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Understanding Red Hat OpenStack Platform High Availability

Red Hat OpenStack Platform 9

Understanding, deploying, and managing High Availability in Red Hat OpenStack Platform

OpenStack Documentation Team

Abstract

To keep your OpenStack environment up and running efficiently, Red Hat OpenStack Platform 9 Director lets you create configurations that offer high availability and load balancing across all major services in OpenStack. This document describes:
  • A foundational HA setup, created by Red Hat OpenStack Platform 9 Director, that you can use as a reference model for understanding and working with OpenStack HA features.
  • HA features that are used to make various services included in Red Hat OpenStack Platform 9 highly available.
  • Examples of tools for working with and troubleshooting HA features in Red Hat OpenStack Platform 9.

Chapter 1. Overview

The sample HA deployment used for this document was created using the following guides as reference:

Figure 1.1, “OpenStack HA environment deployed through director” shows the particular configuration that was built specifically to test the high availability features described here. For details on how to recreate this setup so you can try the steps yourself, refer to Appendix A, Building the Red Hat OpenStack Platform 9 HA Environment.

Figure 1.1. OpenStack HA environment deployed through director

computers network osp7 ha 4

In an HA deployment, all OpenStack services must be launched and managed by either Pacemaker or HAProxy. This includes all related and dependent services.

For example, the httpd service is required by openstack-dashboard. As such, in an HA environment, httpd must not be launched or enabled manually (eg. through systemctl rather than pcs). Many colocation or dependency problems in HA deployments are caused by services being managed outside of Pacemaker or HAProxy.

To avoid this, orchestrate your HA deployment entirely in director. The templates and puppet modules used by director ensure that all services are configured and launched correctly, particularly for HA. Further, when troubleshooting HA issues, always interact with services through the HA framework whenever possible.

Chapter 2. Understanding Red Hat OpenStack Platform High Availability Features

Red Hat OpenStack Platform employs several technologies to implement high-availability. High availability is offered in different ways for controller, compute, and storage nodes in your OpenStack configuration. To investigate how high availability is implemented, log into each node and run commands, as described in the following sections. The resulting output shows you the high availability services and processes running on each node.

Most of the coverage of high availability (HA) in this document relates to controller nodes. There are two primary HA technologies used on Red Hat OpenStack Platform controller nodes:

  • Pacemaker: By configuring virtual IP addresses, services, and other features as resources in a cluster, Pacemaker makes sure that the defined set of OpenStack cluster resources are running and available. When a service or entire node in a cluster fails, Pacemaker can restart the service, take the node out of the cluster, or reboot the node. Requests to most of those services is done through HAProxy.
  • HAProxy: When you configure more than one controller node with the director in Red Hat OpenStack Platform, HAProxy is configured on those nodes to load balance traffic to some of the OpenStack services running on those nodes.
  • Galera: Red Hat OpenStack Platform uses the MariaDB Galera Cluster to manage database replication.

Highly available services in OpenStack run in one of two modes:

  • Active/active: In this mode, the same service is brought up on multiple controller nodes with Pacemaker, then traffic can either be distributed across the nodes running the requested service by HAProxy or directed to a particular controller via a single IP address. In some cases, HAProxy distributes traffic to active/active services in a round robin fashion. Performance can be improved by adding more controller nodes.
  • Active/passive: Services that are not capable of or reliable enough to run in active/active mode are run in active/passive mode. This means that only one instance of the service is active at a time. For Galera, HAProxy uses stick-table options to make sure incoming connections are directed to a single backend service. Galera master-master mode can deadlock when services are accessing the same data from multiple galera nodes at once.

As you begin exploring the high availability services described in this document, keep in mind that the director system (referred to as the undercloud) is itself running OpenStack. The purpose of the undercloud (director system) is to build and maintain the systems that will become your working OpenStack environment. That environment you build from the undercloud is referred to as the overcloud. To get to your overcloud, this document has you log into your undercloud, then choose which Overcloud node you want to investigate.

Chapter 3. Getting into your OpenStack HA Environment

With the OpenStack HA environment running, log into your director (undercloud) system. Then, become the stack user by running:

# sudo su - stack

From there, you can interact with either the undercloud and overcloud by loading its corresponding environment variables. To interact with the undercloud, run:

$ source ~/stackrc

Likewise, to interact with the overcloud, run:

$ source ~/overcloudrc

For more information about accessing either undercloud or overcloud, see Accessing the Basic Overcloud.

To access and investigate a node, first find out what IP addresses have been assigned to them. This involves interacting with the undercloud:

$ source ~/stackrc
$ nova list
 +-------+------------------------+---+----------------------+
 | ID    | Name                   |...| Networks             |
 | d1... | overcloud-controller-0 |...| ctlplane=10.200.0.11 |
 ...
Note

For reference, the director deployed the following names and addresses in our test environment:

NamesAddresses

overcloud-controller-0

10.200.0.11

overcloud-controller-1

10.200.0.10

overcloud-controller-1

10.200.0.6 (virtual IP)

overcloud-controller-2

10.200.0.14

overcloud-compute-0

10.200.0.12

overcloud-compute-1

10.200.0.15

overcloud-cephstorage-0

10.200.0.9

overcloud-cephstorage-1

10.200.0.8

overcloud-cephstorage-2

10.200.0.7

In your own test environment, even if you use the same address ranges, the IP addresses assigned to each node may be different.

Once you know the IP addresses of your overcloud nodes, you can run the following command to log into one of those nodes. Doing so involves interacting with the overcloud. For example, to log into overcloud-controller-0 as the heat-admin user:

$ source ~stack/overcloudrc
$ ssh heat-admin@10.200.0.11

After logging into a controller, compute, or storage system, you can begin investigating the HA features there.

Chapter 4. Using Pacemaker

In the OpenStack configuration illustrated in Figure 1.1, “OpenStack HA environment deployed through director”, most OpenStack services are running on the three controller nodes. To investigate high availability features of those services, log into any of the controllers as the heat-admin user and look at services controlled by Pacemaker. Output from the Pacemaker pcs status command includes general Pacemaker information, virtual IP addresses, services, and other Pacemaker information.

4.1. General Pacemaker Information

The first part of the pcs status output displays the name of the cluster, when the cluster most recently changed, the current DC, the number of nodes in the cluster, the number of resource configured in the cluster, and the nodes in the cluster:

$ sudo pcs status
    Cluster name: tripleo_cluster
    Last updated: Mon Oct  5 13:42:37 2015
    Last change: Mon Oct  5 13:03:06 2015
    Stack: corosync
    Current DC: overcloud-controller-1 (2) - partition with quorum
    Version: 1.1.12-a14efad
    3 Nodes configured
    115 Resources configured
    Online: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]

    Full list of resources:
...

The initial output from sudo pcs status indicates that the cluster is named tripleo_cluster and it consists of three nodes (overcloud-controller-0, -1, and -2). All three nodes are currently online.

The number of resources configured to be managed within the cluster named tripleo_cluster can change, depending on how the systems are deployed. For this example, there were 115 resources.

The next part of the output from pcs status tells you exactly which resources have been started (IP addresses, services, and so on) and which controller nodes they are running on. The next several sections show examples of that output.

For more information about Pacemaker, see:

4.2. Virtual IP Addresses Configured in Pacemaker

Each IPaddr2 resource sets a virtual IP address that clients use to request access to a service. If the Controller Node assigned to that IP address goes down, the IP address gets reassigned to a different controller. In this example, you can see each controller (overcloud-controller-0, -1, etc.) that is currently set to listen on a particular virtual IP address.

 ip-192.168.1.150	(ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):	Started overcloud-controller-0
 ip-10.200.0.6	(ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):	Started overcloud-controller-1
 ip-172.16.0.10	(ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):	Started overcloud-controller-1
 ip-172.16.0.11	(ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):	Started overcloud-controller-0
 ip-172.18.0.10	(ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):	Started overcloud-controller-2
 ip-172.19.0.10	(ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):	Started overcloud-controller-2

Notice that each IP address is initially attached to a particular controller (for example, 192.168.1.150 is started on overcloud-controller-0). However, if that controller goes down, its IP address would be reassigned to other controllers in the cluster. Here are descriptions of the IP addresses just shown and how they were originally allocated:

  • 192.168.1.150: Public IP address (allocated from ExternalAllocationPools in network-environment.yaml)
  • 10.200.0.6: Controller Virtual IP address (part of the dhcp_start and dhcp_end range set to 10.200.0.5-10.200.0.24 in undercloud.conf)
  • 172.16.0.10: IP address providing access to OpenStack API services on a controller (allocated from InternalApiAllocationPools in network-environment.yaml)
  • 172.16.0.11: IP address providing access to Redis service on a controller (allocated from InternalApiAllocationPools in network-environment.yaml)
  • 172.18.0.10: Storage Virtual IP address, providing access to Glance API and Swift Proxy services (allocated from StorageAllocationPools in network-environment.yaml)
  • 172.19.0.10: IP address providing access to storage management (allocated from StorageMgmtAlloctionPools in network-environment.yaml)

You can see details about a particular IPaddr2 addresses set in Pacemaker using the pcs command. For example, to see timeouts and other pertinent information for a particular virtual IP address, type the following for one of the IPaddr2 resources:

$ sudo pcs resource show ip-192.168.1.150
 Resource: ip-192.168.1.150 (class=ocf provider=heartbeat type=IPaddr2)
  Attributes: ip=192.168.1.150 cidr_netmask=32
  Operations: start interval=0s timeout=20s (ip-192.168.1.150-start-timeout-20s)
              stop interval=0s timeout=20s (ip-192.168.1.150-stop-timeout-20s)
              monitor interval=10s timeout=20s (ip-192.168.1.150-monitor-interval-10s)

If you are logged into the controller which is currently assigned to listen on address 192.168.1.150, run the following commands to make sure it is active and that there are services actively listening on that address:

$ ip addr show vlan100
  9: vlan100: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN
    link/ether be:ab:aa:37:34:e7 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.1.151/24 brd 192.168.1.255 scope global vlan100
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet 192.168.1.150/32 brd 192.168.1.255 scope global vlan100
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

$ sudo netstat -tupln | grep 192.168.1.150
    tcp  0  0 192.168.1.150:6080      0.0.0.0:*  LISTEN      4333/haproxy
    tcp  0  0 192.168.1.150:9696      0.0.0.0:*  LISTEN      4333/haproxy
    tcp  0  0 192.168.1.150:8000      0.0.0.0:*  LISTEN      4333/haproxy
    tcp  0  0 192.168.1.150:8003      0.0.0.0:*  LISTEN      4333/haproxy
    tcp  0  0 192.168.1.150:8004      0.0.0.0:*  LISTEN      4333/haproxy
    tcp  0  0 192.168.1.150:8773      0.0.0.0:*  LISTEN      4333/haproxy
    tcp  0  0 192.168.1.150:8774      0.0.0.0:*  LISTEN      4333/haproxy
    tcp  0  0 192.168.1.150:5000      0.0.0.0:*  LISTEN      4333/haproxy
    tcp  0  0 192.168.1.150:8776      0.0.0.0:*  LISTEN      4333/haproxy
    tcp  0  0 192.168.1.150:8777      0.0.0.0:*  LISTEN      4333/haproxy
    tcp  0  0 192.168.1.150:9292      0.0.0.0:*  LISTEN      4333/haproxy
    tcp  0  0 192.168.1.150:8080      0.0.0.0:*  LISTEN      4333/haproxy
    tcp  0  0 192.168.1.150:80        0.0.0.0:*  LISTEN      4333/haproxy
    tcp  0  0 192.168.1.150:35357     0.0.0.0:*  LISTEN      4333/haproxy
    udp  0  0 192.168.1.150:123       0.0.0.0:*              459/ntpd
    ...
    tcp  0  0 0.0.0.0:22              0.0.0.0:*  LISTEN      2471/sshd
    tcp  0  0 0.0.0.0:4567            0.0.0.0:*  LISTEN      10064/mysqld
    ...
    udp  0  0 0.0.0.0:51475           0.0.0.0:*              545/dhclient
    udp  0  0 0.0.0.0:123             0.0.0.0:*              459/ntpd
    udp  0  0 0.0.0.0:161             0.0.0.0:*              1633/snmpd
    ...

The ip command shows that the vlan100 interface is listening on both the 192.168.1.150 and 192.168.1.151 IPv4 addresses. In output from the netstat command, you can see all the processes listening on the 192.168.1.150 interface. Besides the ntpd process (listening on port 123), the haproxy process is the only other one listening specifically on 192.168.1.150. Also, keep in mind that processes listening on all local addresses (0.0.0.0) are also available through 192.168.1.150 (sshd, mysqld, dhclient, ntpd and so on).

The port numbers shown in the netstat output help you identify the exact service haproxy is listening for. You could look inside the /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg file to see what services those port numbers represent. Here are just a few examples:

  • TCP port 6080: nova_novncproxy
  • TCP port 9696: neutron
  • TCP port 8000: heat_cfn
  • TCP port 8003: heat_cloudwatch
  • TCP port 80: horizon

At this time, there are 14 services in haproxy.cfg listening specifically on 192.168.1.150 on all three controllers. However, only controller-0 is currently actually listening externally on 192.168.1.150. So, if controller-0 goes down, HAProxy only needs to reassign 192.168.1.150 to another controller and all the services will already be running.

4.3. OpenStack Services Configured in Pacemaker

Most services are configured as Clone Set resources (or clones), where they are started the same way on each controller and set to always run on each controller. Services are cloned if they need to be active on multiple nodes. As such, you can only clone services that can be active on multiple nodes simultaneously (ie. cluster-aware services).

Other services are configured as Multi-state resources. Multi-state resources are specialized type of clones: unlike ordinary Clone Set resources, a Multi-state resource can be in either a master or slave state. When an instance is started, it must come up in the slave state. Other than this, the names of either state do not have any special meaning. These states, however, allow clones of the same service to run under different rules or constraints.

Keep in mind that, even though a service may be running on multiple controllers at the same time, the controller itself may not be listening on the IP address needed to actually reach those services.

Clone Set resources (clones)

Here are the clone settings from pcs status:

Clone Set: haproxy-clone [haproxy]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: mongod-clone [mongod]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: rabbitmq-clone [rabbitmq]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: memcached-clone [memcached]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: openstack-nova-scheduler-clone [openstack-nova-scheduler]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: neutron-l3-agent-clone [neutron-l3-agent]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: openstack-ceilometer-alarm-notifier-clone [openstack-ceilometer-alarm-notifier]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: openstack-heat-engine-clone [openstack-heat-engine]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: openstack-ceilometer-api-clone [openstack-ceilometer-api]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: neutron-metadata-agent-clone [neutron-metadata-agent]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: neutron-ovs-cleanup-clone [neutron-ovs-cleanup]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: neutron-netns-cleanup-clone [neutron-netns-cleanup]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: openstack-heat-api-clone [openstack-heat-api]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: openstack-cinder-scheduler-clone [openstack-cinder-scheduler]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: openstack-nova-api-clone [openstack-nova-api]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: openstack-heat-api-cloudwatch-clone [openstack-heat-api-cloudwatch]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: openstack-ceilometer-collector-clone [openstack-ceilometer-collector]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: openstack-keystone-clone [openstack-keystone]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: openstack-nova-consoleauth-clone [openstack-nova-consoleauth]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: openstack-glance-registry-clone [openstack-glance-registry]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-c openstack-cinder-volume
 Clone Set: openstack-ceilometer-notification-clone [openstack-ceilometer-notification]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: openstack-cinder-api-clone [openstack-cinder-api]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: neutron-dhcp-agent-clone [neutron-dhcp-agent]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: openstack-glance-api-clone [openstack-glance-api]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: neutron-openvswitch-agent-clone [neutron-openvswitch-agent]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: openstack-nova-novncproxy-clone [openstack-nova-novncproxy]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: delay-clone [delay]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: neutron-server-clone [neutron-server]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: httpd-clone [httpd]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: openstack-ceilometer-central-clone [openstack-ceilometer-central]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: openstack-ceilometer-alarm-evaluator-clone [openstack-ceilometer-alarm-evaluator]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 Clone Set: openstack-heat-api-cfn-clone [openstack-heat-api-cfn]
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
 openstack-cinder-volume  (systemd:openstack-cinder-volume):  Started overcloud-controller-0
 Clone Set: openstack-nova-conductor-clone [openstack-nova-conductor] openstack-cinder-volume
     Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]

For each of the Clone Set resources, you can see the following:

  • The name Pacemaker assigns to the service
  • The actual service name
  • The controllers on which the services are started or stopped

With Clone Set, the service is intended to start the same way on all controllers. To see details for a particular clone service (such as the haproxy service), use the pcs resource show command. For example:

$ sudo pcs resource show haproxy-clone
 Clone: haproxy-clone
  Resource: haproxy (class=systemd type=haproxy)
   Operations: start interval=0s timeout=60s (haproxy-start-timeout-60s)
               monitor interval=60s (haproxy-monitor-interval-60s)
$ sudo systemctl status haproxy
haproxy.service - Cluster Controlled haproxy
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/haproxy.service; disabled)
  Drop-In: /run/systemd/system/haproxy.service.d
           └─50-pacemaker.conf
   Active: active (running) since Tue 2015-10-06 08:58:49 EDT; 1h 52min ago
 Main PID: 4215 (haproxy-systemd)
   CGroup: /system.slice/haproxy.service
           ├─4215 /usr/sbin/haproxy-systemd-wrapper -f /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg -p /run/haproxy.pid
           ├─4216 /usr/sbin/haproxy -f /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg -p /run/haproxy.pid -Ds
           └─4217 /usr/sbin/haproxy -f /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg -p /run/haproxy.pid -Ds

The haproxy-clone example displays the resource settings for HAProxy. Although HAProxy provides high availability services by load-balancing traffic to selected services, keeping HAProxy itself highly available is done here by configuring it as a Pacemaker clone service.

From the output, notice that the resource is a systemd service named haproxy. It also has start interval and timeout values as well as monitor intervals. The systemctl status command shows that haproxy is currently active. The actual running processes for the haproxy service are listed at the end of the output. Because the whole command line is shown, you can see the configuration file (haproxy.cfg) and PID file (haproxy.pid) associated with the command.

Run those same commands on any Clone Set resource to see its current level of activity and details about the commands the service runs. Note that systemd services controlled by Pacemaker are set to disabled by systemd, since you want Pacemaker and not the system’s boot process to control when the service comes up or goes down.

For more information about Clone Set resources, see Resource Clones in the High Availability Add-On Reference.

Multi-state resources (master/slave)

The Galera and Redis services are run as Multi-state resources. Here is what the pcs status output looks like for those two types of services:

[...]
Master/Slave Set: galera-master [galera]
     Masters: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]

Master/Slave Set: redis-master [redis]
     Masters: [ overcloud-controller-2 ]
     Slaves: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 ]
[...]

For the galera-master resource, all three controllers are running as Galera masters. For the redis-master resource, overcloud-controller-2 is running as the master, while the other two controllers are running as slaves. This means that at the moment, the galera service is running under one set of constraints on all three controllers, while redis may be subject to different constraints on the master and slave controllers.

For more information about Multi-State resources, see Multi-State Resources: Resources That Have Multiple Modes in the High Availability Add-On Reference.

For more information about troubleshooting the Galera resource, see Chapter 6, Using Galera.

4.4. Pacemaker Failed Actions

If any of the resources fail in any way, they will be listed under the Failed actions heading of the pcs status output. Here is an example where the httpd service stopped working on controller-0:

Failed actions:
    httpd_monitor_60000 on overcloud-controller-0 'not running' (7): call= openstack-cinder-volume        (systemd:openstack-cinder-volume):      Started overcloud-controller-0
190, status=complete, exit-reason='none', last-rc-change='Thu Oct  8 10:12:32 2015', queued=0ms, exec=0ms

In this case, the systemd service httpd just needed to be restarted. In other cases, you need to track down and fix the problem, then clean up the resources. See Section 7.1, “Correcting Resource Problems on Controllers” for details.

4.5. Other Pacemaker Information for Controllers

The last sections of the pcs status output shows information about your power management fencing (IPMI in this case) and the status of the Pacemaker service itself:

 my-ipmilan-for-controller-0	(stonith:fence_ipmilan): Started my-ipmilan-for-controller-0
 my-ipmilan-for-controller-1	(stonith:fence_ipmilan): Started my-ipmilan-for-controller-1
 my-ipmilan-for-controller-2	(stonith:fence_ipmilan): Started my-ipmilan-for-controller-2

PCSD Status:
  overcloud-controller-0: Online
  overcloud-controller-1: Online
  overcloud-controller-2: Online

Daemon Status:
  corosync: active/enabled
  pacemaker: active/enabled openstack-cinder-volume        (systemd:openstack-cinder-volume):      Started overcloud-controller-0

  pcsd: active/enabled

The my-ipmilan-for-controller settings show the type of fencing done for each node (stonith:fence_ipmilan) and whether or not the IPMI service is stopped or running. The PCSD Status shows that all three controllers are currently online. The Pacemaker service itself consists of three daemons: corosync, pacemaker, and pcsd. Here, all three services are active and enabled.

4.6. Fencing Hardware

When a controller node fails a health check, the controller acting as the Pacemaker designated coordinator (DC) uses the Pacemaker stonith service to fence off the offending node. Stonith is an acronym for the term "Shoot the other node in the head". So, the DC basically kicks the node out of the cluster.

To see how your fencing devices are configured by stonith for your OpenStack Platform HA cluster, run the following command:

$ sudo pcs stonith show --full
 Resource: my-ipmilan-for-controller-0 (class=stonith type=fence_ipmilan)
  Attributes: pcmk_host_list=overcloud-controller-0 ipaddr=10.100.0.51 login=admin passwd=abc lanplus=1 cipher=3
  Operations: monitor interval=60s (my-ipmilan-for-controller-0-monitor-interval-60s)
 Resource: my-ipmilan-for-controller-1 (class=stonith type=fence_ipmilan)
  Attributes: pcmk_host_list=overcloud-controller-1 ipaddr=10.100.0.52 login=admin passwd=abc lanplus=1 cipher=3
  Operations: monitor interval=60s (my-ipmilan-for-controller-1-monitor-interval-60s)
 Resource: my-ipmilan-for-controller-2 (class=stonith type=fence_ipmilan)
  Attributes: pcmk_host_list=overcloud-controller-2 ipaddr=10.100.0.53 login=admin passwd=abc lanplus=1 cipher=3
  Operations: monitor interval=60s (my-ipmilan-for-controller-2-monitor-interval-60s)

The show --full listing shows details about the three controller nodes that relate to fencing. The fence device uses IPMI power management (fence_ipmilan) to turn the machines on and off as required. Information about the IPMI interface for each node includes the IP address of the IPMI interface (10.100.0.51), the user name to log in as (admin) and the password to use (abc). You can also see the interval at which each host is monitored (60 seconds).

For more information on fencing with Pacemaker, see "Fencing Configuration" in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 High Availability Add-On Administration.

Chapter 5. Using HAProxy

HAProxy provides high-availability features to OpenStack by load-balancing traffic to controllers running OpenStack services. The haproxy package contains the haproxy daemon, which is started from the systemd service of the same name, along with logging features and sample configurations. As noted earlier, Pacemaker manages the HAProxy service itself as a highly available service (haproxy-clone).

Note

Refer to the KCS solution How can I verify my haproxy.cfg is correctly configured to load balance openstack services? for information on validating an HAProxy configuration.

In Red Hat OpenStack Platform, the director configures multiple OpenStack services to take advantage of the haproxy service. The director does this by configuring those services in the /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg file. For each service in that file, you can see:

  • listen: The name of the service that is listening for requests
  • bind: The IP address and TCP port number on which the service is listening
  • server: The name of each server providing the service, the server’s IP address and listening port, and other information.

The haproxy.cfg file created when you install Red Hat OpenStack Platform with the director identifies 19 different services for HAProxy to manage. Here’s an example of how the ceilometer listen service is configured in the haproxy.cfg file:

listen ceilometer
  bind 172.16.0.10:8777
  bind 192.168.1.150:8777
  server overcloud-controller-0 172.16.0.13:8777 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-1 172.16.0.14:8777 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-2 172.16.0.15:8777 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2

This example of HAProxy settings for the ceilometer service identifies the IP addresses and ports on which the ceilometer service is offered (port 8777 on 172.16.0.10 and 192.168.1.150). The 172.16.0.10 address is a virtual IP address on the Internal API network (VLAN201) for use within the overcloud, while the 192.168.1.150 virtual IP address is on the External network (VLAN100) to provide access to the API network from outside of the overcloud.

HAProxy can direct requests made for those two IP addresses to overcloud-controller-0 (172.16.0.13:8777), overcloud-controller-1 (172.16.0.14:8777), or overcloud-controller-2 (172.16.0.15:8777).

The options set on these servers enables health checks (check) and the service is considered to be dead after five failed health checks (fall 5). The interval between two consecutive health checks is set to 2000 milliseconds (or 2 seconds) by inter 2000. A server is considered operational after 2 successful health checks (rise 2).

Here is the list of services managed by HAProxy on the controller nodes:

Table 5.1. Services managed by HAProxy

ceilometer

cinder

glance_api

glance_registry

haproxy.stats

heat_api

heat_cfn

heat_cloudwatch

horizon

keystone_admin

keystone_public

mysql

neutron

nova_ec2

nova_metadata

nova_novncproxy

5.1. HAProxy Stats

The director also enables HAProxy Stats by default on all HA deployments. This feature allows you to view detailed information about data transfer, connections, server states, and the like on the HAProxy Stats page.

The director also sets the IP:Port address through which you can reach the HAProxy Stats page. To find out what this address is, open the /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg file of any node where HAProxy is installed. The listen haproxy.stats section lists this information. For example:

listen haproxy.stats
  bind 10.200.0.6:1993
  mode http
  stats enable
  stats uri /

In this case, point your web browser to 10.200.0.6:1993 to view the HAProxy Stats page.

5.2. References

For more information about HAProxy, see HAProxy Configuration (from Load Balancer Administration).

For detailed information about settings you can use in the haproxy.cfg file, see the documentation in /usr/share/doc/haproxy-VERSION/configuration.txt on any system where the haproxy package is installed (such as Controller nodes).

Chapter 6. Using Galera

In a high-availability deployment, Red Hat OpenStack Platform uses the MariaDB Galera Cluster to manage database replication. As mentioned in Section 4.3, “OpenStack Services Configured in Pacemaker”, Pacemaker runs the Galera service using a Master/Slave Set resource. You can use pcs status to check if galera-master is running, and on which controllers:

Master/Slave Set: galera-master [galera]
     Masters: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-1 overcloud-controller-2 ]
Hostname resolution
When troubleshooting the MariaDB Galera Cluster, start by verifying hostname resolution. By default, the director binds the Galera resource to a hostname rather than an IP address [1]. As such, any problems preventing hostname resolution (for example, a misconfigured or failed DNS) could, in turn, prevent Pacemaker from properly managing the Galera resource.

Once you rule out hostname resolution problems, check the integrity of the cluster itself. To do so, check the status of write-set replication on each Controller node’s database.

Write-set replication information is stored on each node’s MariaDB database. Each relevant variable uses the prefix wsrep_. As such, you can query this information directly through the database client:

$ sudo mysql -B -e "SHOW GLOBAL STATUS LIKE 'wsrep_%';"
    +------------------------+-------+
    | Variable_name          | Value |
    +------------------------+-------+
    | wsrep_protocol_version | 5     |
    | wsrep_last_committed   | 202   |
    | ...                    | ...   |
    | wsrep_thread_count     | 2     |
    +------------------------+-------+

To verify the health and integrity of the MariaDB Galera Cluster, check first whether the cluster is reporting the right number of nodes. Then, check each node if it:

  • Is part of the correct cluster
  • Can write to the cluster
  • Can receive queries and writes from the cluster
  • Is connected to others within the cluster
  • Is replicating write-sets to tables in the local database

The following sections discuss how to investigate each status.

6.1. Investigating Database Cluster Integrity

When investigating problems with the MariaDB Galera Cluster, start with the integrity of the cluster itself. Verifying cluster integrity involves checking specific wsrep_ database variables on each Controller node. To check a database variable, run:

$ sudo mysql -B -e "SHOW GLOBAL STATUS LIKE 'VARIABLE';"

Replace VARIABLE with the wsrep_ database variable you want to check. For example, to view the node’s cluster state UUID:

$ sudo mysql -B -e "SHOW GLOBAL STATUS LIKE 'wsrep_cluster_state_uuid';"
    +--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Variable_name            | Value                                |
    +--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | wsrep_cluster_state_uuid | e2c9a15e-5485-11e0-0800-6bbb637e7211 |
    +--------------------------+--------------------------------------+

The following table lists the different wsrep_ database variables that relate to cluster integrity.

Table 6.1. Database variables to check for cluster integrity

VARIABLESummaryDescription

wsrep_cluster_state_uuid

Cluster state UUID

The ID of the cluster to which the node belongs. All nodes must have an identical ID. A node with a different ID is not connected to the cluster.

wsrep_cluster_size

Number of nodes in the cluster

You can check this on any single node. If the value is less than the actual number of nodes, then some nodes have either failed or lost connectivity.

wsrep_cluster_conf_id

Total number of cluster changes

Determines whether or not the cluster has been split into several components, also known as a partition. This is likely caused by a network failure. All nodes must have an identical value.

In case some nodes are reporting a different wsrep_cluster_conf_id, check their wsrep_cluster_status value to see if it can still write to the cluster (Primary).

wsrep_cluster_status

Primary component status

Determines whether or not the node can still write to the cluster. If so, then the wsrep_cluster_status should be Primary. Any other value indicates that the node is part of a non-operational partition.

6.2. Investigating Database Cluster Node

If you can isolate a Galera cluster problem to a specific node, other wsrep_ database variables can provide clues on the specific problem. You can check these variables in a similar manner as a cluster check (as in Section 6.1, “Investigating Database Cluster Integrity”):

$ sudo mysql -B -e "SHOW GLOBAL STATUS LIKE 'VARIABLE';"

Likewise, replace VARIABLE with any of the following values:

Table 6.2. Database variables to check for node integrity

VARIABLESummaryDescription

wsrep_ready

Node ability to accept queries

States whether the node can accept write-sets from the cluster. If so, then wsrep_ready should be ON.

wsrep_connected

Node network connectiviry

States whether the node has network connectivity to other nodes. If so, then wsrep_connected should be ON.

wsrep_local_state_comment

Node state

Summarizes the node state. If node can still write to the cluster (ie. if wsrep_cluster_status is Primary, see Section 6.1, “Investigating Database Cluster Integrity”), then typical values for wsrep_local_state_comment are Joining, Waiting on SST, Joined, Synced, or Donor.

If the node is part of a non-operational component, then wsrep_local_state_comment is set to Initialized.

Note

A wsrep_connected of ON could also mean that the node is only connected to some nodes. For example, in cases of a cluster partition, the node may be part of a component that cannot write to the cluster. See Section 6.1, “Investigating Database Cluster Integrity” for details.

If wsrep_connected is OFF, then the node is not connected to ANY cluster components.

6.3. Investigating Database Replication Performance

If cluster and its individual nodes are all healthy and stable, you can also check replication throughput to benchmark performance. As in Section 6.2, “Investigating Database Cluster Node” and Section 6.1, “Investigating Database Cluster Integrity”, doing so involves wsrep_ database variables on each node:

$ sudo mysql -B -e "SHOW STATUS LIKE 'VARIABLE';"

Likewise, replace VARIABLE with any of the following values:

Table 6.3. Database variables to check for cluster performance (replication throughput)

VARIABLESummary

wsrep_local_recv_queue_avg

Average size of the local received queue since last query

wsrep_local_send_queue_avg

Average send queue length since the last time the variable was queried

wsrep_local_recv_queue_min and wsrep_local_recv_queue_max

The minimum and maximum sizes the local received queue since either variable was last queried

wsrep_flow_control_paused

Fraction of time that the node paused due to Flow Control since the last time the variable was queried

wsrep_cert_deps_distance

Average distance between the lowest and highest sequence number (seqno) value that can be applied in parallel (ie. potential degree of parallelization)

Each time any of these variables are queried, a FLUSH STATUS command resets its value. Benchmarking cluster replication involves querying these values multiple times to see variances. These variances can help you judge how much Flow Control is affecting the cluster’s performance.

Flow Control is a mechanism used by the cluster to manage replication. When the local received write-set queue exceeds a certain threshold, Flow Control pauses replication in order for the node to catch up. See Flow Control from the Galera Cluster site for more information.

Check the following table for clues on different values and benchmarks:

wsrep_local_recv_queue_avg > 0.0
The node cannot apply write-sets as quickly as it receives them, thereby triggering replication throttling. Check wsrep_local_recv_queue_min and wsrep_local_recv_queue_max for a detailed look at this benchmark.
wsrep_local_send_queue_avg > 0.0
As the value of wsrep_local_send_queue_avg rises, so does the likelihood of replication throttling and network throughput issues. This is especially true as wsrep_local_recv_queue_avg rises.
wsrep_flow_control_paused > 0.0

Flow Control paused the node. To determine how long the node was paused, multiply the wsrep_flow_control_paused value with the number of seconds between querying it. For example, if wsrep_flow_control_paused = 0.50 a minute after last checking it, then node replication was paused for 30 seconds. If wsrep_flow_control_paused = 1.0 then the node was paused the entire time since the last query.

Ideally, wsrep_flow_control_paused should be as close to 0.0 as possible.

In case of throttling and pausing, you can check wsrep_cert_deps_distance to see how many write-sets (on average) can be applied in parallel. Then, check wsrep_slave_threads to see how many write-sets can actually be applied simultaneously.

Configuring a higher wsrep_slave_threads can help mitigate throttling and pausing. For example, wsrep_cert_deps_distance reads 20, then doubling wsrep_slave_threads from 2 to 4 can also double the amount of write-sets that the node can apply. However, wsrep_slave_threads should only be set as high as the node’s number of CPU cores.

If a problematic node already has an optimal wsrep_slave_threads setting, then consider excluding the node from the cluster as you investigate possible connectivity issues.



[1] This method was implemented to allow Galera to start successfully in overclouds that use IPv6 (specifically, to address BZ#1298671).

Chapter 7. Investigating and Fixing HA Controller Resources

The pcs constraint show command displays any constraints on how services are launched. The output from the command shows constraints relating to where each resource is located, the order in which it starts and what it must be colocated with. If there are any problems, you can try to fix those problems, then clean up the resources.

The pcs constraint show command shows how a resource is constrained by location (can only run on certain hosts), ordering (depends on other resources to be enabled before starting), or colocation (requires it be colocated with another resource). Here is truncated output from pcs constraint show on a controller node:

$ sudo pcs constraint show
Location Constraints:
  Resource: my-ipmilan-for-controller-0
    Disabled on: overcloud-controller-0 (score:-INFINITY)
  Resource: my-ipmilan-for-controller-1
    Disabled on: overcloud-controller-1 (score:-INFINITY)
  Resource: my-ipmilan-for-controller-2
    Disabled on: overcloud-controller-2 (score:-INFINITY)
Ordering Constraints:
  start ip-172.16.0.10 then start haproxy-clone (kind:Optional)
  start ip-10.200.0.6 then start haproxy-clone (kind:Optional)
  start ip-172.19.0.10 then start haproxy-clone (kind:Optional)
  start ip-192.168.1.150 then start haproxy-clone (kind:Optional)
  start ip-172.16.0.11 then start haproxy-clone (kind:Optional)
  start ip-172.18.0.10 then start haproxy-clone (kind:Optional)
  start mongod-clone then start openstack-ceilometer-central-clone (kind:Mandatory)
  start openstack-glance-registry-clone then start openstack-glance-api-clone (kind:Mandatory)
  start openstack-heat-api-clone then start openstack-heat-api-cfn-clone (kind:Mandatory)
  start delay-clone then start openstack-ceilometer-alarm-evaluator-clone (kind:Mandatory)

...

Colocation Constraints:
  ip-172.16.0.10 with haproxy-clone (score:INFINITY)
  ip-172.18.0.10 with haproxy-clone (score:INFINITY)
  ip-10.200.0.6 with haproxy-clone (score:INFINITY)
  ip-172.19.0.10 with haproxy-clone (score:INFINITY)
  ip-172.16.0.11 with haproxy-clone (score:INFINITY)
  ip-192.168.1.150 with haproxy-clone (score:INFINITY)
  openstack-glance-api-clone with openstack-glance-registry-clone (score:INFINITY)
  openstack-cinder-volume with openstack-cinder-scheduler-clone (score:INFINITY)
  neutron-dhcp-agent-clone with neutron-openvswitch-agent-clone (score:INFINITY)

...

This output displays three major sections:

Location Constraints
This section shows there are no particular constraints on where resources are assigned. However, the output shows that the ipmilan resource is disabled on each of the controllers. So that requires further investigation.
Ordering Constraints
Here, notice that the virtual IP address resources (IPaddr2) are set to start before HAProxy. There are also many mandatory Ordering Constraints, including starting mongod-clone before openstack-ceilometer-central-clone, and starting openstack-glance-registry-clone before openstack-glance-api-clone. Knowing these constraints can help understand the dependencies between services. In other words, you want to know what dependencies need to be in place for you to be able to fix a broken service or another resource.
Colocation Constraints
This section shows what resources need to be located together. For example, certain virtual IP addresses are tied to the haproxy-clone resource. In addition, the openstack-glance-api-clone resource needs to be on the same host as the openstack-glance-registry-clone resource.

7.1. Correcting Resource Problems on Controllers

Failed actions are listed by the pcs status command. There are lots of different kinds of problems that can occur. In general, you can approach problems in the following ways:

Controller problem

If health checks to a controller are failing, log into the controller and check if services can start up without problems. Service startup problems could indicate a communication problem between controllers. Other indications of communication problems between controllers include:

  • A controller gets fenced disproportionately more than other controllers, and/or
  • A suspiciously large amount of services are failing from a specific controller.
Individual resource problem
If services from a controller are generally working, but an individual resource is failing, see if you can figure out the problem from the pcs status messages. If you need more information, log into the controller where the resource is failing and try some of the steps below.

To determine the problem with an individual failed resource, look at the Ordering Constraints illustrated in Chapter 7, Investigating and Fixing HA Controller Resources. Make sure all the resources the failed resource depends on are up and running. Then work your way up from the bottom, correcting them.

Given the name of the failed resource and the controller it’s running on, you can log into the controller to debug the problem. If the failed resource is a systemd service (such as openstack-ceilometer-api), you could use systemctl to check its status and journalctl to search through journal messages. For example:

$ sudo systemctl status openstack-ceilometer-api
openstack-ceilometer-api.service - Cluster Controlled openstack-ceilometer-api
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/openstack-ceilometer-api.service; disabled)
  Drop-In: /run/systemd/system/openstack-ceilometer-api.service.d
           └─50-pacemaker.conf
   Active: active (running) since Thu 2015-10-08 13:30:44 EDT; 1h 4min ago
 Main PID: 17865 (ceilometer-api)
   CGroup: /system.slice/openstack-ceilometer-api.service
           └─17865 /usr/bin/python /usr/bin/ceilometer-api --logfile /var/log/ceilometer/api.log

Oct 08 13:30:44 overcloud-controller-2.localdomain systemd[1]: Starting Cluster Controlled openstack-ceilo.....
Oct 08 13:30:44 overcloud-controller-2.localdomain systemd[1]: Started Cluster Controlled openstack-ceilom...i.
Oct 08 13:30:49 overcloud-controller-2.localdomain ceilometer-api[17865]: /usr/lib64/python2.7/site-package....
$ sudo journalctl -u openstack-ceilometer-api
-- Logs begin at Thu 2015-10-01 08:57:25 EDT, end at Thu 2015-10-08 14:40:18 EDT. --
Oct 01 11:22:41 overcloud-controller-2.localdomain systemd[1]: Starting Cluster Controlled openstack...
Oct 01 11:22:41 overcloud-controller-2.localdomain systemd[1]: Started Cluster Controlled openstack-ceilometer-api...
Oct 01 11:22:52 overcloud-controller-2.localdomain ceilometer-api[8918]: /usr/lib64/python2.7/...

After you have corrected the failed resource, you can run the pcs resource cleanup command to reset the status of the resource and its fail count. For example, after finding and fixing a problem with the httpd-clone resource, run:

$ sudo pcs resource cleanup httpd-clone
  Resource: httpd-clone successfully cleaned up

Chapter 8. Investigating HA Ceph Nodes

When deployed with Ceph storage, Red Hat OpenStack Platform uses ceph-mon as a monitor daemon for the Ceph cluster. The director deploys this daemon on all controller nodes.

To check whether the Ceph Monitoring service is running, use:

$ sudo service ceph status
=== mon.overcloud-controller-0 ===
mon.overcloud-controller-0: running {"version":"0.94.1"}

On the controllers, as well as on the Ceph Nodes, you can see how Ceph is configured by viewing the /etc/ceph/ceph.conf file. For example:

[global]
osd_pool_default_pgp_num = 128
osd_pool_default_min_size = 1
auth_service_required = cephx
mon_initial_members = overcloud-controller-0,overcloud-controller-1,overcloud-controller-2
fsid = 8c835acc-6838-11e5-bb96-2cc260178a92
cluster_network = 172.19.0.11/24
auth_supported = cephx
auth_cluster_required = cephx
mon_host = 172.18.0.17,172.18.0.15,172.18.0.16
auth_client_required = cephx
osd_pool_default_size = 3
osd_pool_default_pg_num = 128
public_network = 172.18.0.17/24

Here, all three controller nodes (overcloud-controller-0, -1, and -2) are set to monitor the Ceph cluster (mon_initial_members). The 172.19.0.11/24 network (VLAN 203) is used as the Storage Management Network and provides a communications path between the controller and Ceph Storage Nodes. The three Ceph Storage Nodes are on a separate network. As you can see, the IP addresses for those three nodes are on the Storage Network (VLAN 202) and are defined as 172.18.0.15, 172.18.0.16, and 172.18.0.17.

To check the current status of a Ceph node, log into that node and run the following command:

# ceph -s
    cluster 8c835acc-6838-11e5-bb96-2cc260178a92
     health HEALTH_OK
     monmap e1: 3 mons at {overcloud-controller-0=172.18.0.17:6789/0,overcloud-controller-1=172.18.0.15:6789/0,overcloud-controller-2=172.18.0.16:6789/0}
            election epoch 152, quorum 0,1,2 overcloud-controller-1,overcloud-controller-2,overcloud-controller-0
     osdmap e543: 6 osds: 6 up, 6 in
      pgmap v1736: 256 pgs, 4 pools, 0 bytes data, 0 objects
            267 MB used, 119 GB / 119 GB avail
                 256 active+clean

From the ceph -s output, you can see that the health of the Ceph cluster is OK (HEALTH_OK). There are three Ceph monitor services (running on the three overcloud-controller nodes). Also shown here are the IP addresses and ports each is listening on.

For more information about Red Hat Ceph, see the Red Hat Ceph product page.

Chapter 9. Investigating HA Compute Nodes

If a compute node fails, Pacemaker attempts to restart the failed services on that node. This includes starting neutron-ovs-agent, then ceilometer-compute, and finally nova-compute. If the failure comes from a Swift ACO node, an attempt to restart the Swift services is done in this order: swift-fs, swift-object, swift-container, and swift-account. Pacemaker will fence the compute node if starting these services fails.

Appendix A. Building the Red Hat OpenStack Platform 9 HA Environment

The Red Hat Ceph Storage for the Overcloud guide provides instructions for deploying the type of highly available OpenStack environment described in this document. The Director Installation and Usage guide was also used for reference throughout the process.

A.1. Hardware Specification

The following tables show the specifications used by the deployment tested for this document. For better results, increase the CPU, memory, storage, or NICs on your own test deployment.

Table A.1. Physical Computers

Number of ComputersAssigned as…​CPUsMemoryDisk spacePower mgmt.NICs

1

Director node

4

6144 MB

40 GB

IPMI

2 (1 external; 1 on Provisioning) + 1 IPMI

3

Controller nodes

4

6144 MB

40 GB

IPMI

3 (2 bonded on Overcloud; 1 on Provisioning) + 1 IPMI

3

Ceph Storage nodes

4

6144 MB

40 GB

IPMI

3 (2 bonded on Overcloud; 1 on Provisioning) + 1 IPMI

2

Compute node (add more as needed)

4

6144 MB

40 GB

IPMI

3 (2 bonded on Overcloud; 1 on Provisioning) + 1 IPMI

The following list describes the general functions and connections associated with each non-director assignment:

Controller nodes
Most OpenStack services, other than storage, run on these controller nodes. All services are replicated across the three nodes (some active-active; some active-passive). Three nodes are required for reliable HA.
Ceph storage nodes
Storage services run on these nodes, providing pools of Ceph storage areas to the compute nodes. Again, three nodes are needed for HA.
Compute nodes
Virtual machines actually run on these compute nodes. You can have as many compute nodes as you need to meet your capacity requirements, including the ability to shut down compute nodes and migrate virtual machines between those nodes. Compute nodes must be connected to the storage network (so the VMs can access storage) and Tenant network (so VMs can access VMs on other compute nodes and also access public networks, to make their services available).

Table A.2. Physical and Virtual Networks

Physical NICsReason for NetworkVLANsUsed to…​

eth0

Provisioning network (undercloud)

N/A

Manage all nodes from director (undercloud)

eth1 and eth2

Controller/External (overcloud)

N/A

Bonded NICs with VLANs

 

External Network

VLAN 100

Allow access from outside world to Tenant networks, Internal API, and OpenStack Horizon Dashboard

 

Internal API

VLAN 201

Provide access to the internal API between compute and controller nodes

 

Storage access

VLAN 202

Connect compute nodes to underlying Storage media

 

Storage management

VLAN 203

Manage storage media

 

Tenant network

VLAN 204

Provide tenant network services to OpenStack

The following are also required:

Provisioning network switch
This switch must be able to connect the director system (undercloud) to all computers in the Red Hat OpenStack Platform environment (overcloud). The NIC on each overcloud node that is connected to this switch must be able to PXE boot from the director. Also check that the switch has portfast set to enabled.
Controller/External network switch
This switch must be configured to do VLAN tagging for the VLANs shown in Figure 1. Only VLAN 100 traffic should be allowed to external networks.
Fencing Hardware
Hardware defined for use with Pacemaker is supported in this configuration. Supported fencing devices can be determined using the Pacemaker tool stonith. See Fencing the Controller Nodes of the the Director Installation and Usage guide for details.

A.2. Undercloud Configuration Files

This section shows relevant configuration files from the test configuration used for this document. If you change IP address ranges, consider making a diagram similar to Figure 1.1, “OpenStack HA environment deployed through director” to track your resulting address settings.

instackenv.json

{
      "nodes": [
        {
          "pm_password": "testpass",
          "memory": "6144",
          "pm_addr": "10.100.0.11",
          "mac": [
            "2c:c2:60:3b:b3:94"
          ],
          "pm_type": "pxe_ipmitool",
          "disk": "40",
          "arch": "x86_64",
          "cpu": "1",
          "pm_user": "admin"
        },
        {
          "pm_password": "testpass",
          "memory": "6144",
          "pm_addr": "10.100.0.12",
          "mac": [
            "2c:c2:60:51:b7:fb"
          ],
          "pm_type": "pxe_ipmitool",
          "disk": "40",
          "arch": "x86_64",
          "cpu": "1",
          "pm_user": "admin"
        },
        {
          "pm_password": "testpass",
          "memory": "6144",
          "pm_addr": "10.100.0.13",
          "mac": [
            "2c:c2:60:76:ce:a5"
          ],
          "pm_type": "pxe_ipmitool",
          "disk": "40",
          "arch": "x86_64",
          "cpu": "1",
          "pm_user": "admin"
        },
        {
          "pm_password": "testpass",
          "memory": "6144",
          "pm_addr": "10.100.0.51",
          "mac": [
            "2c:c2:60:08:b1:e2"
          ],
          "pm_type": "pxe_ipmitool",
          "disk": "40",
          "arch": "x86_64",
          "cpu": "1",
          "pm_user": "admin"
        },
        {
          "pm_password": "testpass",
          "memory": "6144",
          "pm_addr": "10.100.0.52",
          "mac": [
            "2c:c2:60:20:a1:9e"
          ],
          "pm_type": "pxe_ipmitool",
          "disk": "40",
          "arch": "x86_64",
          "cpu": "1",
          "pm_user": "admin"
        },
        {
          "pm_password": "testpass",
          "memory": "6144",
          "pm_addr": "10.100.0.53",
          "mac": [
            "2c:c2:60:58:10:33"
          ],
          "pm_type": "pxe_ipmitool",
          "disk": "40",
          "arch": "x86_64",
          "cpu": "1",
          "pm_user": "admin"
        },
        {
          "pm_password": "testpass",
          "memory": "6144",
          "pm_addr": "10.100.0.101",
          "mac": [
            "2c:c2:60:31:a9:55"
          ],
          "pm_type": "pxe_ipmitool",
          "disk": "40",
          "arch": "x86_64",
          "cpu": "2",
          "pm_user": "admin"
        },
        {
          "pm_password": "testpass",
          "memory": "6144",
          "pm_addr": "10.100.0.102",
          "mac": [
            "2c:c2:60:0d:e7:d1"
          ],
          "pm_type": "pxe_ipmitool",
          "disk": "40",
          "arch": "x86_64",
          "cpu": "2",
          "pm_user": "admin"
         }
      ],
      "overcloud": {"password": "7adbbbeedc5b7a07ba1917e1b3b228334f9a2d4e",
      "endpoint": "http://192.168.1.150:5000/v2.0/"
                   }
}

undercloud.conf

[DEFAULT]
image_path = /home/stack/images
local_ip = 10.200.0.1/24
undercloud_public_vip = 10.200.0.2
undercloud_admin_vip = 10.200.0.3
undercloud_service_certificate = /etc/pki/instack-certs/undercloud.pem
local_interface = eth0
masquerade_network = 10.200.0.0/24
dhcp_start = 10.200.0.5
dhcp_end = 10.200.0.24
network_cidr = 10.200.0.0/24
network_gateway = 10.200.0.1
#discovery_interface = br-ctlplane
discovery_iprange = 10.200.0.150,10.200.0.200
discovery_runbench = 1
undercloud_admin_password = testpass
...

network-environment.yaml

resource_registry:
  OS::TripleO::BlockStorage::Net::SoftwareConfig: /home/stack/templates/nic-configs/cinder-storage.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Compute::Net::SoftwareConfig: /home/stack/templates/nic-configs/compute.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Controller::Net::SoftwareConfig: /home/stack/templates/nic-configs/controller.yaml
  OS::TripleO::ObjectStorage::Net::SoftwareConfig: /home/stack/templates/nic-configs/swift-storage.yaml
  OS::TripleO::CephStorage::Net::SoftwareConfig: /home/stack/templates/nic-configs/ceph-storage.yaml

parameter_defaults:
  InternalApiNetCidr: 172.16.0.0/24
  TenantNetCidr: 172.17.0.0/24
  StorageNetCidr: 172.18.0.0/24
  StorageMgmtNetCidr: 172.19.0.0/24
  ExternalNetCidr: 192.168.1.0/24
  InternalApiAllocationPools: [{'start': '172.16.0.10', 'end': '172.16.0.200'}]
  TenantAllocationPools: [{'start': '172.17.0.10', 'end': '172.17.0.200'}]
  StorageAllocationPools: [{'start': '172.18.0.10', 'end': '172.18.0.200'}]
  StorageMgmtAllocationPools: [{'start': '172.19.0.10', 'end': '172.19.0.200'}]
  # Leave room for floating IPs in the External allocation pool
  ExternalAllocationPools: [{'start': '192.168.1.150', 'end': '192.168.1.199'}]
  InternalApiNetworkVlanID: 201
  StorageNetworkVlanID: 202
  StorageMgmtNetworkVlanID: 203
  TenantNetworkVlanID: 204
  ExternalNetworkVlanID: 100
  # Set to the router gateway on the external network
  ExternalInterfaceDefaultRoute: 192.168.1.1
  # Set to "br-ex" if using floating IPs on native VLAN on bridge br-ex
  NeutronExternalNetworkBridge: "''"
  # Customize bonding options if required
  BondInterfaceOvsOptions:
    "bond_mode=active-backup lacp=off other_config:bond-miimon-interval=100"

A.3. Overcloud Configuration Files

The following configuration files reflect the actual overcloud settings from the deployment used for this document.

/etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg (Controller Nodes)

This file identifies the services that HAProxy manages. It contains the settings that define the services monitored by HAProxy. This file exists and is the same on all Controller nodes.

# This file managed by Puppet
global
  daemon
  group  haproxy
  log  /dev/log local0
  maxconn  10000
  pidfile  /var/run/haproxy.pid
  user  haproxy

defaults
  log  global
  mode  tcp
  option  tcpka
  option  tcplog
  retries  3
  timeout  http-request 10s
  timeout  queue 1m
  timeout  connect 10s
  timeout  client 1m
  timeout  server 1m
  timeout  check 10s

listen ceilometer
  bind 172.16.0.10:8777
  bind 192.168.1.150:8777
  server overcloud-controller-0 172.16.0.13:8777 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-1 172.16.0.14:8777 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-2 172.16.0.15:8777 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2

listen cinder
  bind 172.16.0.10:8776
  bind 192.168.1.150:8776
  option httpchk GET /
  server overcloud-controller-0 172.16.0.13:8776 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-1 172.16.0.14:8776 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-2 172.16.0.15:8776 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2

listen glance_api
  bind 172.18.0.10:9292
  bind 192.168.1.150:9292
  option httpchk GET /
  server overcloud-controller-0 172.18.0.17:9292 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-1 172.18.0.15:9292 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-2 172.18.0.16:9292 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2

listen glance_registry
  bind 172.16.0.10:9191
  server overcloud-controller-0 172.16.0.13:9191 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-1 172.16.0.14:9191 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-2 172.16.0.15:9191 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2

listen haproxy.stats
  bind 10.200.0.6:1993
  mode http
  stats enable
  stats uri /

listen heat_api
  bind 172.16.0.10:8004
  bind 192.168.1.150:8004
  mode http
  option httpchk GET /
  server overcloud-controller-0 172.16.0.13:8004 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-1 172.16.0.14:8004 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-2 172.16.0.15:8004 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2

listen heat_cfn
  bind 172.16.0.10:8000
  bind 192.168.1.150:8000
  option httpchk GET /
  server overcloud-controller-0 172.16.0.13:8000 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-1 172.16.0.14:8000 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-2 172.16.0.15:8000 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2

listen heat_cloudwatch
  bind 172.16.0.10:8003
  bind 192.168.1.150:8003
  option httpchk GET /
  server overcloud-controller-0 172.16.0.13:8003 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-1 172.16.0.14:8003 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-2 172.16.0.15:8003 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2

listen horizon
  bind 172.16.0.10:80
  bind 192.168.1.150:80
  cookie SERVERID insert indirect nocache
  option httpchk GET /
  server overcloud-controller-0 172.16.0.13:80 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-1 172.16.0.14:80 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-2 172.16.0.15:80 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2

listen keystone_admin
  bind 172.16.0.10:35357
  bind 192.168.1.150:35357
  option httpchk GET /
  server overcloud-controller-0 172.16.0.13:35357 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-1 172.16.0.14:35357 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-2 172.16.0.15:35357 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2

listen keystone_public
  bind 172.16.0.10:5000
  bind 192.168.1.150:5000
  option httpchk GET /
  server overcloud-controller-0 172.16.0.13:5000 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-1 172.16.0.14:5000 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-2 172.16.0.15:5000 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2

listen mysql
  bind 172.16.0.10:3306
  option httpchk
  stick on dst
  stick-table type ip size 1000
  timeout client 0
  timeout server 0
  server overcloud-controller-0 172.16.0.13:3306 backup check fall 5 inter 2000 on-marked-down shutdown-sessions port 9200 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-1 172.16.0.14:3306 backup check fall 5 inter 2000 on-marked-down shutdown-sessions port 9200 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-2 172.16.0.15:3306 backup check fall 5 inter 2000 on-marked-down shutdown-sessions port 9200 rise 2

listen neutron
  bind 172.16.0.10:9696
  bind 192.168.1.150:9696
  option httpchk GET /
  server overcloud-controller-0 172.16.0.13:9696 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-1 172.16.0.14:9696 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-2 172.16.0.15:9696 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2

listen nova_ec2
  bind 172.16.0.10:8773
  bind 192.168.1.150:8773
  option httpchk GET /
  server overcloud-controller-0 172.16.0.13:8773 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-1 172.16.0.14:8773 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-2 172.16.0.15:8773 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2

listen nova_metadata
  bind 172.16.0.10:8775
  option httpchk GET /
  server overcloud-controller-0 172.16.0.13:8775 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-1 172.16.0.14:8775 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-2 172.16.0.15:8775 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2

listen nova_novncproxy
  bind 172.16.0.10:6080
  bind 192.168.1.150:6080
  option httpchk GET /
  server overcloud-controller-0 172.16.0.13:6080 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-1 172.16.0.14:6080 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-2 172.16.0.15:6080 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2

listen nova_osapi
  bind 172.16.0.10:8774
  bind 192.168.1.150:8774
  option httpchk GET /
  server overcloud-controller-0 172.16.0.13:8774 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-1 172.16.0.14:8774 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-2 172.16.0.15:8774 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2

listen redis
  bind 172.16.0.11:6379
  balance first
  option tcp-check
  tcp-check send info\ replication\r\n
  tcp-check expect string role:master
  timeout client 0
  timeout server 0
  server overcloud-controller-0 172.16.0.13:6379 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-1 172.16.0.14:6379 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-2 172.16.0.15:6379 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2

listen swift_proxy_server
  bind 172.18.0.10:8080
  bind 192.168.1.150:8080
  option httpchk GET /info
  server overcloud-controller-0 172.18.0.17:8080 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-1 172.18.0.15:8080 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  server overcloud-controller-2 172.18.0.16:8080 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2

/etc/corosync/corosync.conf file (Controller Nodes)

This file defines the cluster infrastructure, and is available on all Controller nodes.

totem {
version: 2
secauth: off
cluster_name: tripleo_cluster
transport: udpu
}

nodelist {
  node {
        ring0_addr: overcloud-controller-0
        nodeid: 1
       }
  node {
        ring0_addr: overcloud-controller-1
        nodeid: 2
       }
  node {
        ring0_addr: overcloud-controller-2
        nodeid: 3
       }
}

quorum {
provider: corosync_votequorum

}

logging {
to_syslog: yes
}

/etc/ceph/ceph.conf (Ceph Nodes)

This file contains Ceph high availability settings, including the hostnames and IP addresses of monitoring hosts.

[global]
osd_pool_default_pgp_num = 128
osd_pool_default_min_size = 1
auth_service_required = cephx
mon_initial_members = overcloud-controller-0,overcloud-controller-1,overcloud-controller-2
fsid = 8c835acc-6838-11e5-bb96-2cc260178a92
cluster_network = 172.19.0.11/24
auth_supported = cephx
auth_cluster_required = cephx
mon_host = 172.18.0.17,172.18.0.15,172.18.0.16
auth_client_required = cephx
osd_pool_default_size = 3
osd_pool_default_pg_num = 128
public_network = 172.18.0.17/24

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