Installing Capsule Server

Red Hat Satellite 6.6

Installing Red Hat Satellite Capsule Server

Red Hat Satellite Documentation Team

Abstract

This guide describes how to install Red Hat Satellite Capsule Server, perform initial configuration, and configure external services.

Chapter 1. Preparing your environment for installation

1.1. System Requirements

The following requirements apply to the networked base system:

  • x86_64 architecture
  • The latest version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Server
  • 4-core 2.0 GHz CPU at a minimum
  • A minimum of 12 GB memory is required for Capsule Server to function. In addition, a minimum of 4 GB of swap space is also recommended. Capsule running with less memory than the minimum value might not operate correctly.
  • A unique host name, which can contain lower-case letters, numbers, dots (.) and hyphens (-)
  • A current Red Hat Satellite subscription
  • Administrative user (root) access
  • A system umask of 0022
  • Full forward and reverse DNS resolution using a fully-qualified domain name

Before you install Capsule Server, ensure that your environment meets the requirements for installation.

Capsule Server must be installed on a freshly provisioned system that serves no other function except to run Capsule Server. The freshly provisioned system must not have the following users provided by external identity providers to avoid conflicts with the local users that Capsule Server creates:

  • postgres
  • mongodb
  • apache
  • tomcat
  • foreman
  • foreman-proxy
  • qpidd
  • qdrouterd
  • squid
  • puppet
Note

The Red Hat Satellite Server and Capsule Server versions must match. For example, a Satellite 6.2 Server cannot run a 6.6 Capsule Server and a Satellite 6.6 Server cannot run a 6.2 Capsule Server. Mismatching Satellite Server and Capsule Server versions results in the Capsule Server failing silently.

For more information on scaling your Capsule Servers, see Capsule Server Scalability Considerations.

Certified hypervisors

Capsule Server is fully supported on both physical systems and virtual machines that run on hypervisors that are supported to run Red Hat Enterprise Linux. For more information about certified hypervisors, see Which hypervisors are certified to run Red Hat Enterprise Linux?

FIPS Mode

You can install Capsule Server on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system that is operating in FIPS mode. For more information, see Enabling FIPS Mode in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security Guide.

1.2. Storage Requirements

The following table details storage requirements for specific directories. These values are based on expected use case scenarios and can vary according to individual environments.

The runtime size was measured with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, 6, and 7 repositories synchronized.

Table 1.1. Storage Requirements for Capsule Server Installation

DirectoryInstallation SizeRuntime Size

/var/cache/pulp/

1 MB

20 GB (Minimum)

/var/lib/pulp/

1 MB

500 GB

/var/lib/mongodb/

3.5 GB

50 GB

/opt

500 MB

Not Applicable

1.3. Storage Guidelines

Consider the following guidelines when installing Capsule Server to increase efficiency.

  • Because most Capsule Server data is stored within the /var directory, mounting /var on LVM storage can help the system to scale.
  • For the /var/lib/pulp/ and /var/lib/mongodb/ directories, use high-bandwidth, low-latency storage, and solid state drives (SSD) rather than hard disk drives (HDD). As Red Hat Satellite has many operations that are I/O intensive, using high latency, low-bandwidth storage causes performance degradation. Ensure your installation has a speed in the range 60 - 80 Megabytes per second. You can use the fio tool to get this data. See the Red Hat Knowledgebase solution Impact of Disk Speed on Satellite 6 Operations for more information on using the fio tool.
  • The /var/lib/qpidd/ directory uses slightly more than 2 MB per Content Host managed by the goferd service. For example, 10 000 Content Hosts require 20 GB of disk space in /var/lib/qpidd/.
  • Using the same volume for the /var/cache/pulp/ and /var/lib/pulp/ directories can decrease the time required to move content from /var/cache/pulp/ to /var/lib/pulp/ after synchronizing.

File System Guidelines

  • Use the XFS file system for Red Hat Satellite 6 because it does not have the inode limitations that ext4 does. As Capsule Server uses a lot of symbolic links it is likely that your system may run out of inodes if using ext4 and the default number of inodes.
  • Do not use NFS with MongoDB because MongoDB does not use conventional I/O to access data files and performance problems occur when both the data files and the journal files are hosted on NFS. If required to use NFS, mount the volumes with the following option in the /etc/fstab file: bg, nolock, and noatime.
  • Do not use the GFS2 file system as the input-output latency is too high.

SELinux Considerations for NFS Mount

When /var/lib/pulp directory is mounted using an NFS share, SELinux blocks the synchronization process. To avoid this, specify the SELinux context of the /var/lib/pulp directory in the file system table by adding the following lines to /etc/fstab:

nfs.example.com:/nfsshare  /var/lib/pulp/content  nfs  context="system_u:object_r:httpd_sys_rw_content_t:s0"  1 2

If NFS share is already mounted, remount it using the above configuration and enter the following command:

# chcon -R system_u:object_r:httpd_sys_rw_content_t:s0 /var/lib/pulp

Duplicated Packages

Packages that are duplicated in different repositories are only stored once on the disk. Additional repositories containing duplicate packages require less additional storage. The bulk of storage resides in the /var/lib/mongodb/ and /var/lib/pulp/ directories. These end points are not manually configurable. Ensure that storage is available on the /var file system to prevent storage problems.

Temporary Storage

The /var/cache/pulp/ directory is used to temporarily store content while it is being synchronized. For content in RPM format, a maximum of 5 RPM files are stored in this directory at any time. After each file is synchronized, it is moved to the /var/lib/pulp/ directory. Up to 8 RPM content synchronization tasks can run simultaneously by default, with each using up to 1 GB of metadata.

ISO Images

For content in ISO format, all ISO files per synchronization task are stored in /var/cache/pulp/ until the task is complete, after which they are moved to the /var/lib/pulp/ directory.

If you plan to use ISO images for installing or updating, you must provide external storage or allow space in /var/tmp for temporarily storing ISO files.

For example, if you are synchronizing four ISO files, each 4 GB in size, this requires a total of 16 GB in the /var/cache/pulp/ directory. Consider the number of ISO files you intend synchronizing because the temporary disk space required for them typically exceeds that of RPM content.

Software Collections

Software collections are installed in the /opt/rh/ and /opt/theforeman/ directories.

Write and execute permissions by the root user are required for installation to the /opt directory.

Symbolic links

You cannot use symbolic links for /var/lib/pulp/ and /var/lib/mongodb/.

Log Storage

You can view log files at the following locations: /var/log/messages/, /var/log/httpd/, and /var/lib/foreman-proxy/openscap/content/. To manage the size of the log files use the logrotate configuration file. For more information, see Log Rotation in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 System Administrator’s Guide.

1.4. Supported Operating Systems

You can install the operating system from disc, local ISO image, kickstart, or any other method that Red Hat supports. Red Hat Capsule Server is supported only on the latest versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Server that is available at the time when Capsule Server 6.6 is installed. Previous versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux including EUS or z-stream are not supported.

Red Hat Capsule Server requires a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation with the @Base package group with no other package-set modifications, and without third-party configurations or software not directly necessary for the direct operation of the server. This restriction includes hardening and other non-Red Hat security software. If you require such software in your infrastructure, install and verify a complete working Capsule Server first, then create a backup of the system before adding any non-Red Hat software.

Install Capsule Server on a freshly provisioned system. Do not register Capsule Server to the Red Hat Content Delivery Network (CDN). Red Hat does not support using the system for anything other than running Capsule Server.

1.5. Ports and Firewalls Requirements

For the components of Satellite architecture to communicate, ensure that the required network ports are open and free on the base operating system. You must also ensure that the required network ports are open on any network-based firewalls.

The installation of a Capsule Server fails if the ports between Satellite Server and Capsule Server are not open before installation starts.

Use this information to configure any network-based firewalls. Note that some cloud solutions must be specifically configured to allow communications between machines because they isolate machines similarly to network-based firewalls. If you use an application-based firewall, ensure that the application-based firewall permits all applications that are listed in the tables and known to your firewall. If possible, disable the application checking and allow open port communication based on the protocol.

Integrated Capsule

Satellite Server has an integrated Capsule and any host that is directly connected to Satellite Server is a Client of Satellite in the context of this section. This includes the base system on which Capsule Server is running.

Clients of Capsule

Hosts which are clients of Capsules, other than Satellite’s integrated Capsule, do not need access to Satellite Server. For more information on Satellite Topology, see Capsule Networking in Planning for Red Hat Satellite 6.

Required ports can change based on your configuration.

A matrix table of ports is available in the Red Hat Knowledgebase solution Red Hat Satellite 6.6 List of Network Ports.

The following tables indicate the destination port and the direction of network traffic:

Table 1.2. Ports for Capsule to Satellite Communication

PortProtocolServiceRequired For

5646

TCP

amqp

Capsule’s Qpid dispatch router to Qpid dispatch router in Satellite

Table 1.3. Ports for Client to Capsule Communication

PortProtocolServiceRequired for

80

TCP

HTTP

Anaconda, yum, and for obtaining Katello certificate updates

443

TCP

HTTPS

Anaconda, yum, Telemetry Services, and Puppet

5647

TCP

amqp

Katello agent to communicate with Capsule’s Qpid dispatch router

8000

TCP

HTTPS

Anaconda to download kickstart templates to hosts, and for downloading iPXE firmware

8140

TCP

HTTPS

Puppet agent to Puppet master connections

8443

TCP

HTTPS

Subscription Management Services and Telemetry Services

9090

TCP

HTTPS

Sending SCAP reports to the Smart Proxy in the Capsule and for the discovery image during provisioning

53

TCP and UDP

DNS

Client DNS queries to a Capsule’s DNS service (Optional)

67

UDP

DHCP

Client to Capsule broadcasts, DHCP broadcasts for Client provisioning from a Capsule (Optional)

69

UDP

TFTP

Clients downloading PXE boot image files from a Capsule for provisioning (Optional)

5000

TCP

HTTPS

Connection to Katello for the Docker registry (Optional)

Table 1.4. Ports for Capsule to Client Communication

PortProtocolServiceRequired For

7

TCP and UDP

ICMP

DHCP Capsule to Client network, ICMP ECHO to verify IP address is free (Optional)

68

UDP

DHCP

Capsule to Client broadcasts, DHCP broadcasts for Client provisioning from a Capsule (Optional)

8443

TCP

HTTP

Capsule to Client "reboot" command to a discovered host during provisioning (Optional)

Any managed host that is directly connected to Satellite Server is a client in this context because it is a client of the integrated Capsule. This includes the base system on which a Capsule Server is running.

Table 1.5. Optional Network Ports

PortProtocolServiceRequired For

22

TCP

SSH

Satellite and Capsule originated communications, for Remote Execution (Rex) and Ansible.

7911

TCP

DHCP

  • Capsule originated commands for orchestration of DHCP records (local or external).
  • If DHCP is provided by an external service, you must open the port on the external server.
Note

A DHCP Capsule sends an ICMP ECHO to confirm an IP address is free, no response of any kind is expected. ICMP can be dropped by a networked-based firewall, but any response prevents the allocation of IP addresses.

1.6. Enabling Connections from Capsule Server to Satellite Server

On Satellite Server, you must enable the incoming connection from Capsule Server to Satellite Server and make this rule persistent across reboots.

Prerequisites

  • Ensure that the firewall rules on Satellite Server are configured to enable connections for client to Satellite communication, because Capsule Server is a client of Satellite Server. For more information, see Enabling Connections from a Client to Satellite Server in Installing Satellite Server from a Connected Network.

Procedure

  1. On Satellite Server, enter the following command to open the port for Capsule to Satellite communication:

    # firewall-cmd --add-port="5646/tcp"
  2. Make the changes persistent:

    # firewall-cmd --runtime-to-permanent

1.7. Enabling Connections from Satellite Server and Clients to a Capsule Server

On the base operating system on which you want to install Capsule, you must enable incoming connections from Satellite Server and clients to Capsule Server and make these rules persistent across reboots.

Procedure

  1. On the base operating system on which you want to install Capsule, enter the following command to open the ports for Satellite Server and clients communication to Capsule Server:

    # firewall-cmd --add-port="53/udp" --add-port="53/tcp" \
    --add-port="67/udp" --add-port="69/udp" \
    --add-port="80/tcp" --add-port="443/tcp" \
    --add-port="5000/tcp" --add-port="5647/tcp" \
    --add-port="8000/tcp" --add-port="8140/tcp" \
    --add-port="8443/tcp" --add-port="9090/tcp"
  2. Make the changes persistent:

    # firewall-cmd --runtime-to-permanent

1.8. Verifying Firewall Settings

Use this procedure to verify your changes to the firewall settings.

Procedure

To verify the firewall settings, complete the following step:

  1. Enter the following command:

    # firewall-cmd --list-all

For more information, see Getting Started with firewalld in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Security Guide.

Chapter 2. Installing Capsule Server

Before you install Capsule Server, you should ensure that your environment meets the requirements for installation. Capsule Server has the same requirements for installation as Satellite Server, with the additional requirement that you have not configured it to use a proxy to connect to the Red Hat CDN. For more information, see Section 1.1, “System Requirements”.

2.1. Registering to Satellite Server

Use this procedure to register the base system on which you want to install Capsule Server to Satellite Server.

Prerequisites

Before registering it to Satellite Server, ensure that the base system on which you want to install Capsule meets the following conditions:

Subscription Manifest Prerequisites

  • On Satellite Server, a manifest must be installed and it must contain the appropriate repositories for the organization you want Capsule to belong to.
  • The manifest must contain repositories for the base system on which you want to install Capsule, as well as any clients that you want to connect to Capsule.
  • The repositories must be synchronized.

For more information on manifests and repositories, see Managing Subscriptions in the Red Hat Satellite Content Management Guide.

Proxy and Network Prerequisites

  • The Satellite Server base system must be able to resolve the host name of the Capsule base system and vice versa.
  • The base system on which you want to install Capsule Server must not be configured to use a proxy to connect to the Red Hat CDN.
  • You must configure the host and network-based firewalls accordingly. For more information, see Section 1.5, “Ports and Firewalls Requirements”.
  • You must have a Satellite Server user name and password. For more information, see Configuring External Authentication in Administering Red Hat Satellite.

Procedure

To register your system to Satellite Server, complete the following steps:

  1. Install the Satellite Server CA certificate on the base system on which you want to install Capsule.

    # rpm -Uvh http://satellite.example.com/pub/katello-ca-consumer-latest.noarch.rpm
  2. Register the Capsule base system with the environments that you want Capsule to belong to. Use an activation key to simplify specifying the environments.

    # subscription-manager register --org=organization_name --activationkey=example_activation_key

2.2. Attaching the Satellite Infrastructure Subscription

After you have registered Capsule Server, you must identify your subscription Pool ID and attach an available subscription. The Red Hat Satellite Infrastructure subscription provides access to the Red Hat Satellite, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and Red Hat Software Collections (RHSCL) content. This is the only subscription required.

Red Hat Satellite Infrastructure is included with all subscriptions that include Smart Management. For more information, see the Red Hat Knowledgebase solution Satellite Infrastructure Subscriptions MCT3718 MCT3719.

Subscriptions are classified as available if they are not already attached to a system. If you are unable to find an available Satellite subscription, see the Red Hat Knowledgebase solution How do I figure out which subscriptions have been consumed by clients registered under Red Hat Subscription Manager? to run a script to see if your subscription is being consumed by another system.

Procedure

To attach the Satellite Infrastructure subscription, complete the following steps:

  1. Identify the Pool ID of the Satellite Infrastructure subscription:

    # subscription-manager list --all --available --matches 'Red Hat Satellite Infrastructure Subscription'

    The command displays output similar to the following:

    Subscription Name:   Red Hat Satellite Infrastructure Subscription
    Provides:            Red Hat Satellite
                          Red Hat Software Collections (for RHEL Server)
                          Red Hat CodeReady Linux Builder for x86_64
                          Red Hat Ansible Engine
                          Red Hat Enterprise Linux Load Balancer (for RHEL Server)
                          Red Hat
                          Red Hat Software Collections (for RHEL Server)
                          Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server
                          Red Hat Satellite Capsule
                          Red Hat Enterprise Linux for x86_64
                          Red Hat Enterprise Linux High Availability for x86_64
                          Red Hat Satellite
                          Red Hat Satellite 5 Managed DB
                          Red Hat Satellite 6
                          Red Hat Discovery
    SKU:                 MCT3719
    Contract:            11878983
    Pool ID:             8a85f99968b92c3701694ee998cf03b8
    Provides Management: No
    Available:           1
    Suggested:           1
    Service Level:       Premium
    Service Type:        L1-L3
    Subscription Type:   Standard
    Ends:                03/04/2020
    System Type:         Physical
  2. Make a note of the subscription Pool ID. Your subscription Pool ID is different from the example provided.
  3. Attach the Satellite Infrastructure subscription to the base system that your Capsule Server is running on:

    # subscription-manager attach --pool=pool_id

    The command displays output similar to the following:

    Successfully attached a subscription for: Red Hat Satellite Infrastructure Subscription
  4. Optional: Verify that the Satellite Infrastructure subscription is attached:

    # subscription-manager list --consumed

2.3. Configuring Repositories

Use this procedure to enable the repositories that are required to install Capsule Server.

Procedure

To configure the required repositories, complete the following steps:

  1. Disable all repositories:

    # subscription-manager repos --disable "*"
  2. Enable the following repositories:

    # subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-7-server-rpms \
    --enable=rhel-server-rhscl-7-rpms \
    --enable=rhel-7-server-satellite-capsule-6.6-rpms \
    --enable=rhel-7-server-satellite-maintenance-6-rpms \
    --enable=rhel-7-server-ansible-2.8-rpms
    Note

    If you are installing Capsule Server as a virtual machine hosted on Red Hat Virtualization (RHV), you must also enable the Red Hat Common repository, and install RHV guest agents and drivers. For more information, see Installing the Guest Agents and Drivers on Red Hat Enterprise Linux in the Virtual Machine Management Guide for more information.

  3. Clear any yum metadata:

    # yum clean all
  4. Optional: Verify that the required repositories are enabled:

    # yum repolist enabled

2.4. Synchronizing the System Clock With chronyd

To minimize the effects of time drift, you must synchronize the system clock on the base system on which you want to install Capsule Server with Network Time Protocol (NTP) servers. If the base system clock is configured incorrectly, certificate verification might fail.

For more information about the chrony suite, see Configuring NTP Using the chrony Suite in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 System Administrator’s Guide.

Procedure

To synchronize the system clock, complete the following steps:

  1. Install the chrony package:

    # yum install chrony
  2. Start and enable the chronyd service:

    # systemctl start chronyd
    # systemctl enable chronyd

2.5. Installing Capsule Server Packages

Before installing the Capsule Server packages, you must update all packages that are installed on the base system.

Procedure

To install Capsule Server, complete the following steps:

  1. Update all packages:

    # yum update
  2. Install the satellite-capsule package:

    # yum install satellite-capsule

2.6. Configuring Capsule Server with SSL Certificates

Red Hat Satellite uses SSL certificates to enable encrypted communications between Satellite Server, external Capsule Servers, and all hosts. Depending on the requirements of your organization, you must configure your Capsule Server with a default or custom certificate.

2.6.1. Configuring Capsule Server with a Default SSL Certificate

Use this section to configure Capsule Server with an SSL certificate that is signed by the Satellite Server default Certificate Authority (CA).

Prerequisites

Before configuring Capsule Server with a default server certificate, ensure that your Capsule Server meets the following conditions:

Procedure

To configure Capsule Server with a default server certificate, complete the following steps:

  1. On Satellite Server, to store all the source certificate files for your Capsule Server, create a directory that is accessible only to the root user, for example /root/capsule_cert:

    # mkdir /root/capsule_cert
  2. On Satellite Server, generate the /root/capsule_cert/capsule_certs.tar certificate archive for your Capsule Server:

    # capsule-certs-generate \
    --foreman-proxy-fqdn capsule.example.com \
    --certs-tar /root/capsule_cert/capsule_certs.tar

    Retain a copy of the satellite-installer command that the capsule-certs-generate command returns for deploying the certificate to your Capsule Server.

  3. On Satellite Server, copy the certificate archive file to your Capsule Server:

    # scp /root/capsule.example.com-certs.tar
    root@capsule.example.com:/root/capsule.example.com-certs.tar
  4. On Capsule Server, to deploy the certificate, enter the satellite-installer command that the capsule-certs-generate command returns.

    When network connections or ports to Satellite are not yet open, you can set the --foreman-proxy-register-in-foreman option to false to prevent Capsule from attempting to connect to Satellite and reporting errors. Run the installer again with this option set to true when the network and firewalls are correctly configured.

    Important

    Do not delete the certificate archive file after you deploy the certificate. It is required, for example, when upgrading Capsule Server.

2.6.2. Configuring Capsule Server with a Custom SSL Certificate

If you configure Satellite Server to use a custom SSL certificate, you must also configure each of your external Capsule Servers with a distinct custom SSL certificate.

To configure your Capsule Server with a custom certificate, complete the following procedures on each Capsule Server:

2.6.2.1. Creating a Custom SSL Certificate for Capsule Server

On Satellite Server, create a custom certificate for your Capsule Server. If you already have a custom SSL certificate for Capsule Server, skip this procedure.

Do not use the same certificate for both Satellite Server and Capsule Server.

Important

Use the Privacy-Enhanced Mail (PEM) encoding for the SSL certificates.

Procedure

To create a custom SSL certificate, complete the following steps:

  1. To store all the source certificate files, create a directory that is accessible only to the root user.

    # mkdir /root/capsule_cert
  2. Create a private key with which to sign the Certificate Signing Request (CSR).

    Note that the private key must be unencrypted. If you use a password-protected private key, remove the private key password.

    If you already have a private key for this Capsule Server, skip this step.

    # openssl genrsa -out /root/capsule_cert/capsule_cert_key.pem 4096
  3. Create the /root/capsule_cert/openssl.cnf configuration file for the Certificate Signing Request (CSR) and include the following content:

    [ req ]
    req_extensions = v3_req
    distinguished_name = req_distinguished_name
    x509_extensions = usr_cert
    prompt = no
    
    [ req_distinguished_name ] 1
    C  = Country Name (2 letter code)
    ST = State or Province Name (full name)
    L  = Locality Name (eg, city)
    O  = Organization Name (eg, company)
    OU = The division of your organization handling the certificate
    CN = capsule.example.com 2
    
    [ v3_req ]
    basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
    keyUsage = digitalSignature, nonRepudiation, keyEncipherment, dataEncipherment
    extendedKeyUsage = serverAuth, clientAuth, codeSigning, emailProtection
    subjectAltName = @alt_names
    
    [ usr_cert ]
    basicConstraints=CA:FALSE
    nsCertType = client, server, email
    keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
    extendedKeyUsage = serverAuth, clientAuth, codeSigning, emailProtection
    nsComment = "OpenSSL Generated Certificate"
    subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
    authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer
    
    [ alt_names ]
    DNS.1 = capsule.example.com 3
    1
    In the [ req_distinguished_name ] section, enter information about your organization.
    2
    Set the certificate’s Common Name CN to match the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of your Capsule Server. To confirm a FQDN, on that Capsule Server, enter the hostname -f command.
    3
    Set the Subject Alternative Name (SAN) DNS.1 to match the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of your server.
  4. Generate the Certificate Signing Request (CSR):

    # openssl req -new \
    -key /root/capsule_cert/capsule_cert_key.pem \ 1
    -config /root/capsule_cert/openssl.cnf \ 2
    -out /root/capsule_cert/capsule_cert_csr.pem 3
    1
    Path to the private key.
    2
    Path to the configuration file.
    3
    Path to the CSR to generate.
  5. Send the certificate signing request to the Certificate Authority. The same Certificate Authority must sign certificates for Satellite Server and Capsule Server.

    When you submit the request, specify the lifespan of the certificate. The method for sending the certificate request varies, so consult the Certificate Authority for the preferred method. In response to the request, you can expect to receive a Certificate Authority bundle and a signed certificate, in separate files.

2.6.2.2. Deploying a Custom SSL Certificate to Capsule Server

Use this procedure to configure your Capsule Server with a custom SSL certificate signed by a Certificate Authority. The satellite-installer command, which the capsule-certs-generate command returns, is unique to each Capsule Server. Do not use the same command on more than one Capsule Server.

Prerequisites

Before configuring Capsule Server with a custom server certificate, ensure that your Satellite and Capsule Servers meet the following conditions:

Procedure

To configure your Capsule Server with a custom SSL certificate, complete the following steps:

  1. On Satellite Server, validate the custom SSL certificate input files:

    # katello-certs-check \
    -c /root/capsule_cert/capsule_cert.pem \      1
    -k /root/capsule_cert/capsule_cert_key.pem \  2
    -b /root/capsule_cert/ca_cert_bundle.pem      3
    1
    Path to the Capsule Server certificate file that is signed by a Certificate Authority.
    2
    Path to the private key that was used to sign the Capsule Server certificate.
    3
    Path to the Certificate Authority bundle.

    If the command is successful, it returns two capsule-certs-generate commands, one of which you must use to generate the certificate archive file for your Capsule Server.

  2. On Satellite Server, from the output of the katello-certs-check command, depending on your requirements, enter the capsule-certs-generate command that generates a certificate for a new or existing Capsule. In this command, change $CAPSULE to the FQDN of your Capsule Server.
  3. Retain a copy of the satellite-installer command that the capsule-certs-generate command returns for deploying the certificate to your Capsule Server.
  4. On Satellite Server, copy the certificate archive file to your Capsule Server:

    # scp /root/capsule.example.com-certs.tar \
    root@capsule.example.com:/root/capsule.example.com-certs.tar
  5. On Capsule Server, to deploy the certificate, enter the satellite-installer command that the capsule-certs-generate command returns.

    When network connections or ports to Satellite are not yet open, you can set the --foreman-proxy-register-in-foreman option to false to prevent Capsule from attempting to connect to Satellite and reporting errors. Run the installer again with this option set to true when the network and firewalls are correctly configured.

    Important

    Do not delete the certificate archive file after you deploy the certificate. It is required, for example, when upgrading Capsule Server.

2.6.2.3. Deploying a Custom SSL Certificate to Hosts

After you configure Capsule Server to use a custom SSL certificate, you must also install the katello-ca-consumer package on every host that is registered to this Capsule Server.

Procedure

On each host, complete the following steps to install the katello-ca-consumer package:

  1. Delete the current katello-ca-consumer package on the host:

    # yum remove 'katello-ca-consumer*'
  2. Install the katello-ca-consumer package on the host:

    # yum localinstall \
    http://capsule.example.com/pub/katello-ca-consumer-latest.noarch.rpm

Chapter 3. Performing Additional Configuration on Capsule Server

Use this chapter to configure additional settings on your Capsule Server.

3.1. Installing the Satellite Tools Repository

The Satellite Tools repository provides the katello-agent and puppet packages for clients registered to Satellite Server. Installing the Katello agent is recommended to allow remote updates of clients. The base system of a Capsule Server is a client of Satellite Server and therefore must also have the Katello agent installed.

Procedure

To install the Satellite Tools repository, complete the following steps:

  1. In the Satellite web UI, navigate to Content > Red Hat Repositories.
  2. Use the Search field to enter the following repository name: Red Hat Satellite Tools 6.6 (for RHEL 7 Server) (RPMs).
  3. In the Available Repositories pane, click on Red Hat Satellite Tools 6.6 (for RHEL 7 Server) (RPMs) to expand the repository set.

    If the Red Hat Satellite Tools 6.6 items are not visible, it may be because they are not included in the Subscription Manifest obtained from the Customer Portal. To correct that, log in to the Customer Portal, add these repositories, download the Subscription Manifest and import it into Satellite.

  4. For the x86_64 entry, click the Enable icon to enable the repository.

Enable the Satellite Tools repository for every supported major version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux running on your hosts. After enabling a Red Hat repository, a Product for this repository is automatically created.

For CLI Users

Install the Satellite Tools repository using the hammer repository-set enable command:

# hammer repository-set enable --organization "initial_organization_name" \
--product 'Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server' \
--basearch='x86_64' \
--name 'Red Hat Satellite Tools 6.6 (for RHEL 7 Server) (RPMs)'

3.2. Synchronizing the Satellite Tools Repository

Use this section to synchronize the Satellite Tools repository from the Red Hat Content Delivery Network (CDN) to your Satellite. This repository repository provides the katello-agent and puppet packages for clients registered to Satellite Server.

Procedure

To synchronize the Satellite Tools repository, complete the following steps:

  1. In the Satellite web UI, navigate to Content > Sync Status.

    A list of product repositories available for synchronization is displayed.

  2. Click the arrow next to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server product to view available content.
  3. Select Red Hat Satellite Tools 6.6 (for RHEL 7 Server) RPMs x86_64.
  4. Click Synchronize Now.

For CLI Users

Synchronize your Satellite Tools repository using the hammer repository synchronize command:

# hammer repository synchronize --organization "initial_organization_name" \
--product 'Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server' \
--name 'Red Hat Satellite Tools 6.6 for RHEL 7 Server RPMs x86_64' \
--async

3.3. Installing the Katello Agent

Installing the Katello agent is recommended to allow remote updates of clients. The base system of a Capsule Server is a client of Satellite Server and therefore must also have the Katello agent installed.

The katello-agent package depends on the gofer package that provides the goferd service. This service must be enabled so that the Red Hat Satellite Server or Capsule Server can provide information about errata that are applicable for content hosts.

Prerequisites

Before installing the Katello agent, ensure the following conditions are met:

  • You have enabled the Satellite Tools repositories in Satellite Server.
  • You have synchronized the Satellite Tools repositories in Satellite Server.

Procedure

To install the Katello agent, complete the following steps:

  1. Install the katello-agent package:

    # yum install katello-agent
  2. Start the goferd service :

    # systemctl start goferd

3.4. Enabling Remote Execution on Capsule Server

If you want to run commands on a Capsule Server’s hosts, ensure that you enable the remote execution.

Note

Remote execution on external Capsules is disabled by default. To use remote execution on a Capsule Server you need to enable it by running the following command:

# satellite-installer --scenario capsule \
--enable-foreman-proxy-plugin-remote-execution-ssh

3.5. Enabling OpenSCAP on External Capsules

On Satellite Server and the integrated Capsule of your Satellite Server, OpenSCAP is enabled by default.

If you want to use the OpenSCAP plug-in and content on an external Capsule, you must enable OpenSCAP on each Capsule.

Procedure

To enable OpenSCAP, enter the following command:

# satellite-installer --scenario capsule \
--enable-foreman-proxy-plugin-openscap

3.6. Adding Life Cycle Environments to Capsule Servers

If your Capsule Server has the content functionality enabled, you must add an environment so that Capsule can synchronize content from Satellite Server and provide content to host systems.

Do not assign the Library lifecycle environment to your Capsule Server because it triggers an automated Capsule sync every time the CDN updates a repository. This might consume multiple system resources on Capsules, network bandwidth between Satellite and Capsules, and available disk space on Capsules.

You can use Hammer CLI on Satellite Server or the Satellite web UI.

Procedure

To add a life cycle environment to Capsule Server, complete the following step:

  1. In the Satellite web UI, navigate to Infrastructure > Capsules, and select the Capsule that you want to add a life cycle to.
  2. Click Edit and click the Life Cycle Environments tab.
  3. From the left menu, select the life cycle environments that you want to add to Capsule, and then click Submit.
  4. To synchronize Capsule’s content, click the Overview tab, and then click Synchronize.
  5. Select either Optimized Sync or Complete Sync.

For CLI Users

  1. To display a list of all Capsule Servers, enter the following command:

    # hammer capsule list

    Note the ID that returns.

  2. Using the ID, verify the details of your Capsule Server:

    # hammer capsule info --id capsule_id
  3. Verify the life cycle environments available and note the environment ID:

    # hammer capsule content available-lifecycle-environments \
    --id capsule_id
  4. To view the life cycle environments available for your Capsule Server, enter the following command and note the ID and the organization name:

    # hammer capsule content available-lifecycle-environments --id capsule_id
  5. Add the life cycle environment to your Capsule Server:

    # hammer capsule content add-lifecycle-environment \
    --id capsule_id --organization "My_Organization" \
    --environment-id environment_id

    Repeat for each life cycle environment you want to add to Capsule Server.

    To synchronize all content from your Satellite Server environment to Capsule Server, enter the following command:

    # hammer capsule content synchronize --id capsule_id

    To synchronize a specific life cycle environment from your Satellite Server to Capsule Server, enter the following command:

    # hammer capsule content synchronize --id external_capsule_id \
    --environment-id environment_id

3.7. Enabling Power Management on Managed Hosts

When you enable the baseboard management controller (BMC) module on the Capsule Server, you can use power management commands on managed hosts using the intelligent platform management interface (IPMI) or a similar protocol.

The BMC service on the satellite Capsule Server enables you to perform a range of power management tasks. The underlying protocol for this feature is IPMI; also referred to as the BMC function. IPMI uses a special network interface on the managed hardware that is connected to a dedicated processor that runs independently of the host’s CPUs. In many instances the BMC functionality is built into chassis-based systems as part of chassis management (a dedicated module in the chassis).

For more information on the BMC service, see Adding a Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) Interface in the Managing Hosts guide.

Before You Begin

  • All managed hosts must have a network interface, with type BMC. Satellite uses this NIC to pass the appropriate credentials to the host.

Enable Power Management on Managed Hosts

  1. Run the installer with the options to enable BMC.

    # satellite-installer --scenario capsule \
    --foreman-proxy-bmc "true" \
    --foreman-proxy-bmc-default-provider "freeipmi"

3.8. Configuring DNS, DHCP, and TFTP on Capsule Server

You can configure DNS, DHCP, and TFTP on Capsule Server.

You can also configure Capsule Server to use external DNS and DHCP services. See Configuring External Services for more information.

To view a complete list of configurable options, enter the satellite-installer --scenario capsule --help command.

Before You Begin

  • You must have the correct network name (dns-interface) for the DNS server.
  • You must have the correct interface name (dhcp-interface) for the DHCP server.

Configure DNS, DHCP, and TFTP on Capsule Server

  1. Run capsule installer with the options applicable to your environment.

    The following example shows full provisioning services:

    # satellite-installer --scenario capsule \
    --foreman-proxy-dns true \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-managed true \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-interface eth0 \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-zone example.com \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-forwarders 172.17.13.1 \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-reverse 13.17.172.in-addr.arpa \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp true \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-managed true \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-interface eth0 \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-range "172.17.13.100 172.17.13.150" \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-gateway 172.17.13.1 \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-nameservers 172.17.13.2 \
    --foreman-proxy-tftp true \
    --foreman-proxy-tftp-managed true \
    --foreman-proxy-tftp-servername $(hostname)

For more information about configuring DHCP, DNS, and TFTP services, see the Configuring Network Services section in the Provisioning Guide.

3.9. Restricting Access to mongod

Only the apache and root users should be allowed access to the MongoDB database daemon, mongod, to reduce the risk of data loss.

Restrict access to mongod on Satellite and Capsule Servers using the following commands.

  1. Configure the Firewall.

    # firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p \
    tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p \
    tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p \
    tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p \
    tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p \
    tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -j DROP \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p \
    tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -j DROP \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p \
    tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p \
    tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p \
    tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p \
    tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p \
    tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -j DROP \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p \
    tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -j DROP
  2. Make the changes persistent:

    # firewall-cmd --runtime-to-permanent

Chapter 4. Configuring External Services

Use this section to configure your Red Hat Satellite Capsule Server to work with external DNS, DHCP and TFTP services.

4.1. Configuring Capsule Server with External DNS

  1. On the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server, install the ISC DNS Service.

    # yum install bind bind-utils

    Ensure that the nsupdate utility was installed. The Capsule uses the nsupdate utility to update DNS records on the remote server.

  2. Copy the /etc/rndc.key file from the services server to the Capsule Server.

    # scp localfile username@hostname:remotefile
  3. Ensure that the ownership, permissions, and SELinux context are correct.

    # restorecon -v /etc/rndc.key
    # chown -v root:named /etc/rndc.key
    # chmod -v 640 /etc/rndc.key
  4. Test the nsupdate utility by adding a host remotely.

    # echo -e "server 192.168.38.2\n \
    update add aaa.virtual.lan 3600 IN A 192.168.38.10\n \
    send\n" | nsupdate -k /etc/rndc.key
    # nslookup aaa.virtual.lan 192.168.38.2
    # echo -e "server 192.168.38.2\n \
    update delete aaa.virtual.lan 3600 IN A 192.168.38.10\n \
    send\n" | nsupdate -k /etc/rndc.key
  5. Run the satellite-installer script to make the following persistent changes to the /etc/foreman-proxy/settings.d/dns.yml file.

    # satellite-installer --foreman-proxy-dns=true \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-managed=false \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-provider=nsupdate \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-server="192.168.38.2" \
    --foreman-proxy-keyfile=/etc/rndc.key \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-ttl=86400
  6. Restart the foreman-proxy service.

    # systemctl restart foreman-proxy
  7. Log in to the Satellite Server web UI.
  8. Go to Infrastructure > Capsules. Locate the appropriate Capsule Server and from the Actions drop-down list, select Refresh. The DNS feature should appear.
  9. Associate the DNS service with the appropriate subnets and domain.

4.2. Configuring Capsule Server with External DHCP

To configure Capsule Server with external DHCP, you must have previously configured a DHCP server, and shared the DHCP configuration and lease files via NFS.

To configure the DHCP server and share the DHCP configuration and lease files

  1. Deploy a Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server and install the ISC DHCP Service and Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND).

    # yum install dhcp bind
  2. Generate a security token in an empty directory.

    # dnssec-keygen -a HMAC-MD5 -b 512 -n HOST omapi_key

    The above command can take a long time, for less-secure proof-of-concept deployments you can use a non-blocking random number generator.

    # dnssec-keygen -r /dev/urandom -a HMAC-MD5 -b 512 -n HOST omapi_key

    This creates the key pair in two files in the current directory.

  3. Copy the secret hash from the key.

    # cat Komapi_key.+*.private |grep ^Key|cut -d ' ' -f2
  4. Edit the dhcpd configuration file for all of the subnets and add the key as in the example:

    # cat /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
    default-lease-time 604800;
    max-lease-time 2592000;
    log-facility local7;
    
    subnet 192.168.38.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
    	range 192.168.38.10 192.168.38.100;
    	option routers 192.168.38.1;
    	option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
    	option domain-search "virtual.lan";
    	option domain-name "virtual.lan";
    	option domain-name-servers 8.8.8.8;
    }
    
    omapi-port 7911;
    key omapi_key {
    	algorithm HMAC-MD5;
    	secret "jNSE5YI3H1A8Oj/tkV4...A2ZOHb6zv315CkNAY7DMYYCj48Umw==";
    };
    omapi-key omapi_key;
  5. Delete the two key files from the directory where you created them.
  6. Define each subnet on the Satellite Server.

    It is recommended to set up a lease range and reservation range separately to prevent conflicts. For example, the lease range is 192.168.38.10 to 192.168.38.100 so the reservation range (defined in the Satellite web UI) is 192.168.38.101 to 192.168.38.250. Do not set DHCP Capsule for the defined Subnet yet.

  7. Configure the firewall for external access to the DHCP server.

    # firewall-cmd --add-service dhcp \
    && firewall-cmd --runtime-to-permanent
  8. Determine the UID and GID numbers of the foreman user on the Satellite Server.

    # id -u foreman
    993
    # id -g foreman
    990
  9. Create the same user and group with the same IDs on the DHCP server.

    # groupadd -g 990 foreman
    # useradd -u 993 -g 990 -s /sbin/nologin foreman
  10. To make the configuration files readable, restore the read and execute flags.

    # chmod o+rx /etc/dhcp/
    # chmod o+r /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
    # chattr +i /etc/dhcp/ /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
  11. Start the DHCP service.

    # systemctl start dhcpd
  12. Export the DHCP configuration and leases files using NFS.

    # yum install nfs-utils
    # systemctl enable rpcbind nfs-server
    # systemctl start rpcbind nfs-server nfs-lock nfs-idmapd
  13. Create the DHCP configuration and leases files to be exported using NFS.

    # mkdir -p /exports/var/lib/dhcpd /exports/etc/dhcp
  14. Add the following line to the /etc/fstab file to create mount points for the newly created directories.

    /var/lib/dhcpd /exports/var/lib/dhcpd none bind,auto 0 0
    /etc/dhcp /exports/etc/dhcp none bind,auto 0 0
  15. Mount the file systems in /etc/fstab.

    # mount -a
  16. Ensure the following lines are present in /etc/exports:

    /exports 192.168.38.1(rw,async,no_root_squash,fsid=0,no_subtree_check)
    
    /exports/etc/dhcp 192.168.38.1(ro,async,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check,nohide)
    
    /exports/var/lib/dhcpd 192.168.38.1(ro,async,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check,nohide)
  17. Reload the NFS server.

    # exportfs -rva
  18. Configure the firewall for the DHCP omapi port 7911 for the Satellite Server.

    # firewall-cmd --add-port="7911/tcp" \
    && firewall-cmd --runtime-to-permanent
  19. If required, configure the firewall for external access to NFS.

    Clients are configured using NFSv3.

    • Use the firewalld daemon’s NFS service to configure the firewall.

      # firewall-cmd --zone public --add-service mountd \
      && firewall-cmd --zone public --add-service rpc-bind \
      && firewall-cmd --zone public --add-service nfs \
      && firewall-cmd --runtime-to-permanent

To Configure Capsule Server with External DHCP

  1. Install the NFS client.

    # yum install nfs-utils
  2. Create the DHCP directories for NFS.

    # mkdir -p /mnt/nfs/etc/dhcp /mnt/nfs/var/lib/dhcpd
  3. Change the file owner.

    # chown -R foreman-proxy /mnt/nfs
  4. Verify communication with the NFS server and RPC communication paths.

    # showmount -e your_DHCP_server_FQDN
    # rpcinfo -p your_DHCP_server_FQDN
  5. Add the following lines to the /etc/fstab file:

    your_DHCP_server_FQDN:/exports/etc/dhcp /mnt/nfs/etc/dhcp nfs
    ro,vers=3,auto,nosharecache,context="system_u:object_r:dhcp_etc_t:s0" 0 0
    
    your_DHCP_server_FQDN:/exports/var/lib/dhcpd /mnt/nfs/var/lib/dhcpd nfs
    ro,vers=3,auto,nosharecache,context="system_u:object_r:dhcpd_state_t:s0" 0 0
  6. Mount the file systems on /etc/fstab.

    # mount -a
  7. Read the relevant files.

    # su foreman-proxy -s /bin/bash
    bash-4.2$ cat /mnt/nfs/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
    bash-4.2$ cat /mnt/nfs/var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd.leases
    bash-4.2$ exit
  8. Run the satellite-installer script to make the following persistent changes to the /etc/foreman-proxy/settings.d/dhcp.yml file.

    # satellite-installer --foreman-proxy-dhcp=true \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-provider=remote_isc \
    --foreman-proxy-plugin-dhcp-remote-isc-dhcp-config /mnt/nfs/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf \
    --foreman-proxy-plugin-dhcp-remote-isc-dhcp-leases /mnt/nfs/var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd.leases \
    --foreman-proxy-plugin-dhcp-remote-isc-key-name=omapi_key \
    --foreman-proxy-plugin-dhcp-remote-isc-key-secret=jNSE5YI3H1A8Oj/tkV4...A2ZOHb6zv315CkNAY7DMYYCj48Umw== \
    --foreman-proxy-plugin-dhcp-remote-isc-omapi-port=7911 \
    --enable-foreman-proxy-plugin-dhcp-remote-isc \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-server=your_DHCP_server_FQDN
  9. Restart the foreman-proxy service.

    # systemctl restart foreman-proxy
  10. Log in to the Satellite Server web UI.
  11. Go to Infrastructure > Capsules. Locate the appropriate Capsule Server and from the Actions drop-down list, select Refresh. The DHCP feature should appear.
  12. Associate the DHCP service with the appropriate subnets and domain.

4.3. Configuring Capsule Server with External TFTP

  1. Create the TFTP directory to prepare for NFS.

    # mkdir -p /mnt/nfs/var/lib/tftpboot
  2. Add the following line in the /etc/fstab file:

    192.168.38.2:/exports/var/lib/tftpboot /mnt/nfs/var/lib/tftpboot nfs rw,vers=3,auto,nosharecache,context="system_u:object_r:tftpdir_rw_t:s0" 0 0
  3. Mount the file systems in /etc/fstab.

    # mount -a
  4. Run the satellite-installer script to make the following persistent changes to the /etc/foreman-proxy/settings.d/tftp.yml file.

    # satellite-installer --foreman-proxy-tftp=true \
    --foreman-proxy-tftp-root /mnt/nfs/var/lib/tftpboot
  5. If the TFTP service is running on a different server than the DHCP service, update the tftp_servername setting with the FQDN or IP address of that server.

    # satellite-installer --foreman-proxy-tftp-servername=new_FQDN

    This updates all configuration files with the new value.

  6. Log in to the Satellite Server web UI.
  7. Go to Infrastructure > Capsules. Locate the appropriate Capsule Server and from the Actions drop-down list, select Refresh. The TFTP feature should appear.
  8. Associate the TFTP service with the appropriate subnets and domain.

4.4. Configuring Satellite or Capsule with External IdM DNS

Red Hat Satellite can be configured to use a Red Hat Identity Management (IdM) server to provide the DNS service. Two methods are described here to achieve this, both using a transaction key. For more information on Red Hat Identity Management, see the Linux Domain Identity, Authentication, and Policy Guide.

The first method is to install the IdM client which automates the process with the generic security service algorithm for secret key transaction (GSS-TSIG) technology defined in RFC3645. This method requires installing the IdM client on the Satellite Server or Capsule’s base system and having an account created by the IdM server administrator for use by the Satellite administrator. See Section 4.4.1, “Configuring Dynamic DNS Update with GSS-TSIG Authentication” to use this method.

The second method, secret key transaction authentication for DNS (TSIG), uses an rndc.key for authentication. It requires root access to the IdM server to edit the BIND configuration file, installing the BIND utility on the Satellite Server’s base system, and coping the rndc.key to between the systems. This technology is defined in RFC2845. See Section 4.4.2, “Configuring Dynamic DNS Update with TSIG Authentication” to use this method.

Note

You are not required to use Satellite to manage DNS. If you are using the Realm enrollment feature of Satellite, where provisioned hosts are enrolled automatically to IdM, then the ipa-client-install script creates DNS records for the client. The following procedure and Realm enrollment are therefore mutually exclusive. For more information on configuring Realm enrollment, see External Authentication for Provisioned Hosts in Administering Red Hat Satellite.

Determining where to install the IdM Client

When Satellite Server wants to add a DNS record for a host, it first determines which Capsule is providing DNS for that domain. It then communicates with the Capsule and adds the record. The hosts themselves are not involved in this process. This means you should install and configure the IdM client on the Satellite or Capsule that is currently configured to provide a DNS service for the domain you want to manage using the IdM server.

4.4.1. Configuring Dynamic DNS Update with GSS-TSIG Authentication

In this example, Satellite Server has the following settings.

Host name

satellite.example.com

Network

192.168.55.0/24

The IdM server has the following settings.

Host name

idm1.example.com

Domain name

example.com

Before you Begin.

  1. Confirm the IdM server is deployed and the host-based firewall has been configured correctly. For more information, see Port Requirements in the Linux Domain Identity, Authentication, and Policy Guide.
  2. Obtain an account on the IdM server with permissions to create zones on the IdM server.
  3. Confirm if the Satellite or an external Capsule is managing DNS for a domain.
  4. Confirm that the Satellite or external Capsule are currently working as expected.
  5. In the case of a newly installed system, complete the installation procedures in this guide first. In particular, DNS and DHCP configuration should have been completed.
  6. Make a backup of the answer file in case you have to revert the changes. See Specifying Installation Options for more information.

Create a Kerberos Principal on the IdM Server.

  1. Ensure you have a Kerberos ticket.

    # kinit idm_user

    Where idm_user is the account created for you by the IdM administrator.

  2. Create a new Kerberos principal for the Satellite or Capsule to use to authenticate to the IdM server.

    # ipa service-add capsule/satellite.example.com

Install and Configure the IdM Client.

Do this on the Satellite or Capsule Server that is managing the DNS service for a domain.

  1. Install the ipa-client package on Satellite Server or Capsule Server:

    • On Satellite Server, enter the following command:

      # satellite-maintain packages install ipa-client
    • On Capsule Server, enter the following command:

      # yum install ipa-client
  2. Configure the IdM client by running the installation script and following the on-screen prompts.

    # ipa-client-install
  3. Ensure you have a Kerberos ticket.

    # kinit admin
  4. Remove any preexisting keytab.

    # rm /etc/foreman-proxy/dns.keytab
  5. Get the keytab created for this system.

    # ipa-getkeytab -p capsule/satellite.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM \
    -s idm1.example.com -k /etc/foreman-proxy/dns.keytab
    Note

    When adding a keytab to a standby system with the same host name as the original system in service, add the r option to prevent generating new credentials and rendering the credentials on the original system invalid.

  6. Set the group and owner for the keytab file to foreman-proxy as follows.

    # chown foreman-proxy:foreman-proxy /etc/foreman-proxy/dns.keytab
  7. If required, check the keytab is valid.

    # kinit -kt /etc/foreman-proxy/dns.keytab \
    capsule/satellite.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM

Configure DNS Zones in the IdM web UI.

  1. Create and configure the zone to be managed:

    1. Navigate to Network Services > DNS > DNS Zones.
    2. Select Add and enter the zone name. In this example, example.com.
    3. Click Add and Edit.
    4. On the Settings tab, in the BIND update policy box, add an entry as follows to the semi-colon separated list.

      grant capsule\047satellite.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM wildcard * ANY;
    5. Ensure Dynamic update is set to True.
    6. Enable Allow PTR sync.
    7. Select Save to save the changes.
  2. Create and Configure the reverse zone.

    1. Navigate to Network Services > DNS > DNS Zones.
    2. Select Add.
    3. Select Reverse zone IP network and add the network address in CIDR format to enable reverse lookups.
    4. Click Add and Edit.
    5. On the Settings tab, in the BIND update policy box, add an entry as follows to the semi-colon separated list:

      grant capsule\047satellite.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM wildcard * ANY;
    6. Ensure Dynamic update is set to True.
    7. Select Save to save the changes.

Configure the Satellite or Capsule Server Managing the DNS Service for the Domain.

  • On a Satellite Server’s Base System.

    satellite-installer --scenario satellite \
    --foreman-proxy-dns=true \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-managed=true \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-provider=nsupdate_gss \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-server="idm1.example.com" \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-tsig-principal="capsule/satellite.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-tsig-keytab=/etc/foreman-proxy/dns.keytab \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-reverse="55.168.192.in-addr.arpa" \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-zone=example.com \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-ttl=86400
  • On a Capsule Server’s Base System.

    satellite-installer --scenario capsule \
    --foreman-proxy-dns=true \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-managed=true \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-provider=nsupdate_gss \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-server="idm1.example.com" \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-tsig-principal="capsule/satellite.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-tsig-keytab=/etc/foreman-proxy/dns.keytab \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-reverse="55.168.192.in-addr.arpa" \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-zone=example.com \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-ttl=86400

Restart the Satellite or Capsule’s Proxy Service.

# systemctl restart foreman-proxy

Update the Configuration in Satellite web UI.

After you have run the installation script to make any changes to a Capsule, instruct Satellite to scan the configuration on each affected Capsule as follows:

  1. Navigate to Infrastructure > Capsules.
  2. For each Capsule to be updated, from the Actions drop-down menu, select Refresh.
  3. Configure the domain:

    1. Go to Infrastructure > Domains and select the domain name.
    2. On the Domain tab, ensure DNS Capsule is set to the Capsule where the subnet is connected.
  4. Configure the subnet:

    1. Go to Infrastructure > Subnets and select the subnet name.
    2. On the Subnet tab, set IPAM to None.
    3. On the Domains tab, ensure the domain to be managed by the IdM server is selected.
    4. On the Capsules tab, ensure Reverse DNS Capsule is set to the Capsule where the subnet is connected.
    5. Click Submit to save the changes.

4.4.2. Configuring Dynamic DNS Update with TSIG Authentication

In this example, Satellite Server has the following settings.

IP address

192.168.25.1

Host name

satellite.example.com

The IdM server has the following settings.

Host name

idm1.example.com

IP address

192.168.25.2

Domain name

example.com

Before you Begin

  1. Confirm the IdM Server is deployed and the host-based firewall has been configured correctly. For more information, see Port Requirements in the Linux Domain Identity, Authentication, and Policy Guide.
  2. Obtain root user privileges on the IdM server.
  3. Confirm if the Satellite or an external Capsule is managing DNS for a domain.
  4. Confirm that the Satellite or external Capsule are currently working as expected.
  5. In the case of a newly installed system, complete the installation procedures in this guide first. In particular, DNS and DHCP configuration should have been completed.
  6. Make a backup of the answer file in case you have to revert the changes. See Specifying Installation Options for more information.

Enabling External Updates to the DNS Zone in the IdM Server

  1. On the IdM Server, add the following to the top of the /etc/named.conf file.

    // This was added to allow Satellite Server at 192.168.25.1 to make DNS updates.
    ########################################################################
    include "/etc/rndc.key";
    controls  {
    inet 192.168.25.2 port 953 allow { 192.168.25.1; } keys { "rndc-key"; };
    };
    ########################################################################
  2. Reload named to make the changes take effect.

    # systemctl reload named
  3. In the IdM web UI, go to Network Services > DNS > DNS Zones. Select the name of the zone. On the Settings tab:

    1. Add the following in the BIND update policy box.

      grant "rndc-key" zonesub ANY;
    2. Ensure Dynamic update is set to True.
    3. Click Update to save the changes.
  4. Copy the /etc/rndc.key file from the IdM server to Satellite’s base system as follows.

    # scp /etc/rndc.key root@satellite.example.com:/etc/rndc.key
  5. Ensure that the ownership, permissions, and SELinux context are correct.

    # restorecon -v /etc/rndc.key
    # chown -v root:named /etc/rndc.key
    # chmod -v 640 /etc/rndc.key
  6. On Satellite Server, run the installation script as follows to use the external DNS server.

    # satellite-installer --scenario satellite \
    --foreman-proxy-dns=true \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-managed=false \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-provider=nsupdate \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-server="192.168.25.2" \
    --foreman-proxy-keyfile=/etc/rndc.key \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-ttl=86400

Testing External Updates to the DNS Zone in the IdM Server

  1. Install bind-utils for testing with nsupdate.

    # yum install bind-utils
  2. Ensure the key in the /etc/rndc.key file on Satellite Server is the same one as used on the IdM server.

    key "rndc-key" {
            algorithm hmac-md5;
            secret "secret-key==";
    };
  3. On Satellite Server, create a test DNS entry for a host. For example, host test.example.com with an A record of 192.168.25.20 on the IdM server at 192.168.25.1.

    # echo -e "server 192.168.25.1\n \
    update add test.example.com 3600 IN A 192.168.25.20\n \
    send\n" | nsupdate -k /etc/rndc.key
  4. On Satellite Server, test the DNS entry.

    # nslookup test.example.com 192.168.25.1
    Server:		192.168.25.1
    Address:	192.168.25.1#53
    
    Name:	test.example.com
    Address: 192.168.25.20
  5. To view the entry in the IdM web UI, go to Network Services > DNS > DNS Zones. Select the name of the zone and search for the host by name.
  6. If resolved successfully, remove the test DNS entry.

    # echo -e "server 192.168.25.1\n \
    update delete test.example.com 3600 IN A 192.168.25.20\n \
    send\n" | nsupdate -k /etc/rndc.key
  7. Confirm that the DNS entry was removed.

    # nslookup test.example.com 192.168.25.1

    The above nslookup command fails and returns the SERVFAIL error message if the record was successfully deleted.

4.4.3. Reverting to Internal DNS Service

To revert to using Satellite Server and Capsule Server as DNS providers, follow this procedure.

On the Satellite or Capsule Server that is to manage DNS for the domain.

  • If you backed up the answer file before the change to external DNS, restore the answer file and then run the installation script:

    # satellite-installer
  • If you do not have a suitable backup of the answer file, back up the answer file now, and then run the installation script on Satellite and Capsules as described below.

    See Specifying Installation Options for more information on the answer file.

To configure Satellite or Capsule as DNS server without using an answer file.

# satellite-installer \
--foreman-proxy-dns=true \
--foreman-proxy-dns-managed=true \
--foreman-proxy-dns-provider=nsupdate \
--foreman-proxy-dns-server="127.0.0.1"  \
--foreman-proxy-dns-tsig-principal="foremanproxy/satellite.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" \
--foreman-proxy-dns-tsig-keytab=/etc/foreman-proxy/dns.keytab

See Configuring DNS, DHCP, and TFTP on Capsule Server for more information.

Update the Configuration in Satellite web UI.

After you have run the installation script to make any changes to a Capsule, instruct Satellite to scan the configuration on each affected Capsule as follows:

  1. Navigate to Infrastructure > Capsules.
  2. For each Capsule to be updated, from the Actions drop-down menu, select Refresh.
  3. Configure the domain:

    1. Go to Infrastructure > Domains and select the domain name.
    2. On the Domain tab, ensure DNS Capsule is set to the Capsule where the subnet is connected.
  4. Configure the subnet:

    1. Go to Infrastructure > Subnets and select the subnet name.
    2. On the Subnet tab, set IPAM to DHCP or Internal DB.
    3. On the Domains tab, ensure the domain to be managed by the Satellite or Capsule is selected.
    4. On the Capsules tab, ensure Reverse DNS Capsule is set to the Capsule where the subnet is connected.
    5. Click Submit to save the changes.

Chapter 5. Uninstalling Capsule Server

Uninstalling Capsule Server erases all applications used on the target system. If you use any applications or application data for purposes other than Satellite Server, you must back up the information before the removal process.

Before you Begin

The katello-remove script issues two warnings, requiring confirmation before removing all packages and configuration files in the system.

Warning

This script erases packages and config files such as the following:

  • httpd (apache)
  • mongodb
  • tomcat6
  • puppet
  • ruby
  • rubygems
  • All Katello and Foreman Packages

Procedure

  1. In the Satellite web UI, navigate to Hosts > All Hosts and select Delete from the Edit list to the right of the Capsule Server instance.
  2. Navigate to Infrastructure > Capsule and select Delete from the Edit list to the right of the Capsule Server instance.
  3. On Capsule Server, enter the katello-remove command to uninstall Capsule Server:

    # katello-remove

For CLI Users

  1. On Satellite Server, list all Capsule Servers to find the FQDN and ID of the Capsule Server instance you want to remove:

    # hammer capsule list
  2. On Satellite Server, enter the hammer host delete command and specify the Capsule Server FQDN with the --name option to remove Capsule Server from Satellite hosts:

    # hammer host delete --name Capsule_Server_FQDN
  3. On Satellite Server, enter the hammer capsule delete command and specify the Capsule Server ID with the --id option to remove Capsule Server from Satellite Capsules:

    # hammer capsule delete --id Capsule_Server_ID
  4. On Capsule Server, enter the katello-remove command to uninstall Capsule Server:

    # katello-remove

Appendix A. Capsule Server Scalability Considerations

The maximum number of Capsule Servers that the Satellite Server can support has no fixed limit. The tested limit is 17 Capsule Servers with 2 vCPUs on a Satellite Server with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7. However, scalability is highly variable, especially when managing Puppet clients.

Capsule Server scalability when managing Puppet clients depends on the number of CPUs, the run-interval distribution, and the number of Puppet managed resources. The Capsule Server has a limitation of 100 concurrent Puppet agents running at any single point in time. Running more than 100 concurrent Puppet agents results in a 503 HTTP error.

For example, assuming that Puppet agent runs are evenly distributed with less than 100 concurrent Puppet agents running at any single point during a run-interval, a Capsule Server with 4 CPUs has a maximum of 1250-1600 Puppet clients with a moderate workload of 10 Puppet classes assigned to each Puppet client. Depending on the number of Puppet clients required, the Satellite installation can scale out the number of Capsule Servers to support them.

If you want to scale your Capsule Server when managing Puppet clients, the following assumptions are made:

  • There are no external Puppet clients reporting directly to the Satellite 6 integrated Capsule.
  • All other Puppet clients report directly to an external Capsule.
  • There is an evenly distributed run-interval of all Puppet agents.
Note

Deviating from the even distribution increases the risk of filling the passenger request queue. The limit of 100 concurrent requests applies.

The following table describes the scalability limits using the recommended 4 CPUs.

Table A.1. Puppet Scalability Using 4 CPUs

Puppet Managed Resources per HostRun-Interval Distribution

1

3000-2500

10

2400-2000

20

1700-1400

The following table describes the scalability limits using the minimum 2 CPUs.

Table A.2. Puppet Scalability Using 2 CPUs

Puppet Managed Resources per HostRun-Interval Distribution

1

1700-1450

10

1500-1250

20

850-700

Legal Notice

Copyright © 2019 Red Hat, Inc.
The text of and illustrations in this document are licensed by Red Hat under a Creative Commons Attribution–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license ("CC-BY-SA"). An explanation of CC-BY-SA is available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/. In accordance with CC-BY-SA, if you distribute this document or an adaptation of it, you must provide the URL for the original version.
Red Hat, as the licensor of this document, waives the right to enforce, and agrees not to assert, Section 4d of CC-BY-SA to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law.
Red Hat, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the Shadowman logo, the Red Hat logo, JBoss, OpenShift, Fedora, the Infinity logo, and RHCE are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries.
Linux® is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States and other countries.
Java® is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates.
XFS® is a trademark of Silicon Graphics International Corp. or its subsidiaries in the United States and/or other countries.
MySQL® is a registered trademark of MySQL AB in the United States, the European Union and other countries.
Node.js® is an official trademark of Joyent. Red Hat is not formally related to or endorsed by the official Joyent Node.js open source or commercial project.
The OpenStack® Word Mark and OpenStack logo are either registered trademarks/service marks or trademarks/service marks of the OpenStack Foundation, in the United States and other countries and are used with the OpenStack Foundation's permission. We are not affiliated with, endorsed or sponsored by the OpenStack Foundation, or the OpenStack community.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.