Red Hat Training

A Red Hat training course is available for Red Hat OpenStack Platform

10.12. Configure Object Storage features

10.12.1. Object Storage zones

In OpenStack Object Storage, data is placed across different tiers of failure domains. First, data is spread across regions, then zones, then servers, and finally across drives. Data is placed to get the highest failure domain isolation. If you deploy multiple regions, the Object Storage service places the data across the regions. Within a region, each replica of the data should be stored in unique zones, if possible. If there is only one zone, data should be placed on different servers. And if there is only one server, data should be placed on different drives.
Regions are widely separated installations with a high-latency or otherwise constrained network link between them. Zones are arbitrarily assigned, and it is up to the administrator of the Object Storage cluster to choose an isolation level and attempt to maintain the isolation level through appropriate zone assignment. For example, a zone may be defined as a rack with a single power source. Or a zone may be a DC room with a common utility provider. Servers are identified by a unique IP/port. Drives are locally attached storage volumes identified by mount point.
In small clusters (five nodes or fewer), everything is normally in a single zone. Larger Object Storage deployments may assign zone designations differently; for example, an entire cabinet or rack of servers may be designated as a single zone to maintain replica availability if the cabinet becomes unavailable (for example, due to failure of the top of rack switches or a dedicated circuit). In very large deployments, such as service provider level deployments, each zone might have an entirely autonomous switching and power infrastructure, so that even the loss of an electrical circuit or switching aggregator would result in the loss of a single replica at most.

10.12.2. RAID controller configuration

OpenStack Object Storage does not require RAID. In fact, most RAID configurations cause significant performance degradation. The main reason for using a RAID controller is the battery-backed cache. It is very important for data integrity reasons that when the operating system confirms a write has been committed that the write has actually been committed to a persistent location. Most disks lie about hardware commits by default, instead writing to a faster write cache for performance reasons. In most cases, that write cache exists only in non-persistent memory. In the case of a loss of power, this data may never actually get committed to disk, resulting in discrepancies that the underlying file system must handle.
OpenStack Object Storage works best on the XFS file system, and this document assumes that the hardware being used is configured appropriately to be mounted with the nobarriers option. For more information, refer to the XFS FAQ: http://xfs.org/index.php/XFS_FAQ
To get the most out of your hardware, it is essential that every disk used in OpenStack Object Storage is configured as a standalone, individual RAID 0 disk; in the case of 6 disks, you would have six RAID 0s or one JBOD. Some RAID controllers do not support JBOD or do not support battery backed cache with JBOD. To ensure the integrity of your data, you must ensure that the individual drive caches are disabled and the battery backed cache in your RAID card is configured and used. Failure to configure the controller properly in this case puts data at risk in the case of sudden loss of power.
You can also use hybrid drives or similar options for battery backed up cache configurations without a RAID controller.

10.12.3. Throttle resources through rate limits

Rate limiting in OpenStack Object Storage is implemented as a pluggable middleware that you configure on the proxy server. Rate limiting is performed on requests that result in database writes to the account and container SQLite databases. It uses memcached and is dependent on the proxy servers having highly synchronized time. The rate limits are limited by the accuracy of the proxy server clocks.

10.12.3.1. Configure rate limiting

All configuration is optional. If no account or container limits are provided, no rate limiting occurs. Available configuration options include:

Table 10.67.  Description of configuration options for [filter-ratelimit] in proxy-server.conf

Configuration option = Default valueDescription
account_blacklist = c,d Comma separated lists of account names that will not be allowed. Returns a 497 response. r: for containers of size x, limit requests per second to r. Will limit PUT, DELETE, and POST requests to /a/c/o. container_listing_ratelimit_x = r: for containers of size x, limit listing requests per second to r. Will limit GET requests to /a/c.
account_ratelimit = 0 If set, will limit PUT and DELETE requests to /account_name/container_name. Number is in requests per second.
account_whitelist = a,b Comma separated lists of account names that will not be rate limited.
clock_accuracy = 1000 Represents how accurate the proxy servers' system clocks are with each other. 1000 means that all the proxies' clock are accurate to each other within 1 millisecond. No ratelimit should be higher than the clock accuracy.
container_listing_ratelimit_0 = 100 No help text available for this option.
container_listing_ratelimit_10 = 50 No help text available for this option.
container_listing_ratelimit_50 = 20 No help text available for this option.
container_ratelimit_0 = 100 No help text available for this option.
container_ratelimit_10 = 50 No help text available for this option.
container_ratelimit_50 = 20 No help text available for this option.
log_sleep_time_seconds = 0 To allow visibility into rate limiting set this value > 0 and all sleeps greater than the number will be logged.
max_sleep_time_seconds = 60 App will immediately return a 498 response if the necessary sleep time ever exceeds the given max_sleep_time_seconds.
rate_buffer_seconds = 5 Number of seconds the rate counter can drop and be allowed to catch up (at a faster than listed rate). A larger number will result in larger spikes in rate but better average accuracy.
set log_address = /dev/log Location where syslog sends the logs to
set log_facility = LOG_LOCAL0 Syslog log facility
set log_headers = false If True, log headers in each request
set log_level = INFO Log level
set log_name = ratelimit Label to use when logging
use = egg:swift#ratelimit Entry point of paste.deploy in the server
with container_limit_x = r No help text available for this option.
The container rate limits are linearly interpolated from the values given. A sample container rate limiting could be:
container_ratelimit_100 = 100
container_ratelimit_200 = 50
container_ratelimit_500 = 20
This would result in:

Table 10.68. Values for Rate Limiting with Sample Configuration Settings

Container Size Rate Limit
0-99 No limiting
100 100
150 75
500 20
1000 20

10.12.4. Health check

Provides an easy way to monitor whether the Object Storage proxy server is alive. If you access the proxy with the path /healthcheck, it responds with OK in the response body, which monitoring tools can use.

Table 10.69.  Description of configuration options for [filter-healthcheck] in account-server.conf

Configuration option = Default valueDescription
disable_path = No help text available for this option.
use = egg:swift#healthcheck Entry point of paste.deploy in the server

10.12.5. Domain remap

Middleware that translates container and account parts of a domain to path parameters that the proxy server understands.

Table 10.70.  Description of configuration options for [filter-domain_remap] in proxy-server.conf

Configuration option = Default valueDescription
default_reseller_prefix = No help text available for this option.
path_root = v1 Root path
reseller_prefixes = AUTH Reseller prefix
set log_address = /dev/log Location where syslog sends the logs to
set log_facility = LOG_LOCAL0 Syslog log facility
set log_headers = false If True, log headers in each request
set log_level = INFO Log level
set log_name = domain_remap Label to use when logging
storage_domain = example.com Domain that matches your cloud. Multiple domains can be specified using a comma-separated list.
use = egg:swift#domain_remap Entry point of paste.deploy in the server

10.12.6. CNAME lookup

Middleware that translates an unknown domain in the host header to something that ends with the configured storage_domain by looking up the given domain's CNAME record in DNS.

Table 10.71.  Description of configuration options for [filter-cname_lookup] in proxy-server.conf

Configuration option = Default valueDescription
lookup_depth = 1 Because CNAMES can be recursive, specifies the number of levels through which to search.
set log_address = /dev/log Location where syslog sends the logs to
set log_facility = LOG_LOCAL0 Syslog log facility
set log_headers = false If True, log headers in each request
set log_level = INFO Log level
set log_name = cname_lookup Label to use when logging
storage_domain = example.com Domain that matches your cloud. Multiple domains can be specified using a comma-separated list.
use = egg:swift#cname_lookup Entry point of paste.deploy in the server

10.12.7. Temporary URL

Allows the creation of URLs to provide temporary access to objects. For example, a website may wish to provide a link to download a large object in OpenStack Object Storage, but the Object Storage account has no public access. The website can generate a URL that provides GET access for a limited time to the resource. When the web browser user clicks on the link, the browser downloads the object directly from Object Storage, eliminating the need for the website to act as a proxy for the request. If the user shares the link with all his friends, or accidentally posts it on a forum, the direct access is limited to the expiration time set when the website created the link.
A temporary URL is the typical URL associated with an object, with two additional query parameters:
temp_url_sig
A cryptographic signature
temp_url_expires
An expiration date, in Unix time
An example of a temporary URL:
    https://swift-cluster.example.com/v1/AUTH_a422b2-91f3-2f46-74b7-d7c9e8958f5d30/container/object?
    temp_url_sig=da39a3ee5e6b4b0d3255bfef95601890afd80709&
    temp_url_expires=1323479485
To create temporary URLs, first set the X-Account-Meta-Temp-URL-Key header on your Object Storage account to an arbitrary string. This string serves as a secret key. For example, to set a key of b3968d0207b54ece87cccc06515a89d4 using the swift command-line tool:
$ swift post -m "Temp-URL-Key:b3968d0207b54ece87cccc06515a89d4"
Next, generate an HMAC-SHA1 (RFC 2104) signature to specify:
  • Which HTTP method to allow (typically GET or PUT)
  • The expiry date as a Unix timestamp
  • The full path to the object
  • The secret key set as the X-Account-Meta-Temp-URL-Key
Here is code generating the signature for a GET for 24 hours on /v1/AUTH_account/container/object:
import hmac
from hashlib import sha1
from time import time
method = 'GET'
duration_in_seconds = 60*60*24
expires = int(time() + duration_in_seconds)
path = '/v1/AUTH_a422b2-91f3-2f46-74b7-d7c9e8958f5d30/container/object'
key = 'mykey'
hmac_body = '%s\n%s\n%s' % (method, expires, path)
sig = hmac.new(key, hmac_body, sha1).hexdigest()
s = 'https://{host}/{path}?temp_url_sig={sig}&temp_url_expires={expires}'
url = s.format(host='swift-cluster.example.com', path=path, sig=sig, expires=expires)
Any alteration of the resource path or query arguments results in a 401 Unauthorized error. Similarly, a PUT where GET was the allowed method returns a 401. HEAD is allowed if GET or PUT is allowed. Using this in combination with browser form post translation middleware could also allow direct-from-browser uploads to specific locations in Object Storage.
Note
Changing the X-Account-Meta-Temp-URL-Key invalidates any previously generated temporary URLs within 60 seconds (the memcache time for the key). Object Storage supports up to two keys, specified by X-Account-Meta-Temp-URL-Key and X-Account-Meta-Temp-URL-Key-2. Signatures are checked against both keys, if present. This is to allow for key rotation without invalidating all existing temporary URLs.
Object Storage includes a script called swift-temp-url that generates the query parameters automatically:
$ bin/swift-temp-url GET 3600 /v1/AUTH_account/container/object mykey
/v1/AUTH_account/container/object?
temp_url_sig=5c4cc8886f36a9d0919d708ade98bf0cc71c9e91&
temp_url_expires=1374497657
Because this command only returns the path, you must prefix the Object Storage host name (for example, https://swift-cluster.example.com).
With GET Temporary URLs, a Content-Disposition header is set on the response so that browsers interpret this as a file attachment to be saved. The file name chosen is based on the object name, but you can override this with a filename query parameter. The following example specifies a filename of My Test File.pdf:
https://swift-cluster.example.com/v1/AUTH_a422b2-91f3-2f46-74b7-d7c9e8958f5d30/container/object?
temp_url_sig=da39a3ee5e6b4b0d3255bfef95601890afd80709&
temp_url_expires=1323479485&
filename=My+Test+File.pdf
If you do not want the object to be downloaded, you can cause Content-Disposition: inline to be set on the response by adding the inline parameter to the query string, as follows:
https://swift-cluster.example.com/v1/AUTH_account/container/object?
temp_url_sig=da39a3ee5e6b4b0d3255bfef95601890afd80709&
temp_url_expires=1323479485&inline
To enable Temporary URL functionality, edit /etc/swift/proxy-server.conf to add tempurl to the pipeline variable defined in the [pipeline:main] section. The tempurl entry should appear immediately before the authentication filters in the pipeline, such as authtoken, tempauth or keystoneauth. For example:
[pipeline:main]
pipeline = pipeline = healthcheck cache tempurl authtoken keystoneauth proxy-server

Table 10.72.  Description of configuration options for [filter-tempurl] in proxy-server.conf

Configuration option = Default valueDescription
incoming_allow_headers = Headers allowed as exceptions to incoming_remove_headers. Simply a whitespace delimited list of header names and names can optionally end with '*' to indicate a prefix match.
incoming_remove_headers = x-timestamp Headers to remove from incoming requests. Simply a whitespace delimited list of header names and names can optionally end with '*' to indicate a prefix match.
methods = GET HEAD PUT POST DELETE HTTP methods allowed with Temporary URLs
outgoing_allow_headers = ``x-object-meta-public-*`` Headers allowed as exceptions to outgoing_allow_headers. Simply a whitespace delimited list of header names and names can optionally end with '*' to indicate a prefix match.
outgoing_remove_headers = ``x-object-meta-*`` Headers to remove from outgoing responses. Simply a whitespace delimited list of header names and names can optionally end with '*' to indicate a prefix match.
use = egg:swift#tempurl Entry point of paste.deploy in the server

10.12.8. Name Check filter

Name Check is a filter that disallows any paths that contain defined forbidden characters or that exceed a defined length.

Table 10.73.  Description of configuration options for [filter-name_check] in proxy-server.conf

Configuration option = Default valueDescription
forbidden_chars = ``'"`<>`` Characters that are not allowed in a name
forbidden_regexp = ``/\./|/\.\./|/\.$|/\.\.$`` Substrings to forbid, using regular expression syntax
maximum_length = 255 Maximum length of a name
use = egg:swift#name_check Entry point of paste.deploy in the server

10.12.9. Constraints

To change the OpenStack Object Storage internal limits, update the values in the swift-constraints section in the swift.conf file. Use caution when you update these values because they affect the performance in the entire cluster.

Table 10.74.  Description of configuration options for [swift-constraints] in swift.conf

Configuration option = Default valueDescription
account_listing_limit = 10000 The default (and maximum) number of items returned for an account listing request.
container_listing_limit = 10000 The default (and maximum) number of items returned for a container listing request.
extra_header_count = 0 By default the maximum number of allowed headers depends on the number of max allowed metadata settings plus a default value of 32 for regular http headers. If for some reason this is not enough (custom middleware for example) it can be increased with the extra_header_count constraint.
max_account_name_length = 256 The maximum number of bytes in the utf8 encoding of an account name.
max_container_name_length = 256 The maximum number of bytes in the utf8 encoding of a container name.
max_file_size = 5368709122 The largest normal object that can be saved in the cluster. This is also the limit on the size of each segment of a large object when using the large object manifest support. This value is set in bytes. Setting it to lower than 1MiB will cause some tests to fail. It is STRONGLY recommended to leave this value at the default (5 * 2**30 + 2).
max_header_size = 8192 The max number of bytes in the utf8 encoding of each header. Using 8192 as default because eventlet use 8192 as maximum size of header line. You may need to increase this value when using identity v3 API tokens including more than 7 catalog entries. See also include_service_catalog in proxy-server.conf-sample (documented in overview_auth.rst).
max_meta_count = 90 The max number of metadata keys that can be stored on a single account, container, or object.
max_meta_name_length = 128 The max number of bytes in the utf8 encoding of the name portion of a metadata header.
max_meta_overall_size = 4096 The max number of bytes in the utf8 encoding of the metadata (keys + values).
max_meta_value_length = 256 The max number of bytes in the utf8 encoding of a metadata value.
max_object_name_length = 1024 The max number of bytes in the utf8 encoding of an object name.
valid_api_versions = v0,v1,v2 No help text available for this option.

10.12.10. Cluster health

Use the swift-dispersion-report tool to measure overall cluster health. This tool checks if a set of deliberately distributed containers and objects are currently in their proper places within the cluster. For instance, a common deployment has three replicas of each object. The health of that object can be measured by checking if each replica is in its proper place. If only two of the three is in place, the object's health can be said to be at 66.66%, where 100% would be perfect. A single object's health, especially an older object, usually reflects the health of that entire partition the object is in. If you make enough objects on a distinct percentage of the partitions in the cluster, you get a good estimate of the overall cluster health. In practice, about 1% partition coverage seems to balance well between accuracy and the amount of time it takes to gather results. First, to provide this health value, create a new account solely for this usage. Next, place the containers and objects throughout the system so that they are on distinct partitions. The swift-dispersion-populate tool does this by making up random container and object names until they fall on distinct partitions. Last, and repeatedly for the life of the cluster, you must run the swift-dispersion-report tool to check the health of each of these containers and objects. These tools need direct access to the entire cluster and to the ring files (installing them on a proxy server suffices). The swift-dispersion-populate and swift-dispersion-report commands both use the same configuration file, /etc/swift/dispersion.conf. Example dispersion.conf file:
[dispersion]
auth_url = http://localhost:8080/auth/v1.0
auth_user = test:tester
auth_key = testing
There are also configuration options for specifying the dispersion coverage, which defaults to 1%, retries, concurrency, and so on. However, the defaults are usually fine. Once the configuration is in place, run swift-dispersion-populate to populate the containers and objects throughout the cluster. Now that those containers and objects are in place, you can run swift-dispersion-report to get a dispersion report, or the overall health of the cluster. Here is an example of a cluster in perfect health:
$ swift-dispersion-report
Queried 2621 containers for dispersion reporting, 19s, 0 retries
100.00% of container copies found (7863 of 7863)
Sample represents 1.00% of the container partition space

Queried 2619 objects for dispersion reporting, 7s, 0 retries
100.00% of object copies found (7857 of 7857)
Sample represents 1.00% of the object partition space
Now, deliberately double the weight of a device in the object ring (with replication turned off) and re-run the dispersion report to show what impact that has:
$ swift-ring-builder object.builder set_weight d0 200
$ swift-ring-builder object.builder rebalance
...
$ swift-dispersion-report
Queried 2621 containers for dispersion reporting, 8s, 0 retries
100.00% of container copies found (7863 of 7863)
Sample represents 1.00% of the container partition space

Queried 2619 objects for dispersion reporting, 7s, 0 retries
There were 1763 partitions missing one copy.
77.56% of object copies found (6094 of 7857)
Sample represents 1.00% of the object partition space
You can see the health of the objects in the cluster has gone down significantly. Of course, this test environment has just four devices, in a production environment with many devices the impact of one device change is much less. Next, run the replicators to get everything put back into place and then rerun the dispersion report:
... start object replicators and monitor logs until they're caught up ...
$ swift-dispersion-report
Queried 2621 containers for dispersion reporting, 17s, 0 retries
100.00% of container copies found (7863 of 7863)
Sample represents 1.00% of the container partition space

Queried 2619 objects for dispersion reporting, 7s, 0 retries
100.00% of object copies found (7857 of 7857)
Sample represents 1.00% of the object partition space
Alternatively, the dispersion report can also be output in JSON format. This allows it to be more easily consumed by third-party utilities:
$ swift-dispersion-report -j
{"object": {"retries:": 0, "missing_two": 0, "copies_found": 7863, "missing_one": 0,
"copies_expected": 7863, "pct_found": 100.0, "overlapping": 0, "missing_all": 0}, "container":
{"retries:": 0, "missing_two": 0, "copies_found": 12534, "missing_one": 0, "copies_expected":
12534, "pct_found": 100.0, "overlapping": 15, "missing_all": 0}}

Table 10.75.  Description of configuration options for [dispersion] in dispersion.conf

Configuration option = Default valueDescription
auth_key = testing No help text available for this option.
auth_url = http://localhost:8080/auth/v1.0 Endpoint for auth server, such as keystone
auth_user = test:tester Default user for dispersion in this context
auth_version = 1.0 Indicates which version of auth
concurrency = 25 Number of replication workers to spawn
container_populate = yes No help text available for this option.
container_report = yes No help text available for this option.
dispersion_coverage = 1.0 No help text available for this option.
dump_json = no No help text available for this option.
endpoint_type = publicURL Indicates whether endpoint for auth is public or internal
keystone_api_insecure = no Allow accessing insecure keystone server. The keystone's certificate will not be verified.
object_populate = yes No help text available for this option.
object_report = yes No help text available for this option.
project_domain_name = project_domain No help text available for this option.
project_name = project No help text available for this option.
retries = 5 No help text available for this option.
swift_dir = /etc/swift Swift configuration directory
user_domain_name = user_domain No help text available for this option.

10.12.11. Static Large Object (SLO) support

This feature is similar to Dynamic Large Object (DLO) support in that it enables the user to upload many objects concurrently and afterwards download them as a single object. It is different in that it does not rely on eventually consistent container listings to do so. Instead, a user-defined manifest of the object segments is used.

Table 10.76.  Description of configuration options for [filter-slo] in proxy-server.conf

Configuration option = Default valueDescription
max_get_time = 86400 No help text available for this option.
max_manifest_segments = 1000 No help text available for this option.
max_manifest_size = 2097152 No help text available for this option.
min_segment_size = 1048576 No help text available for this option.
rate_limit_after_segment = 10 Rate limit the download of large object segments after this segment is downloaded.
rate_limit_segments_per_sec = 0 Rate limit large object downloads at this rate. contact for a normal request. You can use '* replicas' at the end to have it use the number given times the number of replicas for the ring being used for the request. paste.deploy to use for auth. To use tempauth set to:
use = egg:swift#slo Entry point of paste.deploy in the server

10.12.12. Container quotas

The container_quotas middleware implements simple quotas that can be imposed on Object Storage containers by a user with the ability to set container metadata, most likely the account administrator. This can be useful for limiting the scope of containers that are delegated to non-admin users, exposed to formpost uploads, or just as a self-imposed sanity check.
Any object PUT operations that exceed these quotas return a 403 response (forbidden).
Quotas are subject to several limitations: eventual consistency, the timeliness of the cached container_info (60 second TTL by default), and it is unable to reject chunked transfer uploads that exceed the quota (though once the quota is exceeded, new chunked transfers are refused).
Set quotas by adding meta values to the container. These values are validated when you set them:
  • X-Container-Meta-Quota-Bytes: Maximum size of the container, in bytes.
  • X-Container-Meta-Quota-Count: Maximum object count of the container.

Table 10.77.  Description of configuration options for [filter-container-quotas] in proxy-server.conf

Configuration option = Default valueDescription
use = egg:swift#container_quotas Entry point of paste.deploy in the server

10.12.13. Account quotas

The x-account-meta-quota-bytes metadata entry must be requests (PUT, POST) if a given account quota (in bytes) is exceeded while DELETE requests are still allowed.
The x-account-meta-quota-bytes metadata entry must be set to store and enable the quota. Write requests to this metadata entry are only permitted for resellers. There is no account quota limitation on a reseller account even if x-account-meta-quota-bytes is set.
Any object PUT operations that exceed the quota return a 413 response (request entity too large) with a descriptive body.
The following command uses an admin account that owns the Reseller role to set a quota on the test account:
$ swift -A http://127.0.0.1:8080/auth/v1.0 -U admin:admin -K admin \ --os-storage-url http://127.0.0.1:8080/v1/AUTH_test post -m quota-bytes:10000
Here is the stat listing of an account where quota has been set:
$ swift -A http://127.0.0.1:8080/auth/v1.0 -U test:tester -K testing stat
Account: AUTH_test
Containers: 0
Objects: 0
Bytes: 0
Meta Quota-Bytes: 10000
X-Timestamp: 1374075958.37454
X-Trans-Id: tx602634cf478546a39b1be-0051e6bc7a
This command removes the account quota:
$ swift -A http://127.0.0.1:8080/auth/v1.0 -U admin:admin -K admin --os-storage-url http://127.0.0.1:8080/v1/AUTH_test post -m quota-bytes:

10.12.14. Bulk delete

Use bulk-delete to delete multiple files from an account with a single request. Responds to DELETE requests with a header 'X-Bulk-Delete: true_value'. The body of the DELETE request is a new line-separated list of files to delete. The files listed must be URL encoded and in the form:
    /container_name/obj_name
If all files are successfully deleted (or did not exist), the operation returns HTTPOk. If any files failed to delete, the operation returns HTTPBadGateway. In both cases, the response body is a JSON dictionary that shows the number of files that were successfully deleted or not found. The files that failed are listed.

Table 10.78.  Description of configuration options for [filter-bulk] in proxy-server.conf

Configuration option = Default valueDescription
delete_container_retry_count = 0 No help text available for this option.
max_containers_per_extraction = 10000 No help text available for this option.
max_deletes_per_request = 10000 No help text available for this option.
max_failed_deletes = 1000 No help text available for this option.
max_failed_extractions = 1000 No help text available for this option.
use = egg:swift#bulk Entry point of paste.deploy in the server
yield_frequency = 10 No help text available for this option.

10.12.15. Drive audit

The swift-drive-audit configuration items reference a script that can be run by using cron to watch for bad drives. If errors are detected, it unmounts the bad drive, so that OpenStack Object Storage can work around it. It takes the following options:

Table 10.79.  Description of configuration options for [drive-audit] in drive-audit.conf

Configuration option = Default valueDescription
device_dir = /srv/node Directory devices are mounted under
error_limit = 1 Number of errors to find before a device is unmounted
log_address = /dev/log Location where syslog sends the logs to
log_facility = LOG_LOCAL0 Syslog log facility
log_file_pattern = ``/var/log/kern.*[!.][!g][!z]`` Location of the log file with globbing pattern to check against device errors locate device blocks with errors in the log file
log_level = INFO Logging level
log_max_line_length = 0 Caps the length of log lines to the value given; no limit if set to 0, the default.
log_name = drive-audit Label used when logging
log_to_console = False No help text available for this option.
minutes = 60 Number of minutes to look back in
recon_cache_path = /var/cache/swift Directory where stats for a few items will be stored
regex_pattern_1 = ``\berror\b.*\b(dm-[0-9]{1,2}\d?)\b`` No help text available for this option.
unmount_failed_device = True No help text available for this option.

10.12.16. Form post

10.12.16. Form post

Middleware that enables you to upload objects to a cluster by using an HTML form POST.
The format of the form is:
<![CDATA[
<form action="<swift-url>" method="POST"
      enctype="multipart/form-data">
  <input type="hidden" name="redirect" value="<redirect-url>" />
  <input type="hidden" name="max_file_size" value="<bytes>" />
  <input type="hidden" name="max_file_count" value="<count>" />
  <input type="hidden" name="expires" value="<unix-timestamp>" />
  <input type="hidden" name="signature" value="<hmac>" />
  <input type="hidden" name="x_delete_at" value="<unix-timestamp>"/>
  <input type="hidden" name="x_delete_after" value="<seconds>"/>
  <input type="file" name="file1" /><br />
  <input type="submit" />
</form>]]>
In the form:
  • action="<swift-url>"
    The URL to the Object Storage destination, such as https://swift-cluster.example.com/v1/AUTH_account/container/object_prefix.
    The name of each uploaded file is appended to the specified swift-url. So, you can upload directly to the root of container with a URL like https://swift-cluster.example.com/v1/AUTH_account/container/.
    Optionally, you can include an object prefix to separate different users' uploads, such as https://swift-cluster.example.com/v1/AUTH_account/container/object_prefix.
  • method="POST"
    The form method must be POST.
  • enctype="multipart/form-data
    The enctype must be set to multipart/form-data.
  • name="redirect"
    The URL to which to redirect the browser after the upload completes. The URL has status and message query parameters added to it that indicate the HTTP status code for the upload and, optionally, additional error information. The 2nn status code indicates success. If an error occurs, the URL might include error information, such as "max_file_size exceeded".
  • name="max_file_size"
    Required. The maximum number of bytes that can be uploaded in a single file upload.
  • name="max_file_count"
    Required. The maximum number of files that can be uploaded with the form.
  • name="expires"
    The expiration date and time for the form in UNIX Epoch time stamp format. After this date and time, the form is no longer valid.
    For example, 1440619048 is equivalent to Mon, Wed, 26 Aug 2015 19:57:28 GMT.
  • name="signature"
    The HMAC-SHA1 signature of the form. This sample Python code shows how to compute the signature:
    import hmac
    from hashlib import sha1
    from time import time
    path = '/v1/account/container/object_prefix'
    redirect = 'https://myserver.com/some-page'
    max_file_size = 104857600
    max_file_count = 10
    expires = int(time() + 600)
    key = 'mykey'
    hmac_body = '%s\n%s\n%s\n%s\n%s' % (path, redirect,
        max_file_size, max_file_count, expires)
    signature = hmac.new(key, hmac_body, sha1).hexdigest()
    The key is the value of the X-Account-Meta-Temp-URL-Key header on the account.
    Use the full path from the /v1/ value and onward.
    During testing, you can use the swift-form-signature command-line tool to compute the expires and signature values.
  • name="x_delete_at"
    The date and time in UNIX Epoch time stamp format when the object will be removed.
    For example, 1440619048 is equivalent to Mon, Wed, 26 Aug 2015 19:57:28 GMT.
    This attribute enables you to specify the X-Delete- At header value in the form POST.
  • name="x_delete_after"
    The number of seconds after which the object is removed. Internally, the Object Storage system stores this value in the X-Delete-At metadata item. This attribute enables you to specify the X-Delete-After header value in the form POST.
  • type="file" name="filexx"
    Optional. One or more files to upload. Must appear after the other attributes to be processed correctly. If attributes come after the file attribute, they are not sent with the sub- request because on the server side, all attributes in the file cannot be parsed unless the whole file is read into memory and the server does not have enough memory to service these requests. So, attributes that follow the file attribute are ignored.

Table 10.80.  Description of configuration options for [filter-formpost] in proxy-server.conf

Configuration option = Default valueDescription
use = egg:swift#formpost Entry point of paste.deploy in the server

10.12.17. Static web sites

When configured, this middleware serves container data as a static web site with index file and error file resolution and optional file listings. This mode is normally only active for anonymous requests.

Table 10.81.  Description of configuration options for [filter-staticweb] in proxy-server.conf

Configuration option = Default valueDescription
use = egg:swift#staticweb Entry point of paste.deploy in the server

10.12.18. Cross-origin resource sharing

Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) is a mechanism that allows code (JavaScript, for example) running in a browser to make requests to a domain, other than the one it was originated from. OpenStack Object Storage supports CORS requests to containers and objects within the containers using metadata held on the container.
In addition to the metadata on containers, you can use the cors_allow_origin option in the proxy-server.conf file to set a list of hosts that are included with any CORS request by default.

10.12.19. Endpoint listing middleware

The endpoint listing middleware enables third-party services that use data locality information to integrate with OpenStack Object Storage. This middleware reduces network overhead and is designed for third-party services that run inside the firewall. Deploy this middleware on a proxy server because usage of this middleware is not authenticated.
Format requests for endpoints, as follows:
/endpoints/{account}/{container}/{object} /endpoints/{account}/{container} /endpoints/{account}
Use the list_endpoints_path configuration option in the proxy_server.conf file to customize the /endpoints/ path.
Responses are JSON-encoded lists of endpoints, as follows:
http://{server}:{port}/{dev}/{part}/{acc}/{cont}/{obj}
http://{server}:{port}/{dev}/{part}/{acc}/{cont}
http://{server}:{port}/{dev}/{part}/{acc}
An example response is:
http://10.1.1.1:6000/sda1/2/a/c2/o1
http://10.1.1.1:6000/sda1/2/a/c2
http://10.1.1.1:6000/sda1/2/a