Chapter 2. OpenID Connect

This section describes how you can secure applications and services with OpenID Connect using either Red Hat Single Sign-On adapters or generic OpenID Connect Resource Provider libraries.

2.1. Java Adapters

Red Hat Single Sign-On comes with a range of different adapters for Java application. Selecting the correct adapter depends on the target platform.

All Java adapters share a set of common configuration options described in the Java Adapters Config chapter.

2.1.1. Java Adapter Config

Each Java adapter supported by Red Hat Single Sign-On can be configured by a simple JSON file. This is what one might look like:

{
  "realm" : "demo",
  "resource" : "customer-portal",
  "realm-public-key" : "MIGfMA0GCSqGSIb3D...31LwIDAQAB",
  "auth-server-url" : "https://localhost:8443/auth",
  "ssl-required" : "external",
  "use-resource-role-mappings" : false,
  "enable-cors" : true,
  "cors-max-age" : 1000,
  "cors-allowed-methods" : "POST, PUT, DELETE, GET",
  "cors-exposed-headers" : "WWW-Authenticate, My-custom-exposed-Header",
  "bearer-only" : false,
  "enable-basic-auth" : false,
  "expose-token" : true,
   "credentials" : {
      "secret" : "234234-234234-234234"
   },

   "connection-pool-size" : 20,
   "disable-trust-manager": false,
   "allow-any-hostname" : false,
   "truststore" : "path/to/truststore.jks",
   "truststore-password" : "geheim",
   "client-keystore" : "path/to/client-keystore.jks",
   "client-keystore-password" : "geheim",
   "client-key-password" : "geheim",
   "token-minimum-time-to-live" : 10,
   "min-time-between-jwks-requests" : 10,
   "public-key-cache-ttl": 86400,
   "redirect-rewrite-rules" : {
   "^/wsmaster/api/(.*)$" : "/api/$1"
   }
}

You can use ${…​} enclosure for system property replacement. For example ${jboss.server.config.dir} would be replaced by /path/to/Red Hat Single Sign-On. Replacement of environment variables is also supported via the env prefix, e.g. ${env.MY_ENVIRONMENT_VARIABLE}.

The initial config file can be obtained from the the admin console. This can be done by opening the admin console, select Clients from the menu and clicking on the corresponding client. Once the page for the client is opened click on the Installation tab and select Keycloak OIDC JSON.

Here is a description of each configuration option:

realm
Name of the realm. This is REQUIRED.
resource
The client-id of the application. Each application has a client-id that is used to identify the application. This is REQUIRED.
realm-public-key
PEM format of the realm public key. You can obtain this from the administration console. This is OPTIONAL and it’s not recommended to set it. If not set, the adapter will download this from Red Hat Single Sign-On and it will always re-download it when needed (eg. Red Hat Single Sign-On rotate it’s keys). However if realm-public-key is set, then adapter will never download new keys from Red Hat Single Sign-On, so when Red Hat Single Sign-On rotate it’s keys, adapter will break.
auth-server-url
The base URL of the Red Hat Single Sign-On server. All other Red Hat Single Sign-On pages and REST service endpoints are derived from this. It is usually of the form https://host:port/auth. This is REQUIRED.
ssl-required
Ensures that all communication to and from the Red Hat Single Sign-On server is over HTTPS. In production this should be set to all. This is OPTIONAL. The default value is external meaning that HTTPS is required by default for external requests. Valid values are 'all', 'external' and 'none'.
confidential-port
The confidential port used by the Red Hat Single Sign-On server for secure connections over SSL/TLS. This is OPTIONAL. The default value is 8443.
use-resource-role-mappings
If set to true, the adapter will look inside the token for application level role mappings for the user. If false, it will look at the realm level for user role mappings. This is OPTIONAL. The default value is false.
public-client
If set to true, the adapter will not send credentials for the client to Red Hat Single Sign-On. This is OPTIONAL. The default value is false.
enable-cors
This enables CORS support. It will handle CORS preflight requests. It will also look into the access token to determine valid origins. This is OPTIONAL. The default value is false.
cors-max-age
If CORS is enabled, this sets the value of the Access-Control-Max-Age header. This is OPTIONAL. If not set, this header is not returned in CORS responses.
cors-allowed-methods
If CORS is enabled, this sets the value of the Access-Control-Allow-Methods header. This should be a comma-separated string. This is OPTIONAL. If not set, this header is not returned in CORS responses.
cors-allowed-headers
If CORS is enabled, this sets the value of the Access-Control-Allow-Headers header. This should be a comma-separated string. This is OPTIONAL. If not set, this header is not returned in CORS responses.
cors-exposed-headers
If CORS is enabled, this sets the value of the Access-Control-Expose-Headers header. This should be a comma-separated string. This is OPTIONAL. If not set, this header is not returned in CORS responses.
bearer-only
This should be set to true for services. If enabled the adapter will not attempt to authenticate users, but only verify bearer tokens. This is OPTIONAL. The default value is false.
autodetect-bearer-only
This should be set to true if your application serves both a web application and web services (e.g. SOAP or REST). It allows you to redirect unauthenticated users of the web application to the Keycloak login page, but send an HTTP 401 status code to unauthenticated SOAP or REST clients instead as they would not understand a redirect to the login page. Keycloak auto-detects SOAP or REST clients based on typical headers like X-Requested-With, SOAPAction or Accept. The default value is false.
enable-basic-auth
This tells the adapter to also support basic authentication. If this option is enabled, then secret must also be provided. This is OPTIONAL. The default value is false.
expose-token
If true, an authenticated browser client (via a Javascript HTTP invocation) can obtain the signed access token via the URL root/k_query_bearer_token. This is OPTIONAL. The default value is false.
credentials
Specify the credentials of the application. This is an object notation where the key is the credential type and the value is the value of the credential type. Currently password and jwt is supported. This is REQUIRED only for clients with 'Confidential' access type.
connection-pool-size
Adapters will make separate HTTP invocations to the Red Hat Single Sign-On server to turn an access code into an access token. This config option defines how many connections to the Red Hat Single Sign-On server should be pooled. This is OPTIONAL. The default value is 20.
disable-trust-manager
If the Red Hat Single Sign-On server requires HTTPS and this config option is set to true you do not have to specify a truststore. This setting should only be used during development and never in production as it will disable verification of SSL certificates. This is OPTIONAL. The default value is false.
allow-any-hostname
If the Red Hat Single Sign-On server requires HTTPS and this config option is set to true the Red Hat Single Sign-On server’s certificate is validated via the truststore, but host name validation is not done. This setting should only be used during development and never in production as it will disable verification of SSL certificates. This seting may be useful in test environments This is OPTIONAL. The default value is false.
proxy-url
The URL for the HTTP proxy if one is used.
truststore
The value is the file path to a keystore file. If you prefix the path with classpath:, then the truststore will be obtained from the deployment’s classpath instead. Used for outgoing HTTPS communications to the Red Hat Single Sign-On server. Client making HTTPS requests need a way to verify the host of the server they are talking to. This is what the trustore does. The keystore contains one or more trusted host certificates or certificate authorities. You can create this truststore by extracting the public certificate of the Red Hat Single Sign-On server’s SSL keystore. This is REQUIRED unless ssl-required is none or disable-trust-manager is true.
truststore-password
Password for the truststore keystore. This is REQUIRED if truststore is set and the truststore requires a password.
client-keystore
This is the file path to a keystore file. This keystore contains client certificate for two-way SSL when the adapter makes HTTPS requests to the Red Hat Single Sign-On server. This is OPTIONAL.
client-keystore-password
Password for the client keystore. This is REQUIRED if client-keystore is set.
client-key-password
Password for the client’s key. This is REQUIRED if client-keystore is set.
always-refresh-token
If true, the adapter will refresh token in every request.
register-node-at-startup
If true, then adapter will send registration request to Red Hat Single Sign-On. It’s false by default and useful only when application is clustered. See Application Clustering for details
register-node-period
Period for re-registration adapter to Red Hat Single Sign-On. Useful when application is clustered. See Application Clustering for details
token-store
Possible values are session and cookie. Default is session, which means that adapter stores account info in HTTP Session. Alternative cookie means storage of info in cookie. See Application Clustering for details
principal-attribute
OpenID Connect ID Token attribute to populate the UserPrincipal name with. If token attribute is null, defaults to sub. Possible values are sub, preferred_username, email, name, nickname, given_name, family_name.
turn-off-change-session-id-on-login
The session id is changed by default on a successful login on some platforms to plug a security attack vector. Change this to true if you want to turn this off This is OPTIONAL. The default value is false.
token-minimum-time-to-live
Amount of time, in seconds, to preemptively refresh an active access token with the Red Hat Single Sign-On server before it expires. This is especially useful when the access token is sent to another REST client where it could expire before being evaluated. This value should never exceed the realm’s access token lifespan. This is OPTIONAL. The default value is 0 seconds, so adapter will refresh access token just if it’s expired.
min-time-between-jwks-requests
Amount of time, in seconds, specifying minimum interval between two requests to Red Hat Single Sign-On to retrieve new public keys. It is 10 seconds by default. Adapter will always try to download new public key when it recognize token with unknown kid . However it won’t try it more than once per 10 seconds (by default). This is to avoid DoS when attacker sends lots of tokens with bad kid forcing adapter to send lots of requests to Red Hat Single Sign-On.
public-key-cache-ttl
Amount of time, in seconds, specifying maximum interval between two requests to Red Hat Single Sign-On to retrieve new public keys. It is 86400 seconds (1 day) by default. Adapter will always try to download new public key when it recognize token with unknown kid . If it recognize token with known kid, it will just use the public key downloaded previously. However at least once per this configured interval (1 day by default) will be new public key always downloaded even if the kid of token is already known.
ignore-oauth-query-parameter
Defaults to false, if set to true will turn off processing of the access_token query parameter for bearer token processing. Users will not be able to authenticate if they only pass in an access_token
redirect-rewrite-rules
If needed, specify the Redirect URI rewrite rule. This is an object notation where the key is the regular expression to which the Redirect URI is to be matched and the value is the replacement String. $ character can be used for backreferences in the replacement String.

2.1.2. JBoss EAP Adapter

To be able to secure WAR apps deployed on JBoss EAP, you must install and configure the Red Hat Single Sign-On adapter subsystem. You then have two options to secure your WARs.

You can provide an adapter config file in your WAR and change the auth-method to KEYCLOAK within web.xml.

Alternatively, you don’t have to modify your WAR at all and you can secure it via the Red Hat Single Sign-On adapter subsystem configuration in standalone.xml. Both methods are described in this section.

2.1.2.1. Installing the adapter

Adapters are available as a separate archive depending on what server version you are using.

Note

JBoss EAP should be running when you install the adapter. If you have either one running, you must stop it before installing and then restart it after installation is complete.

Install on JBoss EAP 7:

You can install the EAP 7 adapters either by unzipping a ZIP file, or by using an RPM.

Install the EAP 7 Adapters from a ZIP File:

$ cd $EAP_HOME
$ unzip rh-sso-7.2.5.GA-eap7-adapter.zip

Install on JBoss EAP 6:

You can install the EAP 6 adapters either by unzipping a ZIP file, or by using an RPM.

Install the EAP 6 Adapters from a ZIP File:

$ cd $EAP_HOME
$ unzip rh-sso-7.2.5.GA-eap6-adapter.zip

This ZIP archive contains JBoss Modules specific to the Red Hat Single Sign-On adapter. It also contains JBoss CLI scripts to configure the adapter subsystem.

To configure the adapter subsystem if the server is not running execute:

JBoss EAP 7.1

$ ./bin/jboss-cli.sh --file=adapter-elytron-install-offline.cli

JBoss EAP 7.0

$ ./bin/jboss-cli.sh --file=adapter-install-offline.cli

Note

The offline script is not available for JBoss EAP 6.4

Alternatively, if the server is running execute:

JBoss EAP 7.1

$ ./bin/jboss-cli.sh --file=adapter-elytron-install.cli

JBoss EAP 7.0 and 6.4

$ ./bin/jboss-cli.sh --file=adapter-install.cli

2.1.2.2. JBoss SSO

JBoss EAP has built-in support for single sign-on for web applications deployed to the same JBoss EAP instance. This should not be enabled when using Red Hat Single Sign-On.

2.1.2.3. Required Per WAR Configuration

This section describes how to secure a WAR directly by adding configuration and editing files within your WAR package.

The first thing you must do is create a keycloak.json adapter configuration file within the WEB-INF directory of your WAR.

The format of this configuration file is described in the Java adapter configuration section.

Next you must set the auth-method to KEYCLOAK in web.xml. You also have to use standard servlet security to specify role-base constraints on your URLs.

Here’s an example:

<web-app xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee"
      xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
      xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_3_0.xsd"
      version="3.0">

    <module-name>application</module-name>

    <security-constraint>
        <web-resource-collection>
            <web-resource-name>Admins</web-resource-name>
            <url-pattern>/admin/*</url-pattern>
        </web-resource-collection>
        <auth-constraint>
            <role-name>admin</role-name>
        </auth-constraint>
        <user-data-constraint>
            <transport-guarantee>CONFIDENTIAL</transport-guarantee>
        </user-data-constraint>
    </security-constraint>
    <security-constraint>
        <web-resource-collection>
            <web-resource-name>Customers</web-resource-name>
            <url-pattern>/customers/*</url-pattern>
        </web-resource-collection>
        <auth-constraint>
            <role-name>user</role-name>
        </auth-constraint>
        <user-data-constraint>
            <transport-guarantee>CONFIDENTIAL</transport-guarantee>
        </user-data-constraint>
    </security-constraint>

    <login-config>
        <auth-method>KEYCLOAK</auth-method>
        <realm-name>this is ignored currently</realm-name>
    </login-config>

    <security-role>
        <role-name>admin</role-name>
    </security-role>
    <security-role>
        <role-name>user</role-name>
    </security-role>
</web-app>

2.1.2.4. Securing WARs via Adapter Subsystem

You do not have to modify your WAR to secure it with Red Hat Single Sign-On. Instead you can externally secure it via the Red Hat Single Sign-On Adapter Subsystem. While you don’t have to specify KEYCLOAK as an auth-method, you still have to define the security-constraints in web.xml. You do not, however, have to create a WEB-INF/keycloak.json file. This metadata is instead defined within server configuration (i.e. standalone.xml) in the Red Hat Single Sign-On subsystem definition.

<extensions>
  <extension module="org.keycloak.keycloak-adapter-subsystem"/>
</extensions>

<profile>
  <subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:keycloak:1.1">
     <secure-deployment name="WAR MODULE NAME.war">
        <realm>demo</realm>
        <auth-server-url>http://localhost:8081/auth</auth-server-url>
        <ssl-required>external</ssl-required>
        <resource>customer-portal</resource>
        <credential name="secret">password</credential>
     </secure-deployment>
  </subsystem>
</profile>

The secure-deployment name attribute identifies the WAR you want to secure. Its value is the module-name defined in web.xml with .war appended. The rest of the configuration corresponds pretty much one to one with the keycloak.json configuration options defined in Java adapter configuration.

The exception is the credential element.

To make it easier for you, you can go to the Red Hat Single Sign-On Administration Console and go to the Client/Installation tab of the application this WAR is aligned with. It provides an example XML file you can cut and paste.

If you have multiple deployments secured by the same realm you can share the realm configuration in a separate element. For example:

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:keycloak:1.1">
    <realm name="demo">
        <auth-server-url>http://localhost:8080/auth</auth-server-url>
        <ssl-required>external</ssl-required>
    </realm>
    <secure-deployment name="customer-portal.war">
        <realm>demo</realm>
        <resource>customer-portal</resource>
        <credential name="secret">password</credential>
    </secure-deployment>
    <secure-deployment name="product-portal.war">
        <realm>demo</realm>
        <resource>product-portal</resource>
        <credential name="secret">password</credential>
    </secure-deployment>
    <secure-deployment name="database.war">
        <realm>demo</realm>
        <resource>database-service</resource>
        <bearer-only>true</bearer-only>
    </secure-deployment>
</subsystem>

2.1.2.5. Security Domain

To propagate the security context to the EJB tier you need to configure it to use the "keycloak" security domain. This can be achieved with the @SecurityDomain annotation:

import org.jboss.ejb3.annotation.SecurityDomain;
...

@Stateless
@SecurityDomain("keycloak")
public class CustomerService {

    @RolesAllowed("user")
    public List<String> getCustomers() {
        return db.getCustomers();
    }
}

2.1.3. Installing JBoss EAP Adapter from an RPM

Install the EAP 7 Adapters from an RPM:

Note

With Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, the term channel was replaced with the term repository. In these instructions only the term repository is used.

You must subscribe to the JBoss EAP 7.0 repository before you can install the EAP 7 adapters from an RPM.

Prerequisites

  1. Ensure that your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system is registered to your account using Red Hat Subscription Manager. For more information see the Red Hat Subscription Management documentation.
  2. If you are already subscribed to another JBoss EAP repository, you must unsubscribe from that repository first.

Using Red Hat Subscription Manager, subscribe to the JBoss EAP 7.0 repository using the following command. Replace <RHEL_VERSION> with either 6 or 7 depending on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux version.

$ sudo subscription-manager repos --enable=jb-eap-7-for-rhel-<RHEL_VERSION>-server-rpms

Install the EAP 7 adapters for OIDC using the following command:

$ sudo yum install eap7-keycloak-adapter-sso7_2
Note

The default EAP_HOME path for the RPM installation is /opt/rh/eap7/root/usr/share/wildfly.

Run the appropriate module installation script.

For the OIDC module, enter the following command:

$ {EAP_HOME}/bin/jboss-cli.sh -c --file=${EAP_HOME}/bin/adapter-install.cli

Your installation is complete.

Install the EAP 6 Adapters from an RPM:

Note

With Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, the term channel was replaced with the term repository. In these instructions only the term repository is used.

You must subscribe to the JBoss EAP 6.0 repository before you can install the EAP 6 adapters from an RPM.

Prerequisites

  1. Ensure that your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system is registered to your account using Red Hat Subscription Manager. For more information see the Red Hat Subscription Management documentation.
  2. If you are already subscribed to another JBoss EAP repository, you must unsubscribe from that repository first.

Using Red Hat Subscription Manager, subscribe to the JBoss EAP 6.0 repository using the following command. Replace <RHEL_VERSION> with either 6 or 7 depending on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux version.

$ sudo subscription-manager repos --enable=jb-eap-6-for-rhel-<RHEL_VERSION>-server-rpms

Install the EAP 6 adapters for OIDC using the following command:

$ sudo yum install keycloak-adapter-sso7_2-eap6
Note

The default EAP_HOME path for the RPM installation is /opt/rh/eap6/root/usr/share/wildfly.

Run the appropriate module installation script.

For the OIDC module, enter the following command:

$ {EAP_HOME}/bin/jboss-cli.sh -c --file=${EAP_HOME}/bin/adapter-install.cli

Your installation is complete.

2.1.4. JBoss Fuse 6 Adapter

Red Hat Single Sign-On supports securing your web applications running inside JBoss Fuse 6.

Warning

The only supported version of Fuse 6 is JBoss Fuse 6.3.0 Rollup 5. If you use earlier versions of Fuse 6, it is possible that some functions will not work correctly. In particular, the Hawtio integration will not work with earlier versions of Fuse 6.

Security for the following items is supported for Fuse:

2.1.4.1. Securing Your Web Applications Inside Fuse 6

You must first install the Red Hat Single Sign-On Karaf feature. Next you will need to perform the steps according to the type of application you want to secure. All referenced web applications require injecting the Red Hat Single Sign-On Jetty authenticator into the underlying Jetty server. The steps to achieve this depend on the application type. The details are described below.

2.1.4.2. Installing the Keycloak Feature

You must first install the keycloak feature in the JBoss Fuse environment. The keycloak feature includes the Fuse adapter and all third-party dependencies. You can install it either from the Maven repository or from an archive.

2.1.4.2.1. Installing from the Maven Repository

As a prerequisite, you must be online and have access to the Maven repository.

For Red Hat Single Sign-On you first need to configure a proper Maven repository, so you can install the artifacts. For more information see the JBoss Enterprise Maven repository page.

Assuming the Maven repository is https://maven.repository.redhat.com/ga/, add the following to the $FUSE_HOME/etc/org.ops4j.pax.url.mvn.cfg file and add the repository to the list of supported repositories. For example:

 org.ops4j.pax.url.mvn.repositories= \
    https://maven.repository.redhat.com/ga@id=redhat.product.repo
    http://repo1.maven.org/maven2@id=maven.central.repo, \
    ...

To install the keycloak feature using the Maven repository, complete the following steps:

  1. Start JBoss Fuse 6.3.0 Rollup 5; then in the Karaf terminal type:

    features:addurl mvn:org.keycloak/keycloak-osgi-features/3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001/xml/features
    features:install keycloak
  2. You might also need to install the Jetty 9 feature:

    features:install keycloak-jetty9-adapter
    Note

    If you are using JBoss Fuse 6.2 or later, use keycloak-jetty8-adapter. However, upgrading to JBoss Fuse 6.3.0 Rollup 5 is recommended.

  3. Ensure that the features were installed:
features:list | grep keycloak
2.1.4.2.2. Installing from the ZIP bundle

This is useful if you are offline or do not want to use Maven to obtain the JAR files and other artifacts.

To install the Fuse adapter from the ZIP archive, complete the following steps:

  1. Download the Red Hat Single Sign-On Fuse adapter ZIP archive.
  2. Unzip it into the root directory of JBoss Fuse. The dependencies are then installed under the system directory. You can overwrite all existing jar files.

    Use this for JBoss Fuse 6.3.0 Rollup 5:

    cd /path-to-fuse/jboss-fuse-6.3.0.redhat-254
    unzip -q /path-to-adapter-zip/rh-sso-7.2.5.GA-fuse-adapter.zip
  3. Start Fuse and run these commands in the fuse/karaf terminal:

    features:addurl mvn:org.keycloak/keycloak-osgi-features/3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001/xml/features
    features:install keycloak
  4. Install the corresponding Jetty adapter. Since the artifacts are available directly in the JBoss Fuse system directory, you do not need to use the Maven repository.

2.1.4.3. Securing a Classic WAR Application

The needed steps to secure your WAR application are:

  1. In the /WEB-INF/web.xml file, declare the necessary:

    • security constraints in the <security-constraint> element
    • login configuration in the <login-config> element
    • security roles in the <security-role> element.

      For example:

      <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
      <web-app xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee"
               xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
               xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_3_0.xsd"
               version="3.0">
      
          <module-name>customer-portal</module-name>
      
          <welcome-file-list>
              <welcome-file>index.html</welcome-file>
          </welcome-file-list>
      
          <security-constraint>
              <web-resource-collection>
                  <web-resource-name>Customers</web-resource-name>
                  <url-pattern>/customers/*</url-pattern>
              </web-resource-collection>
              <auth-constraint>
                  <role-name>user</role-name>
              </auth-constraint>
          </security-constraint>
      
          <login-config>
              <auth-method>BASIC</auth-method>
              <realm-name>does-not-matter</realm-name>
          </login-config>
      
          <security-role>
              <role-name>admin</role-name>
          </security-role>
          <security-role>
              <role-name>user</role-name>
          </security-role>
      </web-app>
  2. Add the jetty-web.xml file with the authenticator to the /WEB-INF/jetty-web.xml file.

    For example:

    <?xml version="1.0"?>
    <!DOCTYPE Configure PUBLIC "-//Mort Bay Consulting//DTD Configure//EN"
     "http://www.eclipse.org/jetty/configure_9_0.dtd">
    <Configure class="org.eclipse.jetty.webapp.WebAppContext">
        <Get name="securityHandler">
            <Set name="authenticator">
                <New class="org.keycloak.adapters.jetty.KeycloakJettyAuthenticator">
                </New>
            </Set>
        </Get>
    </Configure>
  3. Within the /WEB-INF/ directory of your WAR, create a new file, keycloak.json. The format of this configuration file is described in the Java Adapters Config section. It is also possible to make this file available externally as described in Configuring the External Adapter.
  4. Ensure your WAR application imports org.keycloak.adapters.jetty and maybe some more packages in the META-INF/MANIFEST.MF file, under the Import-Package header. Using maven-bundle-plugin in your project properly generates OSGI headers in manifest. Note that "*" resolution for the package does not import the org.keycloak.adapters.jetty package, since it is not used by the application or the Blueprint or Spring descriptor, but is rather used in the jetty-web.xml file.

    The list of the packages to import might look like this:

    org.keycloak.adapters.jetty;version="3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001",
    org.keycloak.adapters;version="3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001",
    org.keycloak.constants;version="3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001",
    org.keycloak.util;version="3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001",
    org.keycloak.*;version="3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001",
    *;resolution:=optional
2.1.4.3.1. Configuring the External Adapter

If you do not want the keycloak.json adapter configuration file to be bundled inside your WAR application, but instead made available externally and loaded based on naming conventions, use this configuration method.

To enable the functionality, add this section to your /WEB_INF/web.xml file:

<context-param>
    <param-name>keycloak.config.resolver</param-name>
    <param-value>org.keycloak.adapters.osgi.PathBasedKeycloakConfigResolver</param-value>
</context-param>

That component uses keycloak.config or karaf.etc java properties to search for a base folder to locate the configuration. Then inside one of those folders it searches for a file called <your_web_context>-keycloak.json.

So, for example, if your web application has context my-portal, then your adapter configuration is loaded from the $FUSE_HOME/etc/my-portal-keycloak.json file.

2.1.4.4. Securing a Servlet Deployed as an OSGI Service

You can use this method if you have a servlet class inside your OSGI bundled project that is not deployed as a classic WAR application. Fuse uses Pax Web Whiteboard Extender to deploy such servlets as web applications.

To secure your servlet with Red Hat Single Sign-On, complete the following steps:

  1. Red Hat Single Sign-On provides PaxWebIntegrationService, which allows injecting jetty-web.xml and configuring security constraints for your application. You need to declare such services in the OSGI-INF/blueprint/blueprint.xml file inside your application. Note that your servlet needs to depend on it. An example configuration:

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
               xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
               xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0
               http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0/blueprint.xsd">
    
        <!-- Using jetty bean just for the compatibility with other fuse services -->
        <bean id="servletConstraintMapping" class="org.eclipse.jetty.security.ConstraintMapping">
            <property name="constraint">
                <bean class="org.eclipse.jetty.util.security.Constraint">
                    <property name="name" value="cst1"/>
                    <property name="roles">
                        <list>
                            <value>user</value>
                        </list>
                    </property>
                    <property name="authenticate" value="true"/>
                    <property name="dataConstraint" value="0"/>
                </bean>
            </property>
            <property name="pathSpec" value="/product-portal/*"/>
        </bean>
    
        <bean id="keycloakPaxWebIntegration" class="org.keycloak.adapters.osgi.PaxWebIntegrationService"
              init-method="start" destroy-method="stop">
            <property name="jettyWebXmlLocation" value="/WEB-INF/jetty-web.xml" />
            <property name="bundleContext" ref="blueprintBundleContext" />
            <property name="constraintMappings">
                <list>
                    <ref component-id="servletConstraintMapping" />
                </list>
            </property>
        </bean>
    
        <bean id="productServlet" class="org.keycloak.example.ProductPortalServlet" depends-on="keycloakPaxWebIntegration">
        </bean>
    
        <service ref="productServlet" interface="javax.servlet.Servlet">
            <service-properties>
                <entry key="alias" value="/product-portal" />
                <entry key="servlet-name" value="ProductServlet" />
                <entry key="keycloak.config.file" value="/keycloak.json" />
            </service-properties>
        </service>
    
    </blueprint>
    • You might need to have the WEB-INF directory inside your project (even if your project is not a web application) and create the /WEB-INF/jetty-web.xml and /WEB-INF/keycloak.json files as in the Classic WAR application section. Note you don’t need the web.xml file as the security-constraints are declared in the blueprint configuration file.
  2. The Import-Package in META-INF/MANIFEST.MF must contain at least these imports:

    org.keycloak.adapters.jetty;version="3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001",
    org.keycloak.adapters;version="3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001",
    org.keycloak.constants;version="3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001",
    org.keycloak.util;version="3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001",
    org.keycloak.*;version="3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001",
    *;resolution:=optional

2.1.4.5. Securing an Apache Camel Application

You can secure Apache Camel endpoints implemented with the camel-jetty component by adding securityHandler with KeycloakJettyAuthenticator and the proper security constraints injected. You can add the OSGI-INF/blueprint/blueprint.xml file to your Camel application with a similar configuration as below. The roles, security constraint mappings, and Red Hat Single Sign-On adapter configuration might differ slightly depending on your environment and needs.

For example:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
           xmlns:camel="http://camel.apache.org/schema/blueprint"
           xsi:schemaLocation="
       http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0 http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0/blueprint.xsd
       http://camel.apache.org/schema/blueprint http://camel.apache.org/schema/blueprint/camel-blueprint.xsd">

    <bean id="kcAdapterConfig" class="org.keycloak.representations.adapters.config.AdapterConfig">
        <property name="realm" value="demo"/>
        <property name="resource" value="admin-camel-endpoint"/>
        <property name="bearerOnly" value="true"/>
        <property name="authServerUrl" value="http://localhost:8080/auth" />
        <property name="sslRequired" value="EXTERNAL"/>
    </bean>

    <bean id="keycloakAuthenticator" class="org.keycloak.adapters.jetty.KeycloakJettyAuthenticator">
        <property name="adapterConfig" ref="kcAdapterConfig"/>
    </bean>

    <bean id="constraint" class="org.eclipse.jetty.util.security.Constraint">
        <property name="name" value="Customers"/>
        <property name="roles">
            <list>
                <value>admin</value>
            </list>
        </property>
        <property name="authenticate" value="true"/>
        <property name="dataConstraint" value="0"/>
    </bean>

    <bean id="constraintMapping" class="org.eclipse.jetty.security.ConstraintMapping">
        <property name="constraint" ref="constraint"/>
        <property name="pathSpec" value="/*"/>
    </bean>

    <bean id="securityHandler" class="org.eclipse.jetty.security.ConstraintSecurityHandler">
        <property name="authenticator" ref="keycloakAuthenticator" />
        <property name="constraintMappings">
            <list>
                <ref component-id="constraintMapping" />
            </list>
        </property>
        <property name="authMethod" value="BASIC"/>
        <property name="realmName" value="does-not-matter"/>
    </bean>

    <bean id="sessionHandler" class="org.keycloak.adapters.jetty.spi.WrappingSessionHandler">
        <property name="handler" ref="securityHandler" />
    </bean>

    <bean id="helloProcessor" class="org.keycloak.example.CamelHelloProcessor" />

    <camelContext id="blueprintContext"
                  trace="false"
                  xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/blueprint">
        <route id="httpBridge">
            <from uri="jetty:http://0.0.0.0:8383/admin-camel-endpoint?handlers=sessionHandler&amp;matchOnUriPrefix=true" />
            <process ref="helloProcessor" />
            <log message="The message from camel endpoint contains ${body}"/>
        </route>
    </camelContext>

</blueprint>
  • The Import-Package in META-INF/MANIFEST.MF needs to contain these imports:
javax.servlet;version="[3,4)",
javax.servlet.http;version="[3,4)",
org.apache.camel.*,
org.apache.camel;version="[2.13,3)",
org.eclipse.jetty.security;version="[8,10)",
org.eclipse.jetty.server.nio;version="[8,10)",
org.eclipse.jetty.util.security;version="[8,10)",
org.keycloak.*;version="3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001",
org.osgi.service.blueprint,
org.osgi.service.blueprint.container,
org.osgi.service.event,

2.1.4.6. Camel RestDSL

Camel RestDSL is a Camel feature used to define your REST endpoints in a fluent way. But you must still use specific implementation classes and provide instructions on how to integrate with Red Hat Single Sign-On.

The way to configure the integration mechanism depends on the Camel component for which you configure your RestDSL-defined routes.

The following example shows how to configure integration using the Jetty component, with references to some of the beans defined in previous Blueprint example.

<bean id="securityHandlerRest" class="org.eclipse.jetty.security.ConstraintSecurityHandler">
    <property name="authenticator" ref="keycloakAuthenticator" />
    <property name="constraintMappings">
        <list>
            <ref component-id="constraintMapping" />
        </list>
    </property>
    <property name="authMethod" value="BASIC"/>
    <property name="realmName" value="does-not-matter"/>
</bean>

<bean id="sessionHandlerRest" class="org.keycloak.adapters.jetty.spi.WrappingSessionHandler">
    <property name="handler" ref="securityHandlerRest" />
</bean>


<camelContext id="blueprintContext"
              trace="false"
              xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/blueprint">

    <restConfiguration component="jetty" contextPath="/restdsl"
                       port="8484">
        <!--the link with Keycloak security handlers happens here-->
        <endpointProperty key="handlers" value="sessionHandlerRest"></endpointProperty>
        <endpointProperty key="matchOnUriPrefix" value="true"></endpointProperty>
    </restConfiguration>

    <rest path="/hello" >
        <description>Hello rest service</description>
        <get uri="/{id}" outType="java.lang.String">
            <description>Just an helllo</description>
            <to uri="direct:justDirect" />
        </get>

    </rest>

    <route id="justDirect">
        <from uri="direct:justDirect"/>
        <process ref="helloProcessor" />
        <log message="RestDSL correctly invoked ${body}"/>
        <setBody>
            <constant>(__This second sentence is returned from a Camel RestDSL endpoint__)</constant>
        </setBody>
    </route>

</camelContext>

2.1.4.7. Securing an Apache CXF Endpoint on a Separate Jetty Engine

To run your CXF endpoints secured by Red Hat Single Sign-On on separate Jetty engines, complete the following steps:

  1. Add META-INF/spring/beans.xml to your application, and in it, declare httpj:engine-factory with Jetty SecurityHandler with injected KeycloakJettyAuthenticator. The configuration for a CFX JAX-WS application might resemble this one:

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    
    <beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
           xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
           xmlns:jaxws="http://cxf.apache.org/jaxws"
           xmlns:httpj="http://cxf.apache.org/transports/http-jetty/configuration"
           xsi:schemaLocation="
            http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
            http://cxf.apache.org/jaxws http://cxf.apache.org/schemas/jaxws.xsd
            http://www.springframework.org/schema/osgi http://www.springframework.org/schema/osgi/spring-osgi.xsd
            http://cxf.apache.org/transports/http-jetty/configuration http://cxf.apache.org/schemas/configuration/http-jetty.xsd">
    
        <import resource="classpath:META-INF/cxf/cxf.xml" />
    
        <bean id="kcAdapterConfig" class="org.keycloak.representations.adapters.config.AdapterConfig">
            <property name="realm" value="demo"/>
            <property name="resource" value="custom-cxf-endpoint"/>
            <property name="bearerOnly" value="true"/>
            <property name="authServerUrl" value="http://localhost:8080/auth" />
            <property name="sslRequired" value="EXTERNAL"/>
        </bean>
    
        <bean id="keycloakAuthenticator" class="org.keycloak.adapters.jetty.KeycloakJettyAuthenticator">
            <property name="adapterConfig">
                <ref local="kcAdapterConfig" />
            </property>
        </bean>
    
        <bean id="constraint" class="org.eclipse.jetty.util.security.Constraint">
            <property name="name" value="Customers"/>
            <property name="roles">
                <list>
                    <value>user</value>
                </list>
            </property>
            <property name="authenticate" value="true"/>
            <property name="dataConstraint" value="0"/>
        </bean>
    
        <bean id="constraintMapping" class="org.eclipse.jetty.security.ConstraintMapping">
            <property name="constraint" ref="constraint"/>
            <property name="pathSpec" value="/*"/>
        </bean>
    
        <bean id="securityHandler" class="org.eclipse.jetty.security.ConstraintSecurityHandler">
            <property name="authenticator" ref="keycloakAuthenticator" />
            <property name="constraintMappings">
                <list>
                    <ref local="constraintMapping" />
                </list>
            </property>
            <property name="authMethod" value="BASIC"/>
            <property name="realmName" value="does-not-matter"/>
        </bean>
    
        <httpj:engine-factory bus="cxf" id="kc-cxf-endpoint">
            <httpj:engine port="8282">
                <httpj:handlers>
                    <ref local="securityHandler" />
                </httpj:handlers>
                <httpj:sessionSupport>true</httpj:sessionSupport>
            </httpj:engine>
        </httpj:engine-factory>
    
        <jaxws:endpoint
                        implementor="org.keycloak.example.ws.ProductImpl"
                        address="http://localhost:8282/ProductServiceCF" depends-on="kc-cxf-endpoint" />
    
    </beans>

    For the CXF JAX-RS application, the only difference might be in the configuration of the endpoint dependent on engine-factory:

    <jaxrs:server serviceClass="org.keycloak.example.rs.CustomerService" address="http://localhost:8282/rest"
        depends-on="kc-cxf-endpoint">
        <jaxrs:providers>
            <bean class="com.fasterxml.jackson.jaxrs.json.JacksonJsonProvider" />
        </jaxrs:providers>
    </jaxrs:server>
  2. The Import-Package in META-INF/MANIFEST.MF must contain those imports:
META-INF.cxf;version="[2.7,3.2)",
META-INF.cxf.osgi;version="[2.7,3.2)";resolution:=optional,
org.apache.cxf.bus;version="[2.7,3.2)",
org.apache.cxf.bus.spring;version="[2.7,3.2)",
org.apache.cxf.bus.resource;version="[2.7,3.2)",
org.apache.cxf.transport.http;version="[2.7,3.2)",
org.apache.cxf.*;version="[2.7,3.2)",
org.springframework.beans.factory.config,
org.eclipse.jetty.security;version="[8,10)",
org.eclipse.jetty.util.security;version="[8,10)",
org.keycloak.*;version="3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001"

2.1.4.8. Securing an Apache CXF Endpoint on the Default Jetty Engine

Some services automatically come with deployed servlets on startup. One such service is the CXF servlet running in the http://localhost:8181/cxf context. Securing such endpoints can be complicated. One approach, which Red Hat Single Sign-On is currently using, is ServletReregistrationService, which undeploys a built-in servlet at startup, enabling you to redeploy it on a context secured by Red Hat Single Sign-On.

The configuration file OSGI-INF/blueprint/blueprint.xml inside your application might resemble the one below. Note that it adds the JAX-RS customerservice endpoint, which is endpoint-specific to your application, but more importantly, secures the entire /cxf context.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
           xmlns:jaxrs="http://cxf.apache.org/blueprint/jaxrs"
           xsi:schemaLocation="
		http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0 http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0/blueprint.xsd
		http://cxf.apache.org/blueprint/jaxrs http://cxf.apache.org/schemas/blueprint/jaxrs.xsd">

    <!-- JAXRS Application -->

    <bean id="customerBean" class="org.keycloak.example.rs.CxfCustomerService" />

    <jaxrs:server id="cxfJaxrsServer" address="/customerservice">
        <jaxrs:providers>
            <bean class="com.fasterxml.jackson.jaxrs.json.JacksonJsonProvider" />
        </jaxrs:providers>
        <jaxrs:serviceBeans>
            <ref component-id="customerBean" />
        </jaxrs:serviceBeans>
    </jaxrs:server>


    <!-- Securing of whole /cxf context by unregister default cxf servlet from paxweb and re-register with applied security constraints -->

    <bean id="cxfConstraintMapping" class="org.eclipse.jetty.security.ConstraintMapping">
        <property name="constraint">
            <bean class="org.eclipse.jetty.util.security.Constraint">
                <property name="name" value="cst1"/>
                <property name="roles">
                    <list>
                        <value>user</value>
                    </list>
                </property>
                <property name="authenticate" value="true"/>
                <property name="dataConstraint" value="0"/>
            </bean>
        </property>
        <property name="pathSpec" value="/cxf/*"/>
    </bean>

    <bean id="cxfKeycloakPaxWebIntegration" class="org.keycloak.adapters.osgi.PaxWebIntegrationService"
          init-method="start" destroy-method="stop">
        <property name="bundleContext" ref="blueprintBundleContext" />
        <property name="jettyWebXmlLocation" value="/WEB-INF/jetty-web.xml" />
        <property name="constraintMappings">
            <list>
                <ref component-id="cxfConstraintMapping" />
            </list>
        </property>
    </bean>

    <bean id="defaultCxfReregistration" class="org.keycloak.adapters.osgi.ServletReregistrationService" depends-on="cxfKeycloakPaxWebIntegration"
          init-method="start" destroy-method="stop">
        <property name="bundleContext" ref="blueprintBundleContext" />
        <property name="managedServiceReference">
            <reference interface="org.osgi.service.cm.ManagedService" filter="(service.pid=org.apache.cxf.osgi)" timeout="5000"  />
        </property>
    </bean>

</blueprint>

As a result, all other CXF services running on the default CXF HTTP destination are also secured. Similarly, when the application is undeployed, the entire /cxf context becomes unsecured as well. For this reason, using your own Jetty engine for your applications as described in Secure CXF Application on separate Jetty Engine then gives you more control over security for each individual application.

  • The WEB-INF directory might need to be inside your project (even if your project is not a web application). You might also need to edit the /WEB-INF/jetty-web.xml and /WEB-INF/keycloak.json files in a similar way as in Classic WAR application. Note that you do not need the web.xml file as the security constraints are declared in the blueprint configuration file.
  • The Import-Package in META-INF/MANIFEST.MF must contain these imports:
META-INF.cxf;version="[2.7,3.2)",
META-INF.cxf.osgi;version="[2.7,3.2)";resolution:=optional,
org.apache.cxf.transport.http;version="[2.7,3.2)",
org.apache.cxf.*;version="[2.7,3.2)",
com.fasterxml.jackson.jaxrs.json;version="[2.5,3)",
org.eclipse.jetty.security;version="[8,10)",
org.eclipse.jetty.util.security;version="[8,10)",
org.keycloak.*;version="3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001",
org.keycloak.adapters.jetty;version="3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001",
*;resolution:=optional

2.1.4.9. Securing Fuse Administration Services

2.1.4.9.1. Using SSH Authentication to Fuse Terminal

Red Hat Single Sign-On mainly addresses use cases for authentication of web applications; however, if your other web services and applications are protected with Red Hat Single Sign-On, protecting non-web administration services such as SSH with Red Hat Single Sign-On credentials is a best pracrice. You can do this using the JAAS login module, which allows remote connection to Red Hat Single Sign-On and verifies credentials based on Resource Owner Password Credentials.

To enable SSH authentication, complete the following steps:

  1. In Red Hat Single Sign-On create a client (for example, ssh-jmx-admin-client), which will be used for SSH authentication. This client needs to have Direct Access Grants Enabled selected to On.
  2. In the $FUSE_HOME/etc/org.apache.karaf.shell.cfg file, update or specify this property:

    sshRealm=keycloak
  3. Add the $FUSE_HOME/etc/keycloak-direct-access.json file with content similar to the following (based on your environment and Red Hat Single Sign-On client settings):

    {
        "realm": "demo",
        "resource": "ssh-jmx-admin-client",
        "ssl-required" : "external",
        "auth-server-url" : "http://localhost:8080/auth",
        "credentials": {
            "secret": "password"
        }
    }

    This file specifies the client application configuration, which is used by JAAS DirectAccessGrantsLoginModule from the keycloak JAAS realm for SSH authentication.

  4. Start Fuse and install the keycloak JAAS realm. The easiest way is to install the keycloak-jaas feature, which has the JAAS realm predefined. You can override the feature’s predefined realm by using your own keycloak JAAS realm with higher ranking. For details see the JBoss Fuse documentation.

    Use these commands in the Fuse terminal:

    features:addurl mvn:org.keycloak/keycloak-osgi-features/3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001/xml/features
    features:install keycloak-jaas
  5. Log in using SSH as admin user by typing the following in the terminal:

    ssh -o PubkeyAuthentication=no -p 8101 admin@localhost
  6. Log in with password password.
Note

On some later operating systems, you might also need to use the SSH command’s -o option -o HostKeyAlgorithms=+ssh-dss because later SSH clients do not allow use of the ssh-dss algorithm, by default. However, by default, it is currently used in JBoss Fuse 6.3.0 Rollup 5.

Note that the user needs to have realm role admin to perform all operations or another role to perform a subset of operations (for example, the viewer role that restricts the user to run only read-only Karaf commands). The available roles are configured in $FUSE_HOME/etc/org.apache.karaf.shell.cfg or $FUSE_HOME/etc/system.properties.

2.1.4.9.2. Using JMX Authentication

JMX authentication might be necessary if you want to use jconsole or another external tool to remotely connect to JMX through RMI. Otherwise it might be better to use hawt.io/jolokia, since the jolokia agent is installed in hawt.io by default. For more details see Hawtio Admin Console.

To use JMX authentication, complete the following steps:

  1. In the $FUSE_HOME/etc/org.apache.karaf.management.cfg file, change the jmxRealm property to:

    jmxRealm=keycloak
  2. Install the keycloak-jaas feature and configure the $FUSE_HOME/etc/keycloak-direct-access.json file as described in the SSH section above.
  3. In jconsole you can use a URL such as:
service:jmx:rmi://localhost:44444/jndi/rmi://localhost:1099/karaf-root

and credentials: admin/password (based on the user with admin privileges according to your environment).

2.1.4.10. Securing the Hawtio Administration Console

To secure the Hawtio Administration Console with Red Hat Single Sign-On, complete the following steps:

  1. Add these properties to the $FUSE_HOME/etc/system.properties file:

    hawtio.keycloakEnabled=true
    hawtio.realm=keycloak
    hawtio.keycloakClientConfig=file://${karaf.base}/etc/keycloak-hawtio-client.json
    hawtio.rolePrincipalClasses=org.keycloak.adapters.jaas.RolePrincipal,org.apache.karaf.jaas.boot.principal.RolePrincipal
  2. Create a client in the Red Hat Single Sign-On administration console in your realm. For example, in the Red Hat Single Sign-On demo realm, create a client hawtio-client, specify public as the Access Type, and specify a redirect URI pointing to Hawtio: http://localhost:8181/hawtio/*. You must also have a corresponding Web Origin configured (in this case, http://localhost:8181).
  3. Create the keycloak-hawtio-client.json file in the $FUSE_HOME/etc directory using content similar to that shown in the example below. Change the realm, resource, and auth-server-url properties according to your Red Hat Single Sign-On environment. The resource property must point to the client created in the previous step. This file is used by the client (Hawtio Javascript application) side.

    {
      "realm" : "demo",
      "resource" : "hawtio-client",
      "auth-server-url" : "http://localhost:8080/auth",
      "ssl-required" : "external",
      "public-client" : true
    }
  4. Create the keycloak-hawtio.json file in the $FUSE_HOME/etc dicrectory using content similar to that shown in the example below. Change the realm and auth-server-url properties according to your Red Hat Single Sign-On environment. This file is used by the adapters on the server (JAAS Login module) side.

    {
      "realm" : "demo",
      "resource" : "jaas",
      "bearer-only" : true,
      "auth-server-url" : "http://localhost:8080/auth",
      "ssl-required" : "external",
      "use-resource-role-mappings": false,
      "principal-attribute": "preferred_username"
    }
  5. Start JBoss Fuse 6.3.0 Rollup 5 and install the keycloak feature if you have not already done so. The commands in Karaf terminal are similar to this example:

    features:addurl mvn:org.keycloak/keycloak-osgi-features/3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001/xml/features
    features:install keycloak
  6. Go to http://localhost:8181/hawtio and log in as a user from your Red Hat Single Sign-On realm.

    Note that the user needs to have the proper realm role to successfully authenticate to Hawtio. The available roles are configured in the $FUSE_HOME/etc/system.properties file in hawtio.roles.

2.1.4.10.1. Securing Hawtio on JBoss EAP 6.4

To run Hawtio on the JBoss EAP 6.4 server, complete the following steps:

  1. Set up Red Hat Single Sign-On as described in the previous section, Securing the Hawtio Administration Console. It is assumed that:

    • you have a Red Hat Single Sign-On realm demo and client hawtio-client
    • your Red Hat Single Sign-On is running on localhost:8080
    • the JBoss EAP 6.4 server with deployed Hawtio will be running on localhost:8181. The directory with this server is referred in next steps as $EAP_HOME.
  2. Copy the hawtio-wildfly-1.4.0.redhat-630254.war archive to the $EAP_HOME/standalone/configuration directory. For more details about deploying Hawtio see the Fuse Hawtio documentation.
  3. Copy the keycloak-hawtio.json and keycloak-hawtio-client.json files with the above content to the $EAP_HOME/standalone/configuration directory.
  4. Install the Red Hat Single Sign-On adapter subsystem to your JBoss EAP 6.4 server as described in the JBoss adapter documentation.
  5. In the $EAP_HOME/standalone/configuration/standalone.xml file configure the system properties as in this example:

    <extensions>
    ...
    </extensions>
    
    <system-properties>
        <property name="hawtio.authenticationEnabled" value="true" />
        <property name="hawtio.realm" value="hawtio" />
        <property name="hawtio.roles" value="admin,viewer" />
        <property name="hawtio.rolePrincipalClasses" value="org.keycloak.adapters.jaas.RolePrincipal" />
        <property name="hawtio.keycloakEnabled" value="true" />
        <property name="hawtio.keycloakClientConfig" value="${jboss.server.config.dir}/keycloak-hawtio-client.json" />
        <property name="hawtio.keycloakServerConfig" value="${jboss.server.config.dir}/keycloak-hawtio.json" />
    </system-properties>
  6. Add the Hawtio realm to the same file in the security-domains section:

    <security-domain name="hawtio" cache-type="default">
        <authentication>
            <login-module code="org.keycloak.adapters.jaas.BearerTokenLoginModule" flag="required">
                <module-option name="keycloak-config-file" value="${hawtio.keycloakServerConfig}"/>
            </login-module>
        </authentication>
    </security-domain>
  7. Add the secure-deployment section hawtio to the adapter subsystem. This ensures that the Hawtio WAR is able to find the JAAS login module classes.

    <subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:keycloak:1.1">
        <secure-deployment name="hawtio-wildfly-1.4.0.redhat-630254.war" />
    </subsystem>
  8. Restart the JBoss EAP 6.4 server with Hawtio:

    cd $EAP_HOME/bin
    ./standalone.sh -Djboss.socket.binding.port-offset=101
  9. Access Hawtio at http://localhost:8181/hawtio. It is secured by Red Hat Single Sign-On.

2.1.5. JBoss Fuse 7 Adapter

Red Hat Single Sign-On supports securing your web applications running inside JBoss Fuse 7.

JBoss Fuse 7 leverages Undertow adapter which is essentially the same as JBoss EAP 7 Adapter as JBoss Fuse 7.0.1 is bundled with Undertow HTTP engine under the covers and Undertow is used for running various kinds of web applications.

Warning

The only supported versions of Fuse 7 is JBoss Fuse 7.0.1. If you use earlier versions of Fuse 7, it is possible that some functions will not work correctly. In particular, integration will not work at all for earlier versions of Fuse 7 than 7.0.1.

Security for the following items is supported for Fuse:

  • Classic WAR applications deployed on Fuse with Pax Web War Extender
  • Servlets deployed on Fuse as OSGI services with Pax Web Whiteboard Extender and additionally servlets registered through org.osgi.service.http.HttpService#registerServlet() which is standard OSGi Enterprise HTTP Service
  • Apache Camel Undertow endpoints running with the Camel Undertow component
  • Apache CXF endpoints running on their own separate Undertow engine
  • Apache CXF endpoints running on the default engine provided by the CXF servlet
  • SSH and JMX admin access
  • Hawtio administration console

2.1.5.1. Securing Your Web Applications Inside Fuse 7

You must first install the Red Hat Single Sign-On Karaf feature. Next you will need to perform the steps according to the type of application you want to secure. All referenced web applications require injecting the Red Hat Single Sign-On Undertow authentication mechanism into the underlying web server. The steps to achieve this depend on the application type. The details are described below.

2.1.5.2. Installing the Keycloak Feature

You must first install the keycloak-pax-http-undertow and keycloak-jaas features in the JBoss Fuse environment. The keycloak-pax-http-undertow feature includes the Fuse adapter and all third-party dependencies. The keycloak-jaas contains JAAS module used in realm for SSH and JMX authentication. You can install it either from the Maven repository or from an archive.

2.1.5.2.1. Installing from the Maven Repository

As a prerequisite, you must be online and have access to the Maven repository.

For Red Hat Single Sign-On you first need to configure a proper Maven repository, so you can install the artifacts. For more information see the JBoss Enterprise Maven repository page.

Assuming the Maven repository is https://maven.repository.redhat.com/ga/, add the following to the $FUSE_HOME/etc/org.ops4j.pax.url.mvn.cfg file and add the repository to the list of supported repositories. For example:

config:edit org.ops4j.pax.url.mvn
config:property-append org.ops4j.pax.url.mvn.repositories ,https://maven.repository.redhat.com/ga@id=redhat.product.repo
config:update

feature:repo-refresh

To install the keycloak feature using the Maven repository, complete the following steps:

  1. Start JBoss Fuse 7.0.1; then in the Karaf terminal type:

    feature:repo-add mvn:org.keycloak/keycloak-osgi-features/3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001/xml/features
    feature:install keycloak-pax-http-undertow keycloak-jaas
  2. You might also need to install the Undertow feature:

    feature:install pax-http-undertow
  3. Ensure that the features were installed:
feature:list | grep keycloak
2.1.5.2.2. Installing from the ZIP bundle

This is useful if you are offline or do not want to use Maven to obtain the JAR files and other artifacts.

To install the Fuse adapter from the ZIP archive, complete the following steps:

  1. Download the Red Hat Single Sign-On Fuse adapter ZIP archive.
  2. Unzip it into the root directory of JBoss Fuse. The dependencies are then installed under the system directory. You can overwrite all existing jar files.

    Use this for JBoss Fuse 7.0.1:

    cd /path-to-fuse/jboss-fuse-7.0.z
    unzip -q /path-to-adapter-zip/rh-sso-7.2.5.GA-fuse-adapter.zip
  3. Start Fuse and run these commands in the fuse/karaf terminal:

    feature:repo-add mvn:org.keycloak/keycloak-osgi-features/3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001/xml/features
    feature:install keycloak-pax-http-undertow keycloak-jaas
  4. Install the corresponding Undertow adapter. Since the artifacts are available directly in the JBoss Fuse system directory, you do not need to use the Maven repository.

2.1.5.3. Securing a Classic WAR Application

The needed steps to secure your WAR application are:

  1. In the /WEB-INF/web.xml file, declare the necessary:

    • security constraints in the <security-constraint> element
    • login configuration in the <login-config> element. Make sure that the <auth-method> is KEYCLOAK.
    • security roles in the <security-role> element

      For example:

      <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
      <web-app xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee"
               xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
               xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_3_0.xsd"
               version="3.0">
      
          <module-name>customer-portal</module-name>
      
          <welcome-file-list>
              <welcome-file>index.html</welcome-file>
          </welcome-file-list>
      
          <security-constraint>
              <web-resource-collection>
                  <web-resource-name>Customers</web-resource-name>
                  <url-pattern>/customers/*</url-pattern>
              </web-resource-collection>
              <auth-constraint>
                  <role-name>user</role-name>
              </auth-constraint>
          </security-constraint>
      
          <login-config>
              <auth-method>KEYCLOAK</auth-method>
              <realm-name>does-not-matter</realm-name>
          </login-config>
      
          <security-role>
              <role-name>admin</role-name>
          </security-role>
          <security-role>
              <role-name>user</role-name>
          </security-role>
      </web-app>
  2. Within the /WEB-INF/ directory of your WAR, create a new file, keycloak.json. The format of this configuration file is described in the Java Adapters Config section. It is also possible to make this file available externally as described in Configuring the External Adapter.

    For example:

    {
        "realm": "demo",
        "resource": "customer-portal",
        "auth-server-url": "http://localhost:8080/auth",
        "ssl-required" : "external",
        "credentials": {
            "secret": "password"
        }
    }
  3. Contrary to the Fuse 6 adapter, there are no special OSGi imports needed in MANIFEST.MF.
2.1.5.3.1. Configuration Resolvers

The keycloak.json adapter configuration file can be stored inside a bundle, which is default behaviour, or in a directory on a filesystem. To specify the actual source of the configuration file, set the keycloak.config.resolver deployment parameter to the desired configuration resolver class. For example, in a classic WAR application, set the keycloak.config.resolver context parameter in web.xml file like this:

<context-param>
    <param-name>keycloak.config.resolver</param-name>
    <param-value>org.keycloak.adapters.osgi.PathBasedKeycloakConfigResolver</param-value>
</context-param>

The following resolvers are available for keycloak.config.resolver:

org.keycloak.adapters.osgi.BundleBasedKeycloakConfigResolver
This is the default resolver. The configuration file is expected inside the OSGi bundle that is being secured. By default, it loads file named WEB-INF/keycloak.json but this file name can be configured via configLocation property.
org.keycloak.adapters.osgi.PathBasedKeycloakConfigResolver

This resolver searches for a file called <your_web_context>-keycloak.json inside a folder that is specified by keycloak.config system property. If keycloak.config is not set, karaf.etc system property is used instead.

For example, if your web application is deployed into context my-portal, then your adapter configuration would be loaded either from the ${keycloak.config}/my-portal-keycloak.json file, or from ${karaf.etc}/my-portal-keycloak.json.

org.keycloak.adapters.osgi.HierarchicalPathBasedKeycloakConfigResolver

This resolver is similar to PathBasedKeycloakConfigResolver above, where for given URI path, configuration locations are checked from most to least specific.

For example, for /my/web-app/context URI, the following configuration locations are searched for existence until the first one exists:

  • ${karaf.etc}/my-web-app-context-keycloak.json
  • ${karaf.etc}/my-web-app-keycloak.json
  • ${karaf.etc}/my-keycloak.json
  • ${karaf.etc}/keycloak.json

2.1.5.4. Securing a Servlet Deployed as an OSGI Service

You can use this method if you have a servlet class inside your OSGI bundled project that is not deployed as a classic WAR application. Fuse uses Pax Web Whiteboard Extender to deploy such servlets as web applications.

To secure your servlet with Red Hat Single Sign-On, complete the following steps:

  1. Red Hat Single Sign-On provides org.keycloak.adapters.osgi.undertow.PaxWebIntegrationService, which allows configuring authentication method and security constraints for your application. You need to declare such services in the OSGI-INF/blueprint/blueprint.xml file inside your application. Note that your servlet needs to depend on it. An example configuration:

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
               xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
               xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0 http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0/blueprint.xsd">
    
        <bean id="servletConstraintMapping" class="org.keycloak.adapters.osgi.PaxWebSecurityConstraintMapping">
            <property name="roles">
                <list>
                    <value>user</value>
                </list>
            </property>
            <property name="authentication" value="true"/>
            <property name="url" value="/product-portal/*"/>
        </bean>
    
        <!-- This handles the integration and setting the login-config and security-constraints parameters -->
        <bean id="keycloakPaxWebIntegration" class="org.keycloak.adapters.osgi.undertow.PaxWebIntegrationService"
              init-method="start" destroy-method="stop">
            <property name="bundleContext" ref="blueprintBundleContext" />
            <property name="constraintMappings">
                <list>
                    <ref component-id="servletConstraintMapping" />
                </list>
            </property>
        </bean>
    
        <bean id="productServlet" class="org.keycloak.example.ProductPortalServlet" depends-on="keycloakPaxWebIntegration" />
    
        <service ref="productServlet" interface="javax.servlet.Servlet">
            <service-properties>
                <entry key="alias" value="/product-portal" />
                <entry key="servlet-name" value="ProductServlet" />
                <entry key="keycloak.config.file" value="/keycloak.json" />
            </service-properties>
        </service>
    </blueprint>
    • You might need to have the WEB-INF directory inside your project (even if your project is not a web application) and create the /WEB-INF/keycloak.json file as described in the Classic WAR application section. Note you don’t need the web.xml file as the security-constraints are declared in the blueprint configuration file.
  2. Contrary to the Fuse 6 adapter, there are no special OSGi imports needed in MANIFEST.MF.

2.1.5.5. Securing an Apache Camel Application

You can secure Apache Camel endpoints implemented with the camel-undertow component by injecting the proper security constraints via blueprint and updating the used component to undertow-keycloak. You have to add the OSGI-INF/blueprint/blueprint.xml file to your Camel application with a similar configuration as below. The roles and security constraint mappings, and adapter configuration might differ slightly depending on your environment and needs.

Compared to the standard undertow component, undertow-keycloak component adds two new properties:

  • configResolver is a resolver bean that supplies Red Hat Single Sign-On adapter configuration. Available resolvers are listed in Configuration Resolvers section.
  • allowedRoles is a comma-separated list of roles. User accessing the service has to have at least one role to be permitted the access.

For example:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
           xmlns:camel="http://camel.apache.org/schema/blueprint"
           xsi:schemaLocation="
       http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0 http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0/blueprint.xsd
       http://camel.apache.org/schema/blueprint http://camel.apache.org/schema/blueprint/camel-blueprint-2.17.1.xsd">

    <bean id="keycloakConfigResolver" class="org.keycloak.adapters.osgi.BundleBasedKeycloakConfigResolver" >
        <property name="bundleContext" ref="blueprintBundleContext" />
    </bean>

    <bean id="helloProcessor" class="org.keycloak.example.CamelHelloProcessor" />

    <camelContext id="blueprintContext"
                  trace="false"
                  xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/blueprint">

        <route id="httpBridge">
            <from uri="undertow-keycloak:http://0.0.0.0:8383/admin-camel-endpoint?matchOnUriPrefix=true&amp;configResolver=#keycloakConfigResolver&amp;allowedRoles=admin" />
            <process ref="helloProcessor" />
            <log message="The message from camel endpoint contains ${body}"/>
        </route>

    </camelContext>

</blueprint>
  • The Import-Package in META-INF/MANIFEST.MF needs to contain these imports:
javax.servlet;version="[3,4)",
javax.servlet.http;version="[3,4)",
javax.net.ssl,
org.apache.camel.*,
org.apache.camel;version="[2.13,3)",
io.undertow.*,
org.keycloak.*;version="3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001",
org.osgi.service.blueprint,
org.osgi.service.blueprint.container

2.1.5.6. Camel RestDSL

Camel RestDSL is a Camel feature used to define your REST endpoints in a fluent way. But you must still use specific implementation classes and provide instructions on how to integrate with Red Hat Single Sign-On.

The way to configure the integration mechanism depends on the Camel component for which you configure your RestDSL-defined routes.

The following example shows how to configure integration using the undertow-keycloak component, with references to some of the beans defined in previous Blueprint example.

<camelContext id="blueprintContext"
              trace="false"
              xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/blueprint">

    <!--the link with Keycloak security handlers happens by using undertow-keycloak component -->
    <restConfiguration apiComponent="undertow-keycloak" contextPath="/restdsl" port="8484">
        <endpointProperty key="configResolver" value="#keycloakConfigResolver" />
        <endpointProperty key="allowedRoles" value="admin,superadmin" />
    </restConfiguration>

    <rest path="/hello" >
        <description>Hello rest service</description>
        <get uri="/{id}" outType="java.lang.String">
            <description>Just a hello</description>
            <to uri="direct:justDirect" />
        </get>

    </rest>

    <route id="justDirect">
        <from uri="direct:justDirect"/>
        <process ref="helloProcessor" />
        <log message="RestDSL correctly invoked ${body}"/>
        <setBody>
            <constant>(__This second sentence is returned from a Camel RestDSL endpoint__)</constant>
        </setBody>
    </route>

</camelContext>

2.1.5.7. Securing an Apache CXF Endpoint on a Separate Undertow Engine

To run your CXF endpoints secured by Red Hat Single Sign-On on a separate Undertow engine, complete the following steps:

  1. Add OSGI-INF/blueprint/blueprint.xml to your application, and in it, add the proper configuration resolver bean similarly to Camel configuration. In the httpu:engine-factory declare org.keycloak.adapters.osgi.undertow.CxfKeycloakAuthHandler handler using that camel configuration. The configuration for a CFX JAX-WS application might resemble this one:

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
               xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
               xmlns:jaxws="http://cxf.apache.org/blueprint/jaxws"
               xmlns:cxf="http://cxf.apache.org/blueprint/core"
               xmlns:httpu="http://cxf.apache.org/transports/http-undertow/configuration".
               xsi:schemaLocation="
          http://cxf.apache.org/transports/http-undertow/configuration http://cxf.apache.org/schemas/configuration/http-undertow.xsd
          http://cxf.apache.org/blueprint/core http://cxf.apache.org/schemas/blueprint/core.xsd
          http://cxf.apache.org/blueprint/jaxws http://cxf.apache.org/schemas/blueprint/jaxws.xsd">
    
        <bean id="keycloakConfigResolver" class="org.keycloak.adapters.osgi.BundleBasedKeycloakConfigResolver" >
            <property name="bundleContext" ref="blueprintBundleContext" />
        </bean>
    
        <httpu:engine-factory bus="cxf" id="kc-cxf-endpoint">
            <httpu:engine port="8282">
                <httpu:handlers>
                    <bean class="org.keycloak.adapters.osgi.undertow.CxfKeycloakAuthHandler">
                        <property name="configResolver" ref="keycloakConfigResolver" />
                    </bean>
                </httpu:handlers>
            </httpu:engine>
        </httpu:engine-factory>
    
        <jaxws:endpoint implementor="org.keycloak.example.ws.ProductImpl"
                        address="http://localhost:8282/ProductServiceCF" depends-on="kc-cxf-endpoint"/>
    
    </blueprint>

    For the CXF JAX-RS application, the only difference might be in the configuration of the endpoint dependent on engine-factory:

    <jaxrs:server serviceClass="org.keycloak.example.rs.CustomerService" address="http://localhost:8282/rest"
        depends-on="kc-cxf-endpoint">
        <jaxrs:providers>
            <bean class="com.fasterxml.jackson.jaxrs.json.JacksonJsonProvider" />
        </jaxrs:providers>
    </jaxrs:server>
  2. The Import-Package in META-INF/MANIFEST.MF must contain those imports:
META-INF.cxf;version="[2.7,3.3)",
META-INF.cxf.osgi;version="[2.7,3.3)";resolution:=optional,
org.apache.cxf.bus;version="[2.7,3.3)",
org.apache.cxf.bus.spring;version="[2.7,3.3)",
org.apache.cxf.bus.resource;version="[2.7,3.3)",
org.apache.cxf.transport.http;version="[2.7,3.3)",
org.apache.cxf.*;version="[2.7,3.3)",
org.springframework.beans.factory.config,
org.keycloak.*;version="3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001"

2.1.5.8. Securing an Apache CXF Endpoint on the Default Undertow Engine

Some services automatically come with deployed servlets on startup. One such service is the CXF servlet running in the http://localhost:8181/cxf context. Fuse’s Pax Web supports altering existing contexts via configuration admin. This can be used to secure endpoints by Red Hat Single Sign-On.

The configuration file OSGI-INF/blueprint/blueprint.xml inside your application might resemble the one below. Note that it adds the JAX-RS customerservice endpoint, which is endpoint-specific to your application.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
           xmlns:jaxrs="http://cxf.apache.org/blueprint/jaxrs"
           xsi:schemaLocation="
		http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0 http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0/blueprint.xsd
		http://cxf.apache.org/blueprint/jaxrs http://cxf.apache.org/schemas/blueprint/jaxrs.xsd">

    <!-- JAXRS Application -->
    <bean id="customerBean" class="org.keycloak.example.rs.CxfCustomerService" />

    <jaxrs:server id="cxfJaxrsServer" address="/customerservice">
        <jaxrs:providers>
            <bean class="com.fasterxml.jackson.jaxrs.json.JacksonJsonProvider" />
        </jaxrs:providers>
        <jaxrs:serviceBeans>
            <ref component-id="customerBean" />
        </jaxrs:serviceBeans>
    </jaxrs:server>
</blueprint>

Furthermore, you have to create ${karaf.etc}/org.ops4j.pax.web.context-anyName.cfg file. It will be treated as factory PID configuration that is tracked by pax-web-runtime bundle. Such configuration may contain the following properties that correspond to some of the properties of standard web.xml:

bundle.symbolicName = org.apache.cxf.cxf-rt-transports-http
context.id = default

context.param.keycloak.config.resolver = org.keycloak.adapters.osgi.HierarchicalPathBasedKeycloakConfigResolver

login.config.authMethod = KEYCLOAK

security.cxf.url = /cxf/customerservice/*
security.cxf.roles = admin, user

For full description of available properties in configuration admin file, please refer to Fuse documentation. The properties above have the following meaning:

bundle.symbolicName and context.id
Identification of the bundle and its deployment context within org.ops4j.pax.web.service.WebContainer.
context.param.keycloak.config.resolver
Provides value of keycloak.config.resolver context parameter to the bundle just the same as in web.xml for classic WARs. Available resolvers are described in Configuration Resolvers section.
login.config.authMethod
Authentication method. Must be KEYCLOAK.
security.anyName.url and security.anyName.roles

Values of properties of individual security constraints just as they would be set in security-constraint/web-resource-collection/url-pattern and security-constraint/auth-constraint/role-name in web.xml, respectively. Roles are separated by comma and whitespace around it. The anyName identifier can be arbitrary but must match for individual properties of the same security constraint.

Note

Some Fuse versions contain a bug that requires roles to be separated by ", " (comma and single space). Make sure you use precisely this notation for separating the roles.

The Import-Package in META-INF/MANIFEST.MF must contain at least these imports:

javax.ws.rs;version="[2,3)",
META-INF.cxf;version="[2.7,3.3)",
META-INF.cxf.osgi;version="[2.7,3.3)";resolution:=optional,
org.apache.cxf.transport.http;version="[2.7,3.3)",
org.apache.cxf.*;version="[2.7,3.3)",
com.fasterxml.jackson.jaxrs.json;version="${jackson.version}"

2.1.5.9. Securing Fuse Administration Services

2.1.5.9.1. Using SSH Authentication to Fuse Terminal

Red Hat Single Sign-On mainly addresses use cases for authentication of web applications; however, if your other web services and applications are protected with Red Hat Single Sign-On, protecting non-web administration services such as SSH with Red Hat Single Sign-On credentials is a best pracrice. You can do this using the JAAS login module, which allows remote connection to Red Hat Single Sign-On and verifies credentials based on Resource Owner Password Credentials.

To enable SSH authentication, complete the following steps:

  1. In Red Hat Single Sign-On create a client (for example, ssh-jmx-admin-client), which will be used for SSH authentication. This client needs to have Direct Access Grants Enabled selected to On.
  2. In the $FUSE_HOME/etc/org.apache.karaf.shell.cfg file, update or specify this property:

    sshRealm=keycloak
  3. Add the $FUSE_HOME/etc/keycloak-direct-access.json file with content similar to the following (based on your environment and Red Hat Single Sign-On client settings):

    {
        "realm": "demo",
        "resource": "ssh-jmx-admin-client",
        "ssl-required" : "external",
        "auth-server-url" : "http://localhost:8080/auth",
        "credentials": {
            "secret": "password"
        }
    }

    This file specifies the client application configuration, which is used by JAAS DirectAccessGrantsLoginModule from the keycloak JAAS realm for SSH authentication.

  4. Start Fuse and install the keycloak JAAS realm. The easiest way is to install the keycloak-jaas feature, which has the JAAS realm predefined. You can override the feature’s predefined realm by using your own keycloak JAAS realm with higher ranking. For details see the JBoss Fuse documentation.

    Use these commands in the Fuse terminal:

    features:addurl mvn:org.keycloak/keycloak-osgi-features/3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001/xml/features
    features:install keycloak-jaas
  5. Log in using SSH as admin user by typing the following in the terminal:

    ssh -o PubkeyAuthentication=no -p 8101 admin@localhost
  6. Log in with password password.
Note

On some later operating systems, you might also need to use the SSH command’s -o option -o HostKeyAlgorithms=+ssh-dss because later SSH clients do not allow use of the ssh-dss algorithm, by default. However, by default, it is currently used in JBoss Fuse 7.0.1.

Note that the user needs to have realm role admin to perform all operations or another role to perform a subset of operations (for example, the viewer role that restricts the user to run only read-only Karaf commands). The available roles are configured in $FUSE_HOME/etc/org.apache.karaf.shell.cfg or $FUSE_HOME/etc/system.properties.

2.1.5.9.2. Using JMX Authentication

JMX authentication might be necessary if you want to use jconsole or another external tool to remotely connect to JMX through RMI. Otherwise it might be better to use hawt.io/jolokia, since the jolokia agent is installed in hawt.io by default. For more details see Hawtio Admin Console.

To use JMX authentication, complete the following steps:

  1. In the $FUSE_HOME/etc/org.apache.karaf.management.cfg file, change the jmxRealm property to:

    jmxRealm=keycloak
  2. Install the keycloak-jaas feature and configure the $FUSE_HOME/etc/keycloak-direct-access.json file as described in the SSH section above.
  3. In jconsole you can use a URL such as:
service:jmx:rmi://localhost:44444/jndi/rmi://localhost:1099/karaf-root

and credentials: admin/password (based on the user with admin privileges according to your environment).

2.1.5.10. Securing the Hawtio Administration Console

To secure the Hawtio Administration Console with Red Hat Single Sign-On, complete the following steps:

  1. Create a client in the Red Hat Single Sign-On administration console in your realm. For example, in the Red Hat Single Sign-On demo realm, create a client hawtio-client, specify public as the Access Type, and specify a redirect URI pointing to Hawtio: http://localhost:8181/hawtio/*. Configure corresponding Web Origin (in this case, http://localhost:8181). Setup client scope mapping to include view-profile client role of account client in Scope tab in hawtio-client client detail.
  2. Create the keycloak-hawtio-client.json file in the $FUSE_HOME/etc directory using content similar to that shown in the example below. Change the realm, resource, and auth-server-url properties according to your Red Hat Single Sign-On environment. The resource property must point to the client created in the previous step. This file is used by the client (Hawtio JavaScript application) side.

    {
      "realm" : "demo",
      "clientId" : "hawtio-client",
      "url" : "http://localhost:8080/auth",
      "ssl-required" : "external",
      "public-client" : true
    }
  3. Create the keycloak-direct-access.json file in the $FUSE_HOME/etc directory using content similar to that shown in the example below. Change the realm and url properties according to your Red Hat Single Sign-On environment. This file is used by JavaScript client.

    {
      "realm" : "demo",
      "resource" : "ssh-jmx-admin-client",
      "auth-server-url" : "http://localhost:8080/auth",
      "ssl-required" : "external",
      "credentials": {
        "secret": "password"
      }
    }
  4. Create the keycloak-hawtio.json file in the $FUSE_HOME/etc dicrectory using content similar to that shown in the example below. Change the realm and auth-server-url properties according to your Red Hat Single Sign-On environment. This file is used by the adapters on the server (JAAS Login module) side.

    {
      "realm" : "demo",
      "resource" : "jaas",
      "bearer-only" : true,
      "auth-server-url" : "http://localhost:8080/auth",
      "ssl-required" : "external",
      "use-resource-role-mappings": false,
      "principal-attribute": "preferred_username"
    }
  5. Start JBoss Fuse 7.0.1, install the Keycloak feature. Then type in the Karaf terminal:

    system:property -p hawtio.keycloakEnabled true
    system:property -p hawtio.realm keycloak
    system:property -p hawtio.keycloakClientConfig file://\${karaf.base}/etc/keycloak-hawtio-client.json
    system:property -p hawtio.rolePrincipalClasses org.keycloak.adapters.jaas.RolePrincipal,org.apache.karaf.jaas.boot.principal.RolePrincipal
    restart io.hawt.hawtio-war
  6. Go to http://localhost:8181/hawtio and log in as a user from your Red Hat Single Sign-On realm.

    Note that the user needs to have the proper realm role to successfully authenticate to Hawtio. The available roles are configured in the $FUSE_HOME/etc/system.properties file in hawtio.roles.

2.1.6. Spring Boot Adapter

To be able to secure Spring Boot apps you must add the Keycloak Spring Boot adapter JAR to your app. You then have to provide some extra configuration via normal Spring Boot configuration (application.properties). Let’s go over these steps.

2.1.6.1. Adapter Installation

The Keycloak Spring Boot adapter takes advantage of Spring Boot’s autoconfiguration so all you need to do is add the Keycloak Spring Boot starter to your project. They Keycloak Spring Boot Starter is also directly available from the Spring Start Page. To add it manually using Maven, add the following to your dependencies:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.keycloak</groupId>
    <artifactId>keycloak-spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
</dependency>

Add the Adapter BOM dependency:

<dependencyManagement>
  <dependencies>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.keycloak.bom</groupId>
      <artifactId>keycloak-adapter-bom</artifactId>
      <version>3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001</version>
      <type>pom</type>
      <scope>import</scope>
    </dependency>
  </dependencies>
</dependencyManagement>

Currently the following embedded containers are supported and do not require any extra dependencies if using the Starter:

  • Tomcat
  • Undertow
  • Jetty

2.1.6.2. Required Spring Boot Adapter Configuration

This section describes how to configure your Spring Boot app to use Keycloak.

Instead of a keycloak.json file, you configure the realm for the Spring Boot Keycloak adapter via the normal Spring Boot configuration. For example:

keycloak.realm = demorealm
keycloak.auth-server-url = http://127.0.0.1:8080/auth
keycloak.ssl-required = external
keycloak.resource = demoapp
keycloak.credentials.secret = 11111111-1111-1111-1111-111111111111
keycloak.use-resource-role-mappings = true

You can disable the Keycloak Spring Boot Adapter (for example in tests) by setting keycloak.enabled = false.

To configure a Policy Enforcer, unlike keycloak.json, policy-enforcer-config must be used instead of just policy-enforcer.

You also need to specify the Java EE security config that would normally go in the web.xml. The Spring Boot Adapter will set the login-method to KEYCLOAK and configure the security-constraints at startup time. Here’s an example configuration:

keycloak.securityConstraints[0].authRoles[0] = admin
keycloak.securityConstraints[0].authRoles[1] = user
keycloak.securityConstraints[0].securityCollections[0].name = insecure stuff
keycloak.securityConstraints[0].securityCollections[0].patterns[0] = /insecure

keycloak.securityConstraints[1].authRoles[0] = admin
keycloak.securityConstraints[1].securityCollections[0].name = admin stuff
keycloak.securityConstraints[1].securityCollections[0].patterns[0] = /admin
Warning

If you plan to deploy your Spring Application as a WAR then you should not use the Spring Boot Adapter and use the dedicated adapter for the application server or servlet container you are using. Your Spring Boot should also contain a web.xml file.

2.1.7. Java Servlet Filter Adapter

If you are deploying your Java Servlet application on a platform where there is no Red Hat Single Sign-On adapter you opt to use the servlet filter adapter. This adapter works a bit differently than the other adapters. You do not define security constraints in web.xml. Instead you define a filter mapping using the Red Hat Single Sign-On servlet filter adapter to secure the url patterns you want to secure.

Warning

Backchannel logout works a bit differently than the standard adapters. Instead of invalidating the HTTP session it marks the session id as logged out. There’s no standard way to invalidate an HTTP session based on a session id.

<web-app xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee"
      xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
      xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_3_0.xsd"
      version="3.0">

	<module-name>application</module-name>

    <filter>
        <filter-name>Keycloak Filter</filter-name>
        <filter-class>org.keycloak.adapters.servlet.KeycloakOIDCFilter</filter-class>
    </filter>
    <filter-mapping>
        <filter-name>Keycloak Filter</filter-name>
        <url-pattern>/keycloak/*</url-pattern>
        <url-pattern>/protected/*</url-pattern>
    </filter-mapping>
</web-app>

In the snippet above there are two url-patterns. /protected/* are the files we want protected, while the /keycloak/* url-pattern handles callbacks from the Red Hat Single Sign-On server.

If you need to exclude some paths beneath the configured url-patterns you can use the Filter init-param keycloak.config.skipPattern to configure a regular expression that describes a path-pattern for which the keycloak filter should immediately delegate to the filter-chain. By default no skipPattern is configured.

Patterns are matched against the requestURI without the context-path. Given the context-path /myapp a request for /myapp/index.html will be matched with /index.html against the skip pattern.

<init-param>
    <param-name>keycloak.config.skipPattern</param-name>
    <param-value>^/(path1|path2|path3).*</param-value>
</init-param>

Note that you should configure your client in the Red Hat Single Sign-On Admin Console with an Admin URL that points to a secured section covered by the filter’s url-pattern.

The Admin URL will make callbacks to the Admin URL to do things like backchannel logout. So, the Admin URL in this example should be http[s]://hostname/{context-root}/keycloak.

The Red Hat Single Sign-On filter has the same configuration parameters as the other adapters except you must define them as filter init params instead of context params.

To use this filter, include this maven artifact in your WAR poms:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.keycloak</groupId>
    <artifactId>keycloak-servlet-filter-adapter</artifactId>
    <version>3.4.14.Final-redhat-00001</version>
</dependency>

2.1.8. Security Context

The KeycloakSecurityContext interface is available if you need to access to the tokens directly. This could be useful if you want to retrieve additional details from the token (such as user profile information) or you want to invoke a RESTful service that is protected by Red Hat Single Sign-On.

In servlet environments it is available in secured invocations as an attribute in HttpServletRequest:

httpServletRequest
    .getAttribute(KeycloakSecurityContext.class.getName());

Or, it is available in secure and insecure requests in the HttpSession:

httpServletRequest.getSession()
    .getAttribute(KeycloakSecurityContext.class.getName());

2.1.9. Error Handling

Red Hat Single Sign-On has some error handling facilities for servlet based client adapters. When an error is encountered in authentication, Red Hat Single Sign-On will call HttpServletResponse.sendError(). You can set up an error-page within your web.xml file to handle the error however you want. Red Hat Single Sign-On can throw 400, 401, 403, and 500 errors.

<error-page>
    <error-code>403</error-code>
    <location>/ErrorHandler</location>
</error-page>

Red Hat Single Sign-On also sets a HttpServletRequest attribute that you can retrieve. The attribute name is org.keycloak.adapters.spi.AuthenticationError, which should be casted to org.keycloak.adapters.OIDCAuthenticationError.

For example:

import org.keycloak.adapters.OIDCAuthenticationError;
import org.keycloak.adapters.OIDCAuthenticationError.Reason;
...

OIDCAuthenticationError error = (OIDCAuthenticationError) httpServletRequest
    .getAttribute('org.keycloak.adapters.spi.AuthenticationError');

Reason reason = error.getReason();
System.out.println(reason.name());

2.1.10. Logout

You can log out of a web application in multiple ways. For Java EE servlet containers, you can call HttpServletRequest.logout(). For other browser applications, you can redirect the browser to http://auth-server/auth/realms/{realm-name}/protocol/openid-connect/logout?redirect_uri=encodedRedirectUri, which logs you out if you have an SSO session with your browser.

2.1.11. Parameters Forwarding

The Red Hat Single Sign-On initial authorization endpoint request has support for various parameters. Most of the parameters are described in OIDC specification. Some parameters are added automatically by the adapter based on the adapter configuration. However, there are also a few parameters that can be added on a per-invocation basis. When you open the secured application URI, the particular parameter will be forwarded to the Red Hat Single Sign-On authorization endpoint.

For example, if you request an offline token, then you can open the secured application URI with the scope parameter like:

http://myappserver/mysecuredapp?scope=offline_access

and the parameter scope=offline_access will be automatically forwarded to the Red Hat Single Sign-On authorization endpoint.

The supported parameters are:

  • scope
  • prompt
  • max_age
  • login_hint
  • kc_idp_hint

Most of the parameters are described in the OIDC specification. The only exception is parameter kc_idp_hint, which is specific to Red Hat Single Sign-On and contains the name of the identity provider to automatically use. For more information see the Identity Brokering section in Server Administration Guide.

2.1.12. Client Authentication

When a confidential OIDC client needs to send a backchannel request (for example, to exchange code for the token, or to refresh the token) it needs to authenticate against the Red Hat Single Sign-On server. By default, there are two ways to authenticate the client: client ID and client secret, or client authentication with signed JWT.

2.1.12.1. Client ID and Client Secret

This is the traditional method described in the OAuth2 specification. The client has a secret, which needs to be known to both the adapter (application) and the Red Hat Single Sign-On server. You can generate the secret for a particular client in the Red Hat Single Sign-On administration console, and then paste this secret into the keycloak.json file on the application side:

"credentials": {
    "secret": "19666a4f-32dd-4049-b082-684c74115f28"
}

2.1.12.2. Client Authentication with Signed JWT

This is based on the RFC7523 specification. It works this way:

  • The client must have the private key and certificate. For Red Hat Single Sign-On this is available through the traditional keystore file, which is either available on the client application’s classpath or somewhere on the file system.
  • Once the client application is started, it allows to download its public key in JWKS format using a URL such as http://myhost.com/myapp/k_jwks, assuming that http://myhost.com/myapp is the base URL of your client application. This URL can be used by Red Hat Single Sign-On (see below).
  • During authentication, the client generates a JWT token and signs it with its private key and sends it to Red Hat Single Sign-On in the particular backchannel request (for example, code-to-token request) in the client_assertion parameter.
  • Red Hat Single Sign-On must have the public key or certificate of the client so that it can verify the signature on JWT. In Red Hat Single Sign-On you need to configure client credentials for your client. First you need to choose Signed JWT as the method of authenticating your client in the tab Credentials in administration console. Then you can choose to either:

    • Configure the JWKS URL where Red Hat Single Sign-On can download the client’s public keys. This can be a URL such as http://myhost.com/myapp/k_jwks (see details above). This option is the most flexible, since the client can rotate its keys anytime and Red Hat Single Sign-On then always downloads new keys when needed without needing to change the configuration. More accurately, Red Hat Single Sign-On downloads new keys when it sees the token signed by an unknown kid (Key ID).
    • Upload the client’s public key or certificate, either in PEM format, in JWK format, or from the keystore. With this option, the public key is hardcoded and must be changed when the client generates a new key pair. You can even generate your own keystore from the Red Hat Single Sign-On admininstration console if you don’t have your own available. For more details on how to set up the Red Hat Single Sign-On administration console see Server Administration Guide.

For set up on the adapter side you need to have something like this in your keycloak.json file:

"credentials": {
  "jwt": {
    "client-keystore-file": "classpath:keystore-client.jks",
    "client-keystore-type": "JKS",
    "client-keystore-password": "storepass",
    "client-key-password": "keypass",
    "client-key-alias": "clientkey",
    "token-expiration": 10
  }
}

With this configuration, the keystore file keystore-client.jks must be available on classpath in your WAR. If you do not use the prefix classpath: you can point to any file on the file system where the client application is running.

2.1.13. Multi Tenancy

Multi Tenancy, in our context, means that a single target application (WAR) can be secured with multiple Red Hat Single Sign-On realms. The realms can be located one the same Red Hat Single Sign-On instance or on different instances.

In practice, this means that the application needs to have multiple keycloak.json adapter configuration files.

You could have multiple instances of your WAR with different adapter configuration files deployed to different context-paths. However, this may be inconvenient and you may also want to select the realm based on something else than context-path.

Red Hat Single Sign-On makes it possible to have a custom config resolver so you can choose what adapter config is used for each request.

To achieve this first you need to create an implementation of org.keycloak.adapters.KeycloakConfigResolver. For example:

package example;

import org.keycloak.adapters.KeycloakConfigResolver;
import org.keycloak.adapters.KeycloakDeployment;
import org.keycloak.adapters.KeycloakDeploymentBuilder;

public class PathBasedKeycloakConfigResolver implements KeycloakConfigResolver {

    @Override
    public KeycloakDeployment resolve(OIDCHttpFacade.Request request) {
        if (path.startsWith("alternative")) {
            KeycloakDeployment deployment = cache.get(realm);
            if (null == deployment) {
                InputStream is = getClass().getResourceAsStream("/tenant1-keycloak.json");
                return KeycloakDeploymentBuilder.build(is);
            }
        } else {
            InputStream is = getClass().getResourceAsStream("/default-keycloak.json");
            return KeycloakDeploymentBuilder.build(is);
        }
    }

}

You also need to configure which KeycloakConfigResolver implementation to use with the keycloak.config.resolver context-param in your web.xml:

<web-app>
    ...
    <context-param>
        <param-name>keycloak.config.resolver</param-name>
        <param-value>example.PathBasedKeycloakConfigResolver</param-value>
    </context-param>
</web-app>

2.1.14. Application Clustering

This chapter is related to supporting clustered applications deployed to JBoss EAP.

There are a few options available depending on whether your application is:

  • Stateless or stateful
  • Distributable (replicated http session) or non-distributable
  • Relying on sticky sessions provided by load balancer
  • Hosted on same domain as Red Hat Single Sign-On

Dealing with clustering is not quite as simple as for a regular application. Mainly due to the fact that both the browser and the server-side application sends requests to Red Hat Single Sign-On, so it’s not as simple as enabling sticky sessions on your load balancer.

2.1.14.1. Stateless token store

By default, the web application secured by Red Hat Single Sign-On uses the HTTP session to store security context. This means that you either have to enable sticky sessions or replicate the HTTP session.

As an alternative to storing the security context in the HTTP session the adapter can be configured to store this in a cookie instead. This is useful if you want to make your application stateless or if you don’t want to store the security context in the HTTP session.

To use the cookie store for saving the security context, edit your applications WEB-INF/keycloak.json and add:

"token-store": "cookie"
Note

The default value for token-store is session, which stores the security context in the HTTP session.

One limitation of using the cookie store is that the whole security context is passed in the cookie for every HTTP request. This may impact performance.

Another small limitation is limited support for Single-Sign Out. It works without issues if you init servlet logout (HttpServletRequest.logout) from the application itself as the adapter will delete the KEYCLOAK_ADAPTER_STATE cookie. However, back-channel logout initialized from a different application isn’t propagated by Red Hat Single Sign-On to applications using cookie store. Hence it’s recommended to use a short value for the access token timeout (for example 1 minute).

2.1.14.2. Relative URI optimization

In deployment scenarios where Red Hat Single Sign-On and the application is hosted on the same domain (through a reverse proxy or load balancer) it can be convenient to use relative URI options in your client configuration.

With relative URIs the URI is resolved as relative to the URL used to access Red Hat Single Sign-On.

For example if the URL to your application is https://acme.org/myapp and the URL to Red Hat Single Sign-On is https://acme.org/auth, then you can use the redirect-uri /myapp instead of https://acme.org/myapp.

2.1.14.3. Admin URL configuration

Admin URL for a particular client can be configured in the Red Hat Single Sign-On Administration Console. It’s used by the Red Hat Single Sign-On server to send backend requests to the application for various tasks, like logout users or push revocation policies.

For example the way backchannel logout works is:

  1. User sends logout request from one application
  2. The application sends logout request to Red Hat Single Sign-On
  3. The Red Hat Single Sign-On server invalidates the user session
  4. The Red Hat Single Sign-On server then sends a backchannel request to application with an admin url that are associated with the session
  5. When an application receives the logout request it invalidates the corresponding HTTP session

If admin URL contains ${application.session.host} it will be replaced with the URL to the node associated with the HTTP session.

2.1.14.4. Registration of application nodes

The previous section describes how Red Hat Single Sign-On can send logout request to node associated with a specific HTTP session. However, in some cases admin may want to propagate admin tasks to all registered cluster nodes, not just one of them. For example to push a new not before policy to the application or to logout all users from the application.

In this case Red Hat Single Sign-On needs to be aware of all application cluster nodes, so it can send the event to all of them. To achieve this, we support auto-discovery mechanism:

  1. When a new application node joins the cluster, it sends a registration request to the Red Hat Single Sign-On server
  2. The request may be re-sent to Red Hat Single Sign-On in configured periodic intervals
  3. If the Red Hat Single Sign-On server doesn’t receive a re-registration request within a specified timeout then it automatically unregisters the specific node
  4. The node is also unregistered in Red Hat Single Sign-On when it sends an unregistration request, which is usually during node shutdown or application undeployment. This may not work properly for forced shutdown when undeployment listeners are not invoked, which results in the need for automatic unregistration

Sending startup registrations and periodic re-registration is disabled by default as it’s only required for some clustered applications.

To enable the feature edit the WEB-INF/keycloak.json file for your application and add:

"register-node-at-startup": true,
"register-node-period": 600,

This means the adapter will send the registration request on startup and re-register every 10 minutes.

In the Red Hat Single Sign-On Administration Console you can specify the maximum node re-registration timeout (should be larger than register-node-period from the adapter configuration). You can also manually add and remove cluster nodes in through the Adminstration Console, which is useful if you don’t want to rely on the automatic registration feature or if you want to remove stale application nodes in the event your not using the automatic unregistration feature.

2.1.14.5. Refresh token in each request

By default the application adapter will only refresh the access token when it’s expired. However, you can also configure the adapter to refresh the token on every request. This may have a performance impact as your application will send more requests to the Red Hat Single Sign-On server.

To enable the feature edit the WEB-INF/keycloak.json file for your application and add:

"always-refresh-token": true
Note

This may have a significant impact on performance. Only enable this feature if you can’t rely on backchannel messages to propagate logout and not before policies. Another thing to consider is that by default access tokens has a short expiration so even if logout is not propagated the token will expire within minutes of the logout.

2.2. Javascript Adapter

Red Hat Single Sign-On comes with a client-side JavaScript library that can be used to secure HTML5/JavaScript applications. The JavaScript adapter has built-in support for Cordova applications.

The library can be retrieved directly from the Red Hat Single Sign-On server at /auth/js/keycloak.js and is also distributed as a ZIP archive.

A best practice is to load the JavaScript adapter directly from Red Hat Single Sign-On Server as it will automatically be updated when you upgrade the server. If you copy the adapter to your web application instead, make sure you upgrade the adapter only after you have upgraded the server.

One important thing to note about using client-side applications is that the client has to be a public client as there is no secure way to store client credentials in a client-side application. This makes it very important to make sure the redirect URIs you have configured for the client are correct and as specific as possible.

To use the JavaScript adapter you must first create a client for your application in the Red Hat Single Sign-On Administration Console. Make sure public is selected for Access Type.

You also need to configure valid redirect URIs and valid web origins. Be as specific as possible as failing to do so may result in a security vulnerability.

Once the client is created click on the Installation tab select Keycloak OIDC JSON for Format Option then click Download. The downloaded keycloak.json file should be hosted on your web server at the same location as your HTML pages.

Alternatively, you can skip the configuration file and manually configure the adapter.

The following example shows how to initialize the JavaScript adapter:

<head>
    <script src="keycloak.js"></script>
    <script>
        var keycloak = Keycloak();
        keycloak.init().success(function(authenticated) {
            alert(authenticated ? 'authenticated' : 'not authenticated');
        }).error(function() {
            alert('failed to initialize');
        });
    </script>
</head>

If the keycloak.json file is in a different location you can specify it:

var keycloak = Keycloak('http://localhost:8080/myapp/keycloak.json');

Alternatively, you can pass in a JavaScript object with the required configuration instead:

var keycloak = Keycloak({
    url: 'http://keycloak-server/auth',
    realm: 'myrealm',
    clientId: 'myapp'
});

By default to authenticate you need to call the login function. However, there are two options available to make the adapter automatically authenticate. You can pass login-required or check-sso to the init function. login-required will authenticate the client if the user is logged-in to Red Hat Single Sign-On or display the login page if not. check-sso will only authenticate the client if the user is already logged-in, if the user is not logged-in the browser will be redirected back to the application and remain unauthenticated.

To enable login-required set onLoad to login-required and pass to the init method:

keycloak.init({ onLoad: 'login-required' })

After the user is authenticated the application can make requests to RESTful services secured by Red Hat Single Sign-On by including the bearer token in the Authorization header. For example:

var loadData = function () {
    document.getElementById('username').innerText = keycloak.subject;

    var url = 'http://localhost:8080/restful-service';

    var req = new XMLHttpRequest();
    req.open('GET', url, true);
    req.setRequestHeader('Accept', 'application/json');
    req.setRequestHeader('Authorization', 'Bearer ' + keycloak.token);

    req.onreadystatechange = function () {
        if (req.readyState == 4) {
            if (req.status == 200) {
                alert('Success');
            } else if (req.status == 403) {
                alert('Forbidden');
            }
        }
    }

    req.send();
};

One thing to keep in mind is that the access token by default has a short life expiration so you may need to refresh the access token prior to sending the request. You can do this by the updateToken method. The updateToken method returns a promise object which makes it easy to invoke the service only if the token was successfully refreshed and for example display an error to the user if it wasn’t. For example:

keycloak.updateToken(30).success(function() {
    loadData();
}).error(function() {
    alert('Failed to refresh token');
});

2.2.1. Session Status iframe

By default, the JavaScript adapter creates a hidden iframe that is used to detect if a Single-Sign Out has occurred. This does not require any network traffic, instead the status is retrieved by looking at a special status cookie. This feature can be disabled by setting checkLoginIframe: false in the options passed to the init method.

You should not rely on looking at this cookie directly. It’s format can change and it’s also associated with the URL of the Red Hat Single Sign-On server, not your application.

2.2.2. Implicit and Hybrid Flow

By default, the JavaScript adapter uses the Authorization Code flow.

With this flow the Red Hat Single Sign-On server returns an authorization code, not an authentication token, to the application. The JavaScript adapter exchanges the code for an access token and a refresh token after the browser is redirected back to the application.

Red Hat Single Sign-On also supports the Implicit flow where an access token is sent immediately after successful authentication with Red Hat Single Sign-On. This may have better performance than standard flow, as there is no additional request to exchange the code for tokens, but it has implications when the access token expires.

However, sending the access token in the URL fragment can be a security vulnerability. For example the token could be leaked through web server logs and or browser history.

To enable implicit flow, you need to enable the Implicit Flow Enabled flag for the client in the Red Hat Single Sign-On Administration Console. You also need to pass the parameter flow with value implicit to init method:

keycloak.init({ flow: 'implicit' })

One thing to note is that only an access token is provided and there is no refresh token. This means that once the access token has expired the application has to do the redirect to the Red Hat Single Sign-On again to obtain a new access token.

Red Hat Single Sign-On also supports the Hybrid flow.

This requires the client to have both the Standard Flow Enabled and Implicit Flow Enabled flags enabled in the admin console. The Red Hat Single Sign-On server will then send both the code and tokens to your application. The access token can be used immediately while the code can be exchanged for access and refresh tokens. Similar to the implicit flow, the hybrid flow is good for performance because the access token is available immediately. But, the token is still sent in the URL, and the security vulnerability mentioned earlier may still apply.

One advantage in the Hybrid flow is that the refresh token is made available to the application.

For the Hybrid flow, you need to pass the parameter flow with value hybrid to the init method:

keycloak.init({ flow: 'hybrid' })

2.2.3. Earlier Browsers

The JavaScript adapter depends on Base64 (window.btoa and window.atob) and HTML5 History API. If you need to support browsers that do not have these available (for example, IE9) you need to add polyfillers.

Example polyfill libraries:

2.2.4. JavaScript Adapter Reference

2.2.4.1. Constructor

new Keycloak();
new Keycloak('http://localhost/keycloak.json');
new Keycloak({ url: 'http://localhost/auth', realm: 'myrealm', clientId: 'myApp' });

2.2.4.2. Properties

authenticated
Is true if the user is authenticated, false otherwise.
token
The base64 encoded token that can be sent in the Authorization header in requests to services.
tokenParsed
The parsed token as a JavaScript object.
subject
The user id.
idToken
The base64 encoded ID token.
idTokenParsed
The parsed id token as a JavaScript object.
realmAccess
The realm roles associated with the token.
resourceAccess
The resource roles associated with the token.
refreshToken
The base64 encoded refresh token that can be used to retrieve a new token.
refreshTokenParsed
The parsed refresh token as a JavaScript object.
timeSkew
The estimated time difference between the browser time and the Red Hat Single Sign-On server in seconds. This value is just an estimation, but is accurate enough when determining if a token is expired or not.
responseMode
Response mode passed in init (default value is fragment).
flow
Flow passed in init.
responseType
Response type sent to Red Hat Single Sign-On with login requests. This is determined based on the flow value used during initialization, but can be overridden by setting this value.

2.2.4.3. Methods

2.2.4.3.1. init(options)

Called to initialize the adapter.

Options is an Object, where:

  • onLoad - Specifies an action to do on load. Supported values are 'login-required' or 'check-sso'.
  • token - Set an initial value for the token.
  • refreshToken - Set an initial value for the refresh token.
  • idToken - Set an initial value for the id token (only together with token or refreshToken).
  • timeSkew - Set an initial value for skew between local time and Red Hat Single Sign-On server in seconds (only together with token or refreshToken).
  • checkLoginIframe - Set to enable/disable monitoring login state (default is true).
  • checkLoginIframeInterval - Set the interval to check login state (default is 5 seconds).
  • responseMode - Set the OpenID Connect response mode send to Red Hat Single Sign-On server at login request. Valid values are query or fragment . Default value is fragment, which means that after successful authentication will Red Hat Single Sign-On redirect to javascript application with OpenID Connect parameters added in URL fragment. This is generally safer and recommended over query.
  • flow - Set the OpenID Connect flow. Valid values are standard, implicit or hybrid.

Returns promise to set functions to be invoked on success or error.

2.2.4.3.2. login(options)

Redirects to login form on (options is an optional object with redirectUri and/or prompt fields).

Options is an Object, where:

  • redirectUri - Specifies the uri to redirect to after login.
  • prompt - By default the login screen is displayed if the user is not logged-in to Red Hat Single Sign-On. To only authenticate to the application if the user is already logged-in and not display the login page if the user is not logged-in, set this option to none. To always require re-authentication and ignore SSO, set this option to login .
  • maxAge - Used just if user is already authenticated. Specifies maximum time since the authentication of user happened. If user is already authenticated for longer time than maxAge, the SSO is ignored and he will need to re-authenticate again.
  • loginHint - Used to pre-fill the username/email field on the login form.
  • action - If value is 'register' then user is redirected to registration page, otherwise to login page.
  • locale - Specifies the desired locale for the UI.
2.2.4.3.3. createLoginUrl(options)

Returns the URL to login form on (options is an optional object with redirectUri and/or prompt fields).

Options is an Object, which supports same options like the function login .

2.2.4.3.4. logout(options)

Redirects to logout.

Options is an Object, where:

  • redirectUri - Specifies the uri to redirect to after logout.
2.2.4.3.5. createLogoutUrl(options)

Returns the URL to logout the user.

Options is an Object, where:

  • redirectUri - Specifies the uri to redirect to after logout.
2.2.4.3.6. register(options)

Redirects to registration form. Shortcut for login with option action = 'register'

Options are same as for the login method but 'action' is set to 'register'

2.2.4.3.7. createRegisterUrl(options)

Returns the url to registration page. Shortcut for createLoginUrl with option action = 'register'

Options are same as for the createLoginUrl method but 'action' is set to 'register'

2.2.4.3.8. accountManagement()

Redirects to the Account Management Console.

2.2.4.3.9. createAccountUrl()

Returns the URL to the Account Management Console.

2.2.4.3.10. hasRealmRole(role)

Returns true if the token has the given realm role.

2.2.4.3.11. hasResourceRole(role, resource)

Returns true if the token has the given role for the resource (resource is optional, if not specified clientId is used).

2.2.4.3.12. loadUserProfile()

Loads the users profile.

Returns promise to set functions to be invoked if the profile was loaded successfully, or if the profile could not be loaded.

For example:

keycloak.loadUserProfile().success(function(profile) {
        alert(JSON.stringify(test, null, "  "));
    }).error(function() {
        alert('Failed to load user profile');
    });
2.2.4.3.13. isTokenExpired(minValidity)

Returns true if the token has less than minValidity seconds left before it expires (minValidity is optional, if not specified 0 is used).

2.2.4.3.14. updateToken(minValidity)

If the token expires within minValidity seconds (minValidity is optional, if not specified 5 is used) the token is refreshed. If the session status iframe is enabled, the session status is also checked.

Returns promise to set functions that can be invoked if the token is still valid, or if the token is no longer valid. For example:

keycloak.updateToken(5).success(function(refreshed) {
        if (refreshed) {
            alert('Token was successfully refreshed');
        } else {
            alert('Token is still valid');
        }
    }).error(function() {
        alert('Failed to refresh the token, or the session has expired');
    });
2.2.4.3.15. clearToken()

Clear authentication state, including tokens. This can be useful if application has detected the session was expired, for example if updating token fails.

Invoking this results in onAuthLogout callback listener being invoked.

2.2.4.4. Callback Events

The adapter supports setting callback listeners for certain events.

For example:

keycloak.onAuthSuccess = function() { alert('authenticated'); }

The available events are:

  • onReady(authenticated) - Called when the adapter is initialized.
  • onAuthSuccess - Called when a user is successfully authenticated.
  • onAuthError - Called if there was an error during authentication.
  • onAuthRefreshSuccess - Called when the token is refreshed.
  • onAuthRefreshError - Called if there was an error while trying to refresh the token.
  • onAuthLogout - Called if the user is logged out (will only be called if the session status iframe is enabled, or in Cordova mode).
  • onTokenExpired - Called when the access token is expired. If a refresh token is available the token can be refreshed with updateToken, or in cases where it is not (that is, with implicit flow) you can redirect to login screen to obtain a new access token.

2.3. Node.js Adapter

Red Hat Single Sign-On provides a Node.js adapter built on top of Connect to protect server-side JavaScript apps — the goal was to be flexible enough to integrate with frameworks like Express.js.

To use the Node.js adapter, first you must create a client for your application in the Red Hat Single Sign-On Administration Console. The adapter supports public, confidential, and bearer-only access type. Which one to choose depends on the use-case scenario.

Once the client is created click the Installation tab, select Red Hat Single Sign-On OIDC JSON for Format Option, and then click Download. The downloaded keycloak.json file should be at the root folder of your project.

2.3.1. Installation

Assuming you’ve already installed Node.js, create a folder for your application:

mkdir myapp && cd myapp

Use npm init command to create a package.json for your application. Now add the Red Hat Single Sign-On connect adapter in the dependencies list:

    "dependencies": {
        "keycloak-connect": "file:keycloak-connect-3.4.6.Final-redhat-1.tgz"
    }

2.3.2. Usage

Instantiate a Keycloak class
The Keycloak class provides a central point for configuration and integration with your application. The simplest creation involves no arguments.
    var session = require('express-session');
    var Keycloak = require('keycloak-connect');

    var memoryStore = new session.MemoryStore();
    var keycloak = new Keycloak({ store: memoryStore });

By default, this will locate a file named keycloak.json alongside the main executable of your application to initialize keycloak-specific settings (public key, realm name, various URLs). The keycloak.json file is obtained from the Red Hat Single Sign-On Admin Console.

Instantiation with this method results in all of the reasonable defaults being used. As alternative, it’s also possible to provide a configuration object, rather than the keycloak.json file:

    let kcConfig = {
        clientId: 'myclient',
        bearerOnly: true,
        serverUrl: 'http://localhost:8080/auth',
        realm: 'myrealm',
        realmPublicKey: 'MIIBIjANB...'
    };

    let keycloak = new Keycloak({ store: memoryStore }, kcConfig);
Configuring a web session store
If you want to use web sessions to manage server-side state for authentication, you need to initialize the Keycloak(…​) with at least a store parameter, passing in the actual session store that express-session is using.
    var session = require('express-session');
    var memoryStore = new session.MemoryStore();

    var keycloak = new Keycloak({ store: memoryStore });
Passing a custom scope value
By default, the scope value openid is passed as a query parameter to Red Hat Single Sign-On’s login URL, but you can add an additional custom value:
    var keycloak = new Keycloak({ scope: 'offline_access' });

2.3.3. Installing Middleware

Once instantiated, install the middleware into your connect-capable app:

    var app = express();

    app.use( keycloak.middleware() );

2.3.4. Protecting Resources

Simple authentication
To enforce that an user must be authenticated before accessing a resource, simply use a no-argument version of keycloak.protect():
    app.get( '/complain', keycloak.protect(), complaintHandler );
Role-based authorization
To secure a resource with an application role for the current app:
    app.get( '/special', keycloak.protect('special'), specialHandler );

To secure a resource with an application role for a different app:

    app.get( '/extra-special', keycloak.protect('other-app:special', extraSpecialHandler );

To secure a resource with a realm role:

    app.get( '/admin', keycloak.protect( 'realm:admin' ), adminHandler );
Advanced authorization
To secure resources based on parts of the URL itself, assuming a role exists for each section:
    function protectBySection(token, request) {
      return token.hasRole( request.params.section );
    }

    app.get( '/:section/:page', keycloak.protect( protectBySection ), sectionHandler );

2.3.5. Additional URLs

Explicit user-triggered logout
By default, the middleware catches calls to /logout to send the user through a Red Hat Single Sign-On-centric logout workflow. This can be changed by specifying a logout configuration parameter to the middleware() call:
    app.use( keycloak.middleware( { logout: '/logoff' } ));
Red Hat Single Sign-On Admin Callbacks
Also, the middleware supports callbacks from the Red Hat Single Sign-On console to log out a single session or all sessions. By default, these type of admin callbacks occur relative to the root URL of / but can be changed by providing an admin parameter to the middleware() call:
    app.use( keycloak.middleware( { admin: '/callbacks' } );

2.4. Other OpenID Connect Libraries

Red Hat Single Sign-On can be secured by supplied adapters that are usually easier to use and provide better integration with Red Hat Single Sign-On. However, if an adapter is not available for your programming language, framework, or platform you might opt to use a generic OpenID Connect Resource Provider (RP) library instead. This chapter describes details specific to Red Hat Single Sign-On and does not contain specific protocol details. For more information see the OpenID Connect specifications and OAuth2 specification.

2.4.1. Endpoints

The most important endpoint to understand is the well-known configuration endpoint. It lists endpoints and other configuration options relevant to the OpenID Connect implementation in Red Hat Single Sign-On. The endpoint is:

/realms/{realm-name}/.well-known/openid-configuration

To obtain the full URL, add the base URL for Red Hat Single Sign-On and replace {realm-name} with the name of your realm. For example:

http://localhost:8080/auth/realms/master/.well-known/openid-configuration

Some RP libraries retrieve all required endpoints from this endpoint, but for others you might need to list the endpoints individually.

2.4.1.1. Authorization Endpoint

/realms/{realm-name}/protocol/openid-connect/auth

The authorization endpoint performs authentication of the end-user. This is done by redirecting the user agent to this endpoint.

For more details see the Authorization Endpoint section in the OpenID Connect specification.

2.4.1.2. Token Endpoint

/realms/{realm-name}/protocol/openid-connect/token

The token endpoint is used to obtain tokens. Tokens can either be obtained by exchanging an authorization code or by supplying credentials directly depending on what flow is used. The token endpoint is also used to obtain new access tokens when they expire.

For more details see the Token Endpoint section in the OpenID Connect specification.

2.4.1.3. Userinfo Endpoint

/realms/{realm-name}/protocol/openid-connect/userinfo

The userinfo endpoint returns standard claims about the authenticated user, and is protected by a bearer token.

For more details see the Userinfo Endpoint section in the OpenID Connect specification.

2.4.1.4. Logout Endpoint

/realms/{realm-name}/protocol/openid-connect/logout

The logout endpoint logs out the authenticated user.

The user agent can be redirected to the endpoint, in which case the active user session is logged out. Afterward the user agent is redirected back to the application.

The endpoint can also be invoked directly by the application. To invoke this endpoint directly the refresh token needs to be included as well as the credentials required to authenticate the client.

2.4.1.5. Certificate Endpoint

/realms/{realm-name}/protocol/openid-connect/certs

The certificate endpoint returns the public keys enabled by the realm, encoded as a JSON Web Key (JWK). Depending on the realm settings there can be one or more keys enabled for verifying tokens. For more information see the Server Administration Guide and the JSON Web Key specification.

2.4.1.6. Introspection Endpoint

/realms/{realm-name}/protocol/openid-connect/token/introspect

The introspection endpoint is used to retrieve the active state of a token. In other words, you can use it to validate an access or refresh token. It can only be invoked by confidential clients.

For more details on how to invoke on this endpoint, see OAuth 2.0 Token Introspection specification.

2.4.1.7. Dynamic Client Registration Endpoint

/realms/{realm-name}/clients-registrations/openid-connect

The dynamic client registration endpoint is used to dynamically register clients.

For more details see the Client Registration chapter and the OpenID Connect Dynamic Client Registration specification.

2.4.2. Validating Access Tokens

If you need to manually validate access tokens issued by Red Hat Single Sign-On you can invoke the Introspection Endpoint. The downside to this approach is that you have to make a network invocation to the Red Hat Single Sign-On server. This can be slow and possibily overload the server if you have too many validation requests going on at the same time. Red Hat Single Sign-On issued access tokens are JSON Web Tokens (JWT) digitally signed and encoded using JSON Web Signature (JWS). Because they are encoded in this way, this allows you to locally validate access tokens using the public key of the issuing realm. You can either hard code the realm’s public key in your validation code, or lookup and cache the public key using the certificate endpoint with the Key ID (KID) embedded within the JWS. Depending what language you code in, there are a multitude of third party libraries out there that can help you with JWS validation.

2.4.3. Flows

2.4.3.1. Authorization Code

The Authorization Code flow redirects the user agent to Red Hat Single Sign-On. Once the user has successfully authenticated with Red Hat Single Sign-On an Authorization Code is created and the user agent is redirected back to the application. The application then uses the authorization code along with its credentials to obtain an Access Token, Refresh Token and ID Token from Red Hat Single Sign-On.

The flow is targeted towards web applications, but is also recommended for native applications, including mobile applications, where it is possible to embed a user agent.

For more details refer to the Authorization Code Flow in the OpenID Connect specification.

2.4.3.2. Implicit

The Implicit flow redirects works similarly to the Authorization Code flow, but instead of returning a Authorization Code the Access Token and ID Token is returned. This reduces the need for the extra invocation to exchange the Authorization Code for an Access Token. However, it does not include a Refresh Token. This results in the need to either permit Access Tokens with a long expiration, which is problematic as it’s very hard to invalidate these. Or requires a new redirect to obtain new Access Token once the initial Access Token has expired. The Implicit flow is useful if the application only wants to authenticate the user and deals with logout itself.

There’s also a Hybrid flow where both the Access Token and an Authorization Code is returned.

One thing to note is that both the Implicit flow and Hybrid flow has potential security risks as the Access Token may be leaked through web server logs and browser history. This is somewhat mitigated by using short expiration for Access Tokens.

For more details refer to the Implicit Flow in the OpenID Connect specification.

2.4.3.3. Resource Owner Password Credentials

Resource Owner Password Credentials, referred to as Direct Grant in Red Hat Single Sign-On, allows exchanging user credentials for tokens. It’s not recommended to use this flow unless you absolutely need to. Examples where this could be useful are legacy applications and command-line interfaces.

There are a number of limitations of using this flow, including:

  • User credentials are exposed to the application
  • Applications need login pages
  • Application needs to be aware of the authentication scheme
  • Changes to authentication flow requires changes to application
  • No support for identity brokering or social login
  • Flows are not supported (user self-registration, required actions, etc.)

For a client to be permitted to use the Resource Owner Password Credentials grant the client has to have the Direct Access Grants Enabled option enabled.

This flow is not included in OpenID Connect, but is a part of the OAuth 2.0 specification.

For more details refer to the Resource Owner Password Credentials Grant chapter in the OAuth 2.0 specification.

2.4.3.3.1. Example using CURL

The following example shows how to obtain an access token for a user in the realm master with username user and password password. The example is using the confidential client myclient:

curl \
  -d "client_id=myclient" \
  -d "client_secret=40cc097b-2a57-4c17-b36a-8fdf3fc2d578" \
  -d "username=user" \
  -d "password=password" \
  -d "grant_type=password" \
  "http://localhost:8080/auth/realms/master/protocol/openid-connect/token"

2.4.3.4. Client Credentials

Client Credentials is used when clients (applications and services) wants to obtain access on behalf of themselves rather than on behalf of a user. This can for example be useful for background services that applies changes to the system in general rather than for a specific user.

Red Hat Single Sign-On provides support for clients to authenticate either with a secret or with public/private keys.

This flow is not included in OpenID Connect, but is a part of the OAuth 2.0 specification.

For more details refer to the Client Credentials Grant chapter in the OAuth 2.0 specification.

2.4.4. Redirect URIs

When using the redirect based flows it’s important to use valid redirect uris for your clients. The redirect uris should be as specific as possible. This especially applies to client-side (public clients) applications. Failing to do so could result in:

  • Open redirects - this can allow attackers to create spoof links that looks like they are coming from your domain
  • Unauthorized entry - when users are already authenticated with Red Hat Single Sign-On an attacker can use a public client where redirect uris have not be configured correctly to gain access by redirecting the user without the users knowledge

In production for web applications always use https for all redirect URIs. Do not allow redirects to http.

There’s also a few special redirect URIs:

http://localhost
This redirect URI is useful for native applications and allows the native application to create a web server on a random port that can be used to obtain the authorization code. This redirect uri allows any port.
urn:ietf:wg:oauth:2.0:oob
If its not possible to start a web server in the client (or a browser is not available) it is possible to use the special urn:ietf:wg:oauth:2.0:oob redirect uri. When this redirect uri is used Red Hat Single Sign-On displays a page with the code in the title and in a box on the page. The application can either detect that the browser title has changed, or the user can copy/paste the code manually to the application. With this redirect uri it is also possible for a user to use a different device to obtain a code to paste back to the application.