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Chapter 5. Designing the application logic for a Red Hat build of Kogito microservice using DMN

After you create your project, you can create or import Decision Model and Notation (DMN) decision models and Drools Rule Language (DRL) business rules in the src/main/resources folder of your project. You can also include Java classes in the src/main/java folder of your project that act as Java services or provide implementations that you call from your decisions.

The example for this procedure is a basic Red Hat build of Kogito microservice that provides a REST endpoint /persons. This endpoint is automatically generated based on an example PersonDecisions.dmn DMN model to make decisions based on the data being processed.

The business decision contains the decision logic of the Red Hat Process Automation Manager service. You can define business rules and decisions in different ways, such as with DMN models or DRL rules. The example for this procedure uses a DMN model.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. In the Maven project that you generated for your Red Hat Process Automation Manager service, navigate to the src/main/java/org/acme folder and add the following Person.java file:

    Example person Java object

    package org.acme;
    
    import java.io.Serializable;
    
    public class Person {
    
    	private String name;
    	private int age;
    	private boolean adult;
    
    	public String getName() {
    		return name;
    	}
    
    	public void setName(String name) {
    		this.name = name;
    	}
    
    	public int getAge() {
    		return age;
    	}
    
    	public void setAge(int age) {
    		this.age = age;
    	}
    
    	public boolean isAdult() {
    		return adult;
    	}
    
    	public void setAdult(boolean adult) {
    		this.adult = adult;
    	}
    
    	@Override
    	public String toString() {
    		return "Person [name=" + name + ", age=" + age + ", adult=" + adult + "]";
    	}
    
    }

    This example Java object sets and retrieves a person’s name, age, and adult status.

  2. Navigate to the src/main/resources folder and add the following PersonDecisions.dmn DMN decision model:

    Figure 5.1. Example PersonDecisions DMN decision requirements diagram (DRD)

    Image of PersonDecisions decision diagram

    Figure 5.2. Example DMN boxed expression for isAdult decision

    Image of PersonDecisions decision table

    Figure 5.3. Example DMN data types

    Image of PersonDecisions data types

    This example DMN model consists of a basic DMN input node and a decision node defined by a DMN decision table with a custom structured data type.

    In VSCode, you can add the Red Hat Business Automation Bundle VSCode extension to design the decision requirements diagram (DRD), boxed expression, and data types with the DMN modeler.

    To create this example DMN model quickly, you can copy the following PersonDecisions.dmn file content:

    Example DMN file

    <dmn:definitions xmlns:dmn="http://www.omg.org/spec/DMN/20180521/MODEL/" xmlns="https://kiegroup.org/dmn/_52CEF9FD-9943-4A89-96D5-6F66810CA4C1" xmlns:di="http://www.omg.org/spec/DMN/20180521/DI/" xmlns:kie="http://www.drools.org/kie/dmn/1.2" xmlns:dmndi="http://www.omg.org/spec/DMN/20180521/DMNDI/" xmlns:dc="http://www.omg.org/spec/DMN/20180521/DC/" xmlns:feel="http://www.omg.org/spec/DMN/20180521/FEEL/" id="_84B432F5-87E7-43B1-9101-1BAFE3D18FC5" name="PersonDecisions" typeLanguage="http://www.omg.org/spec/DMN/20180521/FEEL/" namespace="https://kiegroup.org/dmn/_52CEF9FD-9943-4A89-96D5-6F66810CA4C1">
      <dmn:extensionElements/>
      <dmn:itemDefinition id="_DEF2C3A7-F3A9-4ABA-8D0A-C823E4EB43AB" name="tPerson" isCollection="false">
        <dmn:itemComponent id="_DB46DB27-0752-433F-ABE3-FC9E3BDECC97" name="Age" isCollection="false">
          <dmn:typeRef>number</dmn:typeRef>
        </dmn:itemComponent>
        <dmn:itemComponent id="_8C6D865F-E9C8-43B0-AB4D-3F2075A4ECA6" name="Name" isCollection="false">
          <dmn:typeRef>string</dmn:typeRef>
        </dmn:itemComponent>
        <dmn:itemComponent id="_9033704B-4E1C-42D3-AC5E-0D94107303A1" name="Adult" isCollection="false">
          <dmn:typeRef>boolean</dmn:typeRef>
        </dmn:itemComponent>
      </dmn:itemDefinition>
      <dmn:inputData id="_F9685B74-0C69-4982-B3B6-B04A14D79EDB" name="Person">
        <dmn:extensionElements/>
        <dmn:variable id="_0E345A3C-BB1F-4FB2-B00F-C5691FD1D36C" name="Person" typeRef="tPerson"/>
      </dmn:inputData>
      <dmn:decision id="_0D2BD7A9-ACA1-49BE-97AD-19699E0C9852" name="isAdult">
        <dmn:extensionElements/>
        <dmn:variable id="_54CD509F-452F-40E5-941C-AFB2667D4D45" name="isAdult" typeRef="boolean"/>
        <dmn:informationRequirement id="_2F819B03-36B7-4DEB-AED6-2B46AE3ADB75">
          <dmn:requiredInput href="#_F9685B74-0C69-4982-B3B6-B04A14D79EDB"/>
        </dmn:informationRequirement>
        <dmn:decisionTable id="_58370567-05DE-4EC0-AC2D-A23803C1EAAE" hitPolicy="UNIQUE" preferredOrientation="Rule-as-Row">
          <dmn:input id="_ADEF36CD-286A-454A-ABD8-9CF96014021B">
            <dmn:inputExpression id="_4930C2E5-7401-46DD-8329-EAC523BFA492" typeRef="number">
              <dmn:text>Person.Age</dmn:text>
            </dmn:inputExpression>
          </dmn:input>
          <dmn:output id="_9867E9A3-CBF6-4D66-9804-D2206F6B4F86" typeRef="boolean"/>
          <dmn:rule id="_59D6BFF0-35B4-4B7E-8D7B-E31CB0DB8242">
            <dmn:inputEntry id="_7DC55D63-234F-497B-A12A-93DA358C0136">
              <dmn:text>&gt; 18</dmn:text>
            </dmn:inputEntry>
            <dmn:outputEntry id="_B3BB5B97-05B9-464A-AB39-58A33A9C7C00">
              <dmn:text>true</dmn:text>
            </dmn:outputEntry>
          </dmn:rule>
          <dmn:rule id="_8FCD63FE-8AD8-4F56-AD12-923E87AFD1B1">
            <dmn:inputEntry id="_B4EF7F13-E486-46CB-B14E-1D21647258D9">
              <dmn:text>&lt;= 18</dmn:text>
            </dmn:inputEntry>
            <dmn:outputEntry id="_F3A9EC8E-A96B-42A0-BF87-9FB1F2FDB15A">
              <dmn:text>false</dmn:text>
            </dmn:outputEntry>
          </dmn:rule>
        </dmn:decisionTable>
      </dmn:decision>
      <dmndi:DMNDI>
        <dmndi:DMNDiagram>
          <di:extension>
            <kie:ComponentsWidthsExtension>
              <kie:ComponentWidths dmnElementRef="_58370567-05DE-4EC0-AC2D-A23803C1EAAE">
                <kie:width>50</kie:width>
                <kie:width>100</kie:width>
                <kie:width>100</kie:width>
                <kie:width>100</kie:width>
              </kie:ComponentWidths>
            </kie:ComponentsWidthsExtension>
          </di:extension>
          <dmndi:DMNShape id="dmnshape-_F9685B74-0C69-4982-B3B6-B04A14D79EDB" dmnElementRef="_F9685B74-0C69-4982-B3B6-B04A14D79EDB" isCollapsed="false">
            <dmndi:DMNStyle>
              <dmndi:FillColor red="255" green="255" blue="255"/>
              <dmndi:StrokeColor red="0" green="0" blue="0"/>
              <dmndi:FontColor red="0" green="0" blue="0"/>
            </dmndi:DMNStyle>
            <dc:Bounds x="404" y="464" width="100" height="50"/>
            <dmndi:DMNLabel/>
          </dmndi:DMNShape>
          <dmndi:DMNShape id="dmnshape-_0D2BD7A9-ACA1-49BE-97AD-19699E0C9852" dmnElementRef="_0D2BD7A9-ACA1-49BE-97AD-19699E0C9852" isCollapsed="false">
            <dmndi:DMNStyle>
              <dmndi:FillColor red="255" green="255" blue="255"/>
              <dmndi:StrokeColor red="0" green="0" blue="0"/>
              <dmndi:FontColor red="0" green="0" blue="0"/>
            </dmndi:DMNStyle>
            <dc:Bounds x="404" y="311" width="100" height="50"/>
            <dmndi:DMNLabel/>
          </dmndi:DMNShape>
          <dmndi:DMNEdge id="dmnedge-_2F819B03-36B7-4DEB-AED6-2B46AE3ADB75" dmnElementRef="_2F819B03-36B7-4DEB-AED6-2B46AE3ADB75">
            <di:waypoint x="504" y="489"/>
            <di:waypoint x="404" y="336"/>
          </dmndi:DMNEdge>
        </dmndi:DMNDiagram>
      </dmndi:DMNDI>
    </dmn:definitions>

    To create this example DMN model in VSCode using the DMN modeler, follow these steps:

    1. Open the empty PersonDecisions.dmn file, click the Properties icon in the upper-right corner of the DMN modeler, and confirm that the DMN model Name is set to PersonDecisions.
    2. In the left palette, select DMN Input Data, drag the node to the canvas, and double-click the node to name it Person.
    3. In the left palette, drag the DMN Decision node to the canvas, double-click the node to name it isAdult, and link to it from the input node.
    4. Select the decision node to display the node options and click the Edit icon to open the DMN boxed expression editor to define the decision logic for the node.
    5. Click the undefined expression field and select Decision Table.
    6. Click the upper-left corner of the decision table to set the hit policy to Unique.
    7. Set the input and output columns so that the input source Person.Age with type number determines the age limit and the output target isAdult with type boolean determines adult status:

      Figure 5.4. Example DMN decision table for isAdult decision

      Image of PersonDecisions decision table
    8. In the upper tab options, select the Data Types tab and add the following tPerson structured data type and nested data types:

      Figure 5.5. Example DMN data types

      Image of PersonDecisions data types
    9. After you define the data types, select the Editor tab to return to the DMN modeler canvas.
    10. Select the Person input node, click the Properties icon, and under Information item, set the Data type to tPerson.
    11. Select the isAdult decision node, click the Properties icon, and under Information item, confirm that the Data type is still set to boolean. You previously set this data type when you created the decision table.
    12. Save the DMN decision file.

5.1. Using DRL rule units as an alternative decision service

You can also use a Drools Rule Language (DRL) file implemented as a rule unit to define this example decision service, as an alternative to using Decision Model and Notation (DMN).

A DRL rule unit is a module for rules and a unit of execution. A rule unit collects a set of rules with the declaration of the type of facts that the rules act on. A rule unit also serves as a unique namespace for each group of rules. A single rule base can contain multiple rule units. You typically store all the rules for a unit in the same file as the unit declaration so that the unit is self-contained. For more information about rule units, see Designing a decision service using DRL rules.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. In the src/main/resources folder of your example project, instead of using a DMN file, add the following PersonRules.drl file:

    Example PersonRules DRL file

    package org.acme
    unit PersonRules;
    
    import org.acme.Person;
    
    rule isAdult
    	when
    		$person: /person[ age > 18 ]
    	then
        modify($person) {
        	setAdult(true)
        };
    	end
    
    	query persons
    		$p : /person[ adult ]
    		end

    This example rule determines that any person who is older than 18 is classified as an adult. The rule file also declares that the rule belongs to the rule unit PersonRules. When you build the project, the rule unit is generated and associated with the DRL file.

    The rule also defines the condition using OOPath notation. OOPath is an object-oriented syntax extension to XPath for navigating through related elements while handling collections and filtering constraints.

    You can also rewrite the same rule condition in a more explicit form using the traditional rule pattern syntax, as shown in the following example:

    Example PersonRules DRL file using traditional notation

    package org.acme
    unit PersonRules;
    
    import org.acme.Person;
    
    rule isAdult
    	when
    		$person: Person(age > 18) from person
    	then
        modify($person) {
        	setAdult(true)
        };
    	end
    
    	query persons
    		$p : /person[ adult ]
    		end