Chapter 11. Red Hat Single Sign-On Operator

Note

The Red Hat Single Sign-On Operator is Technology Preview and is not fully supported.

The Red Hat Single Sign-On Operator automates Red Hat Single Sign-On administration in Openshift. You use this Operator to create custom resources (CRs), which automate administrative tasks. For example, instead of creating a client or a user in the Red Hat Single Sign-On admin console, you can create custom resources to perform those tasks. A custom resource is a YAML file that defines the parameters for the administrative task.

You can create custom resources to perform the following tasks:

Note

After you create custom resources for realms, clients, and users, you can manage them by using the Red Hat Single Sign-On admin console or as custom resources using the oc command. However, you cannot use both methods, because the Operator performs a one way sync for custom resources that you modify. For example, if you modify a realm custom resource, the changes show up in the admin console. However, if you modify the realm using the admin console, those changes have no effect on the custom resource.

Begin using the Operator by Installing the Red Hat Single Sign-On Operator on a cluster.

11.1. Installing the Red Hat Single Sign-On Operator on a cluster

To install the Red Hat Single Sign-On Operator, you can use:

11.1.1. Installing using the Operator Lifecycle Manager

Prerequisites

  • You have cluster-admin permission or an equivalent level of permissions granted by an administrator.

Procedure

Perform this procedure on an OpenShift 4.4 cluster.

  1. Open the OpenShift Container Platform web console.
  2. In the left column, click Operators, OperatorHub.
  3. Search for Red Hat Single Sign-On Operator.

    OperatorHub tab in OpenShift

    operator openshift operatorhub

  4. Click the Red Hat Single Sign-On Operator icon.

    An Install page opens.

    Operator Install page on OpenShift

    operator olm installation

  5. Click Install.
  6. Select a namespace and click Subscribe.

    Namespace selection in OpenShift

    installed namespace

    The Operator starts installing.

Additional resources

11.1.2. Installing from the command line

You can install the Red Hat Single Sign-On Operator from the command line.

Prerequisites

  • You have cluster-admin permission or an equivalent level of permissions granted by an administrator.

Procedure

  1. Obtain the software to install from this location: Github repo.
  2. Install all required custom resource definitions:

    $ oc create -f deploy/crds/
  3. Create a new namespace (or reuse an existing one) such as the namespace myproject:

    $ oc create namespace myproject
  4. Deploy a role, role binding, and service account for the Operator:

    $ oc create -f deploy/role.yaml -n myproject
    $ oc create -f deploy/role_binding.yaml -n myproject
    $ oc create -f deploy/service_account.yaml -n myproject
  5. Deploy the Operator:

    $ oc create -f deploy/operator.yaml -n myproject
  6. Confirm that the Operator is running:

    $ oc get deployment keycloak-operator
    NAME                READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
    keycloak-operator   1/1     1            1           41s

Additional resources

11.2. Red Hat Single Sign-On installation using a custom resource

You can use the Operator to automate the installation of Red Hat Single Sign-On by creating a Keycloak custom resource. When you use a custom resource to install Red Hat Single Sign-On, you create the components and services that are described here and illustrated in the graphic that follows.

  • keycloak-db-secret - Stores properties such as the database username, password, and external address (if you connect to an external database)
  • credentials-<CR-Name> - Admin username and password to log into the Red Hat Single Sign-On admin console (the <CR-Name> is based on the Keycloak custom resource name)
  • keycloak - Keycloak deployment specification that is implemented as a StatefulSet with high availability support
  • keycloak-postgresql - Starts a PostgreSQL database installation
  • keycloak-discovery Service - Performs JDBC_PING discovery
  • keycloak Service - Connects to Red Hat Single Sign-On through HTTPS (HTTP is not supported)
  • keycloak-postgresql Service - Connects an internal and external, if used, database instance
  • keycloak Route - The URL for accessing the Red Hat Single Sign-On admin console from OpenShift

How Operator components and services interact

operator components

11.2.1. The Keycloak custom resource

The Keycloak custom resource is a YAML file that defines the parameters for installation. This file contains three properties.

  • instances - controls the number of instances running in high availability mode.
  • externalAccess - if the enabled is True, the Operator creates a route for OpenShift for the Red Hat Single Sign-On cluster.
  • externalDatabase - applies only if you want to connect an externally hosted database. That topic is covered in the external database section of this guide.

Example YAML file for a Keycloak custom resource

apiVersion: keycloak.org/v1alpha1
kind: Keycloak
metadata:
  name: example-sso
  labels:
    app: sso
spec:
  instances: 1
  externalAccess:
    enabled: True

Note

You can update the YAML file and the changes appear in the Red Hat Single Sign-On admin console, however changes to the admin console do not update the custom resource.

11.2.2. Creating a Keycloak custom resource on OpenShift

On OpenShift, you use the custom resource to create a route, which is the URL of the admin console, and find the secret, which holds the username and password for the admin console.

Prerequisites

  • You have a YAML file for this custom resource.
  • You have cluster-admin permission or an equivalent level of permissions granted by an administrator.

Procedure

  1. Create a route using your YAML file: oc create -f <filename>.yaml -n <namespace>. For example:

    $ oc create -f sso.yaml -n sso
    keycloak.keycloak.org/example-sso created

    A route is created in OpenShift.

  2. Log into the OpenShift web console.
  3. Select Networking, Routes and search for Keycloak.

    Routes screen in OpenShift web console

    route ocp

  4. On the screen with the Keycloak route, click the URL under Location.

    The Red Hat Single Sign-On admin console login screen appears.

    Admin console login screen

    login empty

  5. Locate the username and password for the admin console in the OpenShift web console; under Workloads, click Secrets and search for Keycloak.

    Secrets screen in OpenShift web console

    secrets ocp

  6. Enter the username and password into the admin console login screen.

    Admin console login screen

    login complete

    You are now logged into an instance of Red Hat Single Sign-On that was installed by a Keycloak custom resource. You are ready to create custom resources for realms, clients, and users.

    Red Hat Single Sign-On master realm

    new install cr

  7. Check the status of the custom resource:

    $ oc describe keycloak <CR-name>

Results

After the Operator processes the custom resource, view the status with this command:

$ oc describe keycloak <CR-name>

Keycloak custom resource Status

Name:         example-keycloak
Namespace:    keycloak
Labels:       app=sso
Annotations:  <none>
API Version:  keycloak.org/v1alpha1
Kind:         Keycloak
Spec:
  External Access:
    Enabled:  true
  Instances:  1
Status:
  Credential Secret:  credential-example-keycloak
  Internal URL:       https://<External URL to the deployed instance>
  Message:
  Phase:              reconciling
  Ready:              true
  Secondary Resources:
    Deployment:
      keycloak-postgresql
    Persistent Volume Claim:
      keycloak-postgresql-claim
    Prometheus Rule:
      keycloak
    Route:
      keycloak
    Secret:
      credential-example-keycloak
      keycloak-db-secret
    Service:
      keycloak-postgresql
      keycloak
      keycloak-discovery
    Service Monitor:
      keycloak
    Stateful Set:
      keycloak
  Version:
Events:

Additional resources

11.3. Creating a realm custom resource

You can use the Operator to create realms in Red Hat Single Sign-On as defined by a custom resource. You define the properties of the realm custom resource in a YAML file.

Note

You can update the YAML file and changes appear in the Red Hat Single Sign-On admin console, however changes to the admin console do not update the custom resource.

Example YAML file for a Realm custom resource

apiVersion: keycloak.org/v1alpha1
kind: KeycloakRealm
metadata:
  name: test
  labels:
    app: sso
spec:
  realm:
    id: "basic"
    realm: "basic"
    enabled: True
    displayName: "Basic Realm"
  instanceSelector:
    matchLabels:
      app: sso

Prerequisites

  • You have a YAML file for this custom resource.
  • In the YAML file, the app under instanceSelector matches the label of a Keycloak custom resource. Matching these values ensures that you create the realm in the right instance of Red Hat Single Sign-On.
  • You have cluster-admin permission or an equivalent level of permissions granted by an administrator.

Procedure

  1. Use this command on the YAML file that you created: oc create -f <realm-name>.yaml. For example:

    $ oc create -f initial_realm.yaml
    keycloak.keycloak.org/test created
  2. Log into the admin console for the related instance of Red Hat Single Sign-On.
  3. Click Select Realm and locate the realm that you created.

    The new realm opens.

    Admin console master realm

    test realm cr

Results

After the Operator processes the custom resource, view the status with this command:

$ oc describe keycloak <CR-name>

Realm custom resource status

Name:         example-keycloakrealm
Namespace:    keycloak
Labels:       app=sso
Annotations:  <none>
API Version:  keycloak.org/v1alpha1
Kind:         KeycloakRealm
Metadata:
  Creation Timestamp:  2019-12-03T09:46:02Z
  Finalizers:
    realm.cleanup
  Generation:        1
  Resource Version:  804596
  Self Link:         /apis/keycloak.org/v1alpha1/namespaces/keycloak/keycloakrealms/example-keycloakrealm
  UID:               b7b2f883-15b1-11ea-91e6-02cb885627a6
Spec:
  Instance Selector:
    Match Labels:
      App: sso
  Realm:
    Display Name:  Basic Realm
    Enabled:       true
    Id:            basic
    Realm:         basic
Status:
  Login URL:
  Message:
  Phase:      reconciling
  Ready:      true
Events:       <none>

Additional resources

11.4. Creating a client custom resource

You can use the Operator to create clients in Red Hat Single Sign-On as defined by a custom resource. You define the properties of the realm in a YAML file.

Note

You can update the YAML file and changes appear in the Red Hat Single Sign-On admin console, however changes to the admin console do not update the custom resource.

Example YAML file for a Client custom resource

apiVersion: keycloak.org/v1alpha1
kind: KeycloakClient
metadata:
  name: example-client
  labels:
    app: sso
spec:
  realmSelector:
     matchLabels:
      app: <matching labels for KeycloakRealm custom resource>
  client:
    # auto-generated if not supplied
    #id: 123
    clientId: client-secret
    secret: client-secret
    # ...
    # other properties of Keycloak Client

Prerequisites

  • You have a YAML file for this custom resource.
  • You have cluster-admin permission or an equivalent level of permissions granted by an administrator.

Procedure

  1. Use this command on the YAML file that you created: oc create -f <client-name>.yaml. For example:

    $ oc create -f initial_client.yaml
    keycloak.keycloak.org/example-client created
  2. Log into the Red Hat Single Sign-On admin console for the related instance of Red Hat Single Sign-On.
  3. Click Clients.

    The new client appears in the list of clients.

    clients

Results

After a client is created, the Operator creates a Secret containing the Client ID and the client’s secret using the following naming pattern: keycloak-client-secret-<custom resource name>. For example:

Client’s Secret

apiVersion: v1
data:
  CLIENT_ID: <base64 encoded Client ID>
  CLIENT_SECRET: <base64 encoded Client Secret>
kind: Secret

After the Operator processes the custom resource, view the status with this command:

$ oc describe keycloak <CR-name>

Client custom resource Status

Name:         client-secret
Namespace:    keycloak
Labels:       app=sso
API Version:  keycloak.org/v1alpha1
Kind:         KeycloakClient
Spec:
  Client:
    Client Authenticator Type:     client-secret
    Client Id:                     client-secret
    Id:                            keycloak-client-secret
  Realm Selector:
    Match Labels:
      App:  sso
Status:
  Message:
  Phase:    reconciling
  Ready:    true
  Secondary Resources:
    Secret:
      keycloak-client-secret-client-secret
Events:  <none>

Additional resources

11.5. Creating a user custom resource

You can use the Operator to create users in Red Hat Single Sign-On as defined by a custom resource. You define the properties of the user custom resource in a YAML file.

Note

You can update properties, except for the password, in the YAML file and changes appear in the Red Hat Single Sign-On admin console, however changes to the admin console do not update the custom resource.

Example YAML file for a user custom resource

apiVersion: keycloak.org/v1alpha1
kind: KeycloakUser
metadata:
  name: example-user
spec:
  user:
    username: "realm_user"
    firstName: "John"
    lastName: "Doe"
    email: "user@example.com"
    enabled: True
    emailVerified: False
    realmRoles:
      - "offline_access"
    clientRoles:
      account:
        - "manage-account"
      realm-management:
        - "manage-users"
  realmSelector:
    matchLabels:
      app: sso

Prerequisites

  • You have a YAML file for this custom resource.
  • The realmSelector matches the labels of an existing realm custom resource.
  • You have cluster-admin permission or an equivalent level of permissions granted by an administrator.

Procedure

  1. Use this command on the YAML file that you created: oc create -f <user_cr>.yaml. For example:

    $ oc create -f initial_user.yaml
    keycloak.keycloak.org/example-user created
  2. Log into the admin console for the related instance of Red Hat Single Sign-On.
  3. Click Users.
  4. Search for the user that you defined in the YAML file.

    You may need to switch to a different realm to find the user.

    realm user

Results

After a user is created, the Operator creates a Secret containing the both username and password using the following naming pattern: credential-<realm name>-<username>-<namespace>. Here’s an example:

KeycloakUser Secret

kind: Secret
apiVersion: v1
data:
  password: <base64 encoded password>
  username: <base64 encoded username>
type: Opaque

Once the Operator processes the custom resource, view the status with this command:

$ oc describe keycloak <CR-name>

User custom resource Status

Name:         example-realm-user
Namespace:    keycloak
Labels:       app=sso
API Version:  keycloak.org/v1alpha1
Kind:         KeycloakUser
Spec:
  Realm Selector:
    Match Labels:
      App: sso
  User:
    Email:           realm_user@redhat.com
    Credentials:
      Type:          password
      Value:         <user password>
    Email Verified:  false
    Enabled:         true
    First Name:      John
    Last Name:       Doe
    Username:        realm_user
Status:
  Message:
  Phase:    reconciled
Events:     <none>

Additional resources

11.6. Connecting to an external database

You can use the Operator to connect to an external PostgreSQL database by modifying the Keycloak custom resource and creating a keycloak-db-secret YAML file. Note that values are Base64 encoded.

Example YAML file for keycloak-db-secret

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
    name: keycloak-db-secret
    namespace: keycloak
stringData:
    POSTGRES_DATABASE: <Database Name>
    POSTGRES_EXTERNAL_ADDRESS: <External Database IP or URL (resolvable by K8s)>
    POSTGRES_EXTERNAL_PORT: <External Database Port>
    # Strongly recommended to use <'Keycloak CR-Name'-postgresql>
    POSTGRES_HOST: <Database Service Name>
    POSTGRES_PASSWORD: <Database Password>
    # Required for AWS Backup functionality
    POSTGRES_SUPERUSER: true
    POSTGRES_USERNAME: <Database Username>
 type: Opaque

The following properties set the hostname or IP address and port of the database.

  • POSTGRES_EXTERNAL_ADDRESS - an IP address or a hostname of the external database.
  • POSTGRES_EXTERNAL_PORT - (Optional) A database port.

The other properties work in the same way for a hosted or external database. Set them as follows:

  • POSTGRES_DATABASE - Database name to be used.
  • POSTGRES_HOST - The name of the Service used to communicate with a database. Typically keycloak-postgresql.
  • POSTGRES_USERNAME - Database username
  • POSTGRES_PASSWORD - Database password
  • POSTGRES_SUPERUSER - Indicates, whether backups should run as super user. Typically true.

The Keycloak custom resource requires updates to enable external database support.

Example YAML file for Keycloak custom resource that supports an external database

apiVersion: keycloak.org/v1alpha1
kind: Keycloak
metadata:
  labels:
      app: sso
  name: example-keycloak
  namespace: keycloak
spec:
  externalDatabase:
    enabled: true
  instances: 1

Prerequisites

  • You have a YAML file for keycloak-db-secret.
  • You have modified the Keycloak custom resource to set externalDatabase to true.
  • You have cluster-admin permission or an equivalent level of permissions granted by an administrator.

Procedure

  1. Locate the secret for your PostgreSQL database: oc get secret <secret_for_db> -o yaml. For example:

    $ oc get secret keycloak-db-secret -o yaml
    apiVersion: v1
    data
      POSTGRES_DATABASE: cm9vdA==
      POSTGRES_EXTERNAL_ADDRESS: MTcyLjE3LjAuMw==
      POSTGRES_EXTERNAL_PORT: NTQzMg==

    The POSTGRES_EXTERNAL_ADDRESS is in Base64 format.

  2. Decode the value for the secret: echo "<encoded_secret>" | base64 -decode. For example:

    $ echo "MTcyLjE3LjAuMw==" | base64 -decode
    192.0.2.3
  3. Confirm that the decoded value matches the IP address for your database:

    $ oc get pods -o wide
    NAME                        READY  STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE   IP
    keycloak-0                  1/1    Running   0          13m   192.0.2.0
    keycloak-postgresql-c8vv27m 1/1    Running   0          24m   192.0.2.3
  4. Confirm that keycloak-postgresql appears in a list of running services:

    $ oc get svc
    NAME                 TYPE       CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP  PORT(S)   AGE
    keycloak             ClusterIP  203.0.113.0    <none>       8443/TCP  27m
    keycloak-discovery   ClusterIP  None           <none>       8080/TCP  27m
    keycloak-postgresql  ClusterIP  203.0.113.1    <none>       5432/TCP  27m

    The keycloak-postgresql service sends requests to a set of IP addresses in the backend. These IP addresses are called endpoints.

  5. View the endpoints used by the keycloak-postgresql service to confirm that they use the IP addresses for your database:

    $ oc get endpoints keycloak-postgresql
    NAME                  ENDPOINTS         AGE
    keycloak-postgresql   192.0.2.3.5432    27m
  6. Confirm that Red Hat Single Sign-On is running with the external database. This example shows that everything is running:

    $ oc get pods
    NAME                        READY  STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE   IP
    keycloak-0                  1/1    Running   0          26m   192.0.2.0
    keycloak-postgresql-c8vv27m 1/1    Running   0          36m   192.0.2.3

11.7. Scheduling database backups

You can use the Operator to schedule automatic backups of the database as defined by custom resources. The custom resource triggers a backup job and reports back its status.

You can use Operator to create a backup job that performs a one-time backup to a local Persistent Volume.

Example YAML file for a Backup custom resource

apiVersion: keycloak.org/v1alpha1
kind: KeycloakBackup
metadata:
  name: test-backup

Prerequisites

  • You have a YAML file for this custom resource.
  • You have a PersistentVolume with a claimRef to reserve it only for a PersistentVolumeClaim created by the Red Hat Single Sign-On Operator.

Procedure

  1. Create a backup job: oc create -f <backup_crname>. For example:

    $ oc create -f one-time-backup.yaml
    keycloak.keycloak.org/test-backup

    The Operator creates a PersistentVolumeClaim with the following naming scheme: Keycloak-backup-<CR-name>.

  2. View a list of volumes:

    $ oc get pvc
    NAME                          STATUS   VOLUME
    keycloak-backup-test-backup   Bound    pvc-e242-ew022d5-093q-3134n-41-adff
    keycloak-postresql-claim      Bound    pvc-e242-vs29202-9bcd7-093q-31-zadj
  3. View a list of backup jobs:

    $ oc get jobs
    NAME           COMPLETIONS     DURATION     AGE
    test-backup    0/1             6s           6s
  4. View the list of executed backup jobs:

    $ oc get pods
    NAME                               READY    STATUS       RESTARTS    AGE
    test-backup-5b4rf                  0/1      Completed    0           24s
    keycloak-0                         1/1      Running      0           52m
    keycloak-postgresql-c824c6-vv27m   1/1      Running      0           71m
  5. View the log of your completed backup job:

    $ oc logs test-backup-5b4rf
    ==> Component data dump completed
    .
    .
    .
    .

Additional resources

11.8. Installing extensions and themes

You can use the operator to install extensions and themes that you need for your company or organization. The extension or theme can be anything that Red Hat Single Sign-On can consume. For example, you can add a metrics extension. You add the extension or theme to the Keycloak custom resource.

Example YAML file for a Keycloak custom resource

apiVersion: keycloak.org/v1alpha1
kind: Keycloak
metadata:
  name: example-keycloak
  labels:
   app: sso
spec:
  instances: 1
  extensions:
   - <url_for_extension_or_theme>
  externalAccess:
    enabled: True

Prerequisites

  • You have a YAML file for the Keycloak custom resource.
  • You have cluster-admin permission or an equivalent level of permissions granted by an administrator.

Procedure

  1. Edit the YAML file for the Keycloak custom resource: oc edit <CR-name>
  2. Add a line called extensions: after the instances line.
  3. Add a URL to a JAR file for your custom extension or theme.
  4. Save the file.

The Operator downloads the extension or theme and installs it.

11.9. Command options for managing custom resources

After you create a custom request, you can edit it or delete using the oc command.

  • To edit a custom request, use this command: oc edit <CR-name>
  • To delete a custom request, use this command: oc delete <CR-name>

For example, to edit a realm custom request named test-realm, use this command:

$ oc edit test-realm

A window opens where you can make changes.

Note

You can update the YAML file and changes appear in the Red Hat Single Sign-On admin console, however changes to the admin console do not update the custom resource.