Installation Guide

Red Hat Satellite 6.2

Installing Red Hat Satellite Server and Capsule Server

Red Hat Satellite Documentation Team

Abstract

This guide describes how to install Red Hat Satellite Server and Capsule Server, perform initial configuration, and configure external services.

Chapter 1. What Satellite Server and Capsule Server do

Red Hat Satellite is a system management solution that enables you to deploy, configure, and maintain your systems across physical, virtual, and cloud environments. Satellite provides provisioning, remote management and monitoring of multiple Red Hat Enterprise Linux deployments with a single, centralized tool. Red Hat Satellite Server synchronizes the content from Red Hat Customer Portal, and provides functionality including fine-grained life cycle management, user and group role-based access control, integrated subscription management, as well as advanced GUI, CLI, and API access.

Red Hat Satellite Capsule Server mirrors content from Red Hat Satellite Server to facilitate content federation across various geographical locations. Host systems can pull content from the Capsule Server and not from the central Satellite Server. The Capsule Server also provides localized services such as Puppet Master, DHCP, DNS, or TFTP. Capsule Servers assist you in scaling your Satellite environment as the number of your managed systems increases.

Capsule Servers decrease the load on the central server, increase redundancy, and reduce bandwidth usage. For more information see the Red Hat Satellite Architecture Guide.

Chapter 2. Preparing your environment for installation

Before you install Satellite Server or Capsule Server, you should ensure that your environment meets the requirements for installation.

Note

The Red Hat Satellite server and Capsule server versions must match. For example, a Satellite 6.1 server cannot run a 6.2 Capsule server and a Satellite 6.2 server cannot run a 6.1 Capsule server. Mismatching Satellite server and Capsule server versions results in the Capsule server failing silently.

If you have a large number of content hosts, see Large Deployment Considerations to ensure that your environment is set up appropriately.

For more information on scaling your Capsule Servers, see Capsule Server Scalability Considerations.

2.1. Storage Requirements and Recommendations

Ensure that your environment meets the minimum requirements before installing Satellite Server or Capsule Server.

Packages that are duplicated in different repositories are only stored once on the disk. Additional repositories containing duplicate packages will require less additional storage. The bulk of storage resides in the /var/lib/mongodb/ and /var/lib/pulp/ directories. These end points are not manually configurable. Make sure that storage is available on the /var file system to prevent storage issues.

The /var/cache/pulp/ directory is used to temporarily store content while it is being synchronized. For content in RPM format, a maximum of 5 RPM files are stored in this directory at any time. After each file is synchronized, it is moved to the /var/lib/pulp/ directory. Up to eight RPM content synchronization tasks can be running simultaneously by default, with each using up to 1 GB of metadata. For content in ISO format, all ISO files per synchronization task are stored in /var/cache/pulp/ until the task is complete, after which they are moved to the /var/lib/pulp/ directory. For example, if you are synchronizing four ISO files, each 4 GB in size, this requires a total of 16 GB in the /var/cache/pulp/ directory. Take into account the number of ISO files you intend synchronizing because the temporary disk space required for them typically exceeds that of RPM content.

The /var/lib/qpidd/ directory uses slightly more than 2 MB per Content Host. For example, 10 000 Content Hosts would require 20 GB of disk space in /var/lib/qpidd/.

Storage Requirements

The following table details recommended storage requirements for specific directories. These values are based on expected use case scenarios and can vary according to individual environments. The table applies to both the Satellite Server and each Capsule Server.

Table 2.1. Minimum Storage Requirements for Installation

DirectoryInstallation SizeRuntime Size with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, 6, and 7 synchronizedConsiderations

/var/cache/pulp/

1 MB

10 GB (Minimum)

See the notes in this section’s introduction.

/var/lib/pulp/

1 MB

500 GB

  • Will continue to grow as content is added to Satellite Server. Plan for expansion over time.
  • Symbolic links cannot be used.

/var/lib/mongodb/

3.5 GB

50 GB

  • Will continue to grow as content is added to Satellite Server. Plan for expansion over time.
  • Symbolic links cannot be used.
  • NFS is not recommended with MongoDB.

/var/log/

10 MB

250 MB

None

/var/lib/pgsql/

100 MB

10 GB

A minimum of 2 GB of available storage in /var/lib/pgsql/ with the ability to grow the partition containing this directory as data storage requirements grow. It is recommended not to use NFS with PostgreSQL.

/usr

3 GB

Not Applicable

None

/opt

500 MB (Connected Installations)

Not Applicable

Software collections are installed into the /opt/rh/ and /opt/theforeman/ directories. Write and execute permissions by root are required for installation into to the /opt directory.

/opt

2 GB (Disconnected Installations)

Not Applicable

  • Software collections are installed into the /opt/rh/ and /opt/theforeman/ directories. Write and execute permissions by root are required for installation into to the /opt directory.
  • A copy of the repositories used for installation is stored in this directory.

Storage Recommendations

  • Because most Satellite Server data is stored within the /var directory, it is strongly recommended to mount /var on LVM storage, enabling the system to scale.
  • Red Hat recommends the usage of high-bandwidth, low-latency storage for the /var/lib/pulp/ and /var/lib/mongodb/ directories. As Red Hat Satellite has many operations that are I/O intensive, usage of high latency, low-bandwidth storage could potentially have issues with performance degradation. It is recommended not to use NFS with MongoDB as MongoDB does not use conventional I/O to access data files and performance problems will occur when both the data files and the journal files are hosted on NFS. If required to use NFS, mount the volumes with the following option in the /etc/fstab file: bg, nolock, and noatime.
  • Do not use the GFS2 file system as the input-output latency has been found to be too high.
  • For improved performance, use solid state drives (SSD) rather than hard disk drives (HDD).
  • The XFS file system is recommended for Red Hat Satellite 6 because it does not have the inode limitations that ext4 does. As Satellite uses a lot of symbolic links it is likely that your system will run out of inodes if using ext4 and the default number of inodes.

    If you intend to use Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 instead, contact your account team to learn about enabling XFS on this system. Also consider that long term support for Satellite 6 on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 has a shorter lifespan which might necessitate a migration from version 6 to 7 in the future. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 is highly recommended for new installations.

2.2. Supported Operating Systems

You can install the operating system from disc, local ISO image, kickstart, or any other method that Red Hat supports. Red Hat Satellite Server and Red Hat Satellite Capsule server are supported only on the latest versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Server or 7 Server that is available when Satellite 6.2 is released. Previous versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux including EUS or z-stream are not supported.

Red Hat Satellite Server and Red Hat Satellite Capsule Server require Red Hat Enterprise Linux installations with the @Base package group with no other package-set modifications, and without third-party configurations or software not directly necessary for the direct operation of the server. This restriction includes hardening and other non-Red Hat security software. If you require such software in your infrastructure, install and verify a complete working Satellite Server first, then create a backup of the system before adding any non-Red Hat software.

It is recommended that the Satellite Server be a freshly provisioned system. Using the system for anything other than running Satellite is not supported.

If any of the following exist on the system, they must be removed before installation:

  • Java virtual machines
  • Puppet RPM files
  • Additional yum repositories other than those explicitly required in this guide for installation

2.3. Hardware Requirements

The following requirements apply to the networked base system:

  • 64-bit architecture
  • The latest version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Server or 7 Server
  • A minimum of 2 CPU cores, 4 CPU cores are recommended
  • A minimum of 12 GB memory is required for the Satellite Server to function, 16 GB of memory or more is recommended for each instance of Satellite Server. In addition, a minimum of 4 GB of swap space is also recommended. Satellite running with less memory than the minimum value may not operate correctly.
  • A unique host name, which can contain lower-case letters, numbers, dots (.) and hyphens (-)
  • A current Red Hat Satellite subscription
  • Administrative user (root) access
  • Full forward and reverse DNS resolution using a fully-qualified domain name

2.4. Supported Browsers

The following web browsers are fully supported:

  • Firefox versions 35 and later
  • Chrome versions 28 and later

The following web browsers are partially supported. The Satellite web UI interface will function correctly but certain design elements may not align as expected:

  • Firefox version 38
  • Chrome versions 27
  • Internet Explorer versions 10 and 11
Note

The web UI and command-line interface for Satellite Server supports English, Portuguese, Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Italian, Spanish, Russian, French, and German.

2.5. Ports and Firewalls Requirements

Specific network ports must be open and free on the base operating system, as well as open in any network-based firewalls, to enable the components of Satellite architecture to communicate. The tables in this section explain the need for the ports, and the corresponding firewall commands for host-based firewalls are given in the following section. The installation of a Capsule Server will fail if the ports between the Satellite Server and the Capsule Server have not been opened before installation is started.

The tables indicate the destination port and the direction of network traffic, use this information to configure any network-based firewalls. Note that some cloud solutions need to be specifically configured to allow communications between machines as they isolate machines similarly to network-based firewalls.

Note

The Satellite Server has an integrated Capsule and any host that is directly connected to the Satellite Server is a Client of the Satellite in the context of these tables. This includes the base system on which a Capsule Server is running. Remember to take this into account when planing any network-based firewall configurations.

Systems which are clients of Capsules, other than the internal Capsule, do not need access to the Satellite Server. See the Capsule Networking section of the Red Hat Satellite 6.2 Architecture Guide for more information on Satellite Topology.

Required ports can change based on your configuration.

Table 2.2. Ports for Satellite to Red Hat CDN Communication

PortProtocolServiceRequired For

443

TCP

HTTPS

Subscription Management Services (access.redhat.com) and connecting to the Red Hat CDN (cdn.redhat.com).

Except in the case of a disconnected Satellite, the Satellite Server needs access to the Red Hat CDN.

Table 2.3. Ports for Browser-based User Interface Access to Satellite

PortProtocolServiceRequired For

443

TCP

HTTPS

Browser-based UI access to Satellite

80

TCP

HTTP

Redirection to HTTPS for web UI access to Satellite (Optional)

Table 2.4. Ports for Client to Satellite Communication

PortProtocolServiceRequired For

80

TCP

HTTP

Anaconda, yum, for obtaining Katello certificates, templates, and for downloading iPXE firmware

443

TCP

HTTPS

Subscription Management Services, yum, Telemetry Services, and for connection to the Katello Agent

5647

TCP

amqp

The Katello Agent to communicate with the Satellite’s Qpid dispatch router

8000

TCP

HTTPS

Anaconda to download kickstart templates to hosts, and for downloading iPXE firmware

8140

TCP

HTTPS

Puppet agent to Puppet master connections

9090

TCP

HTTPS

Sending SCAP reports to the Smart Proxy in the integrated Capsule and for the discovery image during provisioning

5000

TCP

HTTPS

Connection to Katello for the Docker registry

Any managed host that is directly connected to the Satellite Server is a Client in this context. This includes the base system on which a Capsule Server is running.

Table 2.5. Ports for Client to Capsule Communication

PortProtocolServiceRequired for

80

TCP

HTTP

Anaconda, yum, and for obtaining Katello certificate updates

443

TCP

HTTPS

Anaconda, yum, Telemetry Services, and Puppet

5647

TCP

amqp

The Katello agent to communicate with the Capsule’s Qpid dispatch router

8000

TCP

HTTPS

Anaconda to download kickstart templates to hosts, and for downloading iPXE firmware

8140

TCP

HTTPS

Puppet agent to Puppet master connections

8443

TCP

HTTPS

Subscription Management Services and Telemetry Services

9090

TCP

HTTPS

Sending SCAP reports to the Smart Proxy in the Capsule and for the discovery image during provisioning

5000

TCP

HTTPS

Connection to Katello for the Docker registry

Table 2.6. Ports for Capsule to Satellite Communication

PortProtocolServiceRequired For

443

TCP

HTTPS

Connections to Katello, Foreman, Foreman API, and Pulp

5646

TCP

amqp

Capsule’s Qpid dispatch router to Qpid dispatch router in the Satellite

5647

TCP

amqp

The Katello agent to communicate with the Satellite’s Qpid dispatch router

5000

TCP

HTTPS

Connection to Katello for the Docker registry

Remember that the base system on which a Capsule Server is running is a client connected to the Satellite Server. See the table Ports for Client to Satellite Communication.

Table 2.7. Ports for Satellite to Capsule Communication

PortProtocolServiceRequired For

443

TCP

HTTPS

Connections to the Pulp server in the Capsule

9090

TCP

HTTPS

Connections to the proxy in the Capsule

80

TCP

HTTP

Downloading a bootdisk (Optional)

Table 2.8. Optional Network Ports

PortProtocolServiceRequired For

53

TCP and UDP

DNS

Client to Capsule DNS queries to a Capsule’s DNS service

67

UDP

DHCP

Client to Capsule broadcasts, DHCP broadcasts for Client provisioning from a Capsule

68

UDP

DHCP

Capsule to Client broadcasts, DHCP broadcasts for Client provisioning from a Capsule

69

UDP

TFTP

Clients downloading PXE boot image files from a Capsule for provisioning

8443

TCP

HTTP

Capsule to Client "reboot" command to a discovered host during provisioning

7911

TCP

DHCP

  • Capsule originated commands for orchestration of DHCP records (local or external)
  • If DHCP is provided by an external service, you must open the port on the external server.

5000

TCP

HTTP

Satellite originated communications, for compute resources in OpenStack or for running Docker containers

22, 16514

TCP

SSH, SSL/TLS

Satellite originated communications, for compute resources in libvirt

389, 636

TCP

LDAP, LDAPS

Satellite originated communications, for LDAP and secured LDAP authentication sources

5900 to 5930

TCP

SSL/TLS

Satellite originated communications, for NoVNC console in web UI to hypervisors

2.6. Enabling Connections from a Client to Satellite Server

Systems which are clients of Satellite Server’s internal Capsule require access thorough host and networked based firewalls. This section describes configuring the host-based firewall on Satellite Server’s base system to enable incoming connections from a Client and to make these rules persistent across system reboots. For more information on the ports used, see Ports and Firewalls Requirements.

Configuring the Firewall on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

  1. Open the ports required for Client to Satellite Communications

    # iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 67 -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 69 -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 5647 -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 8140 -j ACCEPT \
    && service iptables save
  2. Verify that the iptables service is started and enabled.

    # service iptables start
    # chkconfig iptables on

Configuring the Firewall on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

  1. Open the ports required for Client to Satellite Communications.

    # firewall-cmd --add-port="53/udp" --add-port="53/tcp" \
     --add-port="67/udp" --add-port="69/udp" \
     --add-port="80/tcp"  --add-port="443/tcp" \
     --add-port="5647/tcp" \
     --add-port="8000/tcp" --add-port="8140/tcp"
  2. Repeat the command adding the --permanent option to make the settings persistent.

    # firewall-cmd --permanent --add-port="53/udp" --add-port="53/tcp" \
     --add-port="67/udp" --add-port="69/udp" \
     --add-port="80/tcp"  --add-port="443/tcp" \
     --add-port="5647/tcp" \
     --add-port="8000/tcp" --add-port="8140/tcp"

2.7. Enabling Connections from Capsule Server to Satellite Server

Follow this procedure to enable incoming connections from a Capsule Server to a Satellite Server, and make these rules persistent across reboots. If you do not use an external Capsule Server, you do not need to enable this connection.

Prerequisites

A Capsule Server’s base system is a client of the Satellite Server, therefore the procedure in Enabling Connections from a Client to Satellite Server should be completed first. This procedure opens the extra ports required by an external Capsule Server.

For more information on the ports used, see Ports and Firewalls Requirements.

Configuring the Firewall on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

  1. Configure iptables service.

    # iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 5646 -j ACCEPT \
    && service iptables save
  2. Start iptables service.

    # service iptables restart
    # chkconfig iptables on

Configuring the Firewall on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

  1. Configure the firewall on Satellite Server.

    # firewall-cmd --add-port="5646/tcp"
  2. Repeat the command adding the --permanent option to make the settings persistent.

    # firewall-cmd --permanent --add-port="5646/tcp"

2.8. Enabling Connections from Satellite Server and Clients to a Capsule Server

You can enable incoming connections from Satellite Server and clients to Capsule Server and make these rules persistent during reboots. If you do not use an external Capsule Server, you do not need to enable this connection.

For more information on the ports used, see Ports and Firewalls Requirements.

Configuring the Firewall on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

  1. Configure iptables service.

    # iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 67 -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 69 -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 5647 -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 8000 -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 8140 -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 8443 -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 9090 -j ACCEPT \
    && service iptables save
  2. Start iptables service.

    # service iptables restart
    # chkconfig iptables on

Configuring the Firewall on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

  1. Configure the firewall on Capsule Server.

    # firewall-cmd --add-port="53/udp" --add-port="53/tcp" \
     --add-port="67/udp" \
     --add-port="69/udp" --add-port="80/tcp" \
     --add-port="443/tcp" --add-port="5647/tcp" \
     --add-port="8000/tcp" --add-port="8140/tcp" \
     --add-port="8443/tcp" --add-port="9090/tcp"
  2. Repeat the command adding the --permanent option to make the settings persistent.

    # firewall-cmd --permanent --add-port="53/udp" --add-port="53/tcp" \
     --add-port="67/udp" \
     --add-port="69/udp" --add-port="80/tcp" \
     --add-port="443/tcp" --add-port="5647/tcp" \
     --add-port="8000/tcp" --add-port="8140/tcp" \
     --add-port="8443/tcp" --add-port="9090/tcp"

2.9. Verifying DNS resolution

Verifying the full forward and reverse DNS resolution using a fully-qualified domain name enables you to prevent issues while installing Satellite.

Ensure that the host name and local host resolve correctly.

# ping -c1 localhost
# ping -c1 `hostname -f` # my_system.domain.com

Successful name resolution results in output similar to the following:

# ping -c1 localhost
PING localhost (127.0.0.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from localhost (127.0.0.1): icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.043 ms

--- localhost ping statistics ---
1 packets transmitted, 1 received, 0% packet loss, time 0ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.043/0.043/0.043/0.000 ms

# ping -c1 `hostname -f`
PING hostname.gateway (XX.XX.XX.XX) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from hostname.gateway (XX.XX.XX.XX): icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.019 ms

--- localhost.gateway ping statistics ---
1 packets transmitted, 1 received, 0% packet loss, time 0ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.019/0.019/0.019/0.000 ms
Warning

Name resolution is critical to the operation of Satellite 6. If Satellite cannot properly resolve its fully qualified domain name, many options will fail. Among these options are content management, subscription management, and provisioning.

2.10. Changing Default SELinux ports

Red Hat Satellite 6 uses a set of predefined ports. Because Red Hat recommends that SELinux on Satellite 6 systems be set to permissive or enforcing, if you need to change the port for any service, you also need to change the associated SELinux port type to allow access to the resources. You only need to change these ports if you use non-standard ports.

For example, if you change the Satellite web UI ports (HTTP/HTTPS) to 8018/8019, you need to add these port numbers to the httpd_port_t SELinux port type.

This change is also required for target ports. For example, when Satellite 6 connects to an external source, like Red Hat Virtualization or Red Hat OpenStack Platform.

You only need to make changes to default port assignments once. Updating or upgrading Satellite has no effect on these assignments. Updating only adds default SELinux ports if no assignments exist.

Before You Begin

Changing default ports to user-specified ports

  1. To change the port from the default port to a user-specified port, execute the commands using values that are relevant to your environment. These examples use port 99999 for demonstration purposes.

    Default PortSELinux Command

    80, 443, 8443

    semanage port -a -t http_port_t -p tcp 99999

    8080

    semanage port -a -t http_cache_port_t -p tcp 99999

    8140

    semanage port -a -t puppet_port_t -p tcp 99999

    9090

    semanage port -a -t websm_port_t -p tcp 99999

    69

    semanage port -a -t tftp_port_t -p udp 99999

    53 (TCP)

    semanage port -a -t dns_port_t -p tcp 99999

    53 (UDP)

    semanage port -a -t dns_port_t -p udp 99999

    67, 68

    semanage port -a -t dhcpd_port_t -p udp 99999

    5671

    semanage port -a -t amqp_port_t -p tcp 99999

    8000

    semanage port -a -t soundd_port_t -p tcp 99999

    7911

    semanage port -a -t dhcpd_port_t -p tcp 99999

    5000 on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

    semanage port -a -t commplex_port_t -p tcp 99999

    5000 on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

    semanage port -a -t commplex_main_port_t -p tcp 99999

    22

    semanage port -a -t ssh_port_t -p tcp 99999

    16514 (libvirt)

    semanage port -a -t virt_port_t -p tcp 99999

    389, 636

    semanage port -a -t ldap_port_t -p tcp 99999

    5910 to 5930

    semanage port -a -t vnc_port_t -p tcp 99999

  2. Disassociate the previously used port number and port type.
# semanage port -d -t virt_port_t -p tcp 99999

Chapter 3. Installing Satellite Server

There are two methods of installing Satellite Server, connected and disconnected. A connected installation enables you to obtain the packages necessary to install Satellite Server by installing them directly from the Red Hat Content Delivery Network (CDN). A disconnected installation enables you to download an ISO image of the packages from an external computer and copy it to the Satellite Server for installation.

For hosts that have network connectivity, Red Hat recommends installing the packages directly from the CDN. Using ISO images is only recommended for hosts in a disconnected environment because ISO images may not contain the latest updates.

To successfully install Satellite Server, you must have root access.

3.1. Installing Satellite Server from a Connected Network

Installing Satellite Server from a connected network enables you to obtain packages and receive updates directly from the Red Hat Content Delivery Network.

Note that the Satellite 6 installation program is based on Puppet, which means that any manual configuration changes might be overwritten if you run the installation program more than once. ⁠ If you wish to avoid this use the --noop argument when you run the installation program to determine what changes would be applied. This argument ensures that no actual changes are made. Potential changes are written to /var/log/katello-installer.log

Files are always backed up and so you can revert any unwanted changes. For example, in the katello-installer logs you can see an entry similar to the following about Filebucket:

/Stage[main]/Dhcp/File[/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf]: Filebucketed /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf to puppet with sum 622d9820b8e764ab124367c68f5fa3a1

You can restore the previous file as follows:

puppet filebucket -l restore /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf 622d9820b8e764ab124367c68f5fa3a1

3.1.1. Registering to Red Hat Subscription Management

Registering the host to Red Hat Subscription Management enables the host to subscribe to and consume content for any subscriptions available to the user. This includes content such as Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Red Hat Software Collections (RHSCL), and Red Hat Satellite.

Register your system with the Red Hat Content Delivery Network, entering your Customer Portal user name and password when prompted:

# subscription-manager register

The command displays output similar to the following:

# subscription-manager register
Username: user_name
Password:
The system has been registered with ID: 541084ff2-44cab-4eb1-9fa1-7683431bcf9a

3.1.2. Identifying and Attaching the Satellite Subscription to the Host

After you have registered your host, you need to identify and attach an available Satellite subscription. The Satellite subscription provides access to the Satellite content, as well as Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Red Hat Software Collections (RHSCL), and Red Hat Satellite. This is the only subscription required. Every Red Hat subscription is identified by a Pool ID.

  1. Identify your Satellite subscription

    On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.7 (or higher) or 7.1 (or higher), you can search all available subscriptions containing the string Red Hat Satellite. On earlier versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you must list all available subscriptions and manually check the output for the appropriate subscription.

    1. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.7 (and higher) or 7.1 (and higher), run the following command:

      # subscription-manager list --available --matches 'Red Hat Satellite'

      This command performs a case-insensitive search of all available subscriptions' fields, including Subscription Name and Provides, matching any instances of Red Hat Satellite. Subscriptions are classified as available if they are not already attached to a system. The search string may also contain the wildcards ? or * to match a single character or zero or more characters, respectively. The wildcard characters may be escaped with a backslash to represent a literal question mark or asterisk. Likewise, to represent a backslash, it must be escaped with another backslash.

      If you are unable to find an available Satellite subscription, see the Red Hat Knowledgebase solution How do I figure out which subscriptions have been consumed by clients registered under Red Hat Subscription Manager? to run a script to allow you to see if your subscription is being consumed by another system.

    2. On other versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, run the following command:

      # subscription-manager list --all --available

      If the output is too long, pipe it into a pager utility, such as less or more, so that you can look over the output one screenful at a time.

    3. Regardless of which form of the subscription-manager command is run, the output should be similar to the following:

      Subscription Name: Red Hat Satellite
      Provides:          Oracle Java (for RHEL Server)
                         Red Hat Satellite 6
                         Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server
                         Red Hat Satellite
                         Red Hat Enterprise Linux Load Balancer (for RHEL Server)
      SKU:               MCT0370
      Pool ID:           8a85f9874152663c0541943739717d11
      Available:         3
      Suggested:         1
      Service Level:     Premium
      Service Type:      L1-L3
      Multi-Entitlement: No
      Ends:              10/07/2014
      System Type:       Physical
  2. Make a note of the Pool ID so that you can attach it to your Satellite host. Your Pool ID will be different than the example provided.
  3. To attach your subscription to your Satellite Server, run the following command, using your Pool ID:

    # subscription-manager attach --pool=pool_id

    The output should be similar to the following:

    Successfully attached a subscription for: Red Hat Satellite
  4. To verify that the subscriptions are successfully attached, run the following command:

    # subscription-manager list --consumed

    The outputs displays something similar to the following:

    +-------------------------------------------+
       Consumed Subscriptions
    +-------------------------------------------+
    Subscription Name: Red Hat Satellite
    Provides:          Red Hat Satellite
                       Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server
                       Red Hat Software Collections (for RHEL Server)
                       Red Hat Satellite
                       Red Hat Satellite 6
                       Red Hat Software Collections  (for RHEL Server)
                       Red Hat Satellite Capsule
                       Red Hat Enterprise Linux Load Balancer (for RHEL Server)
                       Red Hat Satellite with Embedded Oracle
                       Red Hat Satellite Capsule
                       Red Hat Enterprise Linux High Availability (for RHEL Server)
    SKU:               MCT0370
    Contract:          10293569
    Account:           5361051
    Serial:            1653856191250699363
    Pool ID:           8a85f9874152663c0541943739717d11
    Active:            True
    Quantity Used:     1
    Service Level:     Premium
    Service Type:      L1-L3
    Status Details:
    Starts:            10/08/2013
    Ends:              10/07/2014
    System Type:       Physical

3.1.3. Configuring Repositories

  1. Disable all existing repositories.

    # subscription-manager repos --disable "*"
  2. Enable the Red Hat Satellite and Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Red Hat Software Collections repositories.

    Ensure the Red Hat Enterprise Linux repository matches the specific version you are using.

    1. If you are using Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, run this command.

      # subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-6-server-rpms \
      --enable=rhel-server-rhscl-6-rpms \
      --enable=rhel-6-server-satellite-6.2-rpms
    2. If you are using Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, run this command.

      # subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-7-server-rpms \
      --enable=rhel-server-rhscl-7-rpms \
      --enable=rhel-7-server-satellite-6.2-rpms
      Note

      If you are using a different version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, change the repository based on your specific version.

  3. Clear out any metadata left from any non-Red Hat yum repositories.

    # yum clean all
  4. Verify that the repositories have been enabled.

    # yum repolist enabled

    The following output displays:

    Loaded plugins: product-id, subscription-manager
    repo id                                        repo name                                                                   status
    !rhel-7-server-rpms/x86_64                     Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Server (RPMs)                                    9,889
    !rhel-7-server-satellite-6.2-rpms/x86_64    Red Hat Satellite 6.2 (for RHEL 7 Server) (RPMs)                         545
    !rhel-server-rhscl-7-rpms/x86_64               Red Hat Software Collections RPMs for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Server     4,279
    repolist: 14,713

3.1.4. Installing the Satellite Server Packages

You must update all packages before installing the Satellite Server packages. After installation, you must perform the initial configuration of Satellite Server, including configuring server certificates, setting your user name, password, and the default organization and location.

  1. Update all packages.

    # yum update
  2. Install the installation package.

    # yum install satellite
  3. Go to Performing the Initial Configuration to run the installer program and perform the initial configuration of your Satellite Server.

3.1.5. Creating a Manifest

The Customer Portal page for the Satellite Server provides the ability to collect a group of subscriptions and attach them to the server for distribution to managed systems. In order to do that, we create a subscription manifest for our Satellite Server. To create the manifest, follow these steps:

  1. Go to the Red Hat Customer Portal and log in.
  2. Click SUBSCRIPTIONS.
  3. In the Red Hat Subscription Management section, click Satellite Organizations.
  4. Click Register a Satellite.
  5. In the Name field, type Satellite_Server_example.
  6. Select Satellite 6.2 as the version and click Register.
  7. Click Attach a subscription.
  8. Select the check box for each subscription that you want to attach and specify the number of subscriptions.
  9. Click Attach Selected.

    It can take several minutes for all the subscriptions to attach.

  10. Click Download Manifest and save the manifest file to a known location.

3.1.6. Uploading a Manifest to Your Satellite Server

Both the Red Hat Satellite 6 Web UI and CLI provide methods for importing the manifest.

Uploading a Manifest Using the Web UI

  1. Verify that you are in the correct Organization.
  2. Click Content > Red Hat Subscriptions.
  3. Click Manage Manifest to open the Subscriptions page.
  4. Click Browse, select the manifest file you created, and click Open.
  5. Click Upload to upload the manifest to the Satellite Server.

Uploading a Manifest Using Hammer CLI

  1. Upload a manifest to Satellite Server.

    hammer subscription upload --organization-label org_label --file path_to_manifest

3.1.7. Configuring a Self-Registered Satellite

A Red Hat Satellite server is normally registered to the Red Hat Customer Portal, then activated as a Satellite Server and gets new content from the Red Hat Customer Portal. A self-registered Red Hat Satellite 6 Server is registered to itself rather than the Red Hat Customer Portal.

Once a Red Hat Satellite 6 server is installed, there are several advantages to registering it as a client to itself:

  • The same life cycle management procedures can be applied to the Satellite 6 server itself that have been applied to the rest of the managed estate.
  • By subscribing the Satellite 6 server to its own content views, it will receive the same updates on the same schedule as the rest of the managed hosts.
  • You can use virt-who by using a self-registered Satellite Server, but you can also install and configure virt-who without self-registration. For more information, see the Red Hat Satellite Virtual Instances Guide.

There are also several limitations of a self-registered Satellite server:

  • A self-registered Satellite server cannot test package updates by using life-cycle environments. It is essential to make a full backup of a self-registered Satellite server before doing an upgrade to untested packages.
  • Not all puppet modules are supported by a self-registered Satellite server. When applying puppet modules to a self-registered Satellite server ensure that they will not create an unsupported configuration.

Registering a Satellite to Itself

Before a self-registered Satellite can be configured to get updates from itself, the Satellite subscription must be added to the Satellite’s manifest. When the subscription is in the manifest, the appropriate Satellite repositories can be synchronized into the Satellite.

To Register a Satellite to Itself:

  1. If the Satellite is already registered to the Red Hat Customer Portal, unregister the Satellite from the Red Hat Customer Portal using the following commands:

    # subscription-manager remove --all
    # subscription-manager unregister
  2. The Satellite subscription on the Red Hat Customer Portal is now available and can be transferred into the Satellite’s manifest. For further information on manifests see Managing Subscriptions in the Content Management Guide.

    1. Navigate to https://access.redhat.com and click SUBSCRIPTIONS on the main menu at the top of the page.
    2. Scroll down to the Red Hat Subscription Management section, and click Satellite under Subscription Management Applications.
    3. Select the required Satellite server by clicking its host name in the table.
    4. Click Attach a subscription and select subscriptions you want to attach. Specify the quantity for each subscription, and click the button Attach Selected.
  3. Refresh the manifest on the Satellite Server:

    1. Log in to the Satellite server.
    2. Ensure that the correct organization is selected.
    3. Click Content > Red Hat Subscriptions and then click Manage Manifest at the upper right of the page.
    4. In the Subscription Manifest section, click Actions and under the Subscription Manifest subsection, click Refresh Manifest.
  4. Enable Red Hat repositories using the Satellite web UI or with the command-line interface:

    • Using the Satellite web UI:

      1. Click Content > Red Hat Repositories.
      2. Navigate to the required repositories. Click each repository set from which you want to select repositories and select the check box for each required repository. The repository is automatically enabled.

        • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 the repositories that need to be enabled are:

          • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Server RPMs x86_64 6Server
          • Red Hat Satellite 6.2 for RHEL 6 Server RPMs x86_64
          • Red Hat Software Collections RPMs for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Server x86_64 6Server
          • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Server - Satellite Tools 6.2 RPMs x86_64 Repository
        • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 the repositories that need to be enabled are:

          • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Server RPMs x86_64 6Server
          • Red Hat Satellite 6.2 for RHEL 7 Server RPMs x86_64
          • Red Hat Software Collections RPMs for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Server x86_64 6Server
          • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Server - Satellite Tools 6.2 RPMs x86_64 Repository
    • Using the Hammer CLI Tool:

      You can enable the repositories required for the Satellite Server by using a command in the following format:

      subscription-manager repos --enable=repository-to-be-enabled
      1. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 the repositories that need to be enabled are:

        1. rhel-6-server-satellite-6.2-rpms
        2. rhel-6-server-satellite-tools-6.2-rpms
      2. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 the repositories that need to be enabled are:

        1. rhel-7-server-satellite-6.2-rpms
        2. rhel-7-server-satellite-tools-6.2-rpms
  5. Synchronize the Satellite server:

    1. Navigate to Content > Sync Status. Based on the subscriptions and repositories enabled, the list of product repositories available for synchronization is displayed.
    2. Click the arrow next to the product name to see available content.
    3. Select the content you want to synchronize.
    4. Click Synchronize Now to starting synchronizing. The status of the synchronization process will appear in the Result column. If synchronization is successful, Sync complete will appear in the Result column. If synchronization failed, Error syncing will appear.

      Note

      Content synchronization can take a long time. The length of time required depends on the speed of disk drives, network connection speed, and the amount of content selected for synchronization.

  6. Optionally, create a content view to represent the Satellite server. This will allow the Satellite to follow the same life cycle management procedures as the rest of the content on the server. For further information about content views see the Using Content Views chapter in the Red Hat Satellite 6.2 Host Configuration Guide.

    1. To create a content view:

      1. Log into the web UI as a Satellite administrator.
      2. Click Content > Content Views.
      3. Click Create New View.
      4. Specify the Name of the content view. The Label field is automatically populated when the Name field is filled out. Optionally, provide a description of the content view.
      5. Click Save.
    2. Edit the content view to add the Red Hat Enterprise Linux server and Satellite repositories:

      1. Click Content > Content Views and choose the Content View to add repositories to.
      2. Click Yum Content and select Repositories from the drop-down menu. From the submenu, click Add.
      3. Select the required repositories to add and click Add Repositories. The required repositories for a self-registered Satellite are all the repositories for the Satellite itself, any supporting repositories and the repository for the Base OS. The repositories required for a self-registered Satellite are listed in Step 4 of this procedure.
  7. Download and install the required certificates by running:

    # rpm -Uvh /var/www/html/pub/katello-ca-consumer-latest.noarch.rpm
  8. Register the Satellite Server, and attach the appropriate entitlements. When registering the Satellite Server, you must specify the organization to which the server belongs, and the life cycle environment. To confirm the available organizations and life cycle environments, in the Satellite web UI navigate to Hosts > New host and select the drop-down list for these values.

    # subscription-manager register --org=organization  --environment=environment

    Example

    # subscription-manager register --org=ExampleCompany  --environment=Library

    You will be prompted for your Red Hat Satellite user name and password. The Satellite Server administrator can configure new users. See the Red Hat Satellite Server Administration Guide. for more information.

  9. Find the pool IDs for the Satellite and for Red Hat Enterprise Linux by running the following command:

    # subscription-manager list --available
  10. Attach the entitlements by running the following command:

    # subscription-manager attach --pool Red_Hat_Satellite_Pool_ID --pool Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux_ID

    A content host has now been created for the Satellite server inside of the Satellite server.

  11. Install the Katello Agent package to allow errata management and package installation through the Satellite web UI. The katello-agent package depends on the gofer package that provides the goferd service. The goferd service must be enabled so that the Red Hat Satellite Server or Capsule Server can provide information about errata that are applicable for content hosts.

    To install the katello-agent run the following command:

    # yum install katello-agent

    The goferd service is started and enabled automatically after successful installation of katello-agent.

3.2. Downloading and Installing from a Disconnected Network

When the intended host for the Red Hat Satellite server is in a disconnected environment, it is possible to install the Satellite Server by using an ISO image. This method is not recommended for any other situation as ISO images might not contain the latest updates, bug fixes, and functionality.

Note

If the base system has not been updated from the Red Hat CDN, package dependency errors are possible. The latest version of the required packages will have to be downloaded and installed manually. See Section 3.2.4, “Downloading Packages Manually” for more information.

Before You Begin

  • A copy of the repositories used in the installation are stored in the /opt/ directory. Ensure you have a minimum of 2GB of space for this file system and directory.

3.2.1. Downloading the Binary DVD Images

  1. Go to Red Hat Customer Portal and log in.
  2. Click DOWNLOADS.
  3. Select Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
  4. Ensure that you have the correct product and version for your environment.

    • Product Variant is set to Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server.
    • Version is set to the latest minor version of the product you plan to use as the base system.
    • Architecture is set to the 64 bit version.
  5. On the Product Software tab, download the Binary DVD image for the latest Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server version.
  6. Click DOWNLOADS and select Red Hat Satellite.
  7. Ensure that you have the correct product and version for your environment.

    • Product Variant is set to Red Hat Satellite.
    • Version is set to the latest minor version of the product you plan to use as the base system.
    • Architecture is set to the 64 bit version.
  8. On the Product Software tab, download the Binary DVD image for the latest Red Hat Satellite version.
  9. Copy the ISO files to the Satellite base system or other accessible storage device.

    scp localfile username@hostname:remotefile

3.2.2. Configuring the Base System with Offline Repositories

  1. Create a directory to serve as the mount point for the ISO file corresponding to the base system’s version.

    # mkdir /media/rhelX-server

    Where X is the major version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux you are using.

  2. Mount the ISO image for Red Hat Enterprise Linux to the mount point.

    mount -o loop rhelX-Server-DVD.iso /media/rhelX-server

    The following example shows mounting the ISO using Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.2:

    # mount -o loop RHEL-7.2-20151030.0-Server-x86_64-dvd1.iso /media/rhel7-server
    mount: /dev/loop0 is write-protected, mounting read-only
  3. Copy the ISO file’s repository data file.

    # cp /media/rhelX-server/media.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/rhelX-server.repo
  4. Edit the repository data file and add the baseurl directive.

    baseurl=file:///media/rhelX-server/

    The following example shows the repository data file using Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.2:

    # vi /etc/yum.repos.d/rhel7-server.repo
    [InstallMedia]
    name=Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.2
    mediaid=1446216863.790260
    metadata_expire=-1
    gpgcheck=0
    cost=500
    baseurl=file:///media/rhel7-server/
    enabled=1
  5. Verify that the repository has been configured.

    # yum repolist
    Loaded plugins: product-id, search-disabled-repos, subscription-manager
    This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
    repo id          repo name                       status
    InstallMedia     Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.2    4,620
  6. Create a directory to serve as the mount point for the ISO file of the Satellite Server.

    # mkdir /media/sat6
  7. Mount the ISO image for Red Hat Satellite Server to the mount point.

    mount -o loop sat6-DVD.iso /media/sat6

    The following example shows mounting the ISO using Red Hat Satellite 6.2.1 for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7:

    # mount -o loop satellite-6.2.1-rhel-7-x86_64-dvd.iso /media/sat6
    mount: /dev/loop1 is write-protected, mounting read-only

3.2.3. Installing from the Offline Repositories

  1. Import the Red Hat GPG keys.

    # rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release
  2. Ensure the base system is up to date with the Binary DVD image.

    # yum update
  3. Change to the directory where the Satellite ISO is mounted.

    # cd /media/sat6/
  4. Run the installer script in the mounted directory.

    # ./install_packages
    	This script will install the foreman packages on the current machine.
       - Ensuring we are in an expected directory.
       - Copying installation files.
       - Creating a Repository File
       - Creating RHSCL Repository File
       - Checking to see if Foreman is already installed.
       - Importing the gpg key.
       - Foreman is not yet installed, installing it.
       - Installation repository will remain configured for future package installs.
       - Installation media can now be safely unmounted.
    
    Install is complete. Please run satellite-installer.

    If the script fails due to missing or outdated packages, you will need to download and install these separately. See Section 3.2.4, “Downloading Packages Manually” for instructions.

  5. Unmount the ISO files.

    # unmount /media/sat6
    # unmount /media/rhelX-server

3.2.4. Downloading Packages Manually

If required to download a package manually, proceed as follows:

  1. Go to Red Hat Customer Portal and log in.
  2. Click DOWNLOADS.
  3. Select Red Hat Satellite.
  4. Ensure that you have the correct product and version for your environment.

    • Product Variant is set to Red Hat Satellite.
    • Version is set to the latest minor version of the product you are using as the base system.
    • Architecture is set to the 64 bit version.
  5. On the Packages tab, enter the name of the package required in the Search box.
  6. Click Download Latest next to the package required.

3.3. Performing the Initial Configuration

As part of the initial configuration, you can configure a custom server certificate and either manually configure Satellite or automatically configure Satellite using an answer file.

  • Manual Configuration - Satellite Server has default initial configuration options that prepare the server for use. You can override these settings depending on your environment’s requirements. You can run the command as often as needed to configure any necessary options.
  • Automatic Configuration - You can automate most of the installation and configuration by using an answer file.
Note

Depending on the options that you use when running the Satellite installer, the configuration can take several minutes to complete.

Before you continue, consider which manifests or packages are relevant for your environment. See the Content Management Guide for more information.

3.3.1. Synchronizing Time

You must start and enable a time synchronizer on the host operating system to minimize the effects of time drift. If a system’s time is incorrect, certificate verification can fail.

Two time synchronizers are available: NTP and chrony. Each of these has its advantages. chrony is recommended for systems that are frequently suspended and for systems—​such as mobile and virtual systems—​that intermittently disconnect from networks and then reestablish network connection. NTP is recommended for systems that are expected to remain in running states and that are expected to be connected to a network without interruption.

For more information on the differences between NTP and chrony, see the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 System Administrators Guide or the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Deployment Guide.

Synchronizing Time by Using NTP

  1. Install ntp.

    # yum install ntp
  2. Verify that your NTP server is available.

    # ntpdate -q ntp_server_address
  3. Set the system time.

    # ntpdate ntp_server_address
  4. Start and enable the ntpd service.

    # chkconfig ntpd on

Synchronizing Time by Using chronyd

  1. Install chronyd.

    # yum install chrony
  2. Start and enable the chrony service.

    # systemctl start chronyd
    # systemctl enable chronyd

3.3.2. Installing the SOS Package on the Host Operating System

You should install the sos package on the host operating system. The sos package enables you to collect configuration and diagnostic information from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. You can also use it to provide the initial system analysis, which is required when opening a service request with Red Hat Technical Support. For more information on using sos, see What is a sosreport and how to create one in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.6 and later?.

  1. Install the sos package.

    # yum install sos

3.3.3. Performing the Initial Configuration Manually

The initial configuration creates an organization, location, user name, and password. After the initial configuration, you can create additional organizations and locations if required.

The installation process can take tens of minutes to complete. If you are connecting remotely to the system, consider using a utility such as screen that allows suspending and reattaching a communication session so that you can check the installation progress in case you become disconnected from the remote system. The Red Hat Knowledgebase article How do I use the screen command? describes installing screen; alternately see the screen manual page for more information. If you lose connection to the shell where the installation command is running, see the log at /var/log/foreman-installer/satellite.log to determine if the process completed successfully.

Manually configuring Satellite Server

If you do not specify any values, the default values are used. Use the satellite-installer --help command to display the available options and any default values.

Note

Specify a meaningful value for the option: --foreman-initial-organization. This may be your company name. An internal label that matches the value is also created and cannot be easily changed later on. If you do not specify a value, an organization called Default Organization with the label Default_Organization is created. You can rename the organization name but not the label.

# satellite-installer --scenario satellite \
--foreman-initial-organization "initial_organization_name" \
--foreman-initial-location "initial_location_name" \
--foreman-admin-username admin-username \
--foreman-admin-password admin-password

When the script completes successfully, the following output is displayed:

Installing             Done
   [100%] [........................................]
   Success!
   * Satellite is running at https://satellite.example.com
       Default credentials are 'admin / changeme'
   * Capsule is running at https://satellite.example.com:9090
   * To install additional capsule on separate machine continue by running:

   capsule-certs-generate --capsule-fqdn "$CAPSULE" --certs-tar "~/$CAPSULE-certs.tar"

   The full log is at /var/log/foreman-installer/satellite.log

3.3.4. Configuring Red Hat Satellite with an Answer File

You can use answer files to automate installations with customized options. The initial answer file is sparsely populated and after you run satellite-installer the first time, the answer file is populated with the standard parameter values for installation.

You should use the FQDN instead of the IP address where possible in case of network changes.

  1. Copy the default answer file /etc/foreman-installer/scenarios.d/satellite-answers.yaml to a location on your local file system.

    # cp /etc/foreman-installer/scenarios.d/satellite-answers.yaml /etc/foreman-installer/scenarios.d/my-answer-file.yaml
  2. To view all of the configurable options, run the satellite-installer --help command.
  3. Open your copy of the answer file, edit the values to suit your environment, and save the file.
  4. Open the /etc/foreman-installer/scenarios.d/satellite.yaml file and edit the answer file entry to point to your custom answer file.

    :answer_file: /etc/foreman-installer/scenarios.d/my-answer-file.yaml
  5. Run the satellite-installer command.

    # satellite-installer --scenario satellite

3.4. Performing Additional Configuration

3.4.1. Installing the Satellite Tools Repository

The Satellite Tools repository provides the katello-agent and puppet packages for clients registered to Satellite Server. Installing the katello agent is recommended to allow remote updates of clients. The base system of a self-registered Satellite Server or of a Capsule Server is a client of Satellite Server and therefore should also have the katello agent installed.

To Install the Satellite Tools Repository:

  1. In the Satellite web UI, go to Content > Red Hat Repositories and select the RPM tab.
  2. Find and expand the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server item.
  3. Find and expand the Red Hat Satellite Tools 6.2 (for RHEL VERSION Server) (RPMs) item.

    If the Red Hat Satellite Tools 6.2 items are not visible, it may be because they are not included in the subscription manifest obtained from the Customer Portal. To correct that, log in to the Customer Portal, add these repositories, download the subscription manifest and import it into Satellite.

  4. Select the Enabled check box next to the Satellite 6.2 Tools repository’s name.

Enable the Satellite Tools repository for every supported major version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux running on your hosts. After enabling a Red Hat repository, a product for this repository is automatically created.

To Synchronize the Satellite Tools Repository:

  1. Go to Content > Sync Status.

    A list of product repositories available for synchronization is displayed.

  2. Click the arrow next to the product content to view available content.
  3. Select the content you want to synchronize.
  4. Click Synchronize Now.

3.4.2. Configuring Satellite Server with HTTP Proxy

If your network uses an HTTP Proxy, you can enable it. Use the FQDN instead of the IP address where possible in case of network changes.

  1. Verify that the http_proxy, https_proxy, and no_proxy variables are not set.

    # export http_proxy=""
    # export https_proxy=$http_proxy
    # export no_proxy=$http_proxy
  2. Run satellite-installer with the HTTP proxy options.

    # satellite-installer --scenario satellite \
    --katello-proxy-url=http://myproxy.example.com \
    --katello-proxy-port=8080 \
    --katello-proxy-username=proxy_username \
    --katello-proxy-password=proxy_password
  3. Verify that Satellite Server can connect to the Red Hat Content Delivery Network (CDN) and can synchronize its repositories.

    1. On the network gateway and the HTTP Proxy, enable TCP for the following host names:

      Host namePortProtocol

      subscription.rhn.redhat.com

      443

      HTTPS

      cdn.redhat.com

      443

      HTTPS

      *.akamaiedge.net

      443

      HTTPS

      cert-api.access.redhat.com (if using Red Hat Insights)

      443

      HTTPS

      api.access.redhat.com (if using Red Hat Insights)

      443

      HTTPS

      For the IP addresses currently used by subscription.rhn.redhat.com, see the Knowledgebase solution What is the IP address range for 'subscription.rhn.redhat.com' on the Red Hat Customer Portal.

      For a list of IP addresses used by the Red Hat CDN (cdn.redhat.com), see the Knowledgebase article Public CIDR Lists for Red Hat on the Red Hat Customer Portal.

    2. On Satellite Server, complete the following details in the /etc/rhsm/rhsm.conf file:

      # an http proxy server to use (enter server FQDN)
      proxy_hostname = http_proxy.example.com
      
      # port for http proxy server
      proxy_port = 3128
      
      # user name for authenticating to an http proxy, if needed
      proxy_user =
      
      # password for basic http proxy auth, if needed
      proxy_password =

3.4.3. Configuring DNS, DHCP, and TFTP on Satellite Server

You can configure DNS, DHCP, and TFTP on Satellite Server.

If you want to configure external services, see Configuring Satellite Server with External Services for more information.

If you want to disable these services in Satellite in order to manage them manually, see Disabling DNS, DHCP, and TFTP for Unmanaged Networks for more information.

To view a complete list of configurable options, run the satellite-installer --help command.

Before You Begin

  • Contact your network administrator to ensure that you have the correct settings.
  • You should have the following information available:

    • DHCP IP address ranges
    • DHCP gateway IP address
    • DHCP nameserver IP address
    • DNS information
    • TFTP server name
  • Use the FQDN instead of the IP address where possible in case of network changes.
Note

The information in the task is an example. You should use the information relevant to your own environment.

Configure DNS, DHCP, and TFTP on Satellite Server

  1. Run satellite-installer with the options appropriate for your environment.

    # satellite-installer --scenario satellite \
    --foreman-proxy-dns true \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-interface eth0 \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-zone example.com \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-forwarders 172.17.13.1 \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-reverse 13.17.172.in-addr.arpa \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp true \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-interface eth0 \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-range "172.17.13.100 172.17.13.150" \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-gateway 172.17.13.1 \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-nameservers 172.17.13.2 \
    --foreman-proxy-tftp true \
    --foreman-proxy-tftp-servername $(hostname)

    The status of the installation is displayed. You can view the user name and password in the command output. You can also retrieve the information from the admin_password parameter in the /etc/foreman-installer/scenarios.d/satellite-answers.yaml file.

    Success!
      * Satellite is running at https://satellite.example.com
          Default credentials are 'admin:*******'
      * Capsule is running at https://satellite.example.com:9090
      * To install additional capsule on separate machine continue by running:"
    
          capsule-certs-generate --capsule-fqdn "$CAPSULE" --certs-tar "~/$CAPSULE-certs.tar"
    
      The full log is at /var/log/foreman-installer/satellite.log
Note

Any changes to the settings require running satellite-installer again. You can run the script multiple times and it updates all configuration files with the changed values.

3.4.4. Disabling DNS, DHCP, and TFTP for Unmanaged Networks

Satellite 6 provides full management capabilities for TFTP, DHCP, and DNS network services running on Satellite’s internal or external Capsules. If you want to manage those services manually or use some external method, then Satellite 6 cannot directly integrate with them. While it is possible to develop custom integration scripts via Foreman Hooks (such as creating DNS records after a new host is created), this integration, also known as orchestration, must be disabled in order to prevent DHCP and DNS validation errors.

  1. Go to Infrastructure > Subnets and select a subnet.
  2. On the Capsules tab, ensure that there is no DHCP Capsule or TFTP Capsule associated by setting the drop-down list to None.
  3. Disable forward record orchestration.

    1. Go to Infrastructure > Domains and select a domain.
    2. On the Domain tab, setting the DNS Capsule drop-down list to None.
  4. Disable reverse (PTR) record orchestration.

    1. Go to Infrastructure > Subnets and select a subnet.
    2. On the Capsules tab, setting the Reverse DNS Capsule drop-down list to None.
Note

Satellite 6 does not perform orchestration when a Capsule is not set for a given subnet and domain. When enabling or disabling Capsule associations, orchestration commands for existing hosts can fail if the expected records and configuration files are not present. When associating a Capsule in order to turn orchestration on, make sure the required DHCP and DNS records as well as the TFTP files are in place for existing Satellite 6 managed hosts in order to prevent host deletion failures in the future.

3.4.5. Configuring Satellite Server for Outgoing Emails

To send email messages from Satellite Server, you can use either an SMTP server, or the sendmail command.

  1. Edit the configuration file /etc/foreman/email.yaml to match your preferred delivery method.

    The following example shows the contents of the configuration file for using an SMTP server:

    production:
       delivery_method: :smtp
       smtp_settings:
          address: smtp.example.com
          port: 25
          domain: example.com
          authentication: :login
          user_name: satellite@example.com
          password: satellite

    Where the user_name and password directives specify the login credentials for the SMTP server. The default /etc/foreman/email.yaml contains authentication: :none.

    The following example uses gmail.com as an SMTP server:

    production:
       delivery_method: :smtp
       smtp_settings:
          enable_starttls_auto: :true
          address: smtp.gmail.com
          port: 587
          domain: smtp.gmail.com
          authentication: :plain
          user_name: user@gmail.com
          password: password

    The following example uses the sendmail command as a delivery method:

    production:
       delivery_method: :sendmail
       sendmail_settings:
          arguments: "-i -t -G"

    Where the arguments directive is used to pass command-line options to sendmail. The default value of arguments is "-i -t". For more information see the sendmail 1 man page.

  2. If you decide to send email via an SMTP server which uses TLS authentication, also perform one of the following steps:

    • Mark the CA certificate of the SMTP server as trusted. To do so, execute the following commands on Satellite Server:

      # cp mailca.crt /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/
      # update-ca-trust enable
      # update-ca-trust

      Where mailca.crt is the CA certificate of the SMTP server.

    • Alternatively, add the following directive to /etc/foreman/email.yaml under smtp_settings:

      enable_starttls_auto: :false
  3. After updating the /etc/foreman/email.yaml file, restart Katello services to apply the changes.

    # katello-service restart
  4. Additional email settings, such as the reply address or subject prefix, can be set up in the Satellite web UI at Administer > Settings under the General tab.
Note

For information on configuring email notifications for individual users or user groups, see the Red Hat Satellite Server Administration Guide.

3.4.6. Configuring Satellite Server with a Custom Server Certificate

Red Hat Satellite 6 provides a default SSL certificate to enable encrypted communications between the Satellite Server, Capsule Servers, and all hosts. You can replace the default certificate with custom certificates if you want to do so. For example, your company might have a security policy stating that SSL certificates must be obtained from a specific Certificate Authority.

To replace the default SSL certificate you must obtain custom SSL certificates for the Satellite Server and all external Capsule Servers (if any), then install them on their respective hosts.

Note

Obtain custom SSL certificates for the Satellite Server and all external Capsule Servers before starting this procedure.

To use a custom certificate on Satellite Server, complete these steps:

If you have external Capsule Servers, you must also complete the steps in Section 4.7.6, “Configuring Capsule Server with a Custom Server Certificate”.

3.4.6.1. Obtain an SSL Certificate for the Satellite Server

Note

If you already have a custom SSL Certificate for the Satellite Server, skip this procedure.

  1. Create a directory to contain all the source certificate files, accessible to only the root user.

    In these examples, the directory is /root/sat_cert.

    # mkdir /root/sat_cert
    # cd /root/sat_cert
  2. Create a private key with which to sign the Certificate Signing Request (CSR).

    Note

    If you already have a private key for the Satellite Server, skip this step.

    # openssl genrsa -out /root/sat_cert/satellite_cert_key.pem 4096
  3. Create a Certificate Signing Request (CSR)

    A Certificate Signing Request is a text file containing details of the server for which you are requesting a certificate. For this command, you provide the private key (output by the previous step), answer some questions about the Satellite Server, and the Certificate Signing Request is created.

    Note

    The certificate’s Common Name (CN) must match the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) of the server on which it is used. If you are requesting a certificate for a Satellite Server, this is the FQDN of the Satellite Server. If you are requesting a certificate for a Capsule Server, this is the FQDN of the Capsule Server.

    To confirm a server’s FQDN, run the following command on that server: hostname -f.

    # openssl req -new \
      -key /root/sat_cert/satellite_cert_key.pem \ 1
      -out /root/sat_cert/satellite_cert_csr.pem   2
    1
    Satellite Server’s private key, used to sign the certificate
    2
    Certificate Signing Request file

    Example Certificate Signing Request session

    You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
    into your certificate request.
    What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
    There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
    For some fields there will be a default value,
    If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
    
    Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:AU
    State or Province Name (full name) []:Queensland
    Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:Brisbane
    Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:Example
    Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:Sales
    Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:satellite.example.com
    Email Address []:example@example.com
    
    Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
    to be sent with your certificate request
    A challenge password []:password
    An optional company name []:Example

  4. Send the certificate request to the Certificate Authority.

    When you submit the request, be sure to specify the lifespan of the certificate. The method for sending the certificate request varies, so consult the Certificate Authority for the preferred method. In response to the request you can expect to receive a Certificate Authority bundle, and a signed certificate, in separate files.

3.4.6.2. Validate the Satellite Server’s SSL Certificate

Run the katello-certs-check command with the required parameters as per the following example. This validates the input files required for custom certificates and outputs the commands necessary to install them on the Satellite Server, all Capsule Servers, and hosts under management with Satellite.

  1. Validate the custom SSL certificate input files. Change the files' names to match your files.

    # katello-certs-check \
       -c /root/sat_cert/satellite_cert.pem \      1
       -k /root/sat_cert/satellite_cert_key.pem \  2
       -r /root/sat_cert/satellite_cert_csr.pem \  3
       -b /root/sat_cert/ca_cert_bundle.pem        4
    1
    Certificate file for the Satellite Server, signed by your Certificate Authority
    2
    Satellite Server’s private key, used to sign the certificate
    3
    Certificate signing request file for the Satellite Server
    4
    Certificate Authority bundle

Example output of katello-certs-check

Validating the certificate subject= /C=AU/ST=Queensland/L=Brisbane/O=Example/OU=Sales/CN=satellite.example.com/emailAddress=example@example.com
Check private key matches the certificate: [OK]
Check ca bundle verifies the cert file: [OK]

Validation succeeded.

To install the Satellite main server with the custom certificates, run:

    satellite-installer --scenario satellite\
                        --certs-server-cert "/root/sat_cert/satellite_cert.pem"\
                        --certs-server-cert-req "/root/sat_cert/satellite_cert_csr.pem"\
                        --certs-server-key "/root/sat_cert/satellite_cert_key.pem"\
                        --certs-server-ca-cert "/root/sat_cert/ca_cert_bundle.pem"

To update the certificates on a currently running Satellite installation, run:

    satellite-installer --scenario satellite\
                        --certs-server-cert "/root/sat_cert/satellite_cert.pem"\
                        --certs-server-cert-req "/root/sat_cert/satellite_cert_csr.pem"\
                        --certs-server-key "/root/sat_cert/satellite_cert_key.pem"\
                        --certs-server-ca-cert "/root/sat_cert/ca_cert_bundle.pem"\
                        --certs-update-server --certs-update-server-ca

To use them inside a $CAPSULE, run this command INSTEAD:

    capsule-certs-generate --capsule-fqdn ""\
                           --certs-tar  "/root/certs.tar"\
                           --server-cert "/root/sat_cert/satellite_cert.pem"\
                           --server-cert-req "/root/sat_cert/satellite_cert_csr.pem"\
                           --server-key "/root/sat_cert/satellite_cert_key.pem"\
                           --server-ca-cert "/root/sat_cert/ca_cert_bundle.pem"\
                           --certs-update-server

3.4.6.3. Run the Satellite Installer with Custom Certificate Parameters

Now that you have created an SSL certificate and verified it is valid for use with Red Hat Satellite 6, the next step is to install the custom SSL certificate on the Satellite Server and all its hosts.

There is a minor variation to this step, depending on whether or not the Satellite Server is already installed. If it is already installed, the existing certificates must be updated with those in the certificates archive.

The commands in this section are output by the katello-certs-check command, as detailed in Section 3.4.6.2, “Validate the Satellite Server’s SSL Certificate”, and can be copied and pasted into a terminal.

  1. Run the satellite-installer command, depending on your situation:

    1. If Satellite is already installed, run the following command on the Satellite Server:

      # satellite-installer --scenario satellite\
         --certs-server-cert "/root/sat_cert/satellite_cert.pem"\
         --certs-server-cert-req "/root/sat_cert/satellite_cert_csr.pem"\
         --certs-server-key "/root/sat_cert/satellite_cert_key.pem"\
         --certs-server-ca-cert "/root/sat_cert/ca_cert_bundle.pem"\
         --certs-update-server --certs-update-server-ca

      Important parameters in this command include --certs-update-server and --certs-update-server-ca, which specify that the server’s SSL certificate and certificate authority are to be updated. For a brief description of all the installer’s parameters, run the command: satellite-installer --scenario satellite --help.

      Note

      For all files in the satellite-installer command, use full path names, not relative path names. The installer records all files' paths and names, and if you run the installer again, but from a different directory, it may fail as it is unable to find the original files.

    2. If Satellite is not already installed, run the following command on the Satellite Server:

      # satellite-installer --scenario satellite\
        --certs-server-cert "/root/sat_cert/satellite_cert.pem"\
        --certs-server-cert-req "/root/sat_cert/satellite_cert_csr.pem"\
        --certs-server-key "/root/sat_cert/satellite_cert_key.pem"\
        --certs-server-ca-cert "/root/sat_cert/ca_cert_bundle.pem"
      Note

      For all files in the satellite-installer command, use full path names, not relative path names. The installer records all files' paths and names, and if you run the installer again, but from a different directory, it may fail as it is unable to find the original files.

  2. Verify the certificate has been successfully installed on the Satellite Server before installing it on hosts. On a computer with network access to the Satellite Server, start a web browser, navigate to the URL https://satellite.example.com and view the certificate’s details.

3.4.6.4. Install the New Certificate on all Hosts Connected to the Satellite Server

Now that the custom SSL certificate has been installed on the Satellite Server, it must also be installed on every host registered to the Satellite Server. Run the following command on all applicable hosts.

# yum -y localinstall http://satellite.example.com/pub/katello-ca-consumer-latest.noarch.rpm

3.4.7. Restricting Access to mongod

Only the apache and root users should be allowed access to the MongoDB database daemon, mongod, to reduce the risk of data loss.

Restrict access to mongod on Satellite and Capsule Servers using the following commands.

Configuring the Firewall on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

  1. Configure iptables service on Satellite and Capsule Servers.

    # iptables -I OUTPUT -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I OUTPUT -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I OUTPUT -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -j DROP
    && iptables -I OUTPUT -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I OUTPUT -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I OUTPUT -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -j DROP
    service iptables save

Configuring the Firewall on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

  1. Configure the firewall on Satellite and Capsule Servers.

    # firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -j DROP \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -j DROP \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -j DROP \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -j DROP
  2. Repeat the command adding the --permanent option to make the settings persistent.

    # firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -j DROP \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -j DROP \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -j DROP \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -j DROP

Chapter 4. Installing Capsule Server

Before you install Capsule Server, you should ensure that your environment meets the requirements for installation. Capsule Server has the same requirements for installation as Satellite Server. For more information, see Preparing Your Environment for Installation.

4.1. Registering Capsule Server to Satellite Server

Before You Begin

  • The Satellite Server must have a manifest installed with the appropriate repositories for the organization you intend to subscribe to. The manifest must contain repositories for the Capsule’s base system as well as any clients connected to the Capsule. The repositories must be synchronized. See the Content Management Guide for more information on manifests and repositories.
  • The Satellite Server’s base system must be able to resolve the host name of the Capsule Server’s base system and vice versa.
  • You must have a Satellite Server user name and password. For more information, see the Red Hat Satellite 6.2 Server Administration Guide.

Register Capsule Server to Satellite Server

  1. Install the Satellite Server’s CA certificate in the Capsule Server.

    # rpm -Uvh http://satellite.example.com/pub/katello-ca-consumer-latest.noarch.rpm
  2. Register the Capsule server with your organization.

    # subscription-manager register --org organization_name

4.2. Identifying and Attaching the Capsule Server Subscription

After you have registered the Capsule Server, you need to identify your Capsule Server subscription Pool ID. The Pool ID enables you to attach the required subscription to your Capsule Server. The Capsule Server subscription provides access to the Capsule Server content, as well as Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Red Hat Software Collections (RHSCL), and Red Hat Satellite. This is the only subscription required.

  1. Identify your Capsule Server subscription.

    # subscription-manager list --all --available

    The command displays output similar to the following:

    +
    +-------------------------------------------+
        Available Subscriptions
    +-------------------------------------------+
    
    Subscription Name: Red Hat Satellite Capsule Server
    Provides:          Red Hat Satellite Proxy
                       Red Hat Satellite Capsule
                       Red Hat Software Collections (for RHEL Server)
                       Red Hat Satellite Capsule
                       Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server
                       Red Hat Enterprise Linux High Availability (for RHEL Server)
                       Red Hat Software Collections (for RHEL Server)
                       Red Hat Enterprise Linux Load Balancer (for RHEL Server)
    SKU:               MCT0369
    Pool ID:           9e4cc4e9b9fb407583035861bb6be501
    Available:         3
    Suggested:         1
    Service Level:     Premium
    Service Type:      L1-L3
    Multi-Entitlement: No
    Ends:              10/07/2022
    System Type:       Physical
  2. Make a note of the Pool ID so that you can attach it to your Satellite host. Your Pool ID will be different than the example provided.
  3. Attach your subscription to your Capsule Server, using your Pool ID:

    # subscription-manager attach --pool=Red_Hat_Satellite_Capsule_Pool_Id

    The outputs displays something similar to the following:

    Successfully attached a subscription for: Red Hat Capsule Server
  4. To verify that the subscriptions are successfully attached, run the following command:

    # subscription-manager list --consumed

4.3. Configuring Repositories

  1. Disable all existing repositories.

    # subscription-manager repos --disable "*"
  2. Enable the Red Hat Satellite, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and Red Hat Software Collections repositories.

    The Red Hat Software Collections repository provides a later version of Ruby required by some Red Hat Satellite features, including the Remote Execution feature.

    Ensure the Red Hat Enterprise Linux repository matches the specific version you are using.

    If you are using…​Run this command…​

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

    subscription-manager repos --enable rhel-6-server-rpms --enable rhel-6-server-satellite-capsule-6.2-rpms --enable rhel-server-rhscl-6-rpms

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

    subscription-manager repos --enable rhel-7-server-rpms --enable rhel-7-server-satellite-capsule-6.2-rpms --enable rhel-server-rhscl-7-rpms

  3. Clear out any metadata left from any non-Red Hat yum repositories.

    # yum clean all
  4. Verify that the repositories have been enabled.

    # yum repolist enabled

    The following output displays:

    Loaded plugins: langpacks, product-id, subscription-manager
    repo id                                                 repo name                                                    status
    !rhel-7-server-rpms/7Server/x86_64                      Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Server (RPMs)                      7,617
    !rhel-7-server-satellite-capsule-6.2-rpms/x86_64     Red Hat Satellite Capsule 6.2(for RHEL 7 Server) (RPMs)    176
    repolist: 7,793

4.4. Synchronizing Time

You must start and enable a time synchronizer on the host operating system to minimize the effects of time drift. If a system’s time is incorrect, certificate verification can fail.

Two time synchronizers are available: NTP and chrony. Each of these has its advantages. chrony is recommended for systems that are frequently suspended and for systems—​such as mobile and virtual systems—​that intermittently disconnect from networks and then reestablish network connection. NTP is recommended for systems that are expected to remain in running states and that are expected to be connected to a network without interruption.

For more information on the differences between NTP and chrony, see the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 System Administrators Guide or the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Deployment Guide.

Synchronizing Time by Using NTP

  1. Install ntp.

    # yum install ntp
  2. Verify that your NTP server is available.

    # ntpdate -q ntp_server_address
  3. Set the system time.

    # ntpdate ntp_server_address
  4. Start and enable the ntpd service.

    # chkconfig ntpd on

Synchronizing Time by Using chronyd

  1. Install chronyd.

    # yum install chrony
  2. Start and enable the chrony service.

    # systemctl start chronyd
    # systemctl enable chronyd

4.5. Installing Capsule Server

  1. Install the installation package.

    # yum install satellite-capsule

4.6. Performing Initial Configuration of Capsule Server

This section demonstrates a default installation of Capsule Server, including use of default certificates, DNS, and DHCP configuration. For details of more advanced configuration options, see Section 4.7, “Performing Additional Configuration on Capsule Server”.

4.6.1. Configuring Capsule Server with a Default Server Certificate

You can use the default certificate authority (CA) that comes with Capsule Server, which is used by both the server and the client SSL certificates for the authentication of subservices.

Before You Begin

  • You must have attached the required subscription to the Capsule Server.
  • You must have installed the katello-ca-consumer-latest package.
  • You must have registered your Capsule Server to the Satellite Server.

Configure Capsule Server with a Default Server Certificate

  1. Create the certificates archive on Satellite Server.

    # capsule-certs-generate
    --capsule-fqdn "mycapsule.example.com"\
    --certs-tar "~/mycapsule.example.com-certs.tar"
  2. Ensure that the satellite-installer package is available on the Capsule Server.
  3. Copy the generated archive .tar file from Satellite Server to Capsule Server.
  4. Enable the certificate based on the needs of your environment. For more information, see satellite-installer --help.

    # satellite-installer --scenario capsule\
        --capsule-parent-fqdn "satellite.example.com"\
        --foreman-proxy-register-in-foreman "true"\
        --foreman-proxy-foreman-base-url "https://satellite.example.com"\
        --foreman-proxy-trusted-hosts "satellite.example.com"\
        --foreman-proxy-trusted-hosts "mycapsule.example.com"\
        --foreman-proxy-oauth-consumer-key "UVrAZfMaCfBiiWejoUVLYCZHT2xhzuFV"\
        --foreman-proxy-oauth-consumer-secret "ZhH8p7M577ttNU3WmUGWASag3JeXKgUX"\
        --capsule-pulp-oauth-secret "TPk42MYZ42nAE3rZvyLBh7Lxob3nEUi8"\
        --capsule-certs-tar "~/mycapsule.example.com-certs.tar"

4.7. Performing Additional Configuration on Capsule Server

4.7.1. Installing the katello Agent

Installing the katello agent is recommended to allow remote updates of clients. The base system of a self-registered Satellite Server or of a Capsule Server is a client of Satellite Server and therefore should also have the katello agent installed.

Before You Begin

  • You must have enabled the Satellite Tools repositories in Satellite Server.
  • You must have synchronized the Satellite Tools repositories in Satellite Server.

To Install katello-agent:

  1. Log into the system.
  2. Enable the Satellite tools repository for this version of Satellite.

    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, run the following command:

      # subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-7-server-satellite-tools-6.2-rpms
    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, run the following command:

      # subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-6-server-satellite-tools-6.2-rpms
  3. Install the package.

    # yum install katello-agent

4.7.2. Enabling Remote Execution on Capsule Server

If you want to run commands on a Capsule Server’s hosts, you must ensure that remote execution is enabled. To enable remote execution, follow the instructions in the Host Configuration Guide.

4.7.3. Adding Life Cycle Environments to Capsule Servers

If your Capsule Server has content functionality enabled, you must add an environment. Adding an environment enables Capsule Server to synchronize content from Satellite Server and provide content to host systems.

Capsule Server is configured using Satellite Server’s Hammer CLI. You must execute all commands on Satellite Server.

  1. Log in to the Hammer CLI as root.
  2. Display a list of all Capsule Servers and note the ID.

    # hammer capsule list
  3. Using the ID, verify the details of your Capsule Server.

    # hammer capsule info --id capsule_id_number
  4. Verify the life cycle environments available and note the environment ID.

    # hammer capsule content available-lifecycle-environments --id capsule_id_number

    Available life cycle environments are available for Capsule Server, but not currently attached.

  5. Add the life cycle environment to your Capsule Server.

    # hammer capsule content add-lifecycle-environment --id capsule_id_number --environment-id environment_id_number
  6. Repeat for each life cycle environment you want to add to Capsule Server.
  7. To synchronize all content from your Satellite Server environment to Capsule Server, run the following command:

    # hammer capsule content synchronize --id capsule_id_number
  8. To synchronize a specific life cycle environment from your Satellite Server to Capsule Server, run the following command:

    # hammer capsule content synchronize --id external_capsule_id_number --environment-id environment_id_number

4.7.4. Enabling Power Management on Managed Hosts

When you enable the baseboard management controller (BMC) module on the Capsule Server, you can use power management commands on managed hosts using the intelligent platform management interface (IPMI) or a similar protocol.

The BMC service on the satellite Capsule Server enables you to perform a range of power management tasks. The underlying protocol for this feature is IPMI; also referred to as the BMC function. IPMI uses a special network interface on the managed hardware that is connected to a dedicated processor that runs independently of the host’s CPUs. In many instances the BMC functionality is built into chassis-based systems as part of chassis management (a dedicated module in the chassis).

For more information on the BMC service, see the Red Hat Satellite 6.2 Host Configuration Guide.

Before You Begin

  • All managed hosts must have a network interface, with type BMC. Satellite uses this NIC to pass the appropriate credentials to the host.

Enable Power Management on Managed Hosts

  1. Run the installer with the options to enable BMC.

    # satellite-installer --scenario capsule\
    --foreman-proxy-bmc "true"\
    --foreman-proxy-bmc-default-provider "freeipmi"

4.7.5. Configuring DNS and DHCP on Capsule Server

You can configure DNS, DHCP, and TFTP on Capsule Server.

You can also configure Capsule Server to use external DNS and DHCP services. See Configuring Satellite Server with External Services for more information.

To view a complete list of configurable options, run the satellite-installer --help command.

Before You Begin

  • You must have the correct network name (dns-interface) for the DNS server.
  • You must have the correct interface name (dhcp-interface) for the DHCP server.

Configure DNS, DHCP, and TFTP on Capsule Server

  1. Run capsule installer with the options applicable to your environment.

    The following example shows full provisioning services:

    # satellite-installer --scenario capsule\
    --foreman-proxy-tftp=true\
    --foreman-proxy-foreman-oauth-key    "your_organization_key"\
    --foreman-proxy-foreman-oauth-secret "your_organization_secret"\
    --capsule-certs-tar            "~/capsule.example.com-certs.tar"\
    --foreman-proxy-templates=true\
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp=true\
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-gateway=192.168.122.1\
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-nameservers=192.168.122.1\
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-range="192.168.122.100 192.168.122.200"\
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-interface=eth0\
    --foreman-proxy-dns=true\
    --foreman-proxy-dns-forwarders=8.8.8.8\
    --foreman-proxy-dns-interface=eth0\
    --foreman-proxy-dns-zone=example.com
    
    # satellite-installer --scenario capsule\
    --foreman-proxy-dns true \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-interface eth0 \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-zone example.com \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-forwarders 172.17.13.1 \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-reverse 13.17.172.in-addr.arpa \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp true \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-interface eth0 \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-range "172.17.13.100 172.17.13.150" \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-gateway 172.17.13.1 \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-nameservers 172.17.13.2 \
    --foreman-proxy-tftp true \
    --foreman-proxy-tftp-servername $(hostname) \
    --capsule-puppet true \
    --foreman-proxy-puppetca true

4.7.6. Configuring Capsule Server with a Custom Server Certificate

Red Hat Satellite 6 comes with default SSL certificate to enable encrypted communications between the Satellite Server, Capsule Servers, and all hosts. You can replace the default certificate with a custom certificates if required. For example, your company’s security policy might dictate that SSL certificates must be obtained from a specific Certificate Authority.

Prerequisites

To use a custom certificate on each Capsule Server, complete these procedures:

4.7.6.1. Obtain an SSL Certificate for the Capsule Server

Note
  • Do not use the Satellite Server’s certificate on any Capsule Server as each server’s certificate is unique.
  1. Create a directory to contain all the source certificate files, accessible to only the root user.

    # mkdir /root/capsule_cert
    # cd /root/capsule_cert

    In these examples, the directory is /root/capsule_cert. If you have multiple Capsule Servers, name the directory to match. For example, if you have Capsule Servers named capsule_apac and capsule_emea, you might create directories named capsule_apac and capsule_emea respectively. This is not required, but reduces the risk of using files from one Capsule Server on another Capsule Server.

  2. Create a private key with which to sign the Certificate Signing Request (CSR).

    Note

    If you already have a private key for the Capsule Server, skip this step.

    # openssl genrsa -out /root/capsule_cert/satellite_cert_key.pem 4096
  3. Create a Certificate Signing Request (CSR)

    A Certificate Signing Request is a text file containing details of the server for which you are requesting a certificate. For this command, you provide the private key (output by the previous step), answer some questions about the Capsule Server, and the Certificate Signing Request is stored in a file.

    Note

    The certificate’s Common Name (CN) must match the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) of the server on which it is used.

    To confirm a server’s FQDN, run the command hostname -f on the server.

    # openssl req -new \
      -key /root/capsule_cert/capsule_cert_key.pem \ 1
      -out /root/capsule_cert/capsule_cert_csr.pem   2
    1
    Capsule Server’s private key, used to sign the certificate
    2
    Certificate Signing Request file

    Example Certificate Signing Request session

    You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
    into your certificate request.
    What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
    There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
    For some fields there will be a default value,
    If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
    
    Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:AU
    State or Province Name (full name) []:Queensland
    Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:Brisbane
    Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:Example
    Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:Sales
    Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:capsule.example.com
    Email Address []:example@example.com
    
    Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
    to be sent with your certificate request
    A challenge password []:password
    An optional company name []:Example

  4. Send the certificate request to the Certificate Authority.

    When you submit the request, be sure to specify the lifespan of the certificate. The method for sending the certificate request varies, so consult the Certificate Authority for the preferred method. In response to the request you can expect to receive a Certificate Authority bundle, and a signed certificate, in separate files.

4.7.6.2. Validate the Capsule Server’s SSL Certificate

On the Satellite Server, validate the Capsule Server’s certificate input files with the katello-certs-check command.

# katello-certs-check \
   -c /root/capsule_cert/capsule_cert.pem \      1
   -k /root/capsule_cert/capsule_cert_key.pem \  2
   -r /root/capsule_cert/capsule_cert_csr.pem \  3
   -b /root/capsule_cert/ca_cert_bundle.pem      4
1
Capsule Server certificate file, provided by your Certificate Authority
2
Capsule Server’s private key, used to sign the certificate
3
Capsule Server’s certificate signing request file
4
Certificate Authority bundle, provided by your Certificate Authority

If the certificate is successfully validated, the output will contain the following.

Check private key matches the certificate: [OK]
Check ca bundle verifies the cert file: [OK]

Proceed to Section 4.7.6.3, “Create the Capsule Server’s Certificate Archive File”.

4.7.6.3. Create the Capsule Server’s Certificate Archive File

The Capsule Server’s installer requires the server’s certificate be provided in an archive file. To create this file, use the capsule-certs-generate command on the Satellite Server.

The capsule-certs-generate command must be run once for every external Capsule Server. In these examples, capsule.example.com is the example FQDN and capsule_certs.tar the example archive file’s name. Replace these with values appropriate to your environment, taking care not to overwrite an existing certificate archive file. For example, if you have Capsule Servers named capsule1 and capsule2, you could name the certificate archive files capsule1_certs.tar and capsule2_certs.tar.

  1. Copy and paste into a terminal the capsule-certs-generate command, as output by the katello-certs-check command in Section 3.4.6.2, “Validate the Satellite Server’s SSL Certificate”.
  2. Edit the values for --capsule-fqdn to match the Capsule Server’s FQDN, and --certs-tar to the file path and name for the certificate archive file.
  3. If the Capsule Server has not already been installed, remove the --certs-update-server parameter. This is used only to update an existing Capsule Server’s certificate.
  4. On the Satellite Server, run the resulting command.

    Example capsule-certs-generate command

    # capsule-certs-generate --capsule-fqdn "capsule.example.com"\
      --certs-tar  "/root/capsule_cert/capsule_certs.tar"\
      --server-cert "/root/capsule_cert/capsule_cert.pem"\
      --server-cert-req "/root/capsule_cert/capsule_cert_csr.pem"\
      --server-key "/root/capsule_cert/capsule_cert_key.pem"\
      --server-ca-cert "/root/sat_cert/ca_cert_bundle.pem"\
      --certs-update-server

  5. On the Satellite Server, copy the certificate archive file to the Capsule Server, providing the root user’s password when prompted.

    In this example the archive file is copied to the root user’s home directory, but you may prefer to copy it elsewhere.

    # scp /root/capsule_cert/capsule_certs.tar root@capsule.example.com:

Proceed to Section 4.7.6.4, “Install the Capsule Server’s Custom Certificate”.

4.7.6.4. Install the Capsule Server’s Custom Certificate

Warning

Complete this procedure on the Capsule Server.

To install the Capsule Server’s custom certificates, run the Satellite installer. The command, including parameters, is output by the the capsule-certs-generate command in Section 4.7.6.3, “Create the Capsule Server’s Certificate Archive File”.

  1. Copy and paste the custom capsule-certs-generate command but do NOT run it.
  2. Edit the value for --capsule-certs-tar to match the location of the certificates archive file.
  3. If you want to enable additional features on the Capsule Server, append their parameters to the satellite-installer command. For a description of all the installer’s parameters, run the command satellite-installer --help.

Example custom satellite-installer command

# satellite-installer --scenario capsule\
  --capsule-parent-fqdn                    "satellite.example.com"\
  --foreman-proxy-register-in-foreman      "true"\
  --foreman-proxy-foreman-base-url         "https://satellite.example.com"\
  --foreman-proxy-trusted-hosts            "satellite.example.com"\
  --foreman-proxy-trusted-hosts            "capsule.example.com"\
  --foreman-proxy-oauth-consumer-key       "FeQsbASvCjvvaqE6duKH6SoYZWg4jwjg"\
  --foreman-proxy-oauth-consumer-secret    "7UhPXFPDBongvdTbNixbsWR5WFZsKEgF"\
  --capsule-pulp-oauth-secret              "VpQ9587tVmYeuY4Du6VitmZpZE5vy9ac"\
  --capsule-certs-tar                      "/root/capsule_certs.tar"

Note

The satellite-installer command, as output by the capsule-certs-generate command, is unique to each Capsule Server. Do not use the same command on more than one Capsule Server.

Do NOT delete the certificates archive file (the .tar file) even after the certificates have been deployed to all relevant hosts. It is required, for example, when upgrading the Capsule Server. If the certificates archive file is not found by the installer, it will fail with a message similar to the following:

[ERROR YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss main]  tar -xzf /var/tmp/srvcapsule01.tar returned 2 instead of one of [0]

Proceed to Section 4.7.6.5, “Install the Capsule Server’s New Certificate on All Hosts”.

4.7.6.5. Install the Capsule Server’s New Certificate on All Hosts

Hosts which connect to an external Capsule Server require that server’s custom certificate. Run the following command on all the Capsule Server’s hosts.

Note

Use the Capsule Server’s host name, not that of the Satellite Server.

# yum -y localinstall http://capsule.example.com/pub/katello-ca-consumer-latest.noarch.rpm

4.7.7. Restricting Access to mongod

Only the apache and root users should be allowed access to the MongoDB database daemon, mongod, to reduce the risk of data loss.

Restrict access to mongod on Satellite and Capsule Servers using the following commands.

Configuring the Firewall on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

  1. Configure iptables service on Satellite and Capsule Servers.

    # iptables -I OUTPUT -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I OUTPUT -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I OUTPUT -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -j DROP
    && iptables -I OUTPUT -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I OUTPUT -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && iptables -I OUTPUT -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -j DROP
    service iptables save

Configuring the Firewall on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

  1. Configure the firewall on Satellite and Capsule Servers.

    # firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -j DROP \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -j DROP \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -j DROP \
    && firewall-cmd  --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -j DROP
  2. Repeat the command adding the --permanent option to make the settings persistent.

    # firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -j DROP \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 27017 -j DROP \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner apache -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -j DROP \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv6 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 28017 -j DROP

Chapter 5. Configuring External Services

Some environments have existing DNS, DHCP, and TFTP services and do not need to use the Satellite Server to provide these services. If you want to use external servers to provide DNS, DHCP, or TFTP, you can configure them for use with Satellite Server.

If you want to disable these services in Satellite in order to manage them manually, see Disabling DNS, DHCP, and TFTP for Unmanaged Networks for more information.

5.1. Configuring Satellite with External DNS

You can configure Satellite to use an external server to provide DNS service.

  1. Deploy a Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server and install the ISC DNS Service.

    # yum install bind bind-utils
  2. Create the configuration for the domain.

    The following example configures a domain virtual.lan as one subnet 192.168.38.0/24, a security key named foreman, and sets forwarders to Google’s public DNS addresses (8.8.8.8 and 8.8.4.4).

    # cat /etc/named.conf
    include "/etc/rndc.key";
    
    controls  {
        inet 192.168.38.2 port 953 allow { 192.168.38.1; 192.168.38.2; } keys { "capsule"; };
    };
    
    options  {
        directory "/var/named";
        forwarders { 8.8.8.8; 8.8.4.4; };
    };
    
    include "/etc/named.rfc1912.zones";
    
    zone "38.168.192.in-addr.arpa" IN {
        type master;
        file "dynamic/38.168.192-rev";
        update-policy {
            grant "capsule" zonesub ANY;
        };
    };
    
    zone "virtual.lan" IN {
        type master;
        file "dynamic/virtual.lan";
        update-policy {
            grant "capsule" zonesub ANY;
        };
    };

    The inet line must be entered as one line in the configuration file.

  3. Create a key file.

    # ddns-confgen -k capsule

    This command can take a long time to complete.

  4. Copy and paste the output from the key section into a separate file called /etc/rndc.key.

    # cat /etc/rndc.key
    key "capsule" {
            algorithm hmac-sha256;
            secret "GeBbgGoLedEAAwNQPtPh3zP56MJbkwM84UJDtaUS9mw=";
    };
    Important

    This is the key used to change DNS server configuration. Only the root user should read and write to it.

  5. Create zone files.

    # cat /var/named/dynamic/virtual.lan
    $ORIGIN .
    $TTL 10800      ; 3 hours
    virtual.lan             IN SOA  service.virtual.lan. root.virtual.lan. (
                                    9          ; serial
                                    86400      ; refresh (1 day)
                                    3600       ; retry (1 hour)
                                    604800     ; expire (1 week)
                                    3600       ; minimum (1 hour)
                                    )
                            NS      service.virtual.lan.
    $ORIGIN virtual.lan.
    $TTL 86400      ; 1 day
    capsule                 A       192.168.38.1
    service                 A       192.168.38.2
  6. Create the reverse zone file.

    # cat /var/named/dynamic/38.168.192-rev
    $ORIGIN .
    $TTL 10800      ; 3 hours
    38.168.192.in-addr.arpa IN SOA  service.virtual.lan. root.38.168.192.in-addr.arpa. (
                                    4          ; serial
                                    86400      ; refresh (1 day)
                                    3600       ; retry (1 hour)
                                    604800     ; expire (1 week)
                                    3600       ; minimum (1 hour)
                                    )
                            NS      service.virtual.lan.
    $ORIGIN 38.168.192.in-addr.arpa.
    $TTL 86400      ; 1 day
    1                PTR     capsule.virtual.lan.
    2                PTR     service.virtual.lan.

    There should be no extra non-ASCII characters.

5.2. Verifying and Starting the DNS Service

  1. Validate the syntax.

    # named-checkconf -z /etc/named.conf
  2. Start the server.

    If you are using…​Run this command…​

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

    # systemctl restart named

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

    # service named restart

  3. Add a new host.

    The following uses the example host 192.168.38.2. You should change this to suit your environment.

    # echo -e "server 192.168.38.2\n \
    update add aaa.virtual.lan 3600 IN A 192.168.38.10\n \
    send\n" | nsupdate -k /etc/rndc.key
  4. Test that the DNS service can resolve the new host.

    # nslookup aaa.virtual.lan 192.168.38.2
  5. If necessary, delete the new entry.

    # echo -e "server 192.168.38.2\n \
    update delete aaa.virtual.lan 3600 IN A 192.168.38.10\n \
    send\n" | nsupdate -k /etc/rndc.key
  6. Configure the firewall for external access to the DNS service (UDP and TCP on port 53).

    • For Satellite Server running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7:

      # firewall-cmd --add-port="53/udp" --add-port="53/tcp" \
      && firewall-cmd --permanent --add-port="53/udp" --add-port="53/tcp"
    • For Satellite Server running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6:

      # iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT \
      && iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT \
      && service iptables save

      Verify that the iptables service is started and enabled.

      # service iptables start
      # chkconfig iptables on

5.3. Configuring Capsule Server with External DNS

  1. On the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server, install the ISC DNS Service.

    # yum install bind bind-utils

    Ensure that the nsupdate utility was installed. The Capsule uses the nsupdate utility to update DNS records on the remote server.

  2. Copy the /etc/rndc.key file from the services server to the Capsule Server.

    scp localfile username@hostname:remotefile
  3. Verify that the key file has the correct owner, permissions, and SELinux label.

    # ls /etc/rndc.key -Zla
    -rw-r-----. root named system_u:object_r:dnssec_t:s0    /etc/rndc.key
  4. Test that the nsupdate utility by adding a host remotely.

    # echo -e "server 192.168.38.2\n \
    update add aaa.virtual.lan 3600 IN A 192.168.38.10\n \
    send\n" | nsupdate -k /etc/rndc.key
    # nslookup aaa.virtual.lan 192.168.38.2
    # echo -e "server 192.168.38.2\n \
    update delete aaa.virtual.lan 3600 IN A 192.168.38.10\n \
    send\n" | nsupdate -k /etc/rndc.key
  5. Run the satellite-installer script to make the following persistent changes to the /etc/foreman-proxy/settings.d/dns.yml file.

    # satellite-installer --foreman-proxy-dns=true
    --foreman-proxy-dns-managed=false
    --foreman-proxy-dns-provider=nsupdate
    --foreman-proxy-dns-server="192.168.38.2"
    --foreman-proxy-keyfile=/etc/rndc.key
    --foreman-proxy-dns-ttl=86400
  6. Restart the foreman-proxy service.

    If you are using…​Run this command…​

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

    systemctl restart foreman-proxy

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

    service foreman-proxy restart

  7. Log in to the Satellite Server web UI.
  8. Go to Infrastructure > Capsules. Locate the appropriate Capsule Server and from the Actions drop-down list, select Refresh. The DNS feature should appear.
  9. Associate the DNS service with the appropriate subnets and domain.

5.4. Configuring Satellite Server with External DHCP

Important

From Satellite 6.3 onwards, external DHCP configuration via NFS is not supported. Due to optimizations in inotify, DHCP Capsule is no longer able to detect changes in remote files.

  1. Deploy a Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server and install the ISC DHCP Service.

    # yum install dhcp
  2. Generate a security token in an empty directory.

    # dnssec-keygen -a HMAC-MD5 -b 512 -n HOST omapi_key
  3. For testing or proof-of-concept deployments, run an insecure non-blocking device command.

    # dnssec-keygen -r /dev/urandom -a HMAC-MD5 -b 512 -n HOST omapi_key

    This creates a key pair in two files in the current directory.

  4. Copy the secret hash from the key.

    # cat Komapi_key.+*.private |grep ^Key|cut -d ' ' -f2
  5. Edit the dhcpd configuration file for all of the subnets and add the key.

    # cat /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
    default-lease-time 604800;
    max-lease-time 2592000;
    log-facility local7;
    
    subnet 192.168.38.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
    	range 192.168.38.10 192.168.38.100;
    	option routers 192.168.38.1;
    	option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
    	option domain-search "virtual.lan";
    	option domain-name "virtual.lan";
    	option domain-name-servers 8.8.8.8;
    }
    
    omapi-port 7911;
    key omapi_key {
    	algorithm HMAC-MD5;
    	secret "jNSE5YI3H1A8Oj/tkV4...A2ZOHb6zv315CkNAY7DMYYCj48Umw==";
    };
    omapi-key omapi_key;
  6. Delete the two key files from the directory where you created them.
  7. Define each subnet on the Satellite Server.

    It is recommended to set up a lease range and reservation range separately to prevent conflicts. For example, the lease range is 192.168.38.10 to 192.168.38.100 so the reservation range (defined in the Satellite web UI) is 192.168.38.101 to 192.168.38.250. Do not set DHCP Capsule for the defined Subnet yet.

    ISC DHCP listens only on interfaces that match defined subnets. In this example, the server has an interface that routes to 192.168.38.0 subnet directly.

  8. Configure the firewall for external access to the DHCP server.

    • For Satellite Server running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7:

      # firewall-cmd --add-service dhcp \
      && firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service dhcp
    • For Satellite Server running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6:

      # iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 67 -j ACCEPT \
      && service iptables save

      Verify that the iptables service is started and enabled.

      # service iptables start
      # chkconfig iptables on
  9. Determine the UID and GID numbers of the foreman-proxy user on the Capsule Server. Create the same user and group with the same IDs on the DHCP server.

    # groupadd -g 990 foreman-proxy
    # useradd -u 992 -g 990 -s /sbin/nologin foreman-proxy
  10. To make the configuration files readable, restore the read and execute flags.

    # chmod o+rx /etc/dhcp/
    # chmod o+r /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
    # chattr +i /etc/dhcp/ /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
  11. Start the DHCP service.

    If you are using…​Run this command…​

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

    systemctl start dhcpd

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

    service dhcpd start

  12. Export the DHCP configuration and leases files using NFS.

    # yum install nfs-utils
    # systemctl enable rpcbind nfs-server
    # systemctl start rpcbind nfs-server nfs-lock nfs-idmapd
  13. Create the DHCP configuration and leases files to be exported using NFS.

    # mkdir -p /exports/var/lib/dhcpd /exports/etc/dhcp
  14. Add the newly created mount point to /etc/fstab file.

    /var/lib/dhcpd /exports/var/lib/dhcpd none bind,auto 0 0
    /etc/dhcp /exports/etc/dhcp none bind,auto 0 0
  15. Mount the file systems in /etc/fstab.

    # mount -a
  16. Ensure the following lines are present in /etc/exports:

    /exports 192.168.38.1(rw,async,no_root_squash,fsid=0,no_subtree_check)
    /exports/etc/dhcp 192.168.38.1(ro,async,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check,nohide)
    /exports/var/lib/dhcpd
    192.168.38.1(ro,async,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check,nohide)
  17. Reload the NFS server.

    # exportfs -rva
  18. Configure the firewall for the DHCP omapi port 7911 for the Capsule Server.

    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, run the following command:

      # firewall-cmd --add-port="7911/tcp" \
      && firewall-cmd --permanent --add-port="7911/tcp"
    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, run the following commands:

      # iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 7911 -j ACCEPT \
      && service iptables save

      Ensure that the iptables service is started and enabled.

      # service iptables start
      # chkconfig iptables on
  19. If required, configure the firewall for external access to NFS.

    Clients are configured using NFSv3.

    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, use the firewalld daemon’s NFS service to configure the firewall.

      #  firewall-cmd --zone public --add-service mountd \
      && firewall-cmd --zone public --add-service rpc-bind \
      && firewall-cmd --zone public --add-service nfs \
      && firewall-cmd --permanent --zone public --add-service mountd \
      && firewall-cmd --permanent --zone public --add-service rpc-bind \
      && firewall-cmd --permanent --zone public --add-service nfs
    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, configure the ports for NFSv3 in the /etc/sysconfig/nfs file.

      LOCKD_TCPPORT=32803
      LOCKD_UDPPORT=32769
      MOUNTD_PORT=892
      RQUOTAD_PORT=875
      STATD_PORT=662
      STATD_OUTGOING_PORT=2020

      Restart the service.

      # service nfs restart

      Add rules to the /etc/sysconfig/iptables file.

      # iptables -I INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 111 -j ACCEPT \
      && iptables -I INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 111 -j ACCEPT \
      && iptables -I INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 2049 -j ACCEPT \
      && iptables -I INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 2049 -j ACCEPT \
      && iptables -I INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 32803 -j ACCEPT \
      && iptables -I INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 32769 -j ACCEPT \
      && iptables -I INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 892 -j ACCEPT \
      && iptables -I INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 892 -j ACCEPT \
      && iptables -I INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 875 -j ACCEPT \
      && iptables -I INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 875 -j ACCEPT \
      && iptables -I INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 662 -j ACCEPT \
      && iptables -I INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 662 -j ACCEPT \
      && service iptables save

      Restart the firewall.

      # service iptables restart

For more information on using NFSv3 behind a firewall on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, see the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Storage Administration Guide and the section called "Running NFS Behind a Firewall" in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Security Guide.

5.5. Configuring Capsule Server with External DHCP

  1. Install the NFS client.

    # yum install nfs-utils
  2. Create the DHCP directories for NFS.

    # mkdir -p /mnt/nfs/etc/dhcp /mnt/nfs/var/lib/dhcpd
  3. Change the file owner.

    # chown -R foreman-proxy /mnt/nfs
  4. Verify communication with the NFS server and RPC communication paths.

    # showmount -e 192.168.38.2
    # rpcinfo -p 192.168.38.2
  5. Add the following lines to the /etc/fstab file:

    192.168.38.2:/exports/etc/dhcp /mnt/nfs/etc/dhcp nfs
    ro,vers=3,auto,nosharecache,context="system_u:object_r:dhcp_etc_t:s0" 0 0
    192.168.38.2:/exports/var/lib/dhcpd /mnt/nfs/var/lib/dhcpd nfs
    ro,vers=3,auto,nosharecache,context="system_u:object_r:dhcpd_state_t:s0" 0 0
  6. Mount the file systems on /etc/fstab.

    # mount -a
  7. Read the relevant files.

    # su foreman-proxy -s /bin/bash
    bash-4.2$ cat /mnt/nfs/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
    bash-4.2$ cat /mnt/nfs/var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd.leases
    bash-4.2$ exit
  8. Run the satellite-installer script to make the following persistent changes to the /etc/foreman-proxy/settings.d/dhcp.yml file.

    # satellite-installer --foreman-proxy-dhcp=true
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-provider=isc
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-config /mnt/nfs/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-leases /mnt/nfs/var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd.leases
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-key-name=omapi_key
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-key-secret=jNSE5YI3H1A8Oj/tkV4...A2ZOHb6zv315CkNAY7DMYYCj48Umw==
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-server dhcp.example.com
  9. Restart the foreman-proxy service.

    If you are using…​Run this command…​

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

    systemctl restart foreman-proxy

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

    service foreman-proxy restart

  10. Log in to the Satellite Server web UI.
  11. Go to Infrastructure > Capsules. Locate the appropriate Capsule Server and from the Actions drop-down list, select Refresh. The DHCP feature should appear.
  12. Associate the DHCP service with the appropriate subnets and domain.

5.6. Configuring Satellite Server with External TFTP

Before You Begin

Configure Satellite Server with External TFTP

  1. Install and enable the TFTP server.

    # yum install tftp-server syslinux
    1. On Red Hat Enterprise 7, enable and activate the tftp.socket unit.

      # systemctl enable tftp.socket
      # systemctl start tftp.socket
    2. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, enable and start the xinetd service.

      # service xinetd enable
      # service xinetd start
  2. Configure the PXELinux environment.

    # mkdir -p /var/lib/tftpboot/{boot,pxelinux.cfg}
    # cp /usr/share/syslinux/{pxelinux.0,menu.c32,chain.c32} /var/lib/tftpboot/
  3. Restore SELinux file contexts.

    # restorecon -RvF /var/lib/tftpboot/
  4. Create the TFTP directory to be exported using NFS.

    # mkdir -p /exports/var/lib/tftpboot
  5. Add the newly created mount point to the /etc/fstab file.

    /var/lib/tftpboot /exports/var/lib/tftpboot none bind,auto 0 0
  6. Mount the file systems in /etc/fstab.

    # mount -a
  7. Ensure the following lines are present in /etc/exports:

    /exports 192.168.38.1(rw,async,no_root_squash,fsid=0,no_subtree_check)
    /exports/var/lib/tftpboot 192.168.38.1(rw,async,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check,nohide)

    The first line is common to the DHCP configuration and therefore should already be present if the previous procedure was completed on this system.

  8. Reload the NFS server.

    # exportfs -rva

5.6.1. Configuring the Firewall for External Access to TFTP

Configuring the Firewall for External Access to the TFTP Service Using Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

  1. Configure the firewall (UDP on port 69).

    # firewall-cmd --add-port="69/udp" \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --add-port="69/udp"

Configuring the Firewall for External Access to the TFTP Service Using Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

  1. Configure the firewall.

    # iptables -I INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 69 -j ACCEPT \
    && service iptables save
  2. Ensure the iptables service is started and enabled.

    # service iptables start
    # chkconfig iptables on

5.7. Configuring Capsule Server with External TFTP

  1. Create the TFTP directory to prepare for NFS.

    # mkdir -p /mnt/nfs/var/lib/tftpboot
  2. Add the following line in the /etc/fstab file:

    192.168.38.2:/exports/var/lib/tftpboot /mnt/nfs/var/lib/tftpboot nfs rw,vers=3,auto,nosharecache,context="system_u:object_r:tftpdir_rw_t:s0" 0 0
  3. Mount the file systems in /etc/fstab.

    # mount -a
  4. Run the satellite-installer script to make the following persistent changes to the /etc/foreman-proxy/settings.d/tftp.yml file.

    # satellite-installer --foreman-proxy-tftp=true
    --foreman-proxy-tftp-root /mnt/nfs/var/lib/tftpboot
  5. If the TFTP service is running on a different server than the DHCP service, update the tftp_servername setting with the FQDN or IP address of that server.

    # satellite-installer --foreman-proxy-tftp-servername=new_FQDN

    This updates all configuration files with the new value.

  6. Log in to the Satellite Server web UI.
  7. Go to Infrastructure > Capsules. Locate the appropriate Capsule Server and from the Actions drop-down list, select Refresh. The TFTP feature should appear.
  8. Associate the TFTP service with the appropriate subnets and domain.

5.8. Configuring Satellite with External IPA DNS

Red Hat Satellite can be configured to use an IPA server to provide the DNS service. This method requires root access to the IPA server to edit the BIND configuration file and copy the rndc.key to Satellite’s base system.

In this example, Satellite Server has the following settings.

IP address

192.168.25.1

Host name

satellite.example.com

The IPA Master Server has the following settings.

Host name

idm1.example.com

IP address

192.168.25.2

Domain name

example.com

5.8.1. On the IPA Server

Configuring the Firewall

  1. Configure the firewall for UDP ports.

    # firewall-cmd --add-port="53/udp" \
    --add-port="88/udp" --add-port="464/udp" \
    --add-port="123/udp" \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --add-port="53/udp" \
    --add-port="88/udp" --add-port="464/udp" \
    --add-port="123/udp"
  2. Configure the firewall for TCP ports.

    # firewall-cmd --add-port="53/tcp" \
     --add-port="80/tcp" --add-port="434/tcp" \
     --add-port="389/tcp" --add-port="636/tcp" \
    --add-port="88/tcp" --add-port="464/tcp" \
    && firewall-cmd --permanent --add-port="53/tcp" \
     --add-port="80/tcp" --add-port="434/tcp" \
     --add-port="389/tcp" --add-port="636/tcp" \
    --add-port="88/tcp" --add-port="464/tcp"

Enabling External Updates to the DNS Zone in the IPA Server

  1. Add the following to the top of the /etc/named.conf file.

    // This was added to allow Satellite Server at 192.168.25.1 to make DNS updates.
    ############################################################################
    include "/etc/rndc.key";
    controls  {
    inet 192.168.25.2 port 953 allow { 192.168.25.1; } keys { "rndc-key"; };
    };
    ############################################################################
  2. In the IPA web UI, go to Network Services > DNS > DNS Zones. Select the name of the zone. On the Settings tab:

    1. Add the following in the BIND update policy box.

      grant "rndc-key" zonesub ANY;
    2. Ensure Dynamic update is set to True.
    3. Click Update to save the changes.
  3. Copy the /etc/rndc.key file from the IPA server to a secure location for later use. Alternatively, copy it directly to Satellite’s base system as follows.

    # scp /etc/rndc.key root@satellite.example.com:/etc/rndc.key

5.8.2. On Satellite Server

  1. Configure Satellite Server to use the external DNS server.

    # satellite-installer --scenario satellite \
    --foreman-proxy-dns=true \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-managed=false \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-provider=nsupdate \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-server="192.168.25.2" \
    --foreman-proxy-keyfile=/etc/rndc.key \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-ttl=86400
  2. Install bind-utils for testing with nsupdate.

    # yum install bind-utils
  3. Ensure the key in the /etc/rndc.key file is the same one as used in the IPA server.

    key "rndc-key" {
            algorithm hmac-md5;
            secret "secret-key==";
    };
  4. Create a test DNS entry for a host. For example, host test.example.com with an A record of 192.168.25.20 on the IPA server at 192.168.25.1.

    # echo -e "server 192.168.25.1\n \
    update add test.example.com 3600 IN A 192.168.25.20\n \
    send\n" | nsupdate -k /etc/rndc.key
  5. Test the DNS entry.

    # nslookup test.example.com 192.168.25.1
    Server:		192.168.25.1
    Address:	192.168.25.1#53
    
    Name:	test.example.com
    Address: 192.168.25.20
  6. To view the entry in the IPA web UI, go to Network Services > DNS > DNS Zones. Select the name of the zone and search for the host by name.
  7. If resolved successfully, remove the test DNS entry.

    # echo -e "server 192.168.25.1\n \
    update delete test.example.com 3600 IN A 192.168.25.20\n \
    send\n" | nsupdate -k /etc/rndc.key
  8. Confirm that the DNS entry was removed.

    # nslookup test.example.com 192.168.25.1

    The above nslookup command will fail and output the SERVFAIL error message if the record was successfully deleted.

Chapter 6. Upgrading Satellite Server and Capsule Server

Upgrading is the process of migrating your Satellite and Capsule Server installations from one release to the next, for example Satellite 6.1 to Satellite 6.2. Upgrades are usually done in order to take advantage of significant new features or capabilities. Because upgrades can involve deprecation of installed code, they can require a significant amount of time. You should plan your workflow to avoid disruption to your operating environment when performing upgrades. Before upgrading, check the Red Hat Satellite Release Notes for potential conflicts.

The Satellite Server and Capsule Servers are upgraded independently. Upgrade the Satellite server first, and then upgrade any Capsule Servers. Satellite 6.1 Capsule Servers are not compatible with Satellite 6.2, and must be upgraded before attempting to synchronize any repositories.

You must also manually upgrade Satellite clients to the new version of katello-agent after upgrading the Satellite Server and Capsule Servers. See Upgrading Satellite Clients for more information.

Important

The Red Hat Satellite Server and Capsule Server versions must match. For example, a Satellite 6.1 Satellite Server cannot run a 6.2 Capsule Server and a Satellite 6.2 Server cannot run a 6.1 Capsule Server. Mismatching Satellite Server and Capsule Server versions will result in the Capsule Server failing silently.

Supported upgrade paths for Satellite 6.2:

  • Satellite 6.0.X GA to 6.1.X GA.
  • Satellite 6.1.9 GA or later to 6.2.X GA or later.

You must perform the upgrade from each version to the next. Upgrading from the Beta to GA version is not supported.

Storage Requirements for Satellite 6.2

The storage requirements for Satellite have changed from the previous version. Before upgrading, review the storage requirements as detailed in Storage Requirements and Recommendations and ensure that the requirements are met before attempting an upgrade.

I/O Speed Requirements for Satellite 6.2

Upgrading from Satellite or Capsule 6.1 to 6.2 is a lengthy operation that can take many hours depending on the size of the repositories on the Satellite or Capsule. The upgrade processing rate for the content of the /var/lib/pulp/ directory is estimated at between 50 GB and 100 GB per hour. If you have 500 GB of content, the upgrade could take from 5 to 10 hours.

Note

If the Pulp directory is stored on an NFS device, the upgrade takes significantly more time. For example, testing with 600 GB of Pulp storage took 30 hours to migrate over NFS.

To check the size of the /var/lib/pulp/ directory, enter the following command:

# df -h /var/lib/pulp

Checking I/O speed is important because it affects the duration of the upgrade. Testing with the hdparm tool, and examining the reported timing buffered disk reads element, can identify a potential performance problem. You need to check where the location of the /var/lib/pulp/ directory is mounted, and with this information you are then able to determine the I/O speed.

  1. First of all, install hdparm in order to be able to measure I/O speed.

    # yum install hdparm
  2. Display information about the /var directory.

    # df /var

    Examine the output and identify the logical device used by the var directory. In this example, it is /dev/mapper/rhel_vm37—​118-root.

    Filesystem                      1K-blocks     Used Available Use% Mounted on
    /dev/mapper/rhel_vm37--118-root 200303044 41739160 158563884  21% /
  3. Display information about the logical volume.

    # lvs -a -o +devices

    Examine the output and identify the device associated with the logical volume. In this example, it is the root device, which located at /dev/vda2.

    LV   VG            Attr       LSize   Pool Origin Data%  Meta%  Move Log Cpy%Sync Convert Devices
    root rhel_vm37-118 -wi-ao---- 191.12g                                                     /dev/vda2(0)
    swap rhel_vm37-118 -wi-ao----   7.88g                                                     /dev/vda2(48926)
  4. Measure the I/O speed to the relevant device. Use the location of the device that you identified in the previous step. In this example, it is /dev/vda2. The result is reported under the timing buffered disk reads element.

    # hdparm -tT /dev/vda2

    Remember /dev/vda2 will vary depending on where the /var/lib/pulp/ directory is mounted on your system, which is why it is vital to correctly identify the location by following the above steps.

A minimum of 80 MB/s Buffered Read Time is recommended for read access to the device used in the /var partition. Throughput lower than this can cause extreme performance issues with your Satellite installation, upgrade, and day-to-day operations. In extreme situations, slow I/O (in the order of 10–20 MB/s) to the /var partition has caused Satellite 6.1 to 6.2 upgrades to take in excess of 24 hours.

Following the Progress of the Upgrade

Due to the lengthy upgrade time, consider using a utility such as screen that allows suspending and reattaching a communication session so that you can check the upgrade progress without having to stay connected to the command shell continuously. The Red Hat Knowledgebase article How do I use the screen command? describes installing screen; alternately see the screen manual page for more information. If you lose connection to the shell where the installation command is running you can see the logs in /var/log/foreman-installer/satellite.log to determine if the process completed successfully.

Foreman Hooks' Report Class Renamed to ConfigReport

In Satellite 6.2 the Report class has been changed to ConfigReport. This means the hooks triggered by Rails events no longer look for a script stored in the /hooks/report/ directory. Upgrading requires removing all hooks until the upgrade has completed successfully. After completing the upgrade and verifying that Satellite is working as expected, restore the Foreman hooks. Create a directory /usr/share/foreman/config/hooks/config_report/ and move hooks such as after_create and before_create to the new directory. Rails events and Foreman hooks are described in the Red Hat Satellite Server Administration Guide.

Docker Support in Satellite 6.2

Satellite 6.2 has upgraded Docker support from version 1 to version 2. With that change, Docker has altered its data model removing support of Docker images and introducing support for manifests. As a result of this fundamental change, Docker version 1 support is completely removed; therefore, any existing Docker version 1 repositories are deleted as part of the upgrade.

The previously created containers will still be visible in Satellite Server and can still be started, however you will not be able to create new containers as the images will no longer be present.

To assist in creating Docker version 2 repositories post upgrade, obtain and save the details of any Docker version 1 repositories prior to the upgrade.

This can be accomplished using the Satellite web UI or the Hammer CLI.

To view existing Docker repositories using the Satellite web UI:

  1. Go to Content > Products
  2. Select the repositories to display the settings.

To view existing Docker repositories using the CLI:

  1. List all docker repositories for a specific organization:

    # hammer repository list --organization-id 1 --content-type docker
  2. Obtain docker repository information for a specific repository:

    # hammer repository info --id 3

Once the upgrade has been completed, if the above repositories are available from a Docker version 2 registry, they can be recreated with the appropriate details (such as name, docker-upstream-name, and URL). The process to manage Docker version 2 content is similar to the process in Satellite 6.1 with Docker version 1 and other content types: create and synchronize repositories, then create, publish, and promote content views.

6.1. Upgrading to Satellite Server 6.2

6.2. Upgrading a Connected Satellite Server

Before You Begin

  • You have upgraded to the minor version 6.1.9 or later of Red Hat Satellite Server 6.1. The requirement is to be at least on 6.1.9, upgrading to a higher minor version past 6.1.9 is not needed for the upgrade to Red Hat Satellite 6.2. Direct upgrades from earlier minor versions are not supported. For more information, see Upgrading Between Minor Versions of Satellite in the Red Hat Satellite 6.1 Installation Guide.
  • Review and update your firewall configuration prior to upgrading your Satellite Server. For additional information, see Ports and Firewalls Requirements.
  • Make sure you DO NOT delete the manifest from the Customer Portal or in the Satellite Web UI as this will unregister all of your content hosts.
  • Backup and remove all Foreman hooks before upgrading. Put any hooks back only after Satellite is known to be working after the upgrade is complete.
Warning

You must retain the content of both the root/ssl-build directory and the directory in which you created any source files associated with your custom certificates. Even if you choose to implement custom certificates, you must retain the content of the /root/ssl-build directory when performing upgrades. Failure to retain these files during an upgrade causes the upgrade to fail. If these files have been deleted, they must be restored from a backup in order for the upgrade to proceed.

Upgrade Satellite Server

  1. Create a backup.

    • On a virtual machine, take a snapshot.
    • On a physical machine, create a backup.
  2. A pre-upgrade script is available to detect conflicts and list hosts which have duplicate entries in Satellite Server that can be unregistered and deleted after upgrade. In addition, it will detect hosts which are not assigned to an organization. If a host is listed under Hosts > All hosts without an organization association and if a content host with same name has an organization already associated with it then the content host will automatically be unregistered. This can be avoided by associating such hosts to an organization before upgrading.

    Run the pre-upgrade check script to get a list of hosts that can be deleted after upgrading. If any unassociated hosts are found, associating them to an organization before upgrading is recommended.

    1. To use the pre-upgrade script, ensure you have ruby193-rubygem-katello-2.2.0.90-1-sat or later.

      # yum update ruby193-rubygem-katello
    2. Run the pre-upgrade check script to get a list of hosts that can be deleted after upgrading. If any unassociated hosts are found, associating them to an organization before upgrading is recommended.

      # foreman-rake katello:upgrade_check

      If the upgrade check reports a failure due to running tasks, then it is recommended that you wait for the tasks to complete. It is possible to cancel some tasks, but you should follow the guidance in the Red Hat Knowledgebase solution How to manage paused tasks on Red Hat Satellite 6 to understand which tasks are safe to cancel and which are not safe to cancel.

  3. Backup the DNS and DHCP configuration files /etc/zones.conf and /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf as the installer only supports one domain or subnet, and therefore restoring changes from these backups might be required.
  4. If you have made manual edits to DNS or DHCP configuration files and do not want the changes overwritten, run the following command.

    # katello-installer --capsule-dns-managed=false --capsule-dhcp-managed=false
  5. Disable the repository for Red Hat Satellite 6.1.

    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, run the following command:

      # subscription-manager repos --disable rhel-6-server-satellite-6.1-rpms
    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, run the following command:

      # subscription-manager repos --disable rhel-7-server-satellite-6.1-rpms
  6. If required, to verify that the Satellite 6.1 repositories are now disabled, enter a command as follows:

    # subscription-manager repos --list-enabled
  7. Enable the repositories for Red Hat Satellite 6.2.

    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, run the following command:

      # subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-6-server-rpms \
      --enable=rhel-server-rhscl-6-rpms \
      --enable=rhel-6-server-satellite-6.2-rpms
    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, run the following command:

      # subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-7-server-rpms \
      --enable=rhel-server-rhscl-7-rpms \
      --enable=rhel-7-server-satellite-6.2-rpms
  8. Clear out any metadata left from any non-Red Hat yum repositories.

    # yum clean all
  9. Verify that the repositories have been enabled.

    # yum repolist enabled

    Output similar to the following displays:

    Loaded plugins: product-id, subscription-manager
    repo id                                        repo name                                                                   status
    !rhel-7-server-rpms/x86_64                     Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Server (RPMs)                                    9,889
    !rhel-7-server-satellite-6.2-rpms/x86_64       Red Hat Satellite 6.2 (for RHEL 7 Server) (RPMs)                            545
    !rhel-server-rhscl-7-rpms/x86_64               Red Hat Software Collections RPMs for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Server     4,279
    repolist: 14,713
  10. In the Satellite web UI, go to Hosts > Discovered hosts. If there are discovered hosts available, turn them off and then delete all entries under the Discovered hosts page. Select all other organizations in turn using the organization setting menu and repeat this action as required. Reboot these hosts after the upgrade has completed.
  11. Make sure all external Capsule Servers are assigned to an organization, otherwise they might get unregistered due to host-unification changes.
  12. Configure the repositories in the Satellite web UI.

    1. In the Satellite web UI, go to Content > Red Hat Repositories and select the RPM tab.
    2. Find and expand the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server Product.
    3. Find and expand Red Hat Satellite Tools 6.2 (for RHEL X Server) (RPMs).
    4. Select Red Hat Satellite Tools 6.2 for RHEL X Server RPMs x86_64.
  13. Synchronize the newly enabled repositories.

    1. In the Satellite web UI, go to Content > Sync Status.
    2. Click the arrow next to the product to view available repositories.
    3. Select the repositories for 6.2.
    4. Click Synchronize Now.

      If you get an error when trying to update the Satellite Tools repository, make sure you DO NOT delete the manifest from the Customer Portal or in the Satellite Web UI as this will unregister all of your content hosts. See the Red Hat Knowledgebase solution Cannot enable Red Hat Satellite Tools Repo on Satellite 6.2 for more information.

  14. Update any pre-existing Content Views that utilize 6.1 version repositories with the new version for 6.2. Publish and promote updated versions of any Content Views that now have the new 6.2 version repositories.
  15. Clear the repository cache.

    # yum clean all
  16. Run the upgrade check again to ensure that the steps that we have already undertaken have not resulted in a situation in which tasks might get stuck during the upgrade:

    # foreman-rake katello:upgrade_check
  17. Stop Katello services.

    # katello-service stop
  18. Update all packages.

    # yum update
  19. If you have custom Apache server configurations, they will be reverted to the installation defaults in the next step. If you want to see what will be changed when you perform the upgrade, you can enter the upgrade command with the --noop (no operation) option and review the changes that will be applied when you enter the upgrade command in the following step. If you choose not to do this test, skip to the next step now. Alternatively, proceed as follows:

    1. Add the following line to the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf configuration file.

      Include /etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/*.conf
    2. Restart the httpd service.

      • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, enter the following command:

        # service httpd restart
      • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, enter the following command:

        # systemctl restart httpd
    3. Start the postgresql and mongod database services.

      • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, enter the following command:

        # service postgresql start
        # service mongod start
      • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, enter the following command:

        # systemctl start postgresql
        # systemctl start mongod
    4. Enter the command with the --noop option as follows.

      # satellite-installer --scenario satellite --upgrade --verbose --noop

      Review the /var/log/foreman-installer/satellite.log to see what changes would be applied if the --noop option was omitted. Look for the +++ and --- symbols indicating changes to configurations files. Because the above "no operation" command does not actually create the files, and some Puppet resources in the module expect them to be there, some failure messages are to be expected.

    5. Stop Katello services.

      # katello-service stop
  20. Perform the upgrade by running the installer script with the --upgrade option.

    # satellite-installer --scenario satellite --upgrade
    Warning

    If you run the command from a directory containing a config subdirectory, you will encounter the following error:

    ERROR: Scenario (config/satellite.yaml) was not found, can not continue.

    In such a case, change directory, for example to the root user’s home directory, and run the command again.

  21. Check and restore any changes required to the DNS and DHCP configuration files using the backups made earlier.
  22. If you made changes in the previous step, restart Katello services.

    # katello-service restart
  23. Update the Discovery template in the Satellite web UI.

    1. Go to Hosts > Provisioning templates.
    2. Select PXELinux global default.
    3. In the Template editor dialog box, edit the PXELinux global default template discovery menu entry, updating the stanza that begins with LABEL discovery to match the following text:

      LABEL discovery
      MENU LABEL Satellite 6 Discovery
      MENU DEFAULT
      KERNEL boot/fdi-image-rhel_7-vmlinuz
      APPEND initrd=boot/fdi-image-rhel_7-img rootflags=loop root=live:/fdi.iso rootfstype=auto ro rd.live.image acpi=force rd.luks=0 rd.md=0 rd.dm=0 rd.lvm=0 rd.bootif=0 rd.neednet=0 nomodeset proxy.url=https://SATELLITE_CAPSULE_URL:9090 proxy.type=proxy
      IPAPPEND 2
      • The proxy.type option can be either proxy or foreman. For proxy, all communication goes through the Capsule. For foreman, the communication goes directly to Satellite Server.
      • The proxy.url specifies the URL of the Satellite Capsule or Server. Both HTTP and HTTPS protocols are supported.
  24. If you have the OpenSCAP plugin installed, but do not have the default OpenSCAP content available, run the following command.

    # foreman-rake foreman_openscap:bulk_upload:default
  25. In the Satellite web UI, go to Configure > Discovery Rules and associate selected organizations and locations with discovery rules.

6.3. Upgrading a Disconnected Satellite Server

Before You Begin

  • You should have upgraded to the latest minor release of Red Hat Satellite Server 6.1. Direct upgrade from earlier minor versions is not supported. For more information, see Upgrading Between Minor Versions of Satellite in the Red Hat Satellite 6.1 Installation Guide.
  • Review and update your firewall configuration prior to upgrading your Satellite Server. For additional information, see Ports and Firewalls Requirements.
  • Make sure you DO NOT delete the manifest from the Customer Portal or in the Satellite Web UI as this will unregister all of your content hosts.
  • Backup and remove all Foreman hooks before upgrading. Put any hooks back only after Satellite is known to be working after the upgrade is complete.
Warning

You must retain the content of both the root/ssl-build directory and the directory in which you created any source files associated with your custom certificates. Even if you choose to implement custom certificates, you must retain the content of the /root/ssl-build directory when performing upgrades. Failure to retain these files during an upgrade causes the upgrade to fail. If these files have been deleted, they must be restored from a backup in order for the upgrade to proceed.

Upgrade Disconnected Satellite Server

  1. Create a backup.

    • On a virtual machine, take a snapshot.
    • On a physical machine, create a backup.
  2. A pre-upgrade script is available to detect conflicts and list hosts which have duplicate entries in Satellite Server that can be unregistered and deleted after upgrade. In addition, it will detect hosts which are not assigned to an organization. If a host is listed under Hosts > All hosts without an organization association and if a content host with same name has an organization already associated with it then the content host will automatically be unregistered. This can be avoided by associating such hosts to an organization before upgrading.

    Run the pre-upgrade check script to get a list of hosts that can be deleted after upgrading. If any unassociated hosts are found, associating them to an organization before upgrading is recommended.

    1. To use the pre-upgrade script, ensure you have ruby193-rubygem-katello-2.2.0.90-1-sat or later.

      # yum update ruby193-rubygem-katello
    2. Run the pre-upgrade check script to get a list of hosts that can be deleted after upgrading. If any unassociated hosts are found, associating them to an organization before upgrading is recommended.

      # foreman-rake katello:upgrade_check

      If the upgrade check reports a failure due to running tasks, then it is recommended that you wait for the tasks to complete. It is possible to cancel some tasks, but you should follow the guidance in the Red Hat Knowledgebase solution How to manage paused tasks on Red Hat Satellite 6 to understand which tasks are safe to cancel and which are not safe to cancel.

  3. Backup the DNS and DHCP configuration files /etc/zones.conf and /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf as the installer only supports one domain or subnet, and therefore restoring changes from these backups might be required.
  4. If you have made manual edits to DNS or DHCP configuration files and do not want the changes overwritten, run the following command.

    # katello-installer --capsule-dns-managed=false --capsule-dhcp-managed=false
  5. In the Satellite web UI, go to Hosts > Discovered hosts. If there are discovered hosts available, turn them off and then delete all entries under the Discovered hosts page. Select all other organizations in turn using the organization setting menu and repeat this action as required. Reboot these hosts after the upgrade has completed.
  6. Make sure all external Capsule Servers are assigned to an organization, otherwise they might get unregistered due to host-unification changes.
  7. Stop Katello services.

    # katello-service stop
  8. Obtain the ISO file, mount it, and install the packages. For more information, see Downloading and Installing from a Disconnected Network.
  9. If you have custom Apache server configurations, they will be reverted to the installation defaults in the next step. If you want to see what will be changed when you perform the upgrade, you can enter the upgrade command with the --noop (no operation) option and review the changes that will be applied when you enter the upgrade command in the following step. If you choose not to do this test, skip to the next step now. Alternatively, proceed as follows:

    1. Add the following line to the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf configuration file.

      Include /etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/*.conf
    2. Restart the httpd service.

      • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, enter the following command:

        # service httpd restart
      • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, enter the following command:

        # systemctl restart httpd
    3. Start the postgresql and mongod database services.

      • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, enter the following command:

        # service postgresql start
        # service mongod start
      • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, enter the following command:

        # systemctl start postgresql
        # systemctl start mongod
    4. Enter the command with the --noop option as follows.

      # satellite-installer --scenario satellite --upgrade --verbose --noop

      Review the /var/log/foreman-installer/satellite.log to see what changes would be applied if the --noop option was omitted. Look for the +++ and --- symbols indicating changes to configurations files. Because the above "no operation" command does not actually create the files, and some Puppet resources in the module expect them to be there, some failure messages are to be expected.

    5. Stop Katello services.

      # katello-service stop
  10. Perform the upgrade by running the installer script with the --upgrade option.

    # satellite-installer --scenario satellite --upgrade
    Warning

    If you run the command from a directory containing a config subdirectory, you will encounter the following error:

    ERROR: Scenario (config/satellite.yaml) was not found, can not continue.

    In such a case, change directory, for example to the root user’s home directory, and run the command again.

  11. Check and restore any changes required to the DNS and DHCP configuration files using the backups made earlier.
  12. If you made changes in the previous step, restart Katello services.

    # katello-service restart
  13. Update the Discovery template in the Satellite web UI.

    1. Go to Hosts > Provisioning templates.
    2. Select PXELinux global default.
    3. In the Template editor dialog box, edit the PXELinux global default template discovery menu entry, updating the stanza that begins with LABEL discovery to match the following text:

      LABEL discovery
      MENU LABEL Satellite 6 Discovery
      MENU DEFAULT
      KERNEL boot/fdi-image-rhel_7-vmlinuz
      APPEND initrd=boot/fdi-image-rhel_7-img rootflags=loop root=live:/fdi.iso rootfstype=auto ro rd.live.image acpi=force rd.luks=0 rd.md=0 rd.dm=0 rd.lvm=0 rd.bootif=0 rd.neednet=0 nomodeset proxy.url=https://SATELLITE_CAPSULE_URL:9090 proxy.type=proxy
      IPAPPEND 2
      • The proxy.type option can be either proxy or foreman. For proxy, all communication goes through the Capsule. For foreman, the communication goes directly to Satellite Server.
      • The proxy.url specifies the URL of the Satellite Capsule or Server. Both HTTP and HTTPS protocols are supported.
  14. If you have the OpenSCAP plugin installed, but do not have the default OpenSCAP content available, run the following command.

    # foreman-rake foreman_openscap:bulk_upload:default
  15. In the Satellite web UI, go to Configure > Discovery Rules and associate selected organizations and locations with discovery rules.

6.4. Upgrading Capsule Servers

Before You Begin

  • You should have upgraded the Satellite Server before upgrading any Capsule Servers.
  • The capsule should be on at least the 6.1.9 minor version of Red Hat Satellite Server 6.1. The requirement is to be at least on 6.1.9, upgrading to a higher minor version past 6.1.9 is not needed for the upgrade to Red Hat Satellite 6.2. Direct upgrades from earlier minor versions are not supported. For more information, see Upgrading Between Minor Versions of Satellite in the Red Hat Satellite 6.1 Installation Guide.
  • Ensure the Capsule’s base system is registered to the newly upgraded Satellite Server.
  • Ensure the Capsule has the correct organization and location settings in the newly upgraded Satellite Server.
  • Review and update your firewall configuration prior to upgrading your Capsule Server. For additional information, see Ports and Firewalls Requirements.
Warning

You must retain the content of both the root/ssl-build directory and the directory in which you created any source files associated with your custom certificates. Even if you choose to implement custom certificates, you must retain the content of the /root/ssl-build directory when performing upgrades. Failure to retain these files during an upgrade causes the upgrade to fail. If these files have been deleted, they must be restored from a backup in order for the upgrade to proceed.

Upgrading Capsule Servers

  1. Create a backup.

    • On a virtual machine, take a snapshot.
    • On a physical machine, create a backup.
  2. Backup the DNS and DHCP configuration files /etc/zones.conf and /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf as the installer only supports one domain or subnet, and therefore restoring changes from these backups might be required.
  3. If you have made manual edits to DNS or DHCP configuration files and do not want the changes overwritten, enter the following command.

    # capsule-installer --foreman-proxy-dns-managed=false --foreman-proxy-dhcp-managed=false
  4. Disable the repository for Red Hat Satellite 6.1.

    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, run the following command:

      # subscription-manager repos --disable rhel-6-server-satellite-capsule-6.1-rpms
    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, run the following command:

      # subscription-manager repos --disable rhel-7-server-satellite-capsule-6.1-rpms
  5. Enable the new repositories.

    The Red Hat Software Collections repository provides a later version of Ruby required by some Red Hat Satellite features, including the Remote Execution feature.

    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, run the following command:

      # subscription-manager repos --enable rhel-7-server-satellite-capsule-6.2-rpms --enable rhel-server-rhscl-7-rpms
    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, run the following command:

      # subscription-manager repos --enable rhel-6-server-satellite-capsule-6.2-rpms --enable rhel-server-rhscl-6-rpms
  6. In the Satellite web UI, go to Hosts > Discovered hosts. If there are discovered hosts available, turn them off and then delete all entries under the Discovered hosts page. Select all other organizations in turn using the organization setting menu and repeat this action as required. Reboot these hosts after the upgrade has completed.
  7. Clear the repository cache.

    # yum clean all
  8. Update all packages.

    # yum update
  9. On the Satellite Server, generate an archive with new certificates.

    # capsule-certs-generate --capsule-fqdn "mycapsule.example.com" --certs-tar "mycapsule.example.com-certs.tar"

    You should replace mycapsule.example.com with the fully qualified domain name of the Capsule Server.

  10. Copy the archive file to the Capsule Server.

    # scp mycapsule.example.com-certs.tar mycapsule.example.com
  11. If you plan to use Capsule Server as a proxy for discovered hosts, install the Discovery plug-in.

    # yum install rubygem-smart_proxy_discovery.noarch
  12. On the Capsule Server, verify that the foreman_url setting is correct.

    # grep foreman_url /etc/foreman-proxy/settings.yml

    The fully qualified domain name of the Satellite Server should display.

  13. If you have custom Apache server configurations, they will be reverted to the installation defaults in the next step. If you want to see what will be changed when you perform the upgrade, you can enter the upgrade command with the --noop (no operation) option and review the changes that will be applied when you enter the upgrade command in the following step. If you choose not to do this test, skip to the next step now. Alternatively, proceed as follows:

    1. Add the following line to the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf configuration file.

      Include /etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/*.conf
    2. Restart the httpd service.

      • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, enter the following command:

        # service httpd restart
      • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, enter the following command:

        # systemctl restart httpd
    3. Start the mongod database service.

      • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, enter the following command:

        # service mongod start
      • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, enter the following command:

        # systemctl start mongod
    4. Enter the command with the --noop option as follows.

      # satellite-installer --scenario capsule --upgrade --verbose --noop

      Review the /var/log/foreman-installer/capsule.log to see what changes would be applied if the --noop option was omitted. Look for the +++ and --- symbols indicating changes to configurations files. Because the above "no operation" command does not actually create the files, and some Puppet resources in the module expect them to be there, some failure messages are to be expected.

    5. Stop Katello services.

      # katello-service stop
  14. Perform the upgrade by running the installer script with the --upgrade option, and specify the path to the certificate archive previously created on the Satellite Server.

    # satellite-installer --scenario capsule --upgrade \
      --certs-tar mycapsule.example.com-certs.tar
    Warning

    If you run the command from a directory containing a config subdirectory, you will encounter the following error:

    ERROR: Scenario (config/capsule.yaml) was not found, can not continue.

    In such a case, change directory, for example to the root user’s home directory, and run the command again.

  15. Check and restore any changes required to the DNS and DHCP configuration files using the backups made earlier.
  16. Upgrade the foreman-discovery package on Satellite Server and turn on the hosts that were shut down prior to the upgrade.

6.5. Upgrading Discovery on Capsule Servers

  1. Verify that all relevant packages are current on the Satellite Server.

    # yum upgrade tfm-rubygem-foreman_discovery
  2. Restart Katello services, if applicable.

    # katello-service restart
  3. Upgrade the Discovery image on the Satellite Capsule that is either connected to the provisioning network with discovered hosts or provides TFTP services for discovered hosts.

    # yum upgrade foreman-discovery-image
  4. On the same instance, install the package which provides the Proxy service, and then restart foreman-proxy service.

    # yum install rubygem-smart_proxy_discovery
    # service foreman-proxy restart
  5. In the Satellite web UI, go to Infrastructure > Capsules and verify that the relevant proxy lists the Discovery feature. Click Refresh features if necessary.
  6. Go to Infrastructure > Subnets and select the required Smart Proxy for each subnet on which you want to use discovery, and verify that it is connected to the Discovery Proxy.

Update the Discovery template in the Satellite web UI.

  1. Go to Hosts > Provisioning Templates.
  2. Select PXELinux global default.
  3. In the Template editor dialog box, edit the PXELinux global default template discovery menu entry, updating the stanza that begins with LABEL discovery to match the following text:

    LABEL discovery
    MENU LABEL Satellite 6 Discovery
    MENU DEFAULT
    KERNEL boot/fdi-image-rhel_7-vmlinuz
    APPEND initrd=boot/fdi-image-rhel_7-img rootflags=loop root=live:/fdi.iso rootfstype=auto ro rd.live.image acpi=force rd.luks=0 rd.md=0 rd.dm=0 rd.lvm=0 rd.bootif=0 rd.neednet=0 nomodeset proxy.url=https://SATELLITE_CAPSULE_URL:9090 proxy.type=proxy
    IPAPPEND 2
    • The proxy.type option can be either proxy or foreman. For proxy, all communication goes through the Capsule. For foreman, the communication goes directly to Satellite Server.
    • The proxy.url specifies the URL of the Satellite Capsule or Server. Both HTTP and HTTPS protocols are supported.
    • You can omit the proxy.url option and determine the Capsule DNS name from its SRV record. This is useful if there are multiple discovery subnets. For more information, see the Red Hat Satellite 6.2 Host Configuration Guide.

6.6. Upgrading Satellite Clients

You must upgrade all clients to the new version of katello-agent so that your clients are compatible with Satellite Server. This requires changing the Satellite Tools repository from 6.1 to 6.2, which can be done manually or by installing the satellite-tools-upgrade package. This package only contains a post installation script to change the Satellite Tools repository version.

Before You Begin

  • You must have upgraded Satellite Server.
  • You must have enabled the new Satellite Tools repositories on the Satellite.
  • You must have synchronized the new repositories in the Satellite.
  • If you have not previously installed katello-agent on your clients, use the manual method.
Warning

You must retain the content of both the root/ssl-build directory and the directory in which you created any source files associated with your custom certificates. Even if you choose to implement custom certificates, you must retain the content of the /root/ssl-build directory when performing upgrades. Failure to retain these files during an upgrade causes the upgrade to fail. If these files have been deleted, they must be restored from a backup in order for the upgrade to proceed.

Upgrade Satellite Clients Using the satellite-tools-upgrade Package

  1. In the Satellite web UI, go to Hosts > Content Hosts or Host Collections and select the Content Hosts to be upgraded.
  2. On the Packages tab, enter the package name satellite-tools-upgrade in the search field.

    1. If upgrading a single host using the Content Host view, select Perform to install the package.
    2. If upgrading a collection of hosts using the Bulk Actions view, select Install to install the package.
  3. On the Packages tab, enter the package name katello-agent in the search field.

    1. If upgrading a single host using the Content Host view, select Package Update and then Perform to update the package.
    2. If upgrading a collection of hosts using the Bulk Actions view, select Update to update the package.
Note

Until Red Hat Bugzilla 1291960 is resolved, you will see duplicate package versions installed on your systems after attempting to upgrade katello-agent using the web UI or the hammer CLI. See the bug for more details.

Upgrade Satellite Clients Manually

  1. Log into the client system.
  2. Disable the repositories for the previous version of Satellite.

    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, run the following command:

      # subscription-manager repos --disable rhel-7-server-satellite-tools-6.1-rpms
    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, run the following command:

      # subscription-manager repos --disable rhel-6-server-satellite-tools-6.1-rpms
  3. Enable the Satellite tools repository for this version of Satellite.

    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, run the following command:

      # subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-7-server-satellite-tools-6.2-rpms
    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, run the following command:

      # subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-6-server-satellite-tools-6.2-rpms
  4. Upgrade the Katello Agent package.

    # yum upgrade katello-agent

6.7. Upgrading a Self-Registered Satellite Server

You can synchronize your self-registered Satellite Server with the Red Hat Customer Portal, publish and promote content views, and upgrade your self-registered Satellite Server.

Before You Begin

  • You have upgraded to at least the minor version 6.1.9 of Red Hat Satellite Server 6.1. The requirement is to be at least on 6.1.9, upgrading to a higher minor version past 6.1.9 is not needed for the upgrade to Red Hat Satellite 6.2. Direct upgrades from earlier minor versions are not supported. For more information, see Upgrading Between Minor Versions of Satellite in the Red Hat Satellite 6.1 Installation Guide.
  • Review and update your firewall configuration prior to upgrading your Satellite Server. For additional information, see Ports and Firewalls Requirements.
  • Make sure you DO NOT delete the manifest from the Customer Portal or in the Satellite Web UI as this will unregister all of your content hosts.
  • Backup and remove all Foreman hooks before upgrading. Put any hooks back only after Satellite is known to be working after the upgrade is complete.
Warning

You must retain the content of both the root/ssl-build directory and the directory in which you created any source files associated with your custom certificates. Even if you choose to implement custom certificates, you must retain the content of the /root/ssl-build directory when performing upgrades. Failure to retain these files during an upgrade causes the upgrade to fail. If these files have been deleted, they must be restored from a backup in order for the upgrade to proceed.

Upgrade Self-Registered Satellite Server

  1. Create a backup.

    • On a virtual machine, take a snapshot.
    • On a physical machine, create a backup.
  2. A pre-upgrade script is available to detect conflicts and list hosts which have duplicate entries in Satellite Server that can be unregistered and deleted after upgrade. In addition, it will detect hosts which are not assigned to an organization. If a host is listed under Hosts > All hosts without an organization association and if a content host with same name has an organization already associated with it then the content host will automatically be unregistered. This can be avoided by associating such hosts to an organization before upgrading.

    Run the pre-upgrade check script to get a list of hosts that can be deleted after upgrading. If any unassociated hosts are found, associating them to an organization before upgrading is recommended.

    1. To use the pre-upgrade script, ensure you have ruby193-rubygem-katello-2.2.0.90-1-sat or later.

      # yum update ruby193-rubygem-katello
    2. Run the pre-upgrade check script to get a list of hosts that can be deleted after upgrading. If any unassociated hosts are found, associating them to an organization before upgrading is recommended.

      # foreman-rake katello:upgrade_check

      If the upgrade check reports a failure due to running tasks, then it is recommended that you wait for the tasks to complete. It is possible to cancel some tasks, but you should follow the guidance in the Red Hat Knowledgebase solution How to manage paused tasks on Red Hat Satellite 6 to understand which tasks are safe to cancel and which are not safe to cancel.

  3. Backup the DNS and DHCP configuration files /etc/zones.conf and /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf as the installer only supports one domain or subnet, and therefore restoring changes from these backups might be required.
  4. If you have made manual edits to DNS or DHCP configuration files and do not want the changes overwritten, run the following command.

    # katello-installer --capsule-dns-managed=false --capsule-dhcp-managed=false
  5. List the enabled repositories:

    # subscription-manager repos --list-enabled
  6. Ensure you have the following repositories enabled and no others:

    rhel-X-server-satellite-tools-6.1-rpms
    rhel-server-rhscl-X-rpms
    rhel-X-server-satellite-6.1-rpms
    rhel-X-server-rpms

    Where X is the major version of the base system. If other repositories are found, follow the Configuring Repositories procedure to remove them.

  7. Disable the repositories for the previous version of Satellite on the base system.

    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, enter the following commands:

      # subscription-manager repos --disable rhel-6-server-satellite-6.1-rpms
      # subscription-manager repos --disable rhel-6-server-satellite-tools-6.1-rpms
    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, enter the following commands:

      # subscription-manager repos --disable rhel-7-server-satellite-6.1-rpms
      # subscription-manager repos --disable rhel-7-server-satellite-tools-6.1-rpms
  8. If required, to verify that the Satellite 6.1 repositories are now disabled, enter a command as follows:

    # subscription-manager repos --list-enabled
  9. Configure the repositories in the Satellite web UI.

    1. In the Satellite web UI, go to Content > Red Hat Repositories and select the RPM tab.
    2. Find and expand the Red Hat Satellite Product.
    3. Find and expand the Repository Set Red Hat Satellite 6.1 (for RHEL X Server) (RPMs).
    4. Unselect Red Hat Satellite 6.1 for RHEL X Server RPMs x86_64.
    5. Find and expand the Repository Set Red Hat Satellite 6.2 (for RHEL X Server) (RPMs).
    6. Select Red Hat Satellite 6.2 for RHEL X Server RPMs x86_64.
    7. Find and expand the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server Product.
    8. Find and expand Red Hat Satellite Tools 6.2 (for RHEL X Server) (RPMs).
    9. Select Red Hat Satellite Tools 6.2 for RHEL X Server RPMs x86_64.
  10. Synchronize the newly enabled repositories.

    1. In the Satellite web UI, go to Content > Sync Status.
    2. Click the arrow next to the product to view available repositories.
    3. Select the repositories for 6.2.
    4. Click Synchronize Now.

      If you get an error when trying to update the Satellite Tools repository, make sure you DO NOT delete the manifest from the Customer Portal or in the Satellite Web UI as this will unregister all of your content hosts. See the Red Hat Knowledgebase solution Cannot enable Red Hat Satellite Tools Repo on Satellite 6.2 for more information.

  11. Update any pre-existing Content Views that utilize 6.1 version repositories with the new version for 6.2. Publish and promote updated versions of any Content Views that now have the new 6.2 version repositories.
  12. Enable the new repositories on the base system when the repositories have finished synchronizing.

    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, enter the following commands:

      # subscription-manager repos --enable rhel-6-server-satellite-6.2-rpms
      # subscription-manager repos --enable rhel-6-server-satellite-tools-6.2-rpms
    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, enter the following commands:

      # subscription-manager repos --enable rhel-7-server-satellite-6.2-rpms
      # subscription-manager repos --enable rhel-7-server-satellite-tools-6.2-rpms
  13. In the Satellite web UI, go to Hosts > Discovered hosts. If there are discovered hosts available, turn them off and then delete all entries under the Discovered hosts page. Select all other organizations in turn using the organization setting menu and repeat this action as required. Reboot these hosts after the upgrade has completed.
  14. Make sure all external Capsule Servers are assigned to an organization, otherwise they might get unregistered due to host-unification changes.
  15. Clear the repository cache.

    # yum clean all
  16. Download the following packages.

    # yum install --downloadonly rubygem-smart_proxy_remote_execution_ssh rubygem-smart_proxy_openscap rubygem-smart_proxy_dynflow tfm-rubygem-smart_proxy_dynflow_core tfm-rubygem-foreman_remote_execution katello-client-bootstrap
  17. Download all updated packages.

    # yum update --downloadonly
  18. Stop Katello services.

    # katello-service stop
  19. Install the previously downloaded packages.

    # yum install rubygem-smart_proxy_remote_execution_ssh rubygem-smart_proxy_openscap rubygem-smart_proxy_dynflow tfm-rubygem-smart_proxy_dynflow_core tfm-rubygem-foreman_remote_execution katello-client-bootstrap
  20. Install all updated packages.

    # yum update
  21. If you have custom Apache server configurations, they will be reverted to the installation defaults in the next step. If you want to see what will be changed when you perform the upgrade, you can enter the upgrade command with the --noop (no operation) option and review the changes that will be applied when you enter the upgrade command in the following step. If you choose not to do this test, skip to the next step now. Alternatively, proceed as follows:

    1. Add the following line to the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf configuration file.

      Include /etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/*.conf
    2. Restart the httpd service.

      • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, enter the following command:

        # service httpd restart
      • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, enter the following command:

        # systemctl restart httpd
    3. Start the postgresql and mongod database services.

      • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, enter the following command:

        # service postgresql start
        # service mongod start
      • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, enter the following command:

        # systemctl start postgresql
        # systemctl start mongod
    4. Enter the command with the --noop option as follows.

      # satellite-installer --scenario satellite --upgrade --verbose --noop

      Review the /var/log/foreman-installer/satellite.log to see what changes would be applied if the --noop option was omitted. Look for the +++ and --- symbols indicating changes to configurations files. Because the above "no operation" command does not actually create the files, and some Puppet resources in the module expect them to be there, some failure messages are to be expected.

    5. Stop Katello services.

      # katello-service stop
  22. Perform the upgrade by running the installer script with the --upgrade option.

    # satellite-installer --scenario satellite --upgrade
    Warning

    If you run the command from a directory containing a config subdirectory, you will encounter the following error:

    ERROR: Scenario (config/satellite.yaml) was not found, can not continue.

    In such a case, change directory, for example to the root user’s home directory, and run the command again.

  23. Check and restore any changes required to the DNS and DHCP configuration files using the backups made earlier.
  24. If you made changes in the previous step, restart Katello services.

    # katello-service restart
  25. Update the Discovery template in the Satellite web UI.

    1. Go to Hosts > Provisioning templates.
    2. Select PXELinux global default.
    3. In the Template editor dialog box, edit the PXELinux global default template discovery menu entry, updating the stanza that begins with LABEL discovery to match the following text:

      LABEL discovery
      MENU LABEL Satellite 6 Discovery
      MENU DEFAULT
      KERNEL boot/fdi-image-rhel_7-vmlinuz
      APPEND initrd=boot/fdi-image-rhel_7-img rootflags=loop root=live:/fdi.iso rootfstype=auto ro rd.live.image acpi=force rd.luks=0 rd.md=0 rd.dm=0 rd.lvm=0 rd.bootif=0 rd.neednet=0 nomodeset proxy.url=https://SATELLITE_CAPSULE_URL:9090 proxy.type=proxy
      IPAPPEND 2
      • The proxy.type option can be either proxy or foreman. For proxy, all communication goes through the Capsule. For foreman, the communication goes directly to Satellite Server.
      • The proxy.url specifies the URL of the Satellite Capsule or Server. Both HTTP and HTTPS protocols are supported.
  26. If you have the OpenSCAP plugin installed, but do not have the default OpenSCAP content available, run the following command.

    # foreman-rake foreman_openscap:bulk_upload:default
  27. In the Satellite web UI, go to Configure > Discovery Rules and associate selected organizations and locations with discovery rules.
  28. Synchronize the Satellite Server with the Red Hat Customer Portal.

    1. Go to Content > Sync Status.

      A list of product repositories available for synchronization is displayed.

    2. Click the arrow next to the product content to view available content.
    3. Select the content you want to synchronize.
    4. Click Synchronize Now.

      Content synchronization can take a long time and it depends on the speed of disk drives, network connection speed, and the amount of content selected for synchronization.

  29. (Optional) Publish the required content views.

    You must publish the content view so that it is visible and usable by hosts. Before publishing, you should ensure that the content view definition has the necessary products, repositories, and filters.

    1. From the Main Menu, select Content > Content Views.
    2. From the Name column, select the Satellite Server content view.
    3. Click Publish New Version.
    4. Enter a comment and click Save.
  30. (Optional) Promote the content view.

    1. From the Main Menu, select Content > Content Views.
    2. In the Name column, select the Satellite Server content view.
    3. On the Versions tab, select the latest version and click Promote.
    4. Identify the promotion path, select the appropriate life-cycle environment, and click Promote Version.

      When the operation completes, you can see the updated content view status on the Versions tab.

6.8. Post Upgrade Cleanup

All the procedures in this section are optional. You can choose to perform only those procedures that are relevant to your installation.

6.8.1. Removing Redundant Firewall Rules

Red Hat Satellite 6.2 does not use Elasticsearch and therefore firewall rules related to Elasticsearch can be removed. These are the lines with destination port 9200.

Removing Redundant Firewall Rules on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

  1. List the firewall rules.

    # iptables -nL --line-numbers
  2. Identify the following lines and remove them. Note that the chain name is OUTPUT and the line numbers might differ.

    Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
    num  target   prot opt source         destination
    1    ACCEPT   tcp  --  0.0.0.0/0      0.0.0.0/0      tcp dpt:9200 owner UID match 496
    2    ACCEPT   tcp  --  0.0.0.0/0      0.0.0.0/0      tcp dpt:9200 owner UID match 0
    3    DROP     tcp  --  0.0.0.0/0      0.0.0.0/0      tcp dpt:9200
  3. Remove the iptables rules.

    iptables -D <chain-name> <line-number>

    For example, to remove line 1 from the above output, enter a command as follows:

    # iptables -D OUTPUT 1
  4. After removing the lines, save the changes.

    # service iptables save
  5. Make sure the iptables service is started and enabled.

    # service iptables start
    # chkconfig iptables on

Removing Redundant Firewall Rules on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

  1. List the IPv4 direct rules.

    # firewall-cmd --direct --get-rules ipv4 filter OUTPUT
  2. List the IPv6 direct rules.

    # firewall-cmd --direct --get-rules ipv6 filter OUTPUT
  3. Identify and remove the following lines, for both IPv4 and IPv6. Note that the chain name is OUTPUT and the first number is the priority.

    0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 9200 -m owner --uid-owner foreman -j ACCEPT
    0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 9200 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT
    1 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 9200 -j DROP
  4. Remove the firewalld direct rules.

    firewall-cmd --direct --remove-rule <inet_family> filter <chain_name> rule

    Where <inet_family> is IPv4 or IPv6.

    For example, to remove the IPv4 lines above:

    # firewall-cmd --direct --remove-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 9200 -m owner --uid-owner foreman -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd --direct --remove-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 9200 -m owner --uid-owner root -j ACCEPT \
    && firewall-cmd --direct --remove-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 1 -o lo -p tcp -m tcp --dport 9200 -j DROP
  5. Repeat the commands for IPv6.
  6. Ensure the firewall service is enabled and started.

    # systemctl enable firewalld
    # systemctl start firewalld

6.8.2. Removing Elasticsearch

Red Hat Satellite 6.2 does not use Elasticsearch and therefore the packages and directory used by Elasticsearch can be removed.

Removing Elasticsearch and Related Packages

Remove the following packages as they are no longer needed.

# yum erase elasticsearch sigar-java sigar snappy-java lucene4-contrib lucene4

Removing Elasticsearch User

Remove the user created by Elasticsearch.

# userdel -r elasticsearch

Removing Elasticsearch Directory

Remove the database directory and its contents.

# rm -rf /var/lib/elasticsearch

6.8.3. Removing the Previous Version of the Satellite Tools Repository

After completing the upgrade to Satellite 6.2, the Red Hat Satellite Tools 6.1 repository can be removed from Content Views and then disabled.

  1. Disable Version 6.1 of the Satellite Tools Repository

    1. In the Satellite web UI, go to Content > Red Hat Repositories and select the RPM tab.
    2. Find and expand the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server Product.
    3. Find and expand the Repository Set Red Hat Satellite Tools 6.1 (for RHEL X Server) (RPMs).
    4. Unselect Red Hat Satellite Tools 6.1 for RHEL X Server RPMs x86_64.

If the check box is dimmed, then the repository is still contained in a Content View. The orphaned packages in the repository will be removed automatically by a scheduled task (cron job).

Chapter 7. Updating Satellite Server, Capsule Server, and Content Hosts

Updating Between Minor Versions of Satellite

Updating is the process of migrating Satellite Server, Capsule Server, and Content Hosts to a new minor version. Updates typically patch security vulnerabilities and correct minor issues discovered after code is released. Generally speaking, updates require little time and are non-disruptive to your operating environment. Before updating, check the Red Hat Satellite Release Notes for potential conflicts.

Follow these procedures to update between minor versions, for example, from 6.2.0 to 6.2.1.

7.1. Updating Satellite Server

Prerequisites

  • Ensure you have synchronized Satellite Server repositories for Satellite, Capsule, and Satellite Tools.
  • Ensure each external Capsule and Content Host can be updated by promoting the updated repositories to all relevant content views.

Updating Satellite Server to the Next Minor Version

To Update Satellite Server:

  1. Check that only the correct repositories are enabled:

    1. List the enabled repositories:

      # subscription-manager repos --list-enabled
    2. Ensure you only have the following repositories enabled:

      rhel-X-server-rpms
      rhel-X-server-satellite-6.2-rpms
      rhel-server-rhscl-X-rpms

      Where X is the major version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux you are using. If required, see Configuring Repositories for more information on disabling and enabling repositories. If you have a self-registered Satellite, the rhel-X-server-satellite-tools-6.2-rpms repository, which provides Katello Agent, can also be present. If required, see Installing the katello Agent for more information.

  2. If you are on a self-registered Satellite, download all packages before stopping Satellite Server:

    # yum update --downloadonly

    This step is optional for Satellites which are not self-registered.

  3. Stop Katello services:

    # katello-service stop
  4. Update all packages:

    # yum update
  5. If a kernel update occurs, reboot the system:

    # reboot
  6. Perform the update:

    # satellite-installer --scenario satellite --upgrade
  7. If you are on a self-registered Satellite, restart goferd:

    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, run the following command:

      # service goferd restart
    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, run the following command:

      # systemctl restart goferd

7.2. Updating Capsule Server

Updating Capsule Servers to the Next Minor Version

To Update a Capsule Server:

  1. Check that only the correct repositories are enabled:

    1. List the enabled repositories:

      # subscription-manager repos --list-enabled
    2. Ensure you only have the following repositories enabled:

      rhel-X-server-rpms
      rhel-X-server-satellite-capsule-6.2-rpms
      rhel-server-rhscl-X-rpms
      rhel-X-server-satellite-tools-6.2-rpms

      Where X is the major version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux you are using. If required, see Configuring Repositories for more information on disabling and enabling repositories. The rhel-X-server-satellite-tools-6.2-rpms repository provides Katello Agent. If required, see Installing the katello Agent for more information. The Red Hat Software Collections repository is optional, it is required for the Remote Execution feature.

  2. Stop Katello services:

    # katello-service stop
  3. Update all packages:

    # yum update
  4. If a kernel update occurs, reboot the system:

    # reboot
  5. Perform the update:

    # satellite-installer --scenario capsule --upgrade
  6. Restart goferd:

    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, run the following command:

      # service goferd restart
    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, run the following command:

      # systemctl restart goferd

7.3. Updating Content Hosts

Updating Content Hosts to the Next Minor Version

To Update a Content Host, enter the following commands:

  1. Update all packages:

    # yum update
  2. If a kernel update occurs, reboot the system:

    # reboot
  3. Restart goferd:

    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, run the following command:

      # service goferd restart
    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, run the following command:

      # systemctl restart goferd

Chapter 8. Uninstalling Satellite Server and Capsule Server

If you no longer need Satellite Server or Capsule Server, you can uninstall them.

8.1. Uninstalling Satellite Server

Uninstalling Satellite Server and Capsule Server erases all applications used on the target system. If you use any applications or application data for purposes other than Satellite Server, you should back up the information before the removal process.

Before you Begin

The uninstall script issues two warnings, requiring confirmation before removing all packages and configuration files in the system.

Warning

This script will erase many packages and config files. Important packages such as the following will be removed:

  • httpd (apache)
  • mongodb
  • tomcat6
  • puppet
  • ruby
  • rubygems
  • All Katello and Foreman Packages

Uninstall Satellite Server

  1. Uninstall Satellite Server.

    # katello-remove
    Once these packages and configuration files are removed there is no going back.
    If you use this system for anything other than Katello and Foreman you probably
    do not want to execute this script.
    Read the source for a list of what is removed.  Are you sure(Y/N)? y
    ARE YOU SURE?: This script permanently deletes data and configuration.
    Read the source for a list of what is removed.  Type [remove] to continue? remove
    Shutting down Katello services...

8.2. Uninstalling Capsule Servers

Uninstalling Capsule Server erases all applications used on the target system. If you use any applications or application data for purposes other than Satellite Server, you should back up the information before the removal process.

Before you Begin

The uninstall script issues two warnings, requiring confirmation before removing all packages and configuration files in the system.

Warning

This script erases packages and config files. Important packages such as the following will be removed:

  • httpd (apache)
  • mongodb
  • tomcat6
  • puppet
  • ruby
  • rubygems
  • All Katello and Foreman Packages

Uninstall Capsule Server

  1. Uninstall Capsule Server.

    $ capsule-remove

    The following message displays.

    Once these packages and configuration files are removed there is no going back.
    If you use this system for anything other than Katello and Foreman you probably
    do not want to execute this script.
    Read the source for a list of what is removed.  Are you sure(Y/N)? y
    ARE YOU SURE?: This script permanently deletes data and configuration.
    Read the source for a list of what is removed.  Type [remove] to continue? remove
    Shutting down Katello services...

Chapter 9. Where to find more information

At the end of the initial installation and setup, you can perform additional configuration and set up your Satellite environment. You can use the following Satellite documentation resources to assist you:

Appendix A. Large Deployment Considerations

Increasing the Maximum Number of File Descriptors for Apache

With more than 800 content hosts registered, Apache can reach several system-level limits, resulting in new content host registration failure. To avoid this, file descriptor limits must be increased before deploying a large number of content hosts.

  1. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, create the /etc/systemd/system/httpd.service.d/limits.conf file and insert the following text:

    [Service]
    LimitNOFILE=65536
  2. Apply the changes to the unit.

    # systemctl daemon-reload
  3. Restart Katello services.

    # katello-service restart

Increasing the Maximum Number of File Descriptors for qpid

With more than 1100 content hosts with goferd running for errata updates, the qpid reach system-level limits, resulting in registration failures. To avoid this, file descriptors limits must be increased before deploying a large number of content hosts.

Increasing the Maximum Number of File Descriptors for qpid Using Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

  1. Create the /etc/systemd/system/qpidd.service.d/limits.conf file and insert the following text:

    [Service]
    LimitNOFILE=65536
  2. Apply the changes to the unit.

    # systemctl daemon-reload
    # systemctl restart qpidd.service

Increasing the Maximum Number of File Descriptors for qpid Using Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

  1. Edit the /etc/security/limits.conf file and insert the following text:

    qpidd - nofile 65536
  2. Restart the qpidd service.

    # service qpidd restart

Increasing the Shared Buffer and Work Memory

You can increase the shared_buffer and work_mem to 256M and 4M respectively.

  1. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, create the /var/lib/pgsql/data/postgresql.conf file and insert the following text:

    work_mem = 4MB
    shared_buffers = 256MB
  2. Restart postgresql services.

    # service postgresql restart

Increasing Concurrent Content Host Registrations

To avoid reaching system-level limits, you can increase the global passenger queue limit to accommodate up to 250 concurrent content hosts.

  1. Adjust the maximum passenger pool size to 1.5 times the physical CPU cores available to the Satellite Server.

    For example, if you have a Satellite Server with 16 cores, then the maximum passenger pool size is 24. This number is referenced as an example and you should use the number applicable to your environment.

  2. Edit the /etc/httpd/conf.d/passenger.conf file, updating the IfModule stanza to match the following text:

    <IfModule mod_passenger.c>
      PassengerRoot /usr/share/gems/gems/passenger-4.0.18/lib/phusion_passenger/locations.ini
      PassengerRuby /usr/bin/ruby
      PassengerMaxPoolSize 24
      PassengerMaxRequestQueueSize 200
      PassengerStatThrottleRate 120
    </IfModule>
  3. Edit the Foreman Passenger application configuration file /etc/httpd/conf.d/05-foreman-ssl.conf, updating the stanza starting with PassengerAppRoot to match the following text:

     PassengerAppRoot /usr/share/foreman
     PassengerRuby /usr/bin/tfm-ruby
     PassengerMinInstances 6
     PassengerStartTimeout 90
     PassengerMaxPreloaderIdleTime 0
     PassengerMaxRequests 10000
     PassengerPreStart https://example.com
  4. Edit the Puppet Passenger application configuration file /etc/httpd/conf.d/25-puppet.conf, adding the following text to the end of the virtual host definition:

     PassengerMinInstances 6
     PassengerStartTimeout 90
     PassengerMaxPreloaderIdleTime 0
     PassengerMaxRequests 10000
     PassengerPreStart https://example.com:8140
  5. Change the maximum connections in the /var/lib/pgsql/data/postgresql.conf file.

    max_connections = 500
  6. Restart postgresql services.

    # service postgresql restart

Increasing the maximum number of open files for qdrouterd

With more than 1000 content hosts registered, qdrouterd can reach the default maximum number of open files. To avoid this, increase the maximum number of open files on the Satellite Server and all external Capsule Servers.

  1. Calculate the required maximum number of open files, using the following equation.

    (3 x number of content hosts) + 100

    For example, with 1020 content hosts, the new maximum should be set to 3160 ((3 x 1020) + 100).

  2. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, create the file /etc/systemd/system/qdrouterd.service.d/limits.conf and add the following text.

    [Service]
    LimitNOFILE=maximum_number_of_files
    1. Apply the changes to the unit.

      # systemctl daemon-reload
    2. Restart the Satellite services.

      # katello-service restart
  3. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, edit the file /etc/security/limits.conf and add the following line.

    qdrouterd   -   nofile  maximum_number_of_files

    Add the new line before the # End of file line because anything past that is ignored.

    1. Restart the qdrouterd service.

      # service qdrouterd restart

Appendix B. Capsule Server Scalability Considerations

The maximum number of Capsule Servers that the Satellite Server can support has no fixed limit. The tested limit is 17 Capsule Servers with 2 vCPUs on a Satellite Server with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 and 7 hosts. However, scalability is highly variable, especially when managing Puppet clients.

Capsule Server scalability when managing Puppet clients depends on the number of CPUs, the run-interval distribution, and the number of Puppet managed resources. The Capsule Server has a limitation of 100 concurrent Puppet agents running at any single point in time. Running more than 100 concurrent Puppet agents results in a 503 HTTP error.

For example, assuming that Puppet agent runs are evenly distributed with less than 100 concurrent Puppet agents running at any single point during a run-interval, a Capsule Server with 4 CPUs has a maximum of 1250-1600 Puppet clients with a moderate workload of 10 Puppet classes assigned to each Puppet client. Depending on the number of Puppet clients required, the Satellite installation can scale out the number of Capsule Servers to support them.

If you want to scale your Capsule Server when managing Puppet clients, the following assumptions are made:

  • There are no external Puppet clients reporting directly to the Satellite 6 integrated Capsule.
  • All other Puppet clients report directly to an external Capsule.
  • There is an evenly distributed run-interval of all Puppet agents.
Note

Deviating from the even distribution increases the risk of filling the passenger request queue. The limit of 100 concurrent requests applies.

The following table describes the scalability limits using the recommended 4 CPUs with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

Table B.1. Puppet Scalability Using 4 CPUs with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 (Recommended)

Puppet Managed Resources per HostRun-Interval Distribution

1

3000-2500

10

2400-2000

20

1700-1400

The following table describes the scalability limits using the minimum 2 CPUs with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

Table B.2. Puppet Scalability Using 2 CPUs with with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

Puppet Managed Resources per HostRun-Interval Distribution

1

1700-1450

10

1500-1250

20

850-700

The following table describes the scalability limits using the recommended 4 CPUs with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.

Table B.3. Puppet Scalability Using 4 CPUs with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 (Recommended)

Puppet Managed Resources per HostRun-Interval Distribution

1

2250-1875

10

1600-1250

20

700-560

The following table describes the scalability limits using the minimum 2 CPUs.

Table B.4. Puppet Scalability Using 2 CPUs with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

Puppet Managed Resources per HostRun-Interval Distribution

1

Not tested

10

1020-860

20

375-330

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