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Chapter 1. OpenStack command-line clients
You can use the OpenStack command-line clients to run simple commands that make API calls. You can run these commands from the command line or in scripts to automate tasks. If you provide OpenStack credentials, you can run these commands on any computer.
Internally, each client command runs cURL commands that embed API requests. The OpenStack APIs are RESTful APIs that use the HTTP protocol, including methods, URIs, media types, and response codes.
These open-source Python clients run on Linux or Mac OS X systems and are easy to learn and use. Each OpenStack service has its own command-line client. On some client commands, you can specify a debug parameter to show the underlying API request for the command. This is a good way to become familiar with the OpenStack API calls.
The following table lists the command-line client for each OpenStack service with its package name and description.
Table 1.1. OpenStack services and clients
|Block Storage||cinder||python-cinderclient||Create and manage volumes.|
|Compute||nova||python-novaclient||Create and manage images, instances, and flavors.|
|Database Service||trove||python-troveclient||Create and manage databases.|
|Identity||keystone||python-keystoneclient||Create and manage users, tenants, roles, endpoints, and credentials.|
|Image Service||glance||python-glanceclient||Create and manage images.|
|Networking||neutron||python-neutronclient||Configure networks for guest servers. This client was previously called quantum.|
|Object Storage||swift||python-swiftclient||Gather statistics, list items, update metadata, and upload, download, and delete files stored by the Object Storage service. Gain access to an Object Storage installation for ad hoc processing.|
|Orchestration||heat||python-heatclient||Launch stacks from templates, view details of running stacks including events and resources, and update and delete stacks.|
|Telemetry||ceilometer||python-ceilometerclient||Create and collect measurements across OpenStack.|
An OpenStack common client is in development.
For client installation instructions, see Section 1.2, “Install the OpenStack command-line clients”. For information about the OpenStack RC file, see the Red Hat OpenStack Platform End User Guide.
1.2. Install the OpenStack command-line clients
Install the prerequisite software and the Python package for each OpenStack client.
1.2.1. Install the prerequisite software
The following table lists the software that you need to have to run the command-line clients, and provides installation instructions as needed.
Table 1.2. Prerequisite software
Python 2.6 or later
Currently, the clients do not support Python 3.
Many Linux distributions provide packages to make setuptools easy to install. Search your package manager for setuptools to find an installation package. If you cannot find one, download the setuptools package directly from http://pypi.python.org/pypi/setuptools.
1.2.2. Install the clients
When following the instructions in this section, replace PROJECT with the lowercase name of the client to install, such as nova. Repeat for each client. The following values are valid:
ceilometer- Telemetry API
cinder- Block Storage API and extensions
glance- Image Service API
heat- Orchestration API
keystone- Identity service API and extensions
neutron- Networking API
nova- Compute API and extensions
swift- Object Storage API
trove- Database Service API
The following example shows the command for installing the nova client with yum.
yum install python-novaclient
188.8.131.52. Installing from packages
On Red Hat Enterprise Linux, use yum to install the clients:
yum install python-PROJECTclient
1.2.3. Upgrade or remove clients
To upgrade a client, add the
--upgradeoption to the yum install command:
yum install --upgrade python-PROJECTclient
To remove the a client, run the yum erase command:
yum erase python-PROJECTclient
1.2.4. What's next
Before you can run client commands, you must create and source the
PROJECT-openrc.shfile to set environment variables. See Section 1.4, “Set environment variables using the OpenStack RC file”.
1.3. Discover the version number for a client
Run the following command to discover the version number for a client:
For example, to see the version number for the nova client, run the following command:
The version number (2.15.0 in the example) is returned.
1.4. Set environment variables using the OpenStack RC file
To set the required environment variables for the OpenStack command-line clients, you must create an environment file called an OpenStack rc file, or
openrc.shfile. If your OpenStack installation provides it, you can download the file from the OpenStack dashboard as an administrative user or any other user. This project-specific environment file contains the credentials that all OpenStack services use.
When you source the file, environment variables are set for your current shell. The variables enable the OpenStack client commands to communicate with the OpenStack services that run in the cloud.
Defining environment variables using an environment file is not a common practice on Microsoft Windows. Environment variables are usually defined in the Advanced tab of the System Properties dialog box.
1.4.1. Download and source the OpenStack RC file
- Log in to the OpenStack dashboard, choose the project for which you want to download the OpenStack RC file, and click Access & Security.
- On the API Access tab, click Download OpenStack RC File and save the file. The filename will be of the form
PROJECT-openrc.shwhere PROJECT is the name of the project for which you downloaded the file.
- Copy the
PROJECT-openrc.shfile to the computer from which you want to run OpenStack commands.For example, copy the file to the computer from which you want to upload an image with a glance client command.
- On any shell from which you want to run OpenStack commands, source the
PROJECT-openrc.shfile for the respective project.In the following example, the
demo-openrc.shfile is sourced for the demo project:
- When you are prompted for an OpenStack password, enter the password for the user who downloaded the
1.4.2. Create and source the OpenStack RC file
Alternatively, you can create the
PROJECT-openrc.shfile from scratch, if for some reason you cannot download the file from the dashboard.
- In a text editor, create a file named
PROJECT-openrc.shfile and add the following authentication information:
export OS_USERNAME=username export OS_PASSWORD=password export OS_TENANT_NAME=projectName export OS_AUTH_URL=https://identityHost:portNumber/v2.0 # The following lines can be omitted export OS_TENANT_ID=tenantIDString export OS_REGION_NAME=regionNameThe following example shows the information for a project called
admin, where the OS username is also
admin, and the identity host is located at
export OS_USERNAME=admin export OS_PASSWORD=ADMIN_PASS export OS_TENANT_NAME=admin export OS_AUTH_URL=http://controller:35357/v2.0
- On any shell from which you want to run OpenStack commands, source the
PROJECT-openrc.shfile for the respective project. In this example, you source the
admin-openrc.shfile for the admin project:
You are not prompted for the password with this method. The password lives in clear text format in the
PROJECT-openrc.shfile. Restrict the permissions on this file to avoid security problems. You can also remove the
OS_PASSWORDvariable from the file, and use the
--passwordparameter with OpenStack client commands instead.
1.4.3. Override environment variable values
When you run OpenStack client commands, you can override some environment variable settings by using the options that are listed at the end of the help output of the various client commands. For example, you can override the
OS_PASSWORDsetting in the
PROJECT-openrc.shfile by specifying a password on a keystone command, as follows:
keystone --os-password PASSWORD service-list
Where PASSWORD is your password.