Chapter 4. API Requests in Different Languages

This chapter outlines sending API requests to Red Hat Satellite with curl, Ruby, and Python and provides examples.

4.1. API Requests with curl

This section outlines how to use curl with the Satellite API to perform various tasks.

Red Hat Satellite requires the use of HTTPS, and by default a certificate for host identification. If you have not added the Satellite Server certificate as described in Section 3.1, “SSL Authentication Overview”, then you can use the --insecure option to bypass certificate checks.

For user authentication, you can use the --user option to provide Satellite user credentials in the form --user username:password or, if you do not include the password, the command prompts you to enter it. To reduce security risks, do not include the password as part of the command, because it then becomes part of your shell history. Examples in this section include the password only for the sake of simplicity.

Be aware that if you use the --silent option, curl does not display a progress meter or any error messages.

Examples in this chapter use the Python json.tool module to format the output.

4.1.1. Passing JSON Data to the API Request

You can pass data to Satellite Server with the API request. The data must be in JSON format. When specifying JSON data with the --data option, you must set the following HTTP headers with the --header option:

--header "Accept:application/json,version=2" \
--header "Content-Type:application/json"

Use one of the following options to include data with the --data option:

  1. The quoted JSON formatted data enclosed in curly braces {}. When passing a value for a JSON type parameter, you must escape quotation marks " with backslashes \. For example, within curly braces, you must format "Example JSON Variable" as \"Example JSON Variable\":

    --date {"id":44, "smart_class_parameter":{"override":"true", "parameter_type":"json", "default_value":"{\"GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX\": {\"audit\":\"1\",\"crashkernel\":\"true\"}}"}}
  2. The unquoted JSON formatted data enclosed in a file and specified by the @ sign and the filename. For example:

    --data @file.json

    Using external files for JSON formatted data has the following advantages:

    • You can use your favorite text editor.
    • You can use syntax checker to find and avoid mistakes.
    • You can use tools to check the validity of JSON data or to reformat it.

Validating a JSON file

Use the json_verify tool to check the validity of a JSON file:

$ json_verify < test_file.json

4.1.2. Retrieving a List of Resources

This section outlines how to use curl with the Satellite 6 API to request information from your Satellite deployment. These examples include both requests and responses. Expect different results for each deployment.

Listing Users

This example is a basic request that returns a list of Satellite resources, Satellite users in this case. Such requests return a list of data wrapped in metadata, while other request types only return the actual object.

Example request:

$ curl --request GET --insecure --user sat_username:sat_password \
https://satellite.example.com/api/users | python -m json.tool

Example response:

{
    "page": 1,
    "per_page": 20,
    "results": [
        {
            "admin": false,
            "auth_source_id": 1,
            "auth_source_name": "Internal",
            "created_at": "2018-09-21 08:59:22 UTC",
            "default_location": null,
            "default_organization": null,
            "description": "",
            "effective_admin": false,
            "firstname": "",
            "id": 5,
            "last_login_on": "2018-09-21 09:03:25 UTC",
            "lastname": "",
            "locale": null,
            "locations": [],
            "login": "test",
            "mail": "example@domain.com",
            "organizations": [
                {
                    "id": 1,
                    "name": "Default Organization"
                }
            ],
            "ssh_keys": [],
            "timezone": null,
            "updated_at": "2018-09-21 09:04:45 UTC"
        },
        {
            "admin": true,
            "auth_source_id": 1,
            "auth_source_name": "Internal",
            "created_at": "2018-09-20 07:09:41 UTC",
            "default_location": null,
            "default_organization": {
                "description": null,
                "id": 1,
                "name": "Default Organization",
                "title": "Default Organization"
            },
            "description": "",
            "effective_admin": true,
            "firstname": "Admin",
            "id": 4,
            "last_login_on": "2018-12-07 07:31:09 UTC",
            "lastname": "User",
            "locale": null,
            "locations": [
                {
                    "id": 2,
                    "name": "Default Location"
                }
            ],
            "login": "admin",
            "mail": "root@example.com",
            "organizations": [
                {
                    "id": 1,
                    "name": "Default Organization"
                }
            ],
            "ssh_keys": [],
            "timezone": null,
            "updated_at": "2018-11-14 08:19:46 UTC"
        }
    ],
    "search": null,
    "sort": {
        "by": null,
        "order": null
    },
    "subtotal": 2,
    "total": 2
}

4.1.3. Creating and Modifying Resources

This section outlines how to use curl with the Satellite 6 API to manipulate resources on the Satellite Server. These API calls require that you pass data in json format with the API call. For more information, see Section 4.1.1, “Passing JSON Data to the API Request”.

Creating a User

This example creates a user using --data option to provide required information.

Example request:

$ curl --header "Accept:application/json,version=2" \
--header "Content-Type:application/json" --request POST \
--user sat_username:sat_password --insecure \
--data "{\"firstname\":\"Test Name\",\"mail\":\"test@example.com\",\"login\":\"test_user\",\"password\":\"password123\",\"auth_source_id\":1}" \
https://satellite.example.com/api/users | python -m json.tool

Modifying a User

This example modifies first name and login of the test_user that was created in Creating a User.

Example request:

$ curl --header "Accept:application/json,version=2" \
--header "Content-Type:application/json" --request PUT \
--user sat_username:sat_password --insecure \
--data "{\"firstname\":\"New Test Name\",\"mail\":\"test@example.com\",\"login\":\"new_test_user\",\"password\":\"password123\",\"auth_source_id\":1}" \
https://satellite.example.com/api/users/8 | python -m json.tool

4.2. API Requests with Ruby

This section outlines how to use Ruby with the Satellite API to perform various tasks.

Important

These are example scripts and commands. Ensure you review these scripts carefully before use, and replace any variables, user names, passwords, and other information to suit your own deployment.

4.2.1. Creating Objects Using Ruby

This script connects to the Red Hat Satellite 6 API and creates an organization, and then creates three environments in the organization. If the organization already exists, the script uses that organization. If any of the environments already exist in the organization, the script raises an error and quits.

#!/usr/bin/ruby

require 'rest-client'
require 'json'

url = 'https://satellite.example.com/api/v2/'
katello_url = "#{url}/katello/api/v2/"

$username = 'admin'
$password = 'changeme'

org_name = "MyOrg"
environments = [ "Development", "Testing", "Production" ]

# Performs a GET using the passed URL location
def get_json(location)
  response = RestClient::Request.new(
    :method => :get,
    :url => location,
    :user => $username,
    :password => $password,
    :headers => { :accept => :json,
    :content_type => :json }
  ).execute
  JSON.parse(response.to_str)
end

# Performs a POST and passes the data to the URL location
def post_json(location, json_data)
  response = RestClient::Request.new(
    :method => :post,
    :url => location,
    :user => $username,
    :password => $password,
    :headers => { :accept => :json,
    :content_type => :json},
    :payload => json_data
  ).execute
  JSON.parse(response.to_str)
end

# Creates a hash with ids mapping to names for an array of records
def id_name_map(records)
  records.inject({}) do |map, record|
    map.update(record['id'] => record['name'])
  end
end

# Get list of existing organizations
orgs = get_json("#{katello_url}/organizations")
org_list = id_name_map(orgs['results'])

if !org_list.has_value?(org_name)
  # If our organization is not found, create it
  puts "Creating organization: \t#{org_name}"
  org_id = post_json("#{katello_url}/organizations", JSON.generate({"name"=> org_name}))["id"]
else
  # Our organization exists, so let's grab it
  org_id = org_list.key(org_name)
  puts "Organization \"#{org_name}\" exists"
end

# Get list of organization's lifecycle environments
envs = get_json("#{katello_url}/organizations/#{org_id}/environments")
env_list = id_name_map(envs['results'])
prior_env_id = env_list.key("Library")

# Exit the script if at least one life cycle environment already exists
environments.each do |e|
  if env_list.has_value?(e)
    puts "ERROR: One of the Environments is not unique to organization"
    exit
  end
end

 # Create life cycle environments
environments.each do |environment|
  puts "Creating environment: \t#{environment}"
  prior_env_id = post_json("#{katello_url}/organizations/#{org_id}/environments", JSON.generate({"name" => environment, "organization_id" => org_id, "prior_id" => prior_env_id}))["id"]
end

4.2.2. Using Apipie Bindings with Ruby

Apipie bindings are the Ruby bindings for apipie documented API calls. They fetch and cache the API definition from Satellite and then generate API calls on demand. This example creates an organization, and then creates three environments in the organization. If the organization already exists, the script uses that organization. If any of the environments already exist in the organization, the script raises an error and quits.

#!/usr/bin/tfm-ruby

require 'apipie-bindings'

org_name = "MyOrg"
environments = [ "Development", "Testing", "Production" ]

# Create an instance of apipie bindings
@api = ApipieBindings::API.new({
  :uri => 'https://satellite.example.com/',
  :username => 'admin',
  :password => 'changeme',
  :api_version => 2
})

# Performs an API call with default options
def call_api(resource_name, action_name, params = {})
  http_headers = {}
  apipie_options = { :skip_validation => true }
  @api.resource(resource_name).call(action_name, params, http_headers, apipie_options)
end

# Creates a hash with IDs mapping to names for an array of records
def id_name_map(records)
  records.inject({}) do |map, record|
    map.update(record['id'] => record['name'])
  end
end

# Get list of existing organizations
orgs = call_api(:organizations, :index)
org_list = id_name_map(orgs['results'])

if !org_list.has_value?(org_name)
  # If our organization is not found, create it
  puts "Creating organization: \t#{org_name}"
  org_id = call_api(:organizations, :create, {'organization' => { :name => org_name }})['id']
else
  # Our organization exists, so let's grab it
  org_id = org_list.key(org_name)
  puts "Organization \"#{org_name}\" exists"
end

# Get list of organization's life cycle environments
envs = call_api(:lifecycle_environments, :index, {'organization_id' => org_id})
env_list = id_name_map(envs['results'])
prior_env_id = env_list.key("Library")

# Exit the script if at least one life cycle environment already exists
environments.each do |e|
  if env_list.has_value?(e)
    puts "ERROR: One of the Environments is not unique to organization"
    exit
  end
end

 # Create life cycle environments
environments.each do |environment|
  puts "Creating environment: \t#{environment}"
  prior_env_id = call_api(:lifecycle_environments, :create, {"name" => environment, "organization_id" => org_id, "prior_id" => prior_env_id })['id']
end

4.3. API Requests with Python

This section outlines how to use Python with the Satellite API to perform various tasks.

Important

These are example scripts and commands. Ensure you review these scripts carefully before use, and replace any variables, user names, passwords, and other information to suit your own deployment.

Example scripts in this section do not use SSL verification for interacting with the REST API.

4.3.1. Creating Objects Using Python

This script connects to the Red Hat Satellite 6 API and creates an organization, and then creates three environments in the organization. If the organization already exists, the script uses that organization. If any of the environments already exist in the organization, the script raises an error and quits.

Python 2 Example

#!/usr/bin/python

import json
import sys

try:
    import requests
except ImportError:
    print "Please install the python-requests module."
    sys.exit(-1)

# URL to your Satellite 6 server
URL = "https://satellite.example.com"
# URL for the API to your deployed Satellite 6 server
SAT_API = "%s/katello/api/v2/" % URL
# Katello-specific API
KATELLO_API = "%s/katello/api/" % URL
POST_HEADERS = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
# Default credentials to login to Satellite 6
USERNAME = "admin"
PASSWORD = "changeme"
# Ignore SSL for now
SSL_VERIFY = False

# Name of the organization to be either created or used
ORG_NAME = "MyOrg"
# Name for life cycle environments to be either created or used
ENVIRONMENTS = ["Development", "Testing", "Production"]


def get_json(location):
    """
    Performs a GET using the passed URL location
    """

    r = requests.get(location, auth=(USERNAME, PASSWORD), verify=SSL_VERIFY)

    return r.json()


def post_json(location, json_data):
    """
    Performs a POST and passes the data to the URL location
    """

    result = requests.post(
        location,
        data=json_data,
        auth=(USERNAME, PASSWORD),
        verify=SSL_VERIFY,
        headers=POST_HEADERS)

    return result.json()


def main():
    """
    Main routine that creates or re-uses an organization and
    life cycle environments. If life cycle environments already
    exist, exit out.
    """

    # Check if our organization already exists
    org = get_json(SAT_API + "organizations/" + ORG_NAME)

    # If our organization is not found, create it
    if org.get('error', None):
        org_id = post_json(
            SAT_API + "organizations/",
            json.dumps({"name": ORG_NAME}))["id"]
        print "Creating organization: \t" + ORG_NAME
    else:
        # Our organization exists, so let's grab it
        org_id = org['id']
        print "Organization '%s' exists." % ORG_NAME

    # Now, let's fetch all available life cycle environments for this org...
    envs = get_json(
        SAT_API + "organizations/" + str(org_id) + "/environments/")

    # ... and add them to a dictionary, with respective 'Prior' environment
    prior_env_id = 0
    env_list = {}
    for env in envs['results']:
        env_list[env['id']] = env['name']
        prior_env_id = env['id'] if env['name'] == "Library" else prior_env_id

    # Exit the script if at least one life cycle environment already exists
    if all(environment in env_list.values() for environment in ENVIRONMENTS):
        print "ERROR: One of the Environments is not unique to organization"
        sys.exit(-1)

    # Create life cycle environments
    for environment in ENVIRONMENTS:
        new_env_id = post_json(
            SAT_API + "organizations/" + str(org_id) + "/environments/",
            json.dumps(
                {
                    "name": environment,
                    "organization_id": org_id,
                    "prior": prior_env_id}
            ))["id"]

        print "Creating environment: \t" + environment
        prior_env_id = new_env_id


if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()

4.3.2. Requesting information from the API using Python

This is an example script that uses Python for various API requests.

Python 2 Example

#!/usr/bin/python
import json
import sys
try:
    import requests
except ImportError:
    print "Please install the python-requests module."
    sys.exit(-1)

SAT_API = 'https://satellite.example.com/api/v2/'
USERNAME = "admin"
PASSWORD = "password"
SSL_VERIFY = False   # Ignore SSL for now

def get_json(url):
    # Performs a GET using the passed URL location
    r = requests.get(url, auth=(USERNAME, PASSWORD), verify=SSL_VERIFY)
    return r.json()

def get_results(url):
    jsn = get_json(url)
    if jsn.get('error'):
        print "Error: " + jsn['error']['message']
    else:
        if jsn.get('results'):
            return jsn['results']
        elif 'results' not in jsn:
            return jsn
        else:
            print "No results found"
    return None

def display_all_results(url):
    results = get_results(url)
    if results:
        print json.dumps(results, indent=4, sort_keys=True)

def display_info_for_hosts(url):
    hosts = get_results(url)
    if hosts:
        for host in hosts:
            print "ID: %-10d Name: %-30s IP: %-20s OS: %-30s" % (host['id'], host['name'], host['ip'], host['operatingsystem_name'])

def main():
    host = 'satellite.example.com'
    print "Displaying all info for host %s ..." % host
    display_all_results(SAT_API + 'hosts/' + host)

    print "Displaying all facts for host %s ..." % host
    display_all_results(SAT_API + 'hosts/%s/facts' % host)

    host_pattern = 'example'
    print "Displaying basic info for hosts matching pattern '%s'..." % host_pattern
    display_info_for_hosts(SAT_API + 'hosts?search=' + host_pattern)

    environment = 'production'
    print "Displaying basic info for hosts in environment %s..." % environment
    display_info_for_hosts(SAT_API + 'hosts?search=environment=' + environment)

    model = 'RHEV Hypervisor'
    print "Displaying basic info for hosts with model name %s..." % model
    display_info_for_hosts(SAT_API + 'hosts?search=model="' + model + '"')

if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()

Python 3 Example

#!/usr/bin/env python3

import json
import sys

try:
    import requests
except ImportError:
    print("Please install the python-requests module.")
    sys.exit(-1)

SAT = "satellite.example.com"
# URL for the API to your deployed Satellite 6 server
SAT_API = f"https://{SAT}/api/"
KATELLO_API = f"https://{SAT}/katello/api/v2/"

POST_HEADERS = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
# Default credentials to login to Satellite 6
USERNAME = "admin"
PASSWORD = "password"
# Ignore SSL for now
SSL_VERIFY = False
#SSL_VERIFY = "./path/to/CA-certificate.crt" # Put the path to your CA certificate here to allow SSL_VERIFY


def get_json(url):
    # Performs a GET using the passed URL location
    r = requests.get(url, auth=(USERNAME, PASSWORD), verify=SSL_VERIFY)
    return r.json()

def get_results(url):
    jsn = get_json(url)
    if jsn.get('error'):
        print("Error: " + jsn['error']['message'])
    else:
        if jsn.get('results'):
            return jsn['results']
        elif 'results' not in jsn:
            return jsn
        else:
            print("No results found")
    return None

def display_all_results(url):
    results = get_results(url)
    if results:
        print(json.dumps(results, indent=4, sort_keys=True))

def display_info_for_hosts(url):
    hosts = get_results(url)
    if hosts:
        print(f"{'ID':10}{'Name':40}{'IP':30}{'Operating System':30}")
        for host in hosts:
            print(f"{str(host['id']):10}{host['name']:40}{str(host['ip']):30}{str(host['operatingsystem_name']):30}")

def display_info_for_subs(url):
    subs = get_results(url)
    if subs:
        print(f"{'ID':10}{'Name':90}{'Start Date':30}")
        for sub in subs:
            print(f"{str(sub['id']):10}{sub['name']:90}{str(sub['start_date']):30}")

def main():
    host = SAT
    print(f"Displaying all info for host {host} ...")
    display_all_results(SAT_API + 'hosts/' + host)

    print(f"Displaying all facts for host {host} ...")
    display_all_results(SAT_API + f'hosts/{host}/facts')

    host_pattern = 'example'
    print(f"Displaying basic info for hosts matching pattern '{host_pattern}'...")
    display_info_for_hosts(SAT_API + 'hosts?per_page=1&search=name~' + host_pattern)

    print(f"Displaying basic info for subscriptions")
    display_info_for_subs(KATELLO_API + 'subscriptions')

    environment = 'production'
    print(f"Displaying basic info for hosts in environment {environment}...")
    display_info_for_hosts(SAT_API + 'hosts?search=environment=' + environment)


if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()