CR).

Note

When applying the configuration specified in a SriovNetworkNodePolicy object, the SR-IOV Operator might drain the nodes, and in some cases, reboot nodes.

It might take several minutes for a configuration change to apply.

Prerequisites

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • You have access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • You have installed the SR-IOV Network Operator.
  • You have enough available nodes in your cluster to handle the evicted workload from drained nodes.
  • You have not selected any control plane nodes for SR-IOV network device configuration.

Procedure

  1. Create an SriovNetworkNodePolicy object, and then save the YAML in the <name>-sriov-node-network.yaml file. Replace <name> with the name for this configuration.
apiVersion: sriovnetwork.openshift.io/v1
kind: SriovNetworkNodePolicy
metadata:
  name: <name> 1
  namespace: openshift-sriov-network-operator 2
spec:
  resourceName: <sriov_resource_name> 3
  nodeSelector:
    feature.node.kubernetes.io/network-sriov.capable: "true" 4
  priority: <priority> 5
  mtu: <mtu> 6
  numVfs: <num> 7
  nicSelector: 8
    vendor: "<vendor_code>" 9
    deviceID: "<device_id>" 10
    pfNames: ["<pf_name>", ...] 11
    rootDevices: ["<pci_bus_id>", "..."] 12
  deviceType: vfio-pci 13
  isRdma: false 14
1
Specify a name for the CR object.
2
Specify the namespace where the SR-IOV Operator is installed.
3
Specify the resource name of the SR-IOV device plug-in. You can create multiple SriovNetworkNodePolicy objects for a resource name.
4
Specify the node selector to select which nodes are configured. Only SR-IOV network devices on selected nodes are configured. The SR-IOV Container Network Interface (CNI) plug-in and device plug-in are deployed only on selected nodes.
5
Optional: Specify an integer value between 0 and 99. A smaller number gets higher priority, so a priority of 10 is higher than a priority of 99. The default value is 99.
6
Optional: Specify a value for the maximum transmission unit (MTU) of the virtual function. The maximum MTU value can vary for different NIC models.
7
Specify the number of the virtual functions (VF) to create for the SR-IOV physical network device. For an Intel network interface controller (NIC), the number of VFs cannot be larger than the total VFs supported by the device. For a Mellanox NIC, the number of VFs cannot be larger than 128.
8
The nicSelector mapping selects the Ethernet device for the Operator to configure. You do not need to specify values for all the parameters. It is recommended to identify the Ethernet adapter with enough precision to minimize the possibility of selecting an Ethernet device unintentionally. If you specify rootDevices, you must also specify a value for vendor, deviceID, or pfNames. If you specify both pfNames and rootDevices at the same time, ensure that they point to an identical device.
9
Optional: Specify the vendor hex code of the SR-IOV network device. The only allowed values are either 8086 or 15b3.
10
Optional: Specify the device hex code of SR-IOV network device. The only allowed values are 158b, 1015, 1017.
11
Optional: The parameter accepts an array of one or more physical function (PF) names for the Ethernet device.
12
The parameter accepts an array of one or more PCI bus addresses for the physical function of the Ethernet device. Provide the address in the following format: 0000:02:00.1.
13
The vfio-pci driver type is required for virtual functions in OpenShift Virtualization.
14
Optional: Specify whether to enable remote direct memory access (RDMA) mode. For a Mellanox card, set isRdma to false. The default value is false.
Note

If isRDMA flag is set to true, you can continue to use the RDMA enabled VF as a normal network device. A device can be used in either mode.

  1. Create the SriovNetworkNodePolicy object:

    $ oc create -f <name>-sriov-node-network.yaml

    where <name> specifies the name for this configuration.

    After applying the configuration update, all the pods in sriov-network-operator namespace transition to the Running status.

  2. To verify that the SR-IOV network device is configured, enter the following command. Replace <node_name> with the name of a node with the SR-IOV network device that you just configured.

    $ oc get sriovnetworknodestates -n openshift-sriov-network-operator <node_name> -o jsonpath='{.status.syncStatus}'

8.17.4.4. Next steps

8.17.5. Configuring certificate rotation

Configure certificate rotation parameters to replace existing certificates.

8.17.5.1. Configuring certificate rotation

You can do this during OpenShift Virtualization installation in the web console or after installation in the HyperConverged custom resource (CR).

Procedure

  1. Open the HyperConverged CR by running the following command:

    $ oc edit hco -n openshift-cnv kubevirt-hyperconverged
  2. Edit the spec.certConfig fields as shown in the following example. To avoid overloading the system, ensure that all values are greater than or equal to 10 minutes. Express all values as strings that comply with the golang ParseDuration format.

    apiVersion: hco.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
    kind: HyperConverged
    metadata:
     name: kubevirt-hyperconverged
     namespace: openshift-cnv
    spec:
      certConfig:
        ca:
          duration: 48h0m0s
          renewBefore: 24h0m0s 1
        server:
          duration: 24h0m0s  2
          renewBefore: 12h0m0s  3
    1
    The value of ca.renewBefore must be less than or equal to the value of ca.duration.
    2
    The value of server.duration must be less than or equal to the value of ca.duration.
    3
    The value of server.renewBefore must be less than or equal to the value of server.duration.
  3. Apply the YAML file to your cluster.

8.17.5.2. Troubleshooting certificate rotation parameters

Deleting one or more certConfig values causes them to revert to the default values, unless the default values conflict with one of the following conditions:

  • The value of ca.renewBefore must be less than or equal to the value of ca.duration.
  • The value of server.duration must be less than or equal to the value of ca.duration.
  • The value of server.renewBefore must be less than or equal to the value of server.duration.

If the default values conflict with these conditions, you will receive an error.

If you remove the server.duration value in the following example, the default value of 24h0m0s is greater than the value of ca.duration, conflicting with the specified conditions.

Example

certConfig:
   ca:
     duration: 4h0m0s
     renewBefore: 1h0m0s
   server:
     duration: 4h0m0s
     renewBefore: 4h0m0s

This results in the following error message:

error: hyperconvergeds.hco.kubevirt.io "kubevirt-hyperconverged" could not be patched: admission webhook "validate-hco.kubevirt.io" denied the request: spec.certConfig: ca.duration is smaller than server.duration

The error message only mentions the first conflict. Review all certConfig values before you proceed.

8.17.6. Defining an SR-IOV network

You can create a network attachment for a Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV) device for virtual machines.

After the network is defined, you can attach virtual machines to the SR-IOV network.

8.17.6.1. Prerequisites

8.17.6.2. Configuring SR-IOV additional network

You can configure an additional network that uses SR-IOV hardware by creating a SriovNetwork object. When you create a SriovNetwork object, the SR-IOV Operator automatically creates a NetworkAttachmentDefinition object.

Users can then attach virtual machines to the SR-IOV network by specifying the network in the virtual machine configurations.

Note

Do not modify or delete a SriovNetwork object if it is attached to any pods or virtual machines in the running state.

Prerequisites

  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in as a user with cluster-admin privileges.

Procedure

  1. Create the following SriovNetwork object, and then save the YAML in the <name>-sriov-network.yaml file. Replace <name> with a name for this additional network.
apiVersion: sriovnetwork.openshift.io/v1
kind: SriovNetwork
metadata:
  name: <name> 1
  namespace: openshift-sriov-network-operator 2
spec:
  resourceName: <sriov_resource_name> 3
  networkNamespace: <target_namespace> 4
  vlan: <vlan> 5
  spoofChk: "<spoof_check>" 6
  linkState: <link_state> 7
  maxTxRate: <max_tx_rate> 8
  minTxRate: <min_rx_rate> 9
  vlanQoS: <vlan_qos> 10
  trust: "<trust_vf>" 11
  capabilities: <capabilities> 12
1
Replace <name> with a name for the object. The SR-IOV Network Operator creates a NetworkAttachmentDefinition object with same name.
2
Specify the namespace where the SR-IOV Network Operator is installed.
3
Replace <sriov_resource_name> with the value for the .spec.resourceName parameter from the SriovNetworkNodePolicy object that defines the SR-IOV hardware for this additional network.
4
Replace <target_namespace> with the target namespace for the SriovNetwork. Only pods or virtual machines in the target namespace can attach to the SriovNetwork.
5
Optional: Replace <vlan> with a Virtual LAN (VLAN) ID for the additional network. The integer value must be from 0 to 4095. The default value is 0.
6
Optional: Replace <spoof_check> with the spoof check mode of the VF. The allowed values are the strings "on" and "off".
Important

You must enclose the value you specify in quotes or the CR is rejected by the SR-IOV Network Operator.

7
Optional: Replace <link_state> with the link state of virtual function (VF). Allowed value are enable, disable and auto.
8
Optional: Replace <max_tx_rate> with a maximum transmission rate, in Mbps, for the VF.
9
Optional: Replace <min_tx_rate> with a minimum transmission rate, in Mbps, for the VF. This value should always be less than or equal to Maximum transmission rate.
Note

Intel NICs do not support the minTxRate parameter. For more information, see BZ#1772847.

10
Optional: Replace <vlan_qos> with an IEEE 802.1p priority level for the VF. The default value is 0.
11
Optional: Replace <trust_vf> with the trust mode of the VF. The allowed values are the strings "on" and "off".
Important

You must enclose the value you specify in quotes or the CR is rejected by the SR-IOV Network Operator.

12
Optional: Replace <capabilities> with the capabilities to configure for this network.
  1. To create the object, enter the following command. Replace <name> with a name for this additional network.

    $ oc create -f <name>-sriov-network.yaml
  2. Optional: To confirm that the NetworkAttachmentDefinition object associated with the SriovNetwork object that you created in the previous step exists, enter the following command. Replace <namespace> with the namespace you specified in the SriovNetwork object.

    $ oc get net-attach-def -n <namespace>

8.17.6.3. Next steps

8.17.7. Attaching a virtual machine to an SR-IOV network

You can attach a virtual machine to use a Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV) network as a secondary network.

8.17.7.1. Prerequisites

8.17.7.2. Attaching a virtual machine to an SR-IOV network

You can attach the virtual machine to the SR-IOV network by including the network details in the virtual machine configuration.

Procedure

  1. Include the SR-IOV network details in the spec.domain.devices.interfaces and spec.networks of the virtual machine configuration:

    kind: VirtualMachine
    ...
    spec:
      domain:
        devices:
          interfaces:
          - name: <default> 1
            masquerade: {} 2
          - name: <nic1> 3
            sriov: {}
      networks:
      - name: <default> 4
        pod: {}
      - name: <nic1> 5
        multus:
            networkName: <sriov-network> 6
    ...
    1
    A unique name for the interface that is connected to the pod network.
    2
    The masquerade binding to the default pod network.
    3
    A unique name for the SR-IOV interface.
    4
    The name of the pod network interface. This must be the same as the interfaces.name that you defined earlier.
    5
    The name of the SR-IOV interface. This must be the same as the interfaces.name that you defined earlier.
    6
    The name of the SR-IOV network attachment definition.
  2. Apply the virtual machine configuration:

    $ oc apply -f <vm-sriov.yaml> 1
    1
    The name of the virtual machine YAML file.

8.17.8. Viewing the IP address of NICs on a virtual machine

You can view the IP address for a network interface controller (NIC) by using the web console or the oc client. The QEMU guest agent displays additional information about the virtual machine’s secondary networks.

8.17.8.1. Viewing the IP address of a virtual machine interface in the CLI

The network interface configuration is included in the oc describe vmi <vmi_name> command.

You can also view the IP address information by running ip addr on the virtual machine, or by running oc get vmi <vmi_name> -o yaml.

Procedure

  • Use the oc describe command to display the virtual machine interface configuration:

    $ oc describe vmi <vmi_name>

    Example output

    ...
    Interfaces:
       Interface Name:  eth0
       Ip Address:      10.244.0.37/24
       Ip Addresses:
         10.244.0.37/24
         fe80::858:aff:fef4:25/64
       Mac:             0a:58:0a:f4:00:25
       Name:            default
       Interface Name:  v2
       Ip Address:      1.1.1.7/24
       Ip Addresses:
         1.1.1.7/24
         fe80::f4d9:70ff:fe13:9089/64
       Mac:             f6:d9:70:13:90:89
       Interface Name:  v1
       Ip Address:      1.1.1.1/24
       Ip Addresses:
         1.1.1.1/24
         1.1.1.2/24
         1.1.1.4/24
         2001:de7:0:f101::1/64
         2001:db8:0:f101::1/64
         fe80::1420:84ff:fe10:17aa/64
       Mac:             16:20:84:10:17:aa

8.17.8.2. Viewing the IP address of a virtual machine interface in the web console

The IP information displays in the Virtual Machine Overview screen for the virtual machine.

Procedure

  1. In the OpenShift Virtualization console, click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Select a virtual machine name to open the Virtual Machine Overview screen.

The information for each attached NIC is displayed under IP Address.

8.17.9. Using a MAC address pool for virtual machines

The KubeMacPool component provides a MAC address pool service for virtual machine NICs in a namespace.

8.17.9.1. About KubeMacPool

KubeMacPool provides a MAC address pool per namespace and allocates MAC addresses for virtual machine NICs from the pool. This ensures that the NIC is assigned a unique MAC address that does not conflict with the MAC address of another virtual machine.

Virtual machine instances created from that virtual machine retain the assigned MAC address across reboots.

Note

KubeMacPool does not handle virtual machine instances created independently from a virtual machine.

KubeMacPool is enabled by default when you install OpenShift Virtualization. You can disable a MAC address pool for a namespace by adding the mutatevirtualmachines.kubemacpool.io=ignore label to the namespace. Re-enable KubeMacPool for the namespace by removing the label.

8.17.9.2. Disabling a MAC address pool for a namespace in the CLI

Disable a MAC address pool for virtual machines in a namespace by adding the mutatevirtualmachines.kubemacpool.io=ignore label to the namespace.

Procedure

  • Add the mutatevirtualmachines.kubemacpool.io=ignore label to the namespace. The following example disables KubeMacPool for two namespaces, <namespace1> and <namespace2>:

    $ oc label namespace <namespace1> <namespace2> mutatevirtualmachines.kubemacpool.io=ignore

8.17.9.3. Re-enabling a MAC address pool for a namespace in the CLI

If you disabled KubeMacPool for a namespace and want to re-enable it, remove the mutatevirtualmachines.kubemacpool.io=ignore label from the namespace.

Note

Earlier versions of OpenShift Virtualization used the label mutatevirtualmachines.kubemacpool.io=allocate to enable KubeMacPool for a namespace. This is still supported but redundant as KubeMacPool is now enabled by default.

Procedure

  • Remove the KubeMacPool label from the namespace. The following example re-enables KubeMacPool for two namespaces, <namespace1> and <namespace2>:

    $ oc label namespace <namespace1> <namespace2> mutatevirtualmachines.kubemacpool.io-

8.18. Virtual machine disks

8.18.1. Storage features

Use the following table to determine feature availability for local and shared persistent storage in OpenShift Virtualization.

8.18.1.1. OpenShift Virtualization storage feature matrix

Table 8.9. OpenShift Virtualization storage feature matrix

 Virtual machine live migrationHost-assisted virtual machine disk cloningStorage-assisted virtual machine disk cloningVirtual machine snapshots

OpenShift Container Storage: RBD block-mode volumes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

OpenShift Virtualization hostpath provisioner

No

Yes

No

No

Other multi-node writable storage

Yes [1]

Yes

Yes [2]

Yes [2]

Other single-node writable storage

No

Yes

Yes [2]

Yes [2]

  1. PVCs must request a ReadWriteMany access mode.
  2. Storage provider must support both Kubernetes and CSI snapshot APIs
Note

You cannot live migrate virtual machines that use:

  • A storage class with ReadWriteOnce (RWO) access mode
  • Passthrough features such as GPUs or SR-IOV network interfaces that have the sriovLiveMigration feature gate disabled

Do not set the evictionStrategy field to LiveMigrate for these virtual machines.

8.18.2. Configuring local storage for virtual machines

You can configure local storage for your virtual machines by using the hostpath provisioner feature.

8.18.2.1. About the hostpath provisioner

The hostpath provisioner is a local storage provisioner designed for OpenShift Virtualization. If you want to configure local storage for virtual machines, you must enable the hostpath provisioner first.

When you install the OpenShift Virtualization Operator, the hostpath provisioner Operator is automatically installed. To use it, you must:

  • Configure SELinux:

    • If you use Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS 8 workers, you must create a MachineConfig object on each node.
    • Otherwise, apply the SELinux label container_file_t to the persistent volume (PV) backing directory on each node.
  • Create a HostPathProvisioner custom resource.
  • Create a StorageClass object for the hostpath provisioner.

The hostpath provisioner Operator deploys the provisioner as a DaemonSet on each node when you create its custom resource. In the custom resource file, you specify the backing directory for the persistent volumes that the hostpath provisioner creates.

8.18.2.2. Configuring SELinux for the hostpath provisioner on Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS 8

You must configure SELinux before you create the HostPathProvisioner custom resource. To configure SELinux on Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS 8 workers, you must create a MachineConfig object on each node.

Prerequisites

  • Create a backing directory on each node for the persistent volumes (PVs) that the hostpath provisioner creates.

Procedure

  1. Create the MachineConfig file. For example:

    $ touch machineconfig.yaml
  2. Edit the file, ensuring that you include the directory where you want the hostpath provisioner to create PVs. For example:

    apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
    kind: MachineConfig
    metadata:
      name: 50-set-selinux-for-hostpath-provisioner
      labels:
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: worker
    spec:
      config:
        ignition:
          version: 3.2.0
        systemd:
          units:
            - contents: |
                [Unit]
                Description=Set SELinux chcon for hostpath provisioner
                Before=kubelet.service
    
                [Service]
                ExecStart=/usr/bin/chcon -Rt container_file_t <path/to/backing/directory> 1
    
                [Install]
                WantedBy=multi-user.target
              enabled: true
              name: hostpath-provisioner.service
    1
    Specify the backing directory where you want the provisioner to create PVs.
  3. Create the MachineConfig object:

    $ oc create -f machineconfig.yaml -n <namespace>

8.18.2.3. Using the hostpath provisioner to enable local storage

To deploy the hostpath provisioner and enable your virtual machines to use local storage, first create a HostPathProvisioner custom resource.

Prerequisites

  • Create a backing directory on each node for the persistent volumes (PVs) that the hostpath provisioner creates.
  • Apply the SELinux context container_file_t to the PV backing directory on each node. For example:

    $ sudo chcon -t container_file_t -R </path/to/backing/directory>
    Note

    If you use Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS 8 workers, you must configure SELinux by using a MachineConfig manifest instead.

Procedure

  1. Create the HostPathProvisioner custom resource file. For example:

    $ touch hostpathprovisioner_cr.yaml
  2. Edit the file, ensuring that the spec.pathConfig.path value is the directory where you want the hostpath provisioner to create PVs. For example:

    apiVersion: hostpathprovisioner.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
    kind: HostPathProvisioner
    metadata:
      name: hostpath-provisioner
    spec:
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      pathConfig:
        path: "</path/to/backing/directory>" 1
        useNamingPrefix: false 2
      workload: 3
    1
    Specify the backing directory where you want the provisioner to create PVs.
    2
    Change this value to true if you want to use the name of the persistent volume claim (PVC) that is bound to the created PV as the prefix of the directory name.
    3
    Optional: You can use the spec.workload field to configure node placement rules for the hostpath provisioner.
    Note

    If you did not create the backing directory, the provisioner attempts to create it for you. If you did not apply the container_file_t SELinux context, this can cause Permission denied errors.

  3. Create the custom resource in the openshift-cnv namespace:

    $ oc create -f hostpathprovisioner_cr.yaml -n openshift-cnv
8.18.2.3.1. Additional resources

8.18.2.4. Creating a storage class

When you create a storage class, you set parameters that affect the dynamic provisioning of persistent volumes (PVs) that belong to that storage class.

Note

You cannot update a StorageClass object’s parameters after you create it.

Procedure

  1. Create a YAML file for defining the storage class. For example:

    $ touch storageclass.yaml
  2. Edit the file. For example:

    apiVersion: storage.k8s.io/v1
    kind: StorageClass
    metadata:
      name: hostpath-provisioner 1
    provisioner: kubevirt.io/hostpath-provisioner
    reclaimPolicy: Delete 2
    volumeBindingMode: WaitForFirstConsumer 3
    1
    You can optionally rename the storage class by changing this value.
    2
    The two possible reclaimPolicy values are Delete and Retain. If you do not specify a value, the storage class defaults to Delete.
    3
    The volumeBindingMode value determines when dynamic provisioning and volume binding occur. Specify WaitForFirstConsumer to delay the binding and provisioning of a PV until after a pod that uses the persistent volume claim (PVC) is created. This ensures that the PV meets the pod’s scheduling requirements.
Note

Virtual machines use data volumes that are based on local PVs. Local PVs are bound to specific nodes. While the disk image is prepared for consumption by the virtual machine, it is possible that the virtual machine cannot be scheduled to the node where the local storage PV was previously pinned.

To solve this problem, use the Kubernetes pod scheduler to bind the PVC to a PV on the correct node. By using StorageClass with volumeBindingMode set to WaitForFirstConsumer, the binding and provisioning of the PV is delayed until a Pod is created using the PVC.

  1. Create the StorageClass object:

    $ oc create -f storageclass.yaml

Additional information

8.18.3. Creating data volumes using profiles

When you create a data volume, the Containerized Data Interface (CDI) creates a persistent volume claim (PVC) and populates the PVC with your data. You can create a data volume as either a standalone resource or by using a dataVolumeTemplate resource in a virtual machine specification. You create a data volume by using either the PVC API or storage APIs.

Tip

Whenever possible, use the storage API to optimize space allocation and maximize performance.

A storage profile is a custom resource that the CDI manages. It provides recommended storage settings based on the associated storage class. A storage profile is allocated for each storage class.

Storage profiles enable you to create data volumes quickly while reducing coding and minimizing potential errors.

For recognized storage types, the CDI provides values that optimize the creation of PVCs. However, you can configure automatic settings for a storage class if you customize the storage profile.

8.18.3.1. Creating data volumes using the storage API

When you create a data volume using the storage API, the Containerized Data Interface (CDI) optimizes your persistent volume claim (PVC) allocation based on the type of storage supported by your selected storage class. You only have to specify the data volume name, namespace, and the amount of storage that you want to allocate.

For example:

  • When using Ceph RBD, accessModes is automatically set to ReadWriteMany, which enables live migration. volumeMode is set to Block to maximize performance.
  • When you are using volumeMode: Filesystem, more space will automatically be requested by the CDI, if required to accommodate file system overhead.

In the following YAML, using the storage API requests a data volume with two gigabytes of usable space. The user does not need to know the volumeMode in order to correctly estimate the required persistent volume claim (PVC) size. The CDI chooses the optimal combination of accessModes and volumeMode attributes automatically. These optimal values are based on the type of storage or the defaults that you define in your storage profile. If you want to provide custom values, they override the system-calculated values.

Example DataVolume definition

apiVersion: cdi.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
kind: DataVolume
metadata:
  name: <datavolume> 1
spec:
  source:
    pvc: 2
      namespace: "<source_namespace>" 3
      name: "<my_vm_disk>" 4
  storage: 5
    resources:
      requests:
        storage: 2Gi 6
    storageClassName: <storage_class> 7

1
The name of the new data volume.
2
Indicate that the source of the import is an existing persistent volume claim (PVC).
3
The namespace where the source PVC exists.
4
The name of the source PVC.
5
Indicates allocation using the storage API.
6
Specifies the amount of available space that you request for the PVC.
7
Optional: The name of the storage class. If the storage class is not specified, the system default storage class is used.

8.18.3.2. Creating data volumes using the PVC API

When you create a data volume using the PVC API, the Containerized Data Interface (CDI) creates the data volume based on what you specify for the following fields:

  • accessModes (ReadWriteOnce, ReadWriteMany, or ReadOnlyMany)
  • volumeMode (Filesystem or Block)
  • capacity of storage (5Gi, for example)

In the following YAML, using the PVC API allocates a data volume with a storage capacity of two gigabytes. You specify an access mode of ReadWriteMany to enable live migration. Because you know the values your system can support, you specify Block storage instead of the default, Filesystem.

Example DataVolume definition

apiVersion: cdi.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
kind: DataVolume
metadata:
  name: <datavolume> 1
spec:
  source:
    pvc: 2
      namespace: "<source_namespace>" 3
      name: "<my_vm_disk>" 4
  pvc: 5
    accessModes: 6
      - ReadWriteMany
    resources:
      requests:
        storage: 2Gi 7
    volumeMode: Block 8
    storageClassName: <storage_class> 9

1
The name of the new data volume.
2
In the source section, pvc indicates that the source of the import is an existing persistent volume claim (PVC).
3
The namespace where the source PVC exists.
4
The name of the source PVC.
5
Indicates allocation using the PVC API.
6
accessModes is required when using the PVC API.
7
Specifies the amount of space you are requesting for your data volume.
8
Specifies that the destination is a block PVC.
9
Optionally, specify the storage class. If the storage class is not specified, the system default storage class is used.
Important

When you explicitly allocate a data volume by using the PVC API and you are not using volumeMode: Block, consider file system overhead.

File system overhead is the amount of space required by the file system to maintain its metadata. The amount of space required for file system metadata is file system dependent. Failing to account for file system overhead in your storage capacity request can result in an underlying persistent volume claim (PVC) that is not large enough to accommodate your virtual machine disk.

If you use the storage API, the CDI will factor in file system overhead and request a larger persistent volume claim (PVC) to ensure that your allocation request is successful.

8.18.3.3. Customizing the storage profile

You can specify default parameters by editing the StorageProfile object for the provisioner’s storage class. These default parameters only apply to the persistent volume claim (PVC) if they are not configured in the DataVolume object.

Prerequisites

  • Ensure that your planned configuration is supported by the storage class and its provider. Specifying an incompatible configuration in a storage profile causes volume provisioning to fail.
Note

An empty status section in a storage profile indicates that a storage provisioner is not recognized by the Containerized Data Interface (CDI). Customizing a storage profile is necessary if you have a storage provisioner that is not recognized by the CDI. In this case, the administrator sets appropriate values in the storage profile to ensure successful allocations.

Warning

If you create a data volume and omit YAML attributes and these attributes are not defined in the storage profile, then the requested storage will not be allocated and the underlying persistent volume claim (PVC) will not be created.

Procedure

  1. Edit the storage profile. In this example, the provisioner is not recognized by CDI:

    $ oc edit -n openshift-cnv storageprofile <storage_class>

    Example storage profile

    apiVersion: cdi.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
    kind: StorageProfile
    metadata:
      name: <some_unknown_provisioner_class>
    #   ...
    spec: {}
    status:
      provisioner: <some_unknown_provisioner>
      storageClass: <some_unknown_provisioner_class>

  2. Provide the needed attribute values in the storage profile:

    Example storage profile

    apiVersion: cdi.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
    kind: StorageProfile
    metadata:
      name: <some_unknown_provisioner_class>
    #   ...
    spec:
      claimPropertySets:
      - accessModes:
        - ReadWriteOnce 1
        volumeMode:
          Filesystem 2
    status:
      provisioner: <some_unknown_provisioner>
      storageClass: <some_unknown_provisioner_class>

    1
    The accessModes that you select.
    2
    The volumeMode that you select.

    After you save your changes, the selected values appear in the storage profile status element.

8.18.3.4. Additional resources

8.18.4. Reserving PVC space for file system overhead

By default, the Containerized Data Importer (CDI) reserves space for file system overhead data in persistent volume claims (PVCs) that use the Filesystem volume mode. You can set the percentage that CDI reserves for this purpose globally and for specific storage classes.

8.18.4.1. How file system overhead affects space for virtual machine disks

When you add a virtual machine disk to a persistent volume claim (PVC) that uses the Filesystem volume mode, you must ensure that there is enough space on the PVC for:

  • The virtual machine disk.
  • The space that the Containerized Data Importer (CDI) reserves for file system overhead, such as metadata.

By default, CDI reserves 5.5% of the PVC space for overhead, reducing the space available for virtual machine disks by that amount.

If a different value works better for your use case, you can configure the overhead value by editing the CDI object. You can change the value globally and you can specify values for specific storage classes.

8.18.4.2. Overriding the default file system overhead value

Change the amount of persistent volume claim (PVC) space that the Containerized Data Importer (CDI) reserves for file system overhead by editing the spec.config.filesystemOverhead attribute of the CDI object.

Prerequisites

  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Procedure

  1. Open the CDI object for editing by running the following command:

    $ oc edit cdi
  2. Edit the spec.config.filesystemOverhead fields, populating them with your chosen values:

    ...
    spec:
      config:
        filesystemOverhead:
          global: "<new_global_value>" 1
          storageClass:
            <storage_class_name>: "<new_value_for_this_storage_class>" 2
    1
    The file system overhead percentage that CDI uses across the cluster. For example, global: "0.07" reserves 7% of the PVC for file system overhead.
    2
    The file system overhead percentage for the specified storage class. For example, mystorageclass: "0.04" changes the default overhead value for PVCs in the mystorageclass storage class to 4%.
  3. Save and exit the editor to update the CDI object.

Verification

  • View the CDI status and verify your changes by running the following command:

    $ oc get cdi -o yaml

8.18.5. Configuring CDI to work with namespaces that have a compute resource quota

You can use the Containerized Data Importer (CDI) to import, upload, and clone virtual machine disks into namespaces that are subject to CPU and memory resource restrictions.

8.18.5.1. About CPU and memory quotas in a namespace

A resource quota, defined by the ResourceQuota object, imposes restrictions on a namespace that limit the total amount of compute resources that can be consumed by resources within that namespace.

The HyperConverged custom resource (CR) defines the user configuration for the Containerized Data Importer (CDI). The CPU and memory request and limit values are set to a default value of 0. This ensures that pods created by CDI that do not specify compute resource requirements are given the default values and are allowed to run in a namespace that is restricted with a quota.

8.18.5.2. Overriding CPU and memory defaults

Modify the default settings for CPU and memory requests and limits for your use case by adding the spec.resourceRequirements.storageWorkloads stanza to the HyperConverged custom resource (CR).

Prerequisites

  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Procedure

  1. Edit the HyperConverged CR by running the following command:

    $ oc edit hco -n openshift-cnv kubevirt-hyperconverged
  2. Add the spec.resourceRequirements.storageWorkloads stanza to the CR, setting the values based on your use case. For example:

    apiVersion: hco.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
    kind: HyperConverged
    metadata:
      name: kubevirt-hyperconverged
    spec:
      resourceRequirements:
        storageWorkloads:
          limits:
            cpu: "500m"
            memory: "2Gi"
          requests:
            cpu: "250m"
            memory: "1Gi"
  3. Save and exit the editor to update the HyperConverged CR.

8.18.5.3. Additional resources

8.18.6. Managing data volume annotations

Data volume (DV) annotations allow you to manage pod behavior. You can add one or more annotations to a data volume, which then propagates to the created importer pods.

8.18.6.1. Example: Data volume annotations

This example shows how you can configure data volume (DV) annotations to control which network the importer pod uses. The v1.multus-cni.io/default-network: bridge-network annotation causes the pod to use the multus network named bridge-network as its default network. If you want the importer pod to use both the default network from the cluster and the secondary multus network, use the k8s.v1.cni.cncf.io/networks: <network_name> annotation.

Multus network annotation example

apiVersion: cdi.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
kind: DataVolume
metadata:
  name: dv-ann
  annotations:
      v1.multus-cni.io/default-network: bridge-network 1
spec:
  source:
      http:
         url: "example.exampleurl.com"
  pvc:
    accessModes:
      - ReadWriteOnce
    resources:
      requests:
        storage: 1Gi

1
Multus network annotation

8.18.7. Using preallocation for data volumes

The Containerized Data Importer can preallocate disk space to improve write performance when creating data volumes.

You can enable preallocation for specific data volumes.

8.18.7.1. About preallocation

The Containerized Data Importer (CDI) can use the QEMU preallocate mode for data volumes to improve write performance. You can use preallocation mode for importing and uploading operations and when creating blank data volumes.

If preallocation is enabled, CDI uses the better preallocation method depending on the underlying file system and device type:

fallocate
If the file system supports it, CDI uses the operating system’s fallocate call to preallocate space by using the posix_fallocate function, which allocates blocks and marks them as uninitialized.
full
If fallocate mode cannot be used, full mode allocates space for the image by writing data to the underlying storage. Depending on the storage location, all the empty allocated space might be zeroed.

8.18.7.2. Enabling preallocation for a data volume

You can enable preallocation for specific data volumes by including the spec.preallocation field in the data volume manifest. You can enable preallocation mode in either the web console or by using the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Preallocation mode is supported for all CDI source types.

Procedure

  • Specify the spec.preallocation field in the data volume manifest:

    apiVersion: cdi.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
    kind: DataVolume
    metadata:
      name: preallocated-datavolume
    spec:
      source: 1
        ...
      pvc:
        ...
      preallocation: true 2
    1
    All CDI source types support preallocation, however preallocation is ignored for cloning operations.
    2
    The preallocation field is a boolean that defaults to false.

8.18.8. Uploading local disk images by using the web console

You can upload a locally stored disk image file by using the web console.

8.18.8.1. Prerequisites

8.18.8.2. CDI supported operations matrix

This matrix shows the supported CDI operations for content types against endpoints, and which of these operations requires scratch space.

Content typesHTTPHTTPSHTTP basic authRegistryUpload

KubeVirt (QCOW2)

✓ QCOW2
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2**
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2*
□ GZ
□ XZ

✓ QCOW2*
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

KubeVirt (RAW)

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW*
□ GZ
□ XZ

✓ RAW*
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ Supported operation

□ Unsupported operation

* Requires scratch space

** Requires scratch space if a custom certificate authority is required

8.18.8.3. Uploading an image file using the web console

Use the web console to upload an image file to a new persistent volume claim (PVC). You can later use this PVC to attach the image to new virtual machines.

Prerequisites

  • You must have one of the following:

    • A raw virtual machine image file in either ISO or IMG format.
    • A virtual machine image file in QCOW2 format.
  • For best results, compress your image file according to the following guidelines before you upload it:

    • Compress a raw image file by using xz or gzip.

      Note

      Using a compressed raw image file results in the most efficient upload.

    • Compress a QCOW2 image file by using the method that is recommended for your client:

      • If you use a Linux client, sparsify the QCOW2 file by using the virt-sparsify tool.
      • If you use a Windows client, compress the QCOW2 file by using xz or gzip.

Procedure

  1. From the side menu of the web console, click StoragePersistent Volume Claims.
  2. Click the Create Persistent Volume Claim drop-down list to expand it.
  3. Click With Data Upload Form to open the Upload Data to Persistent Volume Claim page.
  4. Click Browse to open the file manager and select the image that you want to upload, or drag the file into the Drag a file here or browse to upload field.
  5. Optional: Set this image as the default image for a specific operating system.

    1. Select the Attach this data to a virtual machine operating system check box.
    2. Select an operating system from the list.
  6. The Persistent Volume Claim Name field is automatically filled with a unique name and cannot be edited. Take note of the name assigned to the PVC so that you can identify it later, if necessary.
  7. Select a storage class from the Storage Class list.
  8. In the Size field, enter the size value for the PVC. Select the corresponding unit of measurement from the drop-down list.

    Warning

    The PVC size must be larger than the size of the uncompressed virtual disk.

  9. Select an Access Mode that matches the storage class that you selected.
  10. Click Upload.

8.18.8.4. Additional resources

8.18.9. Uploading local disk images by using the virtctl tool

You can upload a locally stored disk image to a new or existing data volume by using the virtctl command-line utility.

8.18.9.1. Prerequisites

8.18.9.2. About data volumes

DataVolume objects are custom resources that are provided by the Containerized Data Importer (CDI) project. Data volumes orchestrate import, clone, and upload operations that are associated with an underlying persistent volume claim (PVC). Data volumes are integrated with OpenShift Virtualization, and they prevent a virtual machine from being started before the PVC has been prepared.

8.18.9.3. Creating an upload data volume

You can manually create a data volume with an upload data source to use for uploading local disk images.

Procedure

  1. Create a data volume configuration that specifies spec: source: upload{}:

    apiVersion: cdi.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
    kind: DataVolume
    metadata:
      name: <upload-datavolume> 1
    spec:
      source:
          upload: {}
      pvc:
        accessModes:
          - ReadWriteOnce
        resources:
          requests:
            storage: <2Gi> 2
    1
    The name of the data volume.
    2
    The size of the data volume. Ensure that this value is greater than or equal to the size of the disk that you upload.
  2. Create the data volume by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <upload-datavolume>.yaml

8.18.9.4. Uploading a local disk image to a data volume

You can use the virtctl CLI utility to upload a local disk image from a client machine to a data volume (DV) in your cluster. You can use a DV that already exists in your cluster or create a new DV during this procedure.

Note

After you upload a local disk image, you can add it to a virtual machine.

Prerequisites

  • You must have one of the following:

    • A raw virtual machine image file in either ISO or IMG format.
    • A virtual machine image file in QCOW2 format.
  • For best results, compress your image file according to the following guidelines before you upload it:

    • Compress a raw image file by using xz or gzip.

      Note

      Using a compressed raw image file results in the most efficient upload.

    • Compress a QCOW2 image file by using the method that is recommended for your client:

      • If you use a Linux client, sparsify the QCOW2 file by using the virt-sparsify tool.
      • If you use a Windows client, compress the QCOW2 file by using xz or gzip.
  • The kubevirt-virtctl package must be installed on the client machine.
  • The client machine must be configured to trust the OpenShift Container Platform router’s certificate.

Procedure

  1. Identify the following items:

    • The name of the upload data volume that you want to use. If this data volume does not exist, it is created automatically.
    • The size of the data volume, if you want it to be created during the upload procedure. The size must be greater than or equal to the size of the disk image.
    • The file location of the virtual machine disk image that you want to upload.
  2. Upload the disk image by running the virtctl image-upload command. Specify the parameters that you identified in the previous step. For example:

    $ virtctl image-upload dv <datavolume_name> \ 1
    --size=<datavolume_size> \ 2
    --image-path=</path/to/image> \ 3
    1
    The name of the data volume.
    2
    The size of the data volume. For example: --size=500Mi, --size=1G
    3
    The file path of the virtual machine disk image.
    Note
    • If you do not want to create a new data volume, omit the --size parameter and include the --no-create flag.
    • When uploading a disk image to a PVC, the PVC size must be larger than the size of the uncompressed virtual disk.
    • To allow insecure server connections when using HTTPS, use the --insecure parameter. Be aware that when you use the --insecure flag, the authenticity of the upload endpoint is not verified.
  3. Optional. To verify that a data volume was created, view all data volumes by running the following command:

    $ oc get dvs

8.18.9.5. CDI supported operations matrix

This matrix shows the supported CDI operations for content types against endpoints, and which of these operations requires scratch space.

Content typesHTTPHTTPSHTTP basic authRegistryUpload

KubeVirt (QCOW2)

✓ QCOW2
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2**
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2*
□ GZ
□ XZ

✓ QCOW2*
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

KubeVirt (RAW)

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW*
□ GZ
□ XZ

✓ RAW*
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ Supported operation

□ Unsupported operation

* Requires scratch space

** Requires scratch space if a custom certificate authority is required

8.18.9.6. Additional resources

8.18.10. Uploading a local disk image to a block storage data volume

You can upload a local disk image into a block data volume by using the virtctl command-line utility.

In this workflow, you create a local block device to use as a persistent volume, associate this block volume with an upload data volume, and use virtctl to upload the local disk image into the data volume.

8.18.10.1. Prerequisites

8.18.10.2. About data volumes

DataVolume objects are custom resources that are provided by the Containerized Data Importer (CDI) project. Data volumes orchestrate import, clone, and upload operations that are associated with an underlying persistent volume claim (PVC). Data volumes are integrated with OpenShift Virtualization, and they prevent a virtual machine from being started before the PVC has been prepared.

8.18.10.3. About block persistent volumes

A block persistent volume (PV) is a PV that is backed by a raw block device. These volumes do not have a file system and can provide performance benefits for virtual machines by reducing overhead.

Raw block volumes are provisioned by specifying volumeMode: Block in the PV and persistent volume claim (PVC) specification.

8.18.10.4. Creating a local block persistent volume

Create a local block persistent volume (PV) on a node by populating a file and mounting it as a loop device. You can then reference this loop device in a PV manifest as a Block volume and use it as a block device for a virtual machine image.

Procedure

  1. Log in as root to the node on which to create the local PV. This procedure uses node01 for its examples.
  2. Create a file and populate it with null characters so that it can be used as a block device. The following example creates a file loop10 with a size of 2Gb (20 100Mb blocks):

    $ dd if=/dev/zero of=<loop10> bs=100M count=20
  3. Mount the loop10 file as a loop device.

    $ losetup </dev/loop10>d3 <loop10> 1 2
    1
    File path where the loop device is mounted.
    2
    The file created in the previous step to be mounted as the loop device.
  4. Create a PersistentVolume manifest that references the mounted loop device.

    kind: PersistentVolume
    apiVersion: v1
    metadata:
      name: <local-block-pv10>
      annotations:
    spec:
      local:
        path: </dev/loop10> 1
      capacity:
        storage: <2Gi>
      volumeMode: Block 2
      storageClassName: local 3
      accessModes:
        - ReadWriteOnce
      persistentVolumeReclaimPolicy: Delete
      nodeAffinity:
        required:
          nodeSelectorTerms:
          - matchExpressions:
            - key: kubernetes.io/hostname
              operator: In
              values:
              - <node01> 4
    1
    The path of the loop device on the node.
    2
    Specifies it is a block PV.
    3
    Optional: Set a storage class for the PV. If you omit it, the cluster default is used.
    4
    The node on which the block device was mounted.
  5. Create the block PV.

    # oc create -f <local-block-pv10.yaml>1
    1
    The file name of the persistent volume created in the previous step.

8.18.10.5. Creating an upload data volume

You can manually create a data volume with an upload data source to use for uploading local disk images.

Procedure

  1. Create a data volume configuration that specifies spec: source: upload{}:

    apiVersion: cdi.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
    kind: DataVolume
    metadata:
      name: <upload-datavolume> 1
    spec:
      source:
          upload: {}
      pvc:
        accessModes:
          - ReadWriteOnce
        resources:
          requests:
            storage: <2Gi> 2
    1
    The name of the data volume.
    2
    The size of the data volume. Ensure that this value is greater than or equal to the size of the disk that you upload.
  2. Create the data volume by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <upload-datavolume>.yaml

8.18.10.6. Uploading a local disk image to a data volume

You can use the virtctl CLI utility to upload a local disk image from a client machine to a data volume (DV) in your cluster. You can use a DV that already exists in your cluster or create a new DV during this procedure.

Note

After you upload a local disk image, you can add it to a virtual machine.

Prerequisites

  • You must have one of the following:

    • A raw virtual machine image file in either ISO or IMG format.
    • A virtual machine image file in QCOW2 format.
  • For best results, compress your image file according to the following guidelines before you upload it:

    • Compress a raw image file by using xz or gzip.

      Note

      Using a compressed raw image file results in the most efficient upload.

    • Compress a QCOW2 image file by using the method that is recommended for your client:

      • If you use a Linux client, sparsify the QCOW2 file by using the virt-sparsify tool.
      • If you use a Windows client, compress the QCOW2 file by using xz or gzip.
  • The kubevirt-virtctl package must be installed on the client machine.
  • The client machine must be configured to trust the OpenShift Container Platform router’s certificate.

Procedure

  1. Identify the following items:

    • The name of the upload data volume that you want to use. If this data volume does not exist, it is created automatically.
    • The size of the data volume, if you want it to be created during the upload procedure. The size must be greater than or equal to the size of the disk image.
    • The file location of the virtual machine disk image that you want to upload.
  2. Upload the disk image by running the virtctl image-upload command. Specify the parameters that you identified in the previous step. For example:

    $ virtctl image-upload dv <datavolume_name> \ 1
    --size=<datavolume_size> \ 2
    --image-path=</path/to/image> \ 3
    1
    The name of the data volume.
    2
    The size of the data volume. For example: --size=500Mi, --size=1G
    3
    The file path of the virtual machine disk image.
    Note
    • If you do not want to create a new data volume, omit the --size parameter and include the --no-create flag.
    • When uploading a disk image to a PVC, the PVC size must be larger than the size of the uncompressed virtual disk.
    • To allow insecure server connections when using HTTPS, use the --insecure parameter. Be aware that when you use the --insecure flag, the authenticity of the upload endpoint is not verified.
  3. Optional. To verify that a data volume was created, view all data volumes by running the following command:

    $ oc get dvs

8.18.10.7. CDI supported operations matrix

This matrix shows the supported CDI operations for content types against endpoints, and which of these operations requires scratch space.

Content typesHTTPHTTPSHTTP basic authRegistryUpload

KubeVirt (QCOW2)

✓ QCOW2
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2**
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ QCOW2*
□ GZ
□ XZ

✓ QCOW2*
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

KubeVirt (RAW)

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW
✓ GZ
✓ XZ

✓ RAW*
□ GZ
□ XZ

✓ RAW*
✓ GZ*
✓ XZ*

✓ Supported operation

□ Unsupported operation

* Requires scratch space

** Requires scratch space if a custom certificate authority is required

8.18.10.8. Additional resources

8.18.11. Managing offline virtual machine snapshots

You can create, restore, and delete virtual machine (VM) snapshots for VMs that are powered off (offline). OpenShift Virtualization supports offline VM snapshots on:

  • Red Hat OpenShift Container Storage
  • Any other storage provider with the Container Storage Interface (CSI) driver that supports the Kubernetes Volume Snapshot API

8.18.11.1. About virtual machine snapshots

A snapshot represents the state and data of a virtual machine (VM) at a specific point in time. You can use a snapshot to restore an existing VM to a previous state (represented by the snapshot) for backup and disaster recovery or to rapidly roll back to a previous development version.

An offline VM snapshot is created from a VM that is powered off (Stopped state). The snapshot stores a copy of each Container Storage Interface (CSI) volume attached to the VM and a copy of the VM specification and metadata. Snapshots cannot be changed after creation.

With the offline VM snapshots feature, cluster administrators and application developers can:

  • Create a new snapshot
  • List all snapshots attached to a specific VM
  • Restore a VM from a snapshot
  • Delete an existing VM snapshot
8.18.11.1.1. Virtual machine snapshot controller and custom resource definitions (CRDs)

The VM snapshot feature introduces three new API objects defined as CRDs for managing snapshots:

  • VirtualMachineSnapshot: Represents a user request to create a snapshot. It contains information about the current state of the VM.
  • VirtualMachineSnapshotContent: Represents a provisioned resource on the cluster (a snapshot). It is created by the VM snapshot controller and contains references to all resources required to restore the VM.
  • VirtualMachineRestore: Represents a user request to restore a VM from a snapshot.

The VM snapshot controller binds a VirtualMachineSnapshotContent object with the VirtualMachineSnapshot object for which it was created, with a one-to-one mapping.

8.18.11.2. Creating an offline virtual machine snapshot in the web console

You can create a virtual machine (VM) snapshot by using the web console.

Note

The VM snapshot only includes disks that meet the following requirements:

  • Must be either a data volume or persistent volume claim
  • Belong to a storage class that supports Container Storage Interface (CSI) volume snapshots

If your VM storage includes disks that do not support snapshots, you can either edit them or contact your cluster administrator.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Select a virtual machine to open the Virtual Machine Overview screen.
  4. If the virtual machine is running, click ActionsStop Virtual Machine to power it down.
  5. Click the Snapshots tab and then click Take Snapshot.
  6. Fill in the Snapshot Name and optional Description fields.
  7. Expand Disks included in this Snapshot to see the storage volumes to be included in the snapshot.
  8. If your VM has disks that cannot be included in the snapshot and you still wish to proceed, select the I am aware of this warning and wish to proceed checkbox.
  9. Click Save.

8.18.11.3. Creating an offline virtual machine snapshot in the CLI

You can create a virtual machine (VM) snapshot for an offline VM by creating a VirtualMachineSnapshot object.

Prerequisites

  • Ensure that the persistent volume claims (PVCs) are in a storage class that supports Container Storage Interface (CSI) volume snapshots.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Power down the VM for which you want to create a snapshot.

Procedure

  1. Create a YAML file to define a VirtualMachineSnapshot object that specifies the name of the new VirtualMachineSnapshot and the name of the source VM.

    For example:

    apiVersion: snapshot.kubevirt.io/v1alpha1
    kind: VirtualMachineSnapshot
    metadata:
      name: my-vmsnapshot 1
    spec:
      source:
        apiGroup: kubevirt.io
        kind: VirtualMachine
        name: my-vm 2
    1
    The name of the new VirtualMachineSnapshot object.
    2
    The name of the source VM.
  2. Create the VirtualMachineSnapshot resource. The snapshot controller creates a VirtualMachineSnapshotContent object, binds it to the VirtualMachineSnapshot and updates the status and readyToUse fields of the VirtualMachineSnapshot object.

    $ oc create -f <my-vmsnapshot>.yaml

Verification

  1. Verify that the VirtualMachineSnapshot object is created and bound with VirtualMachineSnapshotContent. The readyToUse flag must be set to true.

    $ oc describe vmsnapshot <my-vmsnapshot>

    Example output

    apiVersion: snapshot.kubevirt.io/v1alpha1
    kind: VirtualMachineSnapshot
    metadata:
    creationTimestamp: "2020-09-30T14:41:51Z"
    finalizers:
    - snapshot.kubevirt.io/vmsnapshot-protection
    generation: 5
    name: mysnap
    namespace: default
    resourceVersion: "3897"
    selfLink: /apis/snapshot.kubevirt.io/v1alpha1/namespaces/default/virtualmachinesnapshots/my-vmsnapshot
    uid: 28eedf08-5d6a-42c1-969c-2eda58e2a78d
    spec:
    source:
    apiGroup: kubevirt.io
    kind: VirtualMachine
    name: my-vm
    status:
    conditions:
      - lastProbeTime: null
      lastTransitionTime: "2020-09-30T14:42:03Z"
      reason: Operation complete
      status: "False" 1
      type: Progressing
      - lastProbeTime: null
      lastTransitionTime: "2020-09-30T14:42:03Z"
      reason: Operation complete
      status: "True" 2
      type: Ready
    creationTime: "2020-09-30T14:42:03Z"
    readyToUse: true 3
    sourceUID: 355897f3-73a0-4ec4-83d3-3c2df9486f4f
    virtualMachineSnapshotContentName: vmsnapshot-content-28eedf08-5d6a-42c1-969c-2eda58e2a78d 4

    1
    The status field of the Progressing condition specifies if the snapshot is still being created.
    2
    The status field of the Ready condition specifies if the snapshot creation process is complete.
    3
    Specifies if the snapshot is ready to be used.
    4
    Specifies that the snapshot is bound to a VirtualMachineSnapshotContent object created by the snapshot controller.
  2. Check the spec:volumeBackups property of the VirtualMachineSnapshotContent resource to verify that the expected PVCs are included in the snapshot.

8.18.11.4. Restoring a virtual machine from a snapshot in the web console

You can restore a virtual machine (VM) to a previous configuration represented by a snapshot in the web console.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Select a virtual machine to open the Virtual Machine Overview screen.
  4. If the virtual machine is running, click ActionsStop Virtual Machine to power it down.
  5. Click the Snapshots tab. The page displays a list of snapshots associated with the virtual machine.
  6. Choose one of the following methods to restore a VM snapshot:

    1. For the snapshot that you want to use as the source to restore the VM, click Restore.
    2. Select a snapshot to open the Snapshot Details screen and click ActionsRestore Virtual Machine Snapshot.
  7. In the confirmation pop-up window, click Restore to restore the VM to its previous configuration represented by the snapshot.

8.18.11.5. Restoring a virtual machine from a snapshot in the CLI

You can restore an existing virtual machine (VM) to a previous configuration by using a VM snapshot .

Prerequisites

  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Power down the VM you want to restore to a previous state.

Procedure

  1. Create a YAML file to define a VirtualMachineRestore object that specifies the name of the VM you want to restore and the name of the snapshot to be used as the source.

    For example:

    apiVersion: snapshot.kubevirt.io/v1alpha1
    kind: VirtualMachineRestore
    metadata:
      name: my-vmrestore 1
    spec:
      target:
        apiGroup: kubevirt.io
        kind: VirtualMachine
        name: my-vm 2
      virtualMachineSnapshotName: my-vmsnapshot 3
    1
    The name of the new VirtualMachineRestore object.
    2
    The name of the target VM you want to restore.
    3
    The name of the VirtualMachineSnapshot object to be used as the source.
  2. Create the VirtualMachineRestore resource. The snapshot controller updates the status fields of the VirtualMachineRestore object and replaces the existing VM configuration with the snapshot content.

    $ oc create -f <my-vmrestore>.yaml

Verification

  • Verify that the VM is restored to the previous state represented by the snapshot. The complete flag must be set to true.

    $ oc get vmrestore <my-vmrestore>

    Example output

    apiVersion: snapshot.kubevirt.io/v1alpha1
    kind: VirtualMachineRestore
    metadata:
    creationTimestamp: "2020-09-30T14:46:27Z"
    generation: 5
    name: my-vmrestore
    namespace: default
    ownerReferences:
    - apiVersion: kubevirt.io/v1alpha3
      blockOwnerDeletion: true
      controller: true
      kind: VirtualMachine
      name: my-vm
      uid: 355897f3-73a0-4ec4-83d3-3c2df9486f4f
      resourceVersion: "5512"
      selfLink: /apis/snapshot.kubevirt.io/v1alpha1/namespaces/default/virtualmachinerestores/my-vmrestore
      uid: 71c679a8-136e-46b0-b9b5-f57175a6a041
      spec:
        target:
          apiGroup: kubevirt.io
          kind: VirtualMachine
          name: my-vm
      virtualMachineSnapshotName: my-vmsnapshot
      status:
      complete: true 1
      conditions:
      - lastProbeTime: null
      lastTransitionTime: "2020-09-30T14:46:28Z"
      reason: Operation complete
      status: "False" 2
      type: Progressing
      - lastProbeTime: null
      lastTransitionTime: "2020-09-30T14:46:28Z"
      reason: Operation complete
      status: "True" 3
      type: Ready
      deletedDataVolumes:
      - test-dv1
      restoreTime: "2020-09-30T14:46:28Z"
      restores:
      - dataVolumeName: restore-71c679a8-136e-46b0-b9b5-f57175a6a041-datavolumedisk1
      persistentVolumeClaim: restore-71c679a8-136e-46b0-b9b5-f57175a6a041-datavolumedisk1
      volumeName: datavolumedisk1
      volumeSnapshotName: vmsnapshot-28eedf08-5d6a-42c1-969c-2eda58e2a78d-volume-datavolumedisk1

    1
    Specifies if the process of restoring the VM to the state represented by the snapshot is complete.
    2
    The status field of the Progressing condition specifies if the VM is still being restored.
    3
    The status field of the Ready condition specifies if the VM restoration process is complete.

8.18.11.6. Deleting a virtual machine snapshot in the web console

You can delete an existing virtual machine snapshot by using the web console.

Procedure

  1. Click WorkloadsVirtualization from the side menu.
  2. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  3. Select a virtual machine to open the Virtual Machine Overview screen.
  4. Click the Snapshots tab. The page displays a list of snapshots associated with the virtual machine.
  5. Choose one of the following methods to delete a virtual machine snapshot:

    1. Click the Options menu kebab of the virtual machine snapshot that you want to delete and select Delete Virtual Machine Snapshot.
    2. Select a snapshot to open the Snapshot Details screen and click ActionsDelete Virtual Machine Snapshot.
  6. In the confirmation pop-up window, click Delete to delete the snapshot.

8.18.11.7. Deleting a virtual machine snapshot in the CLI

You can delete an existing virtual machine (VM) snapshot by deleting the appropriate VirtualMachineSnapshot object.

Prerequisites

  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Procedure

  • Delete the VirtualMachineSnapshot object. The snapshot controller deletes the VirtualMachineSnapshot along with the associated VirtualMachineSnapshotContent object.

    $ oc delete vmsnapshot <my-vmsnapshot>

Verification

  • Verify that the snapshot is deleted and no longer attached to this VM:

    $ oc get vmsnapshot

8.18.11.8. Additional resources

8.18.12. Moving a local virtual machine disk to a different node

Virtual machines that use local volume storage can be moved so that they run on a specific node.

You might want to move the virtual machine to a specific node for the following reasons:

  • The current node has limitations to the local storage configuration.
  • The new node is better optimized for the workload of that virtual machine.

To move a virtual machine that uses local storage, you must clone the underlying volume by using a data volume. After the cloning operation is complete, you can edit the virtual machine configuration so that it uses the new data volume, or add the new data volume to another virtual machine.

Tip

When you enable preallocation globally, or for a single data volume, the Containerized Data Importer (CDI) preallocates disk space during cloning. Preallocation enhances write performance. For more information, see Using preallocation for data volumes.

Note

Users without the cluster-admin role require additional user permissions to clone volumes across namespaces.

8.18.12.1. Cloning a local volume to another node

You can move a virtual machine disk so that it runs on a specific node by cloning the underlying persistent volume claim (PVC).

To ensure the virtual machine disk is cloned to the correct node, you must either create a new persistent volume (PV) or identify one on the correct node. Apply a unique label to the PV so that it can be referenced by the data volume.

Note

The destination PV must be the same size or larger than the source PVC. If the destination PV is smaller than the source PVC, the cloning operation fails.

Prerequisites

  • The virtual machine must not be running. Power down the virtual machine before cloning the virtual machine disk.

Procedure

  1. Either create a new local PV on the node, or identify a local PV already on the node:

    • Create a local PV that includes the nodeAffinity.nodeSelectorTerms parameters. The following manifest creates a 10Gi local PV on node01.

      kind: PersistentVolume
      apiVersion: v1
      metadata:
        name: <destination-pv> 1
        annotations:
      spec:
        accessModes:
        - ReadWriteOnce
        capacity:
          storage: 10Gi 2
        local:
          path: /mnt/local-storage/local/disk1 3
        nodeAffinity:
          required:
            nodeSelectorTerms:
            - matchExpressions:
              - key: kubernetes.io/hostname
                operator: In
                values:
                - node01 4
        persistentVolumeReclaimPolicy: Delete
        storageClassName: local
        volumeMode: Filesystem
      1
      The name of the PV.
      2
      The size of the PV. You must allocate enough space, or the cloning operation fails. The size must be the same as or larger than the source PVC.
      3
      The mount path on the node.
      4
      The name of the node where you want to create the PV.
    • Identify a PV that already exists on the target node. You can identify the node where a PV is provisioned by viewing the nodeAffinity field in its configuration:

      $ oc get pv <destination-pv> -o yaml

      The following snippet shows that the PV is on node01:

      Example output

      ...
      spec:
        nodeAffinity:
          required:
            nodeSelectorTerms:
            - matchExpressions:
              - key: kubernetes.io/hostname 1
                operator: In
                values:
                - node01 2
      ...

      1
      The kubernetes.io/hostname key uses the node hostname to select a node.
      2
      The hostname of the node.
  2. Add a unique label to the PV:

    $ oc label pv <destination-pv> node=node01
  3. Create a data volume manifest that references the following:

    • The PVC name and namespace of the virtual machine.
    • The label you applied to the PV in the previous step.
    • The size of the destination PV.

      apiVersion: cdi.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
      kind: DataVolume
      metadata:
        name: <clone-datavolume> 1
      spec:
        source:
          pvc:
            name: "<source-vm-disk>" 2
            namespace: "<source-namespace>" 3
        pvc:
          accessModes:
            - ReadWriteOnce
          selector:
            matchLabels:
              node: node01 4
          resources:
            requests:
              storage: <10Gi> 5
      1
      The name of the new data volume.
      2
      The name of the source PVC. If you do not know the PVC name, you can find it in the virtual machine configuration: spec.volumes.persistentVolumeClaim.claimName.
      3
      The namespace where the source PVC exists.
      4
      The label that you applied to the PV in the previous step.
      5
      The size of the destination PV.
  4. Start the cloning operation by applying the data volume manifest to your cluster:

    $ oc apply -f <clone-datavolume.yaml>

The data volume clones the PVC of the virtual machine into the PV on the specific node.

8.18.13. Expanding virtual storage by adding blank disk images

You can increase your storage capacity or create new data partitions by adding blank disk images to OpenShift Virtualization.

8.18.13.1. About data volumes

DataVolume objects are custom resources that are provided by the Containerized Data Importer (CDI) project. Data volumes orchestrate import, clone, and upload operations that are associated with an underlying persistent volume claim (PVC). Data volumes are integrated with OpenShift Virtualization, and they prevent a virtual machine from being started before the PVC has been prepared.

8.18.13.2. Creating a blank disk image with data volumes

You can create a new blank disk image in a persistent volume claim by customizing and deploying a data volume configuration file.

Prerequisites

  • At least one available persistent volume.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Procedure

  1. Edit the data volume configuration file:

    apiVersion: cdi.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
    kind: DataVolume
    metadata:
      name: blank-image-datavolume
    spec:
      source:
          blank: {}
      pvc:
        # Optional: Set the storage class or omit to accept the default
        # storageClassName: "hostpath"
        accessModes:
          - ReadWriteOnce
        resources:
          requests:
            storage: 500Mi
  2. Create the blank disk image by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <blank-image-datavolume>.yaml

8.18.13.3. Template: Data volume configuration file for blank disk images

blank-image-datavolume.yaml

apiVersion: cdi.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
kind: DataVolume
metadata:
  name: blank-image-datavolume
spec:
  source:
      blank: {}
  pvc:
    # Optional: Set the storage class or omit to accept the default
    # storageClassName: "hostpath"
    accessModes:
      - ReadWriteOnce
    resources:
      requests:
        storage: 500Mi

8.18.13.4. Additional resources

8.18.14. Cloning a data volume using smart-cloning

Smart-cloning is a built-in feature of OpenShift Container Platform Storage (OCS), designed to enhance performance of the cloning process. Clones created with smart-cloning are faster and more efficient than host-assisted cloning.

You do not need to perform any action to enable smart-cloning, but you need to ensure your storage environment is compatible with smart-cloning to use this feature.

When you create a data volume with a persistent volume claim (PVC) source, you automatically initiate the cloning process. You always receive a clone of the data volume, if your environment supports smart-cloning or not. However, you will only receive the performance benefits of smart cloning if you storage provider supports smart-cloning.

8.18.14.1. Understanding smart-cloning

When a data volume is smart-cloned, the following occurs:

  1. A snapshot of the source persistent volume claim (PVC) is created.
  2. A PVC is created from the snapshot.
  3. The snapshot is deleted.

8.18.14.2. Cloning a data volume

Prerequisites

For smart-cloning to occur, the following conditions are required:

  • Your storage provider must support snapshots.
  • The source and target PVCs must be defined to the same storage class.
  • The VolumeSnapshotClass object must reference the storage class defined to both the source and target PVCs.

Procedure

To initiate cloning of a data volume:

  1. Create a YAML file for a DataVolume object that specifies the name of the new data volume and the name and namespace of the source PVC. In this example, because you specify the storage API, there is no need to specify accessModes or volumeMode. The optimal values will be calculated for you automatically.

    apiVersion: cdi.kubevirt.io/v1beta1
    kind: DataVolume
    metadata:
      name: <cloner-datavolume> 1
    spec:
      source:
        pvc:
          namespace: "<source-namespace>" 2
          name: "<my-favorite-vm-disk>" 3
      storage: <