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Chapter 3. Advanced Red Hat Quay deployment

3.1. Using SSL to protect connections to Red Hat Quay

3.1.1. Introduction to using SSL

To configure Red Hat Quay with a self-signed certificate, you need to create a Certificate Authority (CA) and then generate the required key and certificate files.

The following examples assume you have configured the server hostname quay-server.example.com using DNS or another naming mechanism, such as adding an entry in your /etc/hosts file:

$ cat /etc/hosts
...
192.168.1.112   quay-server.example.com

3.1.2. Create a Certificate Authority and sign a certificate

At the end of this procedure, you will have a certificate file and a primary key file named ssl.cert and ssl.key, respectively.

3.1.2.1. Create a Certificate Authority

  1. Generate the root CA key:

    $ openssl genrsa -out rootCA.key 2048
  2. Generate the root CA cert:

    $ openssl req -x509 -new -nodes -key rootCA.key -sha256 -days 1024 -out rootCA.pem
  3. Enter the information that will be incorporated into your certificate request, including the server hostname, for example:

    Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:IE
    State or Province Name (full name) []:GALWAY
    Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:GALWAY
    Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:QUAY
    Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:DOCS
    Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:quay-server.example.com

3.1.2.2. Sign a certificate

  1. Generate the server key:

    $ openssl genrsa -out ssl.key 2048
  2. Generate a signing request:

    $ openssl req -new -key ssl.key -out ssl.csr
  3. Enter the information that will be incorporated into your certificate request, including the server hostname, for example:

    Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:IE
    State or Province Name (full name) []:GALWAY
    Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:GALWAY
    Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:QUAY
    Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:DOCS
    Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:quay-server.example.com
  4. Create a configuration file openssl.cnf, specifying the server hostname, for example:

    openssl.cnf

    [req]
    req_extensions = v3_req
    distinguished_name = req_distinguished_name
    [req_distinguished_name]
    [ v3_req ]
    basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
    keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
    subjectAltName = @alt_names
    [alt_names]
    DNS.1 = quay-server.example.com
    IP.1 = 192.168.1.112

  5. Use the configuration file to generate the certificate ssl.cert:

    $ openssl x509 -req -in ssl.csr -CA rootCA.pem -CAkey rootCA.key -CAcreateserial -out ssl.cert -days 356 -extensions v3_req -extfile openssl.cnf

3.1.3. Configuring SSL using the UI

This section configures SSL using the Quay UI. To configure SSL using the command line interface, see the following section.

  1. Start the Quay container in configuration mode:

    $ sudo podman run --rm -it --name quay_config -p 80:8080 -p 443:8443 registry.redhat.io/quay/quay-rhel8:v3.7.0 config secret
  2. In the Server Configuration section, select Red Hat Quay handles TLS for TLS. Upload the certificate file and private key file created earlier, ensuring that the Server Hostname matches the value used when creating the certs. Validate and download the updated configuration.
  3. Stop the Quay container and then restart the registry:

    $ sudo podman rm -f quay
    $ sudo podman run -d --rm -p 80:8080 -p 443:8443 \
    --name=quay \
    -v $QUAY/config:/conf/stack:Z \
    -v $QUAY/storage:/datastorage:Z \
    registry.redhat.io/quay/quay-rhel8:v3.7.0

3.1.4. Configuring SSL using the command line

Another option when configuring SSL is to use the command line interface.

  1. Copy the certificate file and primary key file to your configuration directory, ensuring they are named ssl.cert and ssl.key respectively:

    $ cp ~/ssl.cert $QUAY/config
    $ cp ~/ssl.key $QUAY/config
    $ cd $QUAY/config
  2. Edit the config.yaml file and specify that you want Quay to handle TLS:

    config.yaml

    ...
    SERVER_HOSTNAME: quay-server.example.com
    ...
    PREFERRED_URL_SCHEME: https
    ...

  3. Stop the Quay container and restart the registry:

    $ sudo podman rm -f quay
    $ sudo podman run -d --rm -p 80:8080 -p 443:8443 \
      --name=quay \
      -v $QUAY/config:/conf/stack:Z \
      -v $QUAY/storage:/datastorage:Z \
      registry.redhat.io/quay/quay-rhel8:v3.7.0

3.1.5. Testing SSL configuration using the command line

  • Use the podman login command to attempt to log in to the Quay registry with SSL enabled:

    $ sudo podman login quay-server.example.com
    Username: quayadmin
    Password:
    
    Error: error authenticating creds for "quay-server.example.com": error pinging docker registry quay-server.example.com: Get "https://quay-server.example.com/v2/": x509: certificate signed by unknown authority
  • Podman does not trust self-signed certificates. As a workaround, use the --tls-verify option:

    $ sudo podman login --tls-verify=false quay-server.example.com
    Username: quayadmin
    Password:
    
    Login Succeeded!

Configuring Podman to trust the root Certificate Authority (CA) is covered in a subsequent section.

3.1.6. Testing SSL configuration using the browser

When you attempt to access the Quay registry, in this case, https://quay-server.example.com, the browser warns of the potential risk:

Potential risk

Proceed to the log in screen, and the browser will notify you that the connection is not secure:

Connection not secure

Configuring the system to trust the root Certificate Authority (CA) is covered in the subsequent section.

3.1.7. Configuring podman to trust the Certificate Authority

Podman uses two paths to locate the CA file, namely, /etc/containers/certs.d/ and /etc/docker/certs.d/.

  • Copy the root CA file to one of these locations, with the exact path determined by the server hostname, and naming the file ca.crt:

    $ sudo cp rootCA.pem /etc/containers/certs.d/quay-server.example.com/ca.crt
  • Alternatively, if you are using Docker, you can copy the root CA file to the equivalent Docker directory:

    $ sudo cp rootCA.pem /etc/docker/certs.d/quay-server.example.com/ca.crt

You should no longer need to use the --tls-verify=false option when logging in to the registry:

$ sudo podman login quay-server.example.com

Username: quayadmin
Password:
Login Succeeded!

3.1.8. Configuring the system to trust the certificate authority

  1. Copy the root CA file to the consolidated system-wide trust store:

    $ sudo cp rootCA.pem /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/
  2. Update the system-wide trust store configuration:

    $ sudo update-ca-trust extract
  3. You can use the trust list command to ensure that the Quay server has been configured:

    $ trust list | grep quay
        label: quay-server.example.com

    Now, when you browse to the registry at https://quay-server.example.com, the lock icon shows that the connection is secure:

    Connection not secure

  4. To remove the root CA from system-wide trust, delete the file and update the configuration:

    $ sudo rm /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/rootCA.pem
    $ sudo update-ca-trust extract
    $ trust list | grep quay
    $

More information can be found in the RHEL 8 documentation in the chapter Using shared system certificates.

3.2. Red Hat Quay superuser

A superuser is a Quay user account that has extended privileges, including the ability to:

  • Manage users
  • Manage organizations
  • Manage service keys
  • View the change log
  • Query the usage logs
  • Create globally visible user messages

3.2.1. Adding a superuser to Quay using the UI

This section covers how to add a superuser using the Quay UI. To add a superuser using the command line interface, see the following section.

  1. Start the Quay container in configuration mode, loading the existing configuration as a volume:

    $ sudo podman run --rm -it --name quay_config \
      -p 8080:8080 \
      -p 443:8443 \
      -v $QUAY/config:/conf/stack:Z \
      registry.redhat.io/quay/quay-rhel8:v3.7.0 config secret
  2. Under the Access Settings section of the UI, enter the name of the user (in this instance, quayadmin) in the Super Users field and click Add.
  3. Validate and download the configuration file and then terminate the Quay container that is running in config mode. Extract the config.yaml file to the configuration directory and restart the Quay container in registry mode:

    $ sudo podman rm -f quay
    $ sudo podman run -d --rm -p 80:8080 -p 443:8443 \
    --name=quay \
    -v $QUAY/config:/conf/stack:Z \
    -v $QUAY/storage:/datastorage:Z \
    registry.redhat.io/quay/quay-rhel8:v3.7.0

3.2.2. Editing the config.yaml file to add a superuser

You can also add a superuser by editing the config.yaml file directly. The list of superuser accounts is stored as an array in the field SUPER_USERS.

  • Stop the container registry if it is running, and add the SUPER_USERS array to the config.yaml file:

    $QUAY/config/config.yaml

    SERVER_HOSTNAME: quay-server.example.com
    SETUP_COMPLETE: true
    SUPER_USERS:
      - quayadmin
    ...

3.2.3. Accessing the superuser admin panel

  1. Restart the Quay registry:

    $ sudo podman rm -f quay
    $ sudo podman run -d --rm -p 80:8080 -p 443:8443 \
    --name=quay \
    -v $QUAY/config:/conf/stack:Z \
    -v $QUAY/storage:/datastorage:Z \
    registry.redhat.io/quay/quay-rhel8:v3.7.0
  2. Access the Super User Admin Panel by clicking on the current user’s name or avatar in the top right-hand corner of the UI. If the user has been added as a superuser, an extra item is presented in the drop-down list called Super User Admin Panel.

    Super User Admin Panel

3.2.3.1. Creating a globally visible user message

Using the Superuser Admin Panel, you can create Normal, Warning, or Error messages for your organization.

  1. Click your user name in the top right-hand corner of the UI. Select Super User Admin Panel.
  2. On the Red Hat Quay Management page, click Globally visible user messages on the left hand pane.
  3. Click Create Message to show a drop-down menu containing Normal, Warning, and Error message types:

    Creating a new messsage

  4. Enter a message by selecting Click to set message, then click Create Message.

Messages can be deleted by clicking Options and then Delete Message.

3.3. Repository Mirroring

3.3.1. Repository mirroring

Red Hat Quay repository mirroring lets you mirror images from external container registries (or another local registry) into your Red Hat Quay cluster. Using repository mirroring, you can synchronize images to Red Hat Quay based on repository names and tags.

From your Red Hat Quay cluster with repository mirroring enabled, you can:

  • Choose a repository from an external registry to mirror
  • Add credentials to access the external registry
  • Identify specific container image repository names and tags to sync
  • Set intervals at which a repository is synced
  • Check the current state of synchronization

To use the mirroring functionality, you need to:

  • Enable Repository Mirroring in the Red Hat Quay configuration
  • Run a repository mirroring worker
  • Create mirrored repositories

All repository mirroring configuration can be performed using the configuration tool UI or via the Quay API

3.3.2. Mirroring configuration UI

  1. Start the Quay container in configuration mode and select the Enable Repository Mirroring check box. If you want to require HTTPS communications and verify certificates during mirroring, select the HTTPS and cert verification check box.

    Enable mirroring and require HTTPS and verified certificates

  2. Validate and download the configuration file, and then restart Quay in registry mode using the updated config file.

3.3.3. Mirroring worker

  • To run the repository mirroring worker, start by running a Quay pod with the repomirror option:

    $ sudo podman run -d --name mirroring-worker \
      -v $QUAY/config:/conf/stack:Z \
      registry.redhat.io/quay/quay-rhel8:v3.7.0 repomirror
  • If you have configured TLS communications using a certificate /root/ca.crt, then the following example shows how to start the mirroring worker:

    $ sudo podman run -d --name mirroring-worker \
      -v $QUAY/config:/conf/stack:Z \
      -v /root/ca.crt:/etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/ca.crt \
      registry.redhat.io/quay/quay-rhel8:v3.7.0 repomirror

3.3.4. Creating a mirrored repository

The steps shown in this section assume you already have enabled repository mirroring in the configuration for your Red Hat Quay cluster and that you have a deployed a mirroring worker.

When mirroring a repository from an external container registry, create a new private repository. Typically the same name is used as the target repository, for example, quay-rhel8:

Create new Red Hat Quay repo

3.3.4.1. Repository mirroring settings

  1. In the Settings tab, set the Repository State to Mirror:

    Create a new Red Hat Quay repo mirror

  2. In the Mirror tab, enter the details for connecting to the external registry, along with the tags, scheduling and access information:

    Repository mirroring

  3. Enter the details as required in the following fields:

    • Registry Location: The external repository you want to mirror, for example, registry.redhat.io/quay/quay-rhel8
    • Tags: This field is required. You may enter a comma-separated list of individual tags or tag patterns. (See Tag Patterns section for details.)

      Note

      In order for Quay to get the list of tags in the remote repository, one of the following requirements must be met:

      • An image with the "latest" tag must exist in the remote repository OR
      • At least one explicit tag, without pattern matching, must exist in the list of tags that you specify
    • Start Date: The date on which mirroring begins. The current date and time is used by default.
    • Sync Interval: Defaults to syncing every 24 hours. You can change that based on hours or days.
    • Robot User: Create a new robot account or choose an existing robot account to do the mirroring.
    • Username: The username for accessing the external registry holding the repository you are mirroring.
    • Password: The password associated with the Username. Note that the password cannot include characters that require an escape character (\).

3.3.4.2. Advanced settings

  • In the Advanced Settings section, configure TLS and proxy, if required:
  • Verify TLS: Check this box if you want to require HTTPS and to verify certificates, when communicating with the target remote registry.
  • HTTP Proxy: Identify the HTTP proxy server needed to access the remote site, if one is required.
  • HTTPS Proxy: Identify the HTTPS proxy server needed to access the remote site, if one is required.
  • No Proxy: List of locations that do not require proxy

3.3.4.3. Synchronize now

  • To perform an immediate mirroring operation, press the Sync Now button on the repository’s Mirroring tab. The logs are available on the Usage Logs tab:

    Usage logs

    When the mirroring is complete, the images will appear in the Tags tab:

    Repository mirroring tags

    Below is an example of a completed Repository Mirroring screen:

    Repository mirroring details

3.3.5. Mirroring tag patterns

As noted above, at least one Tag must be explicitly entered (ie. not a tag pattern) or the tag "latest" must exist in the report repository. (The tag "latest" will not be synced unless specified in the tag list.). This is required for Quay to get the list of tags in the remote repository to compare to the specified list to mirror.

3.3.5.1. Pattern syntax

Pattern

Description

*

Matches all characters

?

Matches any single character

[seq]

Matches any character in seq

[!seq]

Matches any character not in seq

3.3.5.2. Example tag patterns

Example Pattern

Example Matches

v3*

v32, v3.1, v3.2, v3.2-4beta, v3.3

v3.*

v3.1, v3.2, v3.2-4beta

v3.?

v3.1, v3.2, v3.3

v3.[12]

v3.1, v3.2

v3.[12]*

v3.1, v3.2, v3.2-4beta

v3.[!1]*

v3.2, v3.2-4beta, v3.3

3.4. Deploying Clair V4

Clair is an application for parsing image contents and reporting vulnerabilities affecting the contents. This is performed via static analysis and not at runtime. Clair’s analysis is broken into three distinct parts:

  • Indexing: Indexing starts with submitting a Manifest to Clair. On receipt, Clair will fetch layers, scan their contents, and return an intermediate representation called an IndexReport. Manifests are Clair’s representation of a container image. Clair leverages the fact that OCI Manifests and Layers are content-addressed to reduce duplicated work. Once a Manifest is indexed, the IndexReport is persisted for later retrieval.
  • Matching: Matching takes an IndexReport and correlates vulnerabilities affecting the manifest that the report represents. Clair is continually ingesting new security data and a request to the matcher will always provide you with the most up to date vulnerability analysis of an IndexReport.
  • Notifications: Clair implements a notification service. When new vulnerabilities are discovered, the notifier service will determine if these vulnerabilities affect any indexed Manifests. The notifier will then take action according to its configuration.

3.4.1. Deploying a separate database for Clair

Clair requires a Postgres database. You can share a common database between Quay and Clair if Quay is also using Postgres, but in this example a separate, Clair-specific database is deployed.

In this proof-of-concept scenario, you will use a directory on the local file system to persist database data.

  1. In the installation folder, denoted here by the variable $QUAY, create a directory for the Clair database data and set the permissions appropriately:

    $ mkdir -p $QUAY/postgres-clairv4
    $ setfacl -m u:26:-wx $QUAY/postgres-clairv4
  2. Use podman to run the Postgres container, specifying the username, password, database name and port, together with the volume definition for database data. As the standard Postgres port, 5432, is already in use by the Quay deployment, expose a different port, in this instance 5433:

    $ sudo podman run -d --rm --name postgresql-clairv4 \
      -e POSTGRESQL_USER=clairuser \
      -e POSTGRESQL_PASSWORD=clairpass \
      -e POSTGRESQL_DATABASE=clair \
      -e POSTGRESQL_ADMIN_PASSWORD=adminpass \
      -p 5433:5432 \
      -v $QUAY/postgres-clairv4:/var/lib/pgsql/data:Z \
      registry.redhat.io/rhel8/postgresql-10:1
  3. Ensure that the Postgres uuid-ossp module is installed, as it is required by Clair:

    $ sudo podman exec -it postgresql-clairv4 /bin/bash -c 'echo "CREATE EXTENSION IF NOT EXISTS \"uuid-ossp\"" | psql -d clair -U postgres'

3.4.2. Quay configuration for Clair

  1. Stop the Quay container if it is running, and restart it in configuration mode, loading the existing configuration as a volume:

    $ sudo podman run --rm -it --name quay_config \
      -p 80:8080 -p 443:8443 \
      -v $QUAY/config:/conf/stack:Z \
      registry.redhat.io/quay/quay-rhel8:v3.7.0 config secret
  2. Log in to the configuration tool and enable scanning in the Security Scanner section of the UI. Set the HTTP endpoint for Clair using a port that is not already in use on the quay-server system, for example 8081. Create a Clair pre-shared key (PSK) using the Generate PSK button, for example:

    • Security Scanner Endpoint: http://quay-server.example.com:8081
    • Security Scanner PSK: MTU5YzA4Y2ZkNzJoMQ==

      The UI for setting the scanner data is shown in the following image:

      Security Scanner UI

      Security Scanner

  3. Validate and download the configuration file and then stop the Quay container that is running the configuration editor. Extract the configuration bundle as before into the $QUAY/config directory.

    $ cp ~/Downloads/quay-config.tar.gz $QUAY/config
    $ cd $QUAY/config
    $ tar xvf quay-config.tar.gz

The Quay configuration file is now updated to contain the following fields for the security scanner:

$QUAY/config/config.yaml

...
FEATURE_SECURITY_NOTIFICATIONS: false
FEATURE_SECURITY_SCANNER: true
...
SECURITY_SCANNER_INDEXING_INTERVAL: 30
SECURITY_SCANNER_V4_ENDPOINT: http://quay-server.example.com:8081
SECURITY_SCANNER_V4_PSK: MTU5YzA4Y2ZkNzJoMQ==
SERVER_HOSTNAME: quay-server.example.com
...

3.4.3. Clair configuration

Detailed information on Clair configuration is available at https://github.com/quay/clair/blob/main/Documentation/reference/config.md.

  • Create a config.yaml file in your /etc/ directory, for example, /etc/clairv4/config/config.yaml. Use the following example, which provides a minimal configuration for use in a proof of concept deployment:

    http_listen_addr: :8081
    introspection_addr: :8089
    log_level: debug
    indexer:
      connstring: host=quay-server.example.com port=5433 dbname=clair user=clairuser password=clairpass sslmode=disable
      scanlock_retry: 10
      layer_scan_concurrency: 5
      migrations: true
    matcher:
      connstring: host=quay-server.example.com port=5433 dbname=clair user=clairuser password=clairpass sslmode=disable
      max_conn_pool: 100
      run: ""
      migrations: true
      indexer_addr: clair-indexer
    notifier:
      connstring: host=quay-server.example.com port=5433 dbname=clair user=clairuser password=clairpass sslmode=disable
      delivery_interval: 1m
      poll_interval: 5m
      migrations: true
    auth:
      psk:
        key: "MTU5YzA4Y2ZkNzJoMQ=="
        iss: ["quay"]
    # tracing and metrics
    trace:
      name: "jaeger"
      probability: 1
      jaeger:
        agent_endpoint: "localhost:6831"
        service_name: "clair"
    metrics:
      name: "prometheus"
  • http_listen_addr is set to the port of the Clair HTTP endpoint that you specified in the Quay configuration tool, in this case :8081.
  • The Clair pre-shared key (PSK) that you generated in the Quay configuration tool is used for authentication, with the issuer, specified in the iss field, set to quay.

3.4.4. Running Clair

  1. Use the podman run command to run the Clair container, exposing the HTTP endpoint port that you specified in the configuration tool, in this case 8081:

    $ sudo podman run -d --rm --name clairv4 \
      -p 8081:8081 -p 8089:8089 \
      -e CLAIR_CONF=/clair/config.yaml -e CLAIR_MODE=combo \
      -v /etc/clairv4/config:/clair:Z \
      registry.redhat.io/quay/clair-rhel8:v3.7.0
  2. Next, restart the Quay container using the updated configuration file containing the scanner settings:

    $ sudo podman run -d --rm -p 80:8080 -p 443:8443  \
       --name=quay \
       -v $QUAY/config:/conf/stack:Z \
       -v $QUAY/storage:/datastorage:Z \
       registry.redhat.io/quay/quay-rhel8:v3.7.0

3.4.5. Using Clair security scanning

  1. From the command line, log in to the registry:

    $ sudo podman login --tls-verify=false quay-server.example.com
    Username: quayadmin
    Password:
    Login Succeeded!
  2. Pull, tag and push a sample image to the registry:

    $ sudo podman pull ubuntu:20.04
    $ sudo podman tag docker.io/library/ubuntu:20.04 quay-server.example.com/quayadmin/ubuntu:20.04
    $ sudo podman push --tls-verify=false quay-server.example.com/quayadmin/ubuntu:20.04

The results from the security scanning can be seen in the Quay UI, as shown in the following images:

Scanning summary

Scanning summary

Scanning details

Scanning details

3.4.6. CVE ratings from the National Vulnerability Database

With Clair v4.2, enrichment data is now viewable in the Quay UI. Additionally, Clair v4.2 adds CVSS scores from the National Vulnerability Database for detected vulnerabilities.

With this change, if the vulnerability has a CVSS score that is within 2 levels of the distro’s score, the Quay UI present’s the distro’s score by default. For example:

Clair v4.2 data display

This differs from the previous interface, which would only display the following information:

Clair v4 data display

3.5. Restarting containers

Because the --restart option is not fully supported by podman, you can configure podman as a systemd service, as described in Porting containers to systemd using Podman

3.5.1. Using systemd unit files with Podman

By default, Podman generates a unit file for existing containers or pods. You can generate more portable systemd unit files using the podman generate systemd --new command. The --new flag instructs Podman to generate unit files that create, start and remove containers.

  1. Create the systemd unit files from a running Red Hat Quay registry as follows:

    $ sudo podman generate systemd --new --files --name redis
    $ sudo podman generate systemd --new --files --name postgresql-quay
    $ sudo podman generate systemd --new --files --name quay
    $ sudo podman generate systemd --new --files --name postgresql-clairv4
    $ sudo podman generate systemd --new --files --name clairv4
  2. Copy the unit files to /usr/lib/systemd/system for installing them as a root user:

    $ sudo cp -Z container-redis.service /usr/lib/systemd/system
    $ sudo cp -Z container-postgresql-quay.service /usr/lib/systemd/system
    $ sudo cp -Z container-quay.service /usr/lib/systemd/system
    $ sudo cp -Z container-postgresql-clairv4.service /usr/lib/systemd/system
    $ sudo cp -Z container-clairv4.service /usr/lib/systemd/system
  3. Reload systemd manager configuration:

    $ sudo systemctl daemon-reload
  4. Enable the services and start them at boot time:

    $ sudo systemctl enable --now container-redis.service
    $ sudo systemctl enable --now container-postgresql-quay.service
    $ sudo systemctl enable --now container-quay.service
    $ sudo systemctl enable --now container-postgresql-clairv4.service
    $ sudo systemctl enable --now container-clairv4.service

3.5.2. Starting, stopping and checking the status of services

  1. Check the status of the Quay components:

    $ sudo systemctl status container-redis.service
    $ sudo systemctl status container-postgresql-quay.service
    $ sudo systemctl status container-quay.service
    $ sudo systemctl status container-postgresql-clairv4.service
    $ sudo systemctl status container-clairv4.service
  2. To stop the Quay component services:

    $ sudo systemctl stop container-redis.service
    $ sudo systemctl stop container-postgresql-quay.service
    $ sudo systemctl stop container-quay.service
    $ sudo systemctl stop container-postgresql-clairv4.service
    $ sudo systemctl stop container-clairv4.service
  3. To start the Quay component services:

    $ sudo systemctl start container-redis.service
    $ sudo systemctl start container-postgresql-quay.service
    $ sudo systemctl start container-quay.service
    $ sudo systemctl start container-postgresql-clairv4.service
    $ sudo systemctl start container-clairv4.service

3.5.3. Testing restart after reboot

Once you have the services configured and enabled, reboot the system. When the system has re-started, use podman ps to check that all the containers for the Quay components have been restarted:

$ sudo podman ps -a
CONTAINER ID  IMAGE                                       COMMAND         CREATED         STATUS             PORTS                   NAMES
4e87c7889246  registry.redhat.io/rhel8/postgresql-10:1    run-postgresql  19 seconds ago  Up 18 seconds ago  0.0.0.0:5432->5432/tcp  postgresql-quay
b8fbac1920d4  registry.redhat.io/rhel8/redis-5:1          run-redis       19 seconds ago  Up 18 seconds ago  0.0.0.0:6379->6379/tcp  redis
d959d5bf7a24  registry.redhat.io/rhel8/postgresql-10:1    run-postgresql  18 seconds ago  Up 18 seconds ago  0.0.0.0:5433->5432/tcp  postgresql-clairv4
e75ff8651dbd  registry.redhat.io/quay/clair-rhel8:v3.4.0                  18 seconds ago  Up 17 seconds ago  0.0.0.0:8081->8080/tcp  clairv4

In this instance, the Quay container itself has failed to start up. This is due to the fact that, when security scanning is enabled in Quay, it tries to connect to Clair on startup. However, Clair has not finished initializing and cannot accept connections and, as a result, Quay terminates immediately. To overcome this issue, you need to configure the Quay service to have a dependency on the Clair service, as shown in the following section.

3.5.4. Configuring Quay’s dependency on Clair

In the systemd service file for Quay, set up a dependency on the Clair service in the [Unit] section by setting After=container-clairv4.service. To give the Clair container time to initialize, add a delay in the [Service] section, for example RestartSec=30. Here is an example of the modified Quay file, after configuring the dependency on Clair:

/usr/lib/systemd/system/container-quay.service

# container-quay.service
# autogenerated by Podman 2.0.5
# Tue Feb 16 17:02:26 GMT 2021

[Unit]
Description=Podman container-quay.service
Documentation=man:podman-generate-systemd(1)
Wants=network.target
After=container-clairv4.service

[Service]
Environment=PODMAN_SYSTEMD_UNIT=%n
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=30
ExecStartPre=/bin/rm -f %t/container-quay.pid %t/container-quay.ctr-id
ExecStart=/usr/bin/podman run --conmon-pidfile %t/container-quay.pid --cidfile %t/container-quay.ctr-id --cgroups=no-conmon -d --rm -p 8080:8080 --name=quay -v /home/user1/quay/config:/conf/stack:Z -v /home/user1/quay/storage:/datastorage:Z registry.redhat.io/quay/quay-rhel8:v3.4.0
ExecStop=/usr/bin/podman stop --ignore --cidfile %t/container-quay.ctr-id -t 10
ExecStopPost=/usr/bin/podman rm --ignore -f --cidfile %t/container-quay.ctr-id
PIDFile=%t/container-quay.pid
KillMode=none
Type=forking

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target default.target

Once you have updated the Quay service configuration, reboot the server and immediately run podman ps:

$ sudo podman ps -a
CONTAINER ID  IMAGE                                       COMMAND         CREATED         STATUS             PORTS                   NAMES
4e87c7889246  registry.redhat.io/rhel8/postgresql-10:1    run-postgresql  29 seconds ago  Up 28 seconds ago  0.0.0.0:5432->5432/tcp  postgresql-quay
b8fbac1920d4  registry.redhat.io/rhel8/redis-5:1          run-redis       29 seconds ago  Up 28 seconds ago  0.0.0.0:6379->6379/tcp  redis
d959d5bf7a24  registry.redhat.io/rhel8/postgresql-10:1    run-postgresql  28 seconds ago  Up 28 seconds ago  0.0.0.0:5433->5432/tcp  postgresql-clairv4
e75ff8651dbd  registry.redhat.io/quay/clair-rhel8:v3.4.0                  28 seconds ago  Up 27 seconds ago  0.0.0.0:8081->8080/tcp  clairv4

Initially, the Quay container will not be available, but once the RestartSec delay has expired, it should start up:

$ sudo podman ps -a
CONTAINER ID  IMAGE                                       COMMAND         CREATED         STATUS             PORTS                   NAMES
4e87c7889246  registry.redhat.io/rhel8/postgresql-10:1    run-postgresql  35 seconds ago  Up 34 seconds ago  0.0.0.0:5432->5432/tcp  postgresql-quay
ab9f0e6ad7c3  registry.redhat.io/quay/quay-rhel8:v3.4.0   registry        3 seconds ago   Up 2 seconds ago   0.0.0.0:8080->8080/tcp  quay
b8fbac1920d4  registry.redhat.io/rhel8/redis-5:1          run-redis       35 seconds ago  Up 34 seconds ago  0.0.0.0:6379->6379/tcp  redis
d959d5bf7a24  registry.redhat.io/rhel8/postgresql-10:1    run-postgresql  34 seconds ago  Up 34 seconds ago  0.0.0.0:5433->5432/tcp  postgresql-clairv4
e75ff8651dbd  registry.redhat.io/quay/clair-rhel8:v3.4.0                  34 seconds ago  Up 33 seconds ago  0.0.0.0:8081->8080/tcp  clairv4

The CREATED field for the Quay container shows the 30 second difference in creation time, as configured in the service definition.

Log in to the Red Hat Quay registry at quay-server.example.com and ensure that everything has restarted correctly.

3.6. FIPS readiness and compliance

FIPS (the Federal Information Processing Standard developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST) is regarded as the gold standard for securing and encrypting sensitive data, particularly in heavily regulated areas such as banking, healthcare and the public sector. Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform support this standard by providing a FIPS mode in which the system would only allow usage of certain, FIPS-validated cryptographic modules, like openssl. This ensures FIPS compliance.

Red Hat Quay supports running on RHEL and OCP in FIPS mode in production since version 3.5. Furthermore, Red Hat Quay itself also commits to exclusively using cryptography libraries that are validated or are in the process of being validated by NIST. Red Hat Quay 3.5 has pending FIPS 140-2 validation based on the RHEL 8.3 cryptography libraries. As soon as that validation is finalized, Red Hat Quay will be officially FIPS compliant.