Director Installation and Usage

Red Hat OpenStack Platform 8

An end-to-end scenario on using Red Hat OpenStack Platform director to create an OpenStack cloud

OpenStack Documentation Team

Red Hat Customer Content Services

Abstract

This guide explains how to install Red Hat OpenStack Platform 8 in an enterprise environment using the Red Hat OpenStack Platform Director. This includes installing the director, planning your environment, and creating an OpenStack environment with the director.

Chapter 1. Introduction

The Red Hat OpenStack Platform director is a toolset for installing and managing a complete OpenStack environment. It is based primarily on the OpenStack project TripleO, which is an abbreviation for "OpenStack-On-OpenStack". This project takes advantage of OpenStack components to install a fully operational OpenStack environment; this includes new OpenStack components that provision and control bare metal systems to use as OpenStack nodes. This provides a simple method for installing a complete Red Hat OpenStack Platform environment that is both lean and robust.
The Red Hat OpenStack Platform director uses two main concepts: an Undercloud and an Overcloud. The Undercloud installs and configures the Overcloud. The next few sections outline the concept of each.
Basic Layout of Undercloud and Overcloud

Figure 1.1. Basic Layout of Undercloud and Overcloud

1.1. Undercloud

The Undercloud is the main director node. It is a single-system OpenStack installation that includes components for provisioning and managing the OpenStack nodes that form your OpenStack environment (the Overcloud). The components that form the Undercloud provide the following functions:
  • Environment planning - The Undercloud provides planning functions for users to assign Red Hat OpenStack Platform roles, including Compute, Controller, and various storage roles.
  • Bare metal system control - The Undercloud uses the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) of each node for power management control and a PXE-based service to discover hardware attributes and install OpenStack to each node. This provides a method to provision bare metal systems as OpenStack nodes.
  • Orchestration - The Undercloud provides and reads a set of YAML templates to create an OpenStack environment.
The Red Hat OpenStack Platform director performs these Undercloud functions through a terminal-based command line interface.
The Undercloud consists of the following components:
  • OpenStack Bare Metal (ironic) and OpenStack Compute (nova) - Manages bare metal nodes.
  • OpenStack Networking (neutron) and Open vSwitch - Controls networking for bare metal nodes.
  • OpenStack Image Service (glance) - Stores images that are written to bare metal machines.
  • OpenStack Orchestration (heat) and Puppet - Provides orchestration of nodes and configuration of nodes after the director writes the Overcloud image to disk.
  • OpenStack Telemetry (ceilometer) - Performs monitoring and data collection.
  • OpenStack Identity (keystone) - Provides authentication and authorization for the director's components.
  • MariaDB - The database back end for the director.
  • RabbitMQ - Messaging queue for the director's components.

1.2. Overcloud

The Overcloud is the resulting Red Hat OpenStack Platform environment created using the Undercloud. This includes one or more of the following node types:
  • Controller - Nodes that provide administration, networking, and high availability for the OpenStack environment. An ideal OpenStack environment recommends three of these nodes together in a high availability cluster.
    A default Controller node contains the following components: horizon, keystone, nova API, neutron server, Open vSwitch, glance, cinder volume, cinder API, swift storage, swift proxy, heat engine, heat API, ceilometer, MariaDB, RabbitMQ. The Controller also uses Pacemaker and Galera for high availability services.
  • Compute - These nodes provide computing resources for the OpenStack environment. You can add more Compute nodes to scale out your environment over time.
    A default Compute node contains the following components: nova Compute, nova KVM, ceilometer agent, Open vSwitch
  • Storage - Nodes that provide storage for the OpenStack environment. This includes nodes for:
    • Ceph Storage nodes - Used to form storage clusters. Each node contains a Ceph Object Storage Daemon (OSD). In addition, the director installs Ceph Monitor onto the Controller nodes in situations where it deploys Ceph Storage nodes.
    • Block storage (cinder) - Used as external block storage for HA Controller nodes. This node contains the following components: cinder volume, ceilometer agent, Open vSwitch.
    • Object storage (swift) - These nodes provide a external storage layer for Openstack Swift. The Controller nodes access these nodes through the Swift proxy. This node contains the following components: swift storage, ceilometer agent, Open vSwitch.

1.3. High Availability

The Red Hat OpenStack Platform director uses a Controller node cluster to provide high availability services to your OpenStack Platform environment. The director installs a duplicate set of components on each Controller node and manages them together as a single service. This type of cluster configuration provides a fallback in the event of operational failures on a single Controller node; this provides OpenStack users with a certain degree of continuous operation.
The OpenStack Platform director uses some key pieces of software to manage components on the Controller node:
  • Pacemaker - Pacemaker is a cluster resource manager. Pacemaker manages and monitors the availability of OpenStack components across all nodes in the cluster.
  • HAProxy - Provides load balancing and proxy services to the cluster.
  • Galera - Replicates the Red Hat OpenStack Platform database across the cluster.
  • Memcached - Provides database caching.

Note

Red Hat OpenStack Platform director automatically configures the bulk of high availability on Controller nodes. However, the nodes require some manual configuration to enable fencing and power management controls. This guide includes these instructions.

1.4. Ceph Storage

It is common for large organizations using OpenStack to serve thousands of clients or more. Each OpenStack client is likely to have their own unique needs when consuming block storage resources. Deploying glance (images), cinder (volumes) and/or nova (Compute) on a single node can become impossible to manage in large deployments with thousands of clients. Scaling OpenStack externally resolves this challenge.
However, there is also a practical requirement to virtualize the storage layer with a solution like Red Hat Ceph Storage so that you can scale the Red Hat OpenStack Platform storage layer from tens of terabytes to petabytes (or even exabytes) of storage. Red Hat Ceph Storage provides this storage virtualization layer with high availability and high performance while running on commodity hardware. While virtualization might seem like it comes with a performance penalty, Ceph stripes block device images as objects across the cluster; this means large Ceph Block Device images have better performance than a standalone disk. Ceph Block devices also support caching, copy-on-write cloning, and copy-on-read cloning for enhanced performance.
See Red Hat Ceph Storage for additional information about Red Hat Ceph Storage.

Chapter 2. Requirements

This chapter outlines the main requirements for setting up an environment to provision Red Hat OpenStack Platform using the director. This includes the requirements for setting up the director, accessing it, and the hardware requirements for hosts that the director provisions for OpenStack services.

Note

Prior to deploying Red Hat OpenStack Platform, it is important to consider the characteristics of the available deployment methods. For more information, refer to the recommended best practices for installing Red Hat OpenStack Platform.

2.1. Environment Requirements

Minimum Requirements

  • 1 host machine for the Red Hat OpenStack Platform director
  • 1 host machine for a Red Hat OpenStack Platform Compute node
  • 1 host machine for a Red Hat OpenStack Platform Controller node

Recommended Requirements

  • 1 host machine for the Red Hat OpenStack Platform director
  • 3 host machines for Red Hat OpenStack Platform Compute nodes
  • 3 host machines for Red Hat OpenStack Platform Controller nodes in a cluster
  • 3 host machines for Red Hat Ceph Storage nodes in a cluster
Note the following:
  • It is recommended to use bare metal systems for all nodes. At minimum, the Compute nodes require bare metal systems.
  • All Overcloud bare metal systems require an Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI). This is because the director controls the power management.

2.2. Undercloud Requirements

The Undercloud system hosting the director provides provisioning and management for all nodes in the Overcloud.
  • An 8-core 64-bit x86 processor with support for the Intel 64 or AMD64 CPU extensions.
  • A minimum of 16 GB of RAM.
  • A minimum of 40 GB of available disk space. Make sure to leave at least 10 GB free space before attempting an Overcloud deployment or update. This free space accommodates image conversion and caching during the node provisioning process.
  • A minimum of 2 x 1 Gbps Network Interface Cards. However, it is recommended to use a 10 Gbps interface for Provisioning network traffic, especially if provisioning a large number of nodes in your Overcloud environment.
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.2 or later installed as the host operating system.

Important

Ensure the Undercloud's file system only contains a root and swap partitions if using Logical Volume Management (LVM). For more information, see the Red Hat Customer Portal article "Director node fails to boot after undercloud installation".

2.3. Networking Requirements

The Undercloud host requires at least two networks:
  • Provisioning Network - This is a private network the director uses to provision and manage the Overcloud nodes. The Provisioning network provides DHCP and PXE boot functions to help discover bare metal systems for use in the Overcloud. This network must use a native VLAN on a trunked interface so that the director serves PXE boot and DHCP requests. This is also the network you use to control power management through Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) on all Overcloud nodes.
  • External Network - A separate network for remote connectivity to all nodes. The interface connecting to this network requires a routable IP address, either defined statically, or dynamically through an external DHCP service.
This represents the minimum number of networks required. However, the director can isolate other Red Hat OpenStack Platform network traffic into other networks. Red Hat OpenStack Platform supports both physical interfaces and tagged VLANs for network isolation. For more information on network isolation, see Section 3.2, “Planning Networks”.
Note the following:
  • Typical minimal Overcloud network configuration can include:
    • Single NIC configuration - One NIC for the Provisioning network on the native VLAN and tagged VLANs that use subnets for the different Overcloud network types.
    • Dual NIC configuration - One NIC for the Provisioning network and the other NIC for the External network.
    • Dual NIC configuration - One NIC for the Provisioning network on the native VLAN and the other NIC for tagged VLANs that use subnets for the different Overcloud network types.
    • Multiple NIC configuration - Each NIC uses a subnet for a different Overcloud network type.
  • Additional physical NICs can be used for isolating individual networks, creating bonded interfaces, or for delegating tagged VLAN traffic.
  • If using VLANs to isolate your network traffic types, use a switch that supports 802.1Q standards to provide tagged VLANs.
  • During the Overcloud creation, you will refer to NICs using a single name across all Overcloud machines. Ideally, you should use the same NIC on each Overcloud node for each respective network to avoid confusion. For example, use the primary NIC for the Provisioning network and the secondary NIC for the OpenStack services.
  • Make sure the Provisioning network NIC is not the same NIC used for remote connectivity on the director machine. The director installation creates a bridge using the Provisioning NIC, which drops any remote connections. Use the External NIC for remote connections to the director system.
  • The Provisioning network requires an IP range that fits your environment size. Use the following guidelines to determine the total number of IP addresses to include in this range:
    • Include at least one IP address per node connected to the Provisioning network.
    • If planning a high availability configuration, include an extra IP address for the virtual IP of the cluster.
    • Include additional IP addresses within the range for scaling the environment.

    Note

    Duplicate IP addresses should be avoided on the Provisioning network. For more information, see Section 10.4, “Troubleshooting IP Address Conflicts on the Provisioning Network”.

    Note

    For more information on planning your IP address usage, for example, for storage, provider, and tenant networks, see the Networking Guide.
  • Set all Overcloud systems to PXE boot off the Provisioning NIC, and disable PXE boot on the External NIC (and any other NICs on the system). Also ensure that the Provisioning NIC has PXE boot at the top of the boot order, ahead of hard disks and CD/DVD drives.
  • All Overcloud bare metal systems require an Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) connected to the Provisioning network, as this allows the director to control the power management of each node.
  • Make a note of the following details for each Overcloud system: the MAC address of the Provisioning NIC, the IP address of the IPMI NIC, IPMI username, and IPMI password. This information will be useful later when setting up the Overcloud nodes.
  • If an instance needs to be accessible from the external internet, you can allocate a floating IP address from a public network and associate it with an instance. The instance still retains its private IP but network traffic uses NAT to traverse through to the floating IP address. Note that a floating IP address can only be assigned to a single instance rather than multiple private IP addresses. However, the floating IP address is reserved only for use by a single tenant, allowing the tenant to associate or disassociate with a particular instance as required. This configuration exposes your infrastructure to the external internet. As a result, you might need to check that you are following suitable security practices.
  • To mitigate the risk of network loops in Open vSwitch, only a single interface or a single bond may be a member of a given bridge. If you require multiple bonds or interfaces, you can configure multiple bridges.

Important

Your OpenStack Platform implementation is only as secure as its environment. Follow good security principles in your networking environment to ensure that network access is properly controlled. For example:
  • Use network segmentation to mitigate network movement and isolate sensitive data; a flat network is much less secure.
  • Restrict services access and ports to a minimum.
  • Ensure proper firewall rules and password usage.
  • Ensure that SELinux is enabled.
For details on securing your system, see:

2.4. Overcloud Requirements

The following sections detail the requirements for individual systems and nodes in the Overcloud installation.

Note

Booting an overcloud node from the SAN (FC-AL, FCoE, iSCSI) is not yet supported.

2.4.1. Compute Node Requirements

Compute nodes are responsible for running virtual machine instances after they are launched. Compute nodes must support hardware virtualization. Compute nodes must also have enough memory and disk space to support the requirements of the virtual machine instances they host.
Processor
64-bit x86 processor with support for the Intel 64 or AMD64 CPU extensions, and the AMD-V or Intel VT hardware virtualization extensions enabled. It is recommended this processor has a minimum of 4 cores.
Memory
A minimum of 6 GB of RAM.
Add additional RAM to this requirement based on the amount of memory that you intend to make available to virtual machine instances.
Disk Space
A minimum of 40 GB of available disk space.
Network Interface Cards
A minimum of one 1 Gbps Network Interface Cards, although it is recommended to use at least two NICs in a production environment. Use additional network interface cards for bonded interfaces or to delegate tagged VLAN traffic.
Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
Each Compute node requires IPMI functionality on the server's motherboard.

2.4.2. Controller Node Requirements

Controller nodes are responsible for hosting the core services in a RHEL OpenStack Platform environment, such as the Horizon dashboard, the back-end database server, Keystone authentication, and High Availability services.
Processor
64-bit x86 processor with support for the Intel 64 or AMD64 CPU extensions.
Memory
A minimum of 32 GB of RAM for each Controller node. For optimal performance, it is recommended to use 64 GB for each Controller node.

Important

The amount of recommended memory depends on the number of CPU cores. A greater number of CPU cores requires more memory. For more information on measuring memory requirements, see "Red Hat OpenStack Platform Hardware Requirements for Highly Available Controllers" on the Red Hat Customer Portal.
Disk Space
A minimum of 40 GB of available disk space.
Network Interface Cards
A minimum of 2 x 1 Gbps Network Interface Cards. Use additional network interface cards for bonded interfaces or to delegate tagged VLAN traffic.
Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
Each Controller node requires IPMI functionality on the server's motherboard.

2.4.3. Ceph Storage Node Requirements

Ceph Storage nodes are responsible for providing object storage in a RHEL OpenStack Platform environment.
Processor
64-bit x86 processor with support for the Intel 64 or AMD64 CPU extensions.
Memory
Memory requirements depend on the amount of storage space. Ideally, use at minimum 1 GB of memory per 1 TB of hard disk space.
Disk Space
Storage requirements depends on the amount of memory. Ideally, use at minimum 1 GB of memory per 1 TB of hard disk space.
Disk Layout
The recommended Red Hat Ceph Storage node configuration requires a disk layout similar to the following:
  • /dev/sda - The root disk. The director copies the main Overcloud image to the disk.
  • /dev/sdb - The journal disk. This disk divides into partitions for Ceph OSD journals. For example, /dev/sdb1, /dev/sdb2, /dev/sdb3, and onward. The journal disk is usually a solid state drive (SSD) to aid with system performance.
  • /dev/sdc and onward - The OSD disks. Use as many disks as necessary for your storage requirements.
This guide contains the necessary instructions to map your Ceph Storage disks into the director.
Network Interface Cards
A minimum of one 1 Gbps Network Interface Cards, although it is recommended to use at least two NICs in a production environment. Use additional network interface cards for bonded interfaces or to delegate tagged VLAN traffic. It is recommended to use a 10 Gbps interface for storage node, especially if creating an OpenStack Platform environment that serves a high volume of traffic.
Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
Each Ceph node requires IPMI functionality on the server's motherboard.

Important

The director does not create partitions on the journal disk. You must manually create these journal partitions before the Director can deploy the Ceph Storage nodes.
The Ceph Storage OSDs and journals partitions require GPT disk labels, which you also configure prior to customization. For example, use the following command on the potential Ceph Storage host to create a GPT disk label for a disk or partition:
# parted [device] mklabel gpt

2.5. Repository Requirements

Both the Undercloud and Overcloud require access to Red Hat repositories either through the Red Hat Content Delivery Network, or through Red Hat Satellite 5 or 6. If using a Red Hat Satellite Server, synchronize the required repositories to your OpenStack Platform environment. Use the following list of CDN channel names as a guide:

Table 2.1. OpenStack Platform Repositories

Name
Repository
Description of Requirement
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Server (RPMs)
rhel-7-server-rpms
Base operating system repository.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Server - Extras (RPMs)
rhel-7-server-extras-rpms
Contains Red Hat OpenStack Platform dependencies.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Server - RH Common (RPMs)
rhel-7-server-rh-common-rpms
Contains tools for deploying and configuring Red Hat OpenStack Platform.
Red Hat Satellite Tools for RHEL 7 Server RPMs x86_64
rhel-7-server-satellite-tools-6.1-rpms
Tools for managing hosts with Red Hat Satellite 6.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux High Availability (for RHEL 7 Server) (RPMs)
rhel-ha-for-rhel-7-server-rpms
High availability tools for Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Used for Controller node high availability.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux OpenStack Platform 8 director for RHEL 7 (RPMs)
rhel-7-server-openstack-8-director-rpms
Red Hat OpenStack Platform director repository. Red Hat OpenStack Platform director repository. Also provides some tools for use on director-deployed Overclouds.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux OpenStack Platform 8 for RHEL 7 (RPMs)
rhel-7-server-openstack-8-rpms
Core Red Hat OpenStack Platform repository.
Red Hat Ceph Storage OSD 1.3 for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Server (RPMs)
rhel-7-server-rhceph-1.3-osd-rpms
(For Ceph Storage Nodes) Repository for Ceph Storage Object Storage daemon. Installed on Ceph Storage nodes.
Red Hat Ceph Storage MON 1.3 for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Server (RPMs)
rhel-7-server-rhceph-1.3-mon-rpms
(For Ceph Storage Nodes) Repository for Ceph Storage Monitor daemon. Installed on Controller nodes in OpenStack environments using Ceph Storage nodes.

Note

To configure repositories for your Red Hat OpenStack Platform environment in an offline network, see "Configuring Red Hat OpenStack Platform Director in an Offline Environment" on the Red Hat Customer Portal.

Chapter 3. Planning your Overcloud

The following section provides some guidelines on planning various aspects of your Red Hat OpenStack Platform environment. This includes defining node roles, planning your network topology, and storage.

3.1. Planning Node Deployment Roles

The director provides multiple default node types for building your Overcloud. These node types are:
Controller
Provides key services for controlling your environment. This includes the dashboard (horizon), authentication (keystone), image storage (glance), networking (neutron), orchestration (heat), and high availability services (if using more than one Controller node). A Red Hat OpenStack Platform environment requires either:
  • One node for a basic environment
  • Three nodes for a highly available environment
Environments with two nodes or more than three nodes are not supported.
Compute
A physical server that acts as a hypervisor, and provides the processing capabilities required for running virtual machines in the environment. A basic Red Hat OpenStack Platform environment requires at least one Compute node.
Ceph-Storage
A host that provides Red Hat Ceph Storage. Additional Ceph Storage hosts scale into a cluster. This deployment role is optional.
Cinder-Storage
A host that provides external block storage for OpenStack's cinder service. This deployment role is optional.
Swift-Storage
A host that provides external object storage for OpenStack's Swift service. This deployment role is optional.
The following table provides some example of different Overclouds and defines the node types for each scenario.

Table 3.1. Node Deployment Roles for Scenarios

Controller
Compute
Ceph-Storage
Swift-Storage
Cinder-Storage
Total
Small Overcloud
1
1
-
-
-
2
Medium Overcloud
1
3
-
-
-
4
Medium Overcloud with additional Object and Block storage
1
3
-
1
1
6
Medium Overcloud with High Availability
3
3
-
-
-
6
Medium Overcloud with High Availability and Ceph Storage
3
3
3
-
-
9

3.2. Planning Networks

It is important to plan your environment's networking topology and subnets so that you can properly map roles and services to correctly communicate with each other. Red Hat OpenStack Platform uses the neutron networking service, which operates autonomously and manages software-based networks, static and floating IP addresses, and DHCP. The director deploys this service on each Controller node in an Overcloud environment.
Red Hat OpenStack Platform maps the different services onto separate network traffic types, which are assigned to the various subnets in your environments. These network traffic types include:

Table 3.2. Network Type Assignments

Network Type
Description
Used By
IPMI
Network used for power management of nodes. This network is predefined before the installation of the Undercloud.
All nodes
Provisioning
The director uses this network traffic type to deploy new nodes over PXE boot and orchestrate the installation of OpenStack Platform on the Overcloud bare metal servers.  This network is predefined before the installation of the Undercloud.
All nodes
Internal API
The Internal API network is used for communication between the OpenStack services using API communication, RPC messages, and database communication.
Controller, Compute, Cinder Storage, Swift Storage
Tenant
Neutron provides each tenant with their own networks using either VLAN segregation (where each tenant network is a network VLAN), or tunneling (through VXLAN or GRE). Network traffic is isolated within each tenant network. Each tenant network has an IP subnet associated with it, and network namespaces means that multiple tenant networks can use the same address range without causing conflicts.
Controller, Compute
Storage
Block Storage, NFS, iSCSI, and others. Ideally, this would be isolated to an entirely separate switch fabric for performance reasons.
All nodes
Storage Management
OpenStack Object Storage (swift) uses this network to synchronize data objects between participating replica nodes. The proxy service acts as the intermediary interface between user requests and the underlying storage layer. The proxy receives incoming requests and locates the necessary replica to retrieve the requested data. Services that use a Ceph backend connect over the Storage Management network, since they do not interact with Ceph directly but rather use the frontend service. Note that the RBD driver is an exception, as this traffic connects directly to Ceph.
Controller, Ceph Storage, Cinder Storage, Swift Storage
External
Hosts the OpenStack Dashboard (horizon) for graphical system management, the public APIs for OpenStack services, and performs SNAT for incoming traffic destined for instances. If the external network uses private IP addresses (as per RFC-1918), then further NAT must be performed for traffic originating from the internet.
Controller
Floating IP
Allows incoming traffic to reach instances using 1-to-1 IP address mapping between the floating IP address, and the IP address actually assigned to the instance in the tenant network. If hosting the Floating IPs on a VLAN separate from External, you can trunk the Floating IP VLAN to the Controller nodes and add the VLAN through Neutron after Overcloud creation. This provides a means to create multiple Floating IP networks attached to multiple bridges. The VLANs are trunked but are not configured as interfaces. Instead, neutron creates an OVS port with the VLAN segmentation ID on the chosen bridge for each Floating IP network.
Controller
Management
Provides access for system administration functions such as SSH access, DNS traffic, and NTP traffic. This network also acts as a gateway for non-Controller nodes.
All nodes
In a typical Red Hat OpenStack Platform installation, the number of network types often exceeds the number of physical network links. In order to connect all the networks to the proper hosts, the Overcloud uses VLAN tagging to deliver more than one network per interface. Most of the networks are isolated subnets but some require a Layer 3 gateway to provide routing for Internet access or infrastructure network connectivity.

Note

It is recommended that you deploy a project network (tunneled with GRE or VXLAN) even if you intend to use a neutron VLAN mode (with tunneling disabled) at deployment time. This requires minor customization at deployment time and leaves the option available to use tunnel networks as utility networks or virtualization networks in the future. You still create Tenant networks using VLANs, but you can also create VXLAN tunnels for special-use networks without consuming tenant VLANs. It is possible to add VXLAN capability to a deployment with a Tenant VLAN, but it is not possible to add a Tenant VLAN to an existing Overcloud without causing disruption.
The director provides a method for mapping six of these traffic types to certain subnets or VLANs. These traffic types include:
  • Internal API
  • Storage
  • Storage Management
  • Tenant Networks
  • External
  • Management
Any unassigned networks are automatically assigned to the same subnet as the Provisioning network.
The diagram below provides an example of a network topology where the networks are isolated on separate VLANs. Each Overcloud node uses two interfaces (nic2 and nic3) in a bond to deliver these networks over their respective VLANs. Meanwhile, each Overcloud node communicates with the Undercloud over the Provisioning network through a native VLAN using nic1.
Example VLAN Topology using Bonded Interfaces

Figure 3.1. Example VLAN Topology using Bonded Interfaces

The following table provides examples of network traffic mappings different network layouts:

Table 3.3. Network Mappings

Mappings
Total Interfaces
Total VLANs
Flat Network with External Access
Network 1 - Provisioning, Internal API, Storage, Storage Management, Tenant Networks
Network 2 - External, Floating IP (mapped after Overcloud creation)
2
2
Isolated Networks
Network 1 - Provisioning
Network 2 - Internal API
Network 3 - Tenant Networks
Network 4 - Storage
Network 5 - Storage Management
Network 6 - Management
Network 7 - External, Floating IP (mapped after Overcloud creation)
3 (includes 2 bonded interfaces)
7

3.3. Planning Storage

The director provides different storage options for the Overcloud environment. This includes:
Ceph Storage Nodes
The director creates a set of scalable storage nodes using Red Hat Ceph Storage. The Overcloud uses these nodes for:
  • Images - Glance manages images for VMs. Images are immutable. OpenStack treats images as binary blobs and downloads them accordingly. You can use glance to store images in a Ceph Block Device.
  • Volumes - Cinder volumes are block devices. OpenStack uses volumes to boot VMs, or to attach volumes to running VMs. OpenStack manages volumes using Cinder services. You can use Cinder to boot a VM using a copy-on-write clone of an image.
  • Guest Disks - Guest disks are guest operating system disks. By default, when you boot a virtual machine with nova, its disk appears as a file on the filesystem of the hypervisor (usually under /var/lib/nova/instances/<uuid>/). It is possible to boot every virtual machine inside Ceph directly without using cinder, which is advantageous because it allows you to perform maintenance operations easily with the live-migration process. Additionally, if your hypervisor dies it is also convenient to trigger nova evacuate and run the virtual machine elsewhere almost seamlessly.

Important

Ceph doesn't support QCOW2 for hosting a virtual machine disk. If you want to boot virtual machines in Ceph (ephemeral backend or boot from volume), the glance image format must be RAW.
See Red Hat Ceph Storage Architecture Guide for additional information.
Swift Storage Nodes
The director creates an external object storage node. This is useful in situations where you need to scale or replace controller nodes in your Overcloud environment but need to retain object storage outside of a high availability cluster.

Chapter 4. Installing the Undercloud

The first step to creating your Red Hat OpenStack Platform environment is to install the director on the Undercloud system. This involves a few prerequisite steps to enable the necessary subscriptions and repositories.

4.1. Creating a Director Installation User

The director installation process requires a non-root user to execute commands. Use the following commands to create the user named stack and set a password:
[root@director ~]# useradd stack
[root@director ~]# passwd stack  # specify a password
Disable password requirements for this user when using sudo:
[root@director ~]# echo "stack ALL=(root) NOPASSWD:ALL" | tee -a /etc/sudoers.d/stack
[root@director ~]# chmod 0440 /etc/sudoers.d/stack
Switch to the new stack user:
[root@director ~]# su - stack
[stack@director ~]$
Continue the director installation as the stack user.

4.2. Creating Directories for Templates and Images

The director uses system images and Heat templates to create the Overcloud environment. To keep these files organized, we recommend creating directories for images and templates:
$ mkdir ~/images
$ mkdir ~/templates
Other sections in this guide use these two directories to store certain files.

4.3. Setting the Hostname for the System

The director requires a fully qualified domain name for its installation and configuration process. This means you may need to set the hostname of your director's host. Check the hostname of your host:
$ hostname    # Checks the base hostname
$ hostname -f # Checks the long hostname (FQDN)
Use hostnamectl to set a hostname if required:
$ sudo hostnamectl set-hostname manager.example.com
$ sudo hostnamectl set-hostname --transient manager.example.com
The director also requires an entry for the system's hostname and base name in /etc/hosts. For example, if the system is named manager.example.com, then /etc/hosts requires an entry like:
127.0.0.1   manager.example.com manager localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4

4.4. Registering your System

To install the Red Hat OpenStack Platform director, first register the host system using Red Hat Subscription Manager, and subscribe to the required channels.

Procedure 4.1. Subscribing to the Required Channels Using Subscription Manager

  1. Register your system with the Content Delivery Network, entering your Customer Portal user name and password when prompted:
    $ sudo subscription-manager register
  2. Find the entitlement pool for the Red Hat OpenStack Platform director.
    $ sudo subscription-manager list --available --all
    
  3. Use the pool ID located in the previous step to attach the Red Hat OpenStack Platform 8 entitlements:
    $ sudo subscription-manager attach --pool=pool_id
  4. Disable all default repositories, and then enable the required Red Hat Enterprise Linux repositories:
    $ sudo subscription-manager repos --disable=*
    $ sudo subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-7-server-rpms --enable=rhel-7-server-extras-rpms --enable=rhel-7-server-openstack-8-rpms --enable=rhel-7-server-openstack-8-director-rpms --enable rhel-7-server-rh-common-rpms
    
    These repositories contain packages the director installation requires.

    Important

    Only enable the repositories listed above. Additional repositories can cause package and software conflicts. Do not enable any additional repositories.
  5. Perform an update on your system to make sure you have the latest base system packages:
    $ sudo yum update -y
    $ sudo reboot
The system is now ready for the director installation.

4.5. Installing the Director Packages

Use the following command to install the required command line tools for director installation and configuration:
[stack@director ~]$ sudo yum install -y python-tripleoclient
This installs all packages required for the director installation.

4.6. Configuring the Director

The director installation process requires certain settings to determine your network configurations. The settings are stored in a template located in the stack user's home directory as undercloud.conf.
Red Hat provides a basic template to help determine the required settings for your installation. Copy this template to the stack user's home directory:
$ cp /usr/share/instack-undercloud/undercloud.conf.sample ~/undercloud.conf
The basic template contains the following parameters:
local_ip
The IP address defined for the director's Provisioning NIC. This is also the IP address the director uses for its DHCP and PXE boot services. Leave this value as the default 192.0.2.1/24 unless you are using a different subnet for the Provisioning network, for example, if it conflicts with an existing IP address or subnet in your environment.
network_gateway
The gateway for the Overcloud instances. This is the Undercloud host, which forwards traffic to the External network. Leave this as the default 192.0.2.1 unless you are either using a different IP address for the director or want to directly use an external gateway.

Note

The director's configuration script also automatically enables IP forwarding using the relevant sysctl kernel parameter.
undercloud_public_vip
The IP address defined for the director's Public API. Use an IP address on the Provisioning network that does not conflict with any other IP addresses or address ranges. For example, 192.0.2.2. The director configuration attaches this IP address to its software bridge as a routed IP address, which uses the /32 netmask.
undercloud_admin_vip
The IP address defined for the director's Admin API. Use an IP address on the Provisioning network that does not conflict with any other IP addresses or address ranges. For example, 192.0.2.3. The director configuration attaches this IP address to its software bridge as a routed IP address, which uses the /32 netmask.
undercloud_service_certificate
The location and filename of the certificate for OpenStack SSL communication. Ideally, you obtain this certificate from a trusted certificate authority. Otherwise generate your own self-signed certificate using the guidelines in Appendix A, SSL/TLS Certificate Configuration. These guidelines also contain instructions on setting the SELinux context for your certificate, whether self-signed or from an authority.
local_interface
The chosen interface for the director's Provisioning NIC. This is also the device the director uses for its DHCP and PXE boot services. Change this value to your chosen device. To see which device is connected, use the ip addr command. For example, this is the result of an ip addr command:
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 52:54:00:75:24:09 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.122.178/24 brd 192.168.122.255 scope global dynamic eth0
       valid_lft 3462sec preferred_lft 3462sec
    inet6 fe80::5054:ff:fe75:2409/64 scope link
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
3: eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noop state DOWN
    link/ether 42:0b:c2:a5:c1:26 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
In this example, the External NIC uses eth0 and the Provisioning NIC uses eth1, which is currently not configured. In this case, set the local_interface to eth1. The configuration script attaches this interface to a custom bridge defined with the inspection_interface parameter.
network_cidr
The network that the director uses to manage Overcloud instances. This is the Provisioning network. Leave this as the default 192.0.2.0/24 unless you are using a different subnet for the Provisioning network.
masquerade_network
Defines the network that will masquerade for external access. This provides the Provisioning network with a degree of network address translation (NAT) so that it has external access through the director. Leave this as the default (192.0.2.0/24) unless you are using a different subnet for the Provisioning network.
dhcp_start, dhcp_end
The start and end of the DHCP allocation range for Overcloud nodes. Ensure this range contains enough IP addresses to allocate your nodes.
inspection_interface
The bridge the director uses for node introspection. This is custom bridge that the director configuration creates. The LOCAL_INTERFACE attaches to this bridge. Leave this as the default br-ctlplane.
inspection_iprange
A range of IP address that the director's introspection service uses during the PXE boot and provisioning process. Use comma-separated values to define the start and end of this range. For example, 192.0.2.100,192.0.2.120. Make sure this range contains enough IP addresses for your nodes and does not conflict with the range for dhcp_start and dhcp_end.
inspection_extras
Defines whether to enable extra hardware collection during the inspection process. Requires python-hardware or python-hardware-detect package on the introspection image.
inspection_runbench
Runs a set of benchmarks during node introspection. Set to true to enable. This option is necessary if you intend to perform benchmark analysis when inspecting the hardware of registered nodes. See Appendix C, Automatic Profile Tagging for more details.
undercloud_debug
Sets the log level of Undercloud services to DEBUG. Set this value to true to enable.
enable_tempest
Defines whether to install the validation tools. The default is set to false, but you can can enable using true.
ipxe_deploy
Defines whether to use iPXE or standard PXE. The default is true, which enables iPXE. Set to false to set to standard PXE. For more information, see "Changing from iPXE to PXE in Red Hat OpenStack Platform director" on the Red Hat Customer Portal.
store_events
Defines whether to store events in Ceilometer on the Undercloud.
undercloud_db_password, undercloud_admin_token, undercloud_admin_password, undercloud_glance_password, etc
The remaining parameters are the access details for all of the director's services. No change is required for the values. The director's configuration script automatically generates these values if blank in undercloud.conf. You can retrieve all values after the configuration script completes.
Modify the values for these parameters to suit your network. When complete, save the file and run the following command:
$ openstack undercloud install
This launches the director's configuration script. The director installs additional packages and configures its services to suit the settings in the undercloud.conf. This script takes several minutes to complete.
The configuration script generates two files when complete:
  • undercloud-passwords.conf - A list of all passwords for the director's services.
  • stackrc - A set of initialization variables to help you access the director's command line tools.
To initialize the stack user to use the command line tools, run the following command:
$ source ~/stackrc
You can now use the director's command line tools.

4.7. Obtaining Images for Overcloud Nodes

The director requires several disk images for provisioning Overcloud nodes. This includes:
  • An introspection kernel and ramdisk - Used for bare metal system introspection over PXE boot.
  • A deployment kernel and ramdisk - Used for system provisioning and deployment.
  • An Overcloud kernel, ramdisk, and full image - A base Overcloud system that is written to the node's hard disk.
Obtain these images from the rhosp-director-images and rhosp-director-images-ipa packages:
$ sudo yum install rhosp-director-images rhosp-director-images-ipa
Copy the new image archives to the images directory on the stack user's home (/home/stack/images):
$ cp /usr/share/rhosp-director-images/overcloud-full-latest-8.0.tar ~/images/.
$ cp /usr/share/rhosp-director-images/ironic-python-agent-latest-8.0.tar ~/images/.
Extract the images from the archives:
$ cd ~/images
$ for tarfile in *.tar; do tar -xf $tarfile; done
Import these images into the director:
$ openstack overcloud image upload --image-path /home/stack/images/
This uploads the following images into the director: bm-deploy-kernel, bm-deploy-ramdisk, overcloud-full, overcloud-full-initrd, overcloud-full-vmlinuz. These are the images for deployment and the Overcloud. The script also installs the introspection images on the director's PXE server.
View a list of the images in the CLI:
$ openstack image list
+--------------------------------------+------------------------+
| ID                                   | Name                   |
+--------------------------------------+------------------------+
| 765a46af-4417-4592-91e5-a300ead3faf6 | bm-deploy-ramdisk      |
| 09b40e3d-0382-4925-a356-3a4b4f36b514 | bm-deploy-kernel       |
| ef793cd0-e65c-456a-a675-63cd57610bd5 | overcloud-full         |
| 9a51a6cb-4670-40de-b64b-b70f4dd44152 | overcloud-full-initrd  |
| 4f7e33f4-d617-47c1-b36f-cbe90f132e5d | overcloud-full-vmlinuz |
+--------------------------------------+------------------------+
This list will not show the introspection PXE images (discovery-ramdisk.*). The director copies these files to /httpboot.
[stack@host1 ~]$ ls -l /httpboot
total 341460
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   5153184 Mar 31 06:58 agent.kernel
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 344491465 Mar 31 06:59 agent.ramdisk
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root       337 Mar 31 06:23 inspector.ipxe

4.8. Setting a Nameserver on the Undercloud's Neutron Subnet

Overcloud nodes require a nameserver so that they can resolve hostnames through DNS. For a standard Overcloud without network isolation, the nameserver is defined using the Undercloud's neutron subnet. Use the following commands to define the nameserver for the environment:
$ neutron subnet-list
$ neutron subnet-update [subnet-uuid] --dns-nameserver [nameserver-ip]
View the subnet to verify the nameserver:
$ neutron subnet-show [subnet-uuid]
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                         |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
| ...               |                                               |
| dns_nameservers   | 8.8.8.8                                       |
| ...               |                                               |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+

Important

If you aim to isolate service traffic onto separate networks, the Overcloud nodes use the DnsServer parameter in your network environment templates. This is covered in the advanced configuration scenario in Section 6.2.2, “Creating a Network Environment File”.

4.9. Backing Up the Undercloud

Red Hat provides a process to back up important data from the Undercloud host and the Red Hat OpenStack Platform director. For more information about Undercloud backups, see the Back Up and Restore Red Hat OpenStack Platform guide.

4.10. Completing the Undercloud Configuration

This completes the Undercloud configuration. The next chapter explores basic Overcloud configuration, including registering nodes, inspecting them, and then tagging them into various node roles.

Chapter 5. Configuring Basic Overcloud Requirements

This chapter provides the basic configuration steps for an enterprise-level OpenStack Platform environment. An Overcloud with a basic onfiguration contains no custom features. However, you can add advanced configuration options to this basic Overcloud and customize it to your specifications using the instructions in Chapter 6, Configuring Advanced Customizations for the Overcloud.
For the examples in this chapter, all nodes in this chapter are bare metal systems using IPMI for power management. For more supported power management types and their options, see Appendix B, Power Management Drivers.

Workflow

  1. Create a node definition template and register blank nodes in the director.
  2. Inspect hardware of all nodes.
  3. Tag nodes into roles.
  4. Define additional node properties.

Requirements

  • The director node created in Chapter 4, Installing the Undercloud
  • A set of bare metal machines for your nodes. The number of node required depends on the type of Overcloud you intend to create (see Section 3.1, “Planning Node Deployment Roles” for information on Overcloud roles). These machines also must comply with the requirements set for each node type. For these requirements, see Section 2.4, “Overcloud Requirements”. These nodes do not require an operating system. The director copies a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 image to each node.
  • One network connection for our Provisioning network, which is configured as a native VLAN. All nodes must connect to this network and comply with the requirements set in Section 2.3, “Networking Requirements”. For the examples in this chapter, we use 192.0.2.0/24 as the Provisioning subnet with the following IP address assignments:

    Table 5.1. Provisioning Network IP Assignments

    Node Name
    IP Address
    MAC Address
    IPMI IP Address
    Director
    192.0.2.1
    aa:aa:aa:aa:aa:aa
    Controller
    DHCP defined
    bb:bb:bb:bb:bb:bb
    192.0.2.205
    Compute
    DHCP defined
    cc:cc:cc:cc:cc:cc
    192.0.2.206
  • All other network types use the Provisioning network for OpenStack services. However, you can create additional networks for other network traffic types. For more information, see Section 6.2, “Isolating Networks”.

5.1. Registering Nodes for the Overcloud

The director requires a node definition template. This file (instackenv.json) uses the JSON format file, and contains the hardware and power management details for your nodes.
This template uses the following attributes:
pm_type
The power management driver to use. This example uses the IPMI driver (pxe_ipmitool).
pm_user, pm_password
The IPMI username and password.
pm_addr
The IP address of the IPMI device.
mac
(Optional) A list of MAC addresses for the network interfaces on the node. Use only the MAC address for the Provisioning NIC of each system.
cpu
(Optional) The number of CPUs on the node.
memory
(Optional) The amount of memory in MB.
disk
(Optional) The size of the hard disk in GB.
arch
(Optional) The system architecture.
For example, a template for registering two nodes might look like this:
{
    "nodes":[
        {
            "mac":[
                "bb:bb:bb:bb:bb:bb"
            ],
            "cpu":"4",
            "memory":"6144",
            "disk":"40",
            "arch":"x86_64",
            "pm_type":"pxe_ipmitool",
            "pm_user":"admin",
            "pm_password":"p@55w0rd!",
            "pm_addr":"192.0.2.205"
        },
        {
            "mac":[
                "cc:cc:cc:cc:cc:cc"
            ],
            "cpu":"4",
            "memory":"6144",
            "disk":"40",
            "arch":"x86_64",
            "pm_type":"pxe_ipmitool",
            "pm_user":"admin",
            "pm_password":"p@55w0rd!",
            "pm_addr":"192.0.2.206"
        }
    ]
}

Note

For more supported power management types and their options, see Appendix B, Power Management Drivers.
After creating the template, save the file to the stack user's home directory (/home/stack/instackenv.json), then import it into the director using the following command:
$ openstack baremetal import --json ~/instackenv.json
This imports the template and registers each node from the template into the director.
Assign the kernel and ramdisk images to all nodes:
$ openstack baremetal configure boot
The nodes are now registered and configured in the director. View a list of these nodes in the CLI :
$ ironic node-list

5.2. Inspecting the Hardware of Nodes

The director can run an introspection process on each node. This process causes each node to boot an introspection agent over PXE. This agent collects hardware data from the node and sends it back to the director. The director then stores this introspection data in the OpenStack Object Storage (swift) service running on the director. The director uses hardware information for various purposes such as profile tagging, benchmarking, and manual root disk assignment.

Note

You can also create policy files to automatically tag nodes into profiles immediately after introspection. For more information on creating policy files and including them in the introspection process, see Appendix C, Automatic Profile Tagging. Alternatively, you can manually tag nodes into profiles as per the instructions in Section 5.3, “Tagging Nodes into Profiles”.
Run the following command to inspect the hardware attributes of each node:
$ openstack baremetal introspection bulk start
Monitor the progress of the introspection using the following command in a separate terminal window:
$ sudo journalctl -l -u openstack-ironic-inspector -u openstack-ironic-inspector-dnsmasq -u openstack-ironic-conductor -f

Important

Make sure this process runs to completion. This process usually takes 15 minutes for bare metal nodes.
Alternatively, perform a single introspection on each node individually. Set the node to maintenance mode, perform the introspection, then move the node out of maintenance mode:
$ ironic node-set-maintenance [NODE UUID] true
$ openstack baremetal introspection start [NODE UUID]
$ ironic node-set-maintenance [NODE UUID] false

5.3. Tagging Nodes into Profiles

After registering and inspecting the hardware of each node, you will tag them into specific profiles. These profile tags match your nodes to flavors, and in turn the flavors are assigned to a deployment role. Default profile flavors compute, control, swift-storage, ceph-storage, and block-storage are created during Undercloud installation and are usable without modification in most environments.

Note

For a large number of nodes, use automatic profile tagging. See Appendix C, Automatic Profile Tagging for more details.
To tag a node into a specific profile, add a profile option to the properties/capabilities parameter for each node. For example, to tag your nodes to use Controller and Compute profiles respectively, use the following commands:
$ ironic node-update 58c3d07e-24f2-48a7-bbb6-6843f0e8ee13 add properties/capabilities='profile:compute,boot_option:local'
$ ironic node-update 1a4e30da-b6dc-499d-ba87-0bd8a3819bc0 add properties/capabilities='profile:control,boot_option:local'
The addition of the profile:compute and profile:control options tag the two nodes into each respective profiles.
These commands also set the boot_option:local parameter, which defines the boot mode for each node.

Important

The director currently does not support UEFI boot mode.
After completing node tagging, check the assigned profiles or possible profiles:
$ openstack overcloud profiles list

5.4. Defining the Root Disk for Nodes

Some nodes might use multiple disks. This means the director needs to identify the disk to use for the root disk during provisioning. There are several properties you can use to help the director identify the root disk:
  • model (String): Device identifier.
  • vendor (String): Device vendor.
  • serial (String): Disk serial number.
  • wwn (String): Unique storage identifier.
  • hctl (String): Host:Channel:Target:Lun for SCSI.
  • size (Integer): Size of the device in GB.
In this example, you specify the drive to deploy the Overcloud image using the serial number of the disk to determine the root device.
First, collect a copy of each node's hardware information that the director obtained from the introspection. This information is stored in the OpenStack Object Storage server (swift). Download this information to a new directory:
$ mkdir swift-data
$ cd swift-data
$ export IRONIC_DISCOVERD_PASSWORD=`sudo grep admin_password /etc/ironic-inspector/inspector.conf | awk '! /^#/ {print $NF}'`
$ for node in $(ironic node-list | awk '!/UUID/ {print $2}'); do swift -U service:ironic -K $IRONIC_DISCOVERD_PASSWORD download ironic-inspector inspector_data-$node; done
This downloads the data from each inspector_data object from introspection. All objects use the node UUID as part of the object name:
$ ls -1
inspector_data-15fc0edc-eb8d-4c7f-8dc0-a2a25d5e09e3
inspector_data-46b90a4d-769b-4b26-bb93-50eaefcdb3f4
inspector_data-662376ed-faa8-409c-b8ef-212f9754c9c7
inspector_data-6fc70fe4-92ea-457b-9713-eed499eda206
inspector_data-9238a73a-ec8b-4976-9409-3fcff9a8dca3
inspector_data-9cbfe693-8d55-47c2-a9d5-10e059a14e07
inspector_data-ad31b32d-e607-4495-815c-2b55ee04cdb1
inspector_data-d376f613-bc3e-4c4b-ad21-847c4ec850f8
Check the disk information for each node. The following command displays each node ID and the disk information:
$ for node in $(ironic node-list | awk '!/UUID/ {print $2}'); do echo "NODE: $node" ; cat inspector_data-$node | jq '.inventory.disks' ; echo "-----" ; done
For example, the data for one node might show three disk:
NODE: 46b90a4d-769b-4b26-bb93-50eaefcdb3f4
[
  {
    "size": 1000215724032,
    "vendor": "ATA",
    "name": "/dev/sda",
    "model": "WDC WD1002F9YZ",
    "wwn": "0x0000000000000001",
    "serial": "WD-000000000001"
  },
  {
    "size": 1000215724032,
    "vendor": "ATA",
    "name": "/dev/sdb",
    "model": "WDC WD1002F9YZ",
    "wwn": "0x0000000000000002",
    "serial": "WD-000000000002"
  },
  {
    "size": 1000215724032,
    "vendor": "ATA",
    "name": "/dev/sdc",
    "model": "WDC WD1002F9YZ",
    "wwn": "0x0000000000000003",
    "serial": "WD-000000000003"
  },
]
For this example, set the root device to disk 2, which has WD-000000000002 as the serial number. This requires a change to the root_device parameter for the node definition:
$ ironic node-update 97e3f7b3-5629-473e-a187-2193ebe0b5c7 add properties/root_device='{"serial": "WD-000000000002"}'
This helps the director identify the specific disk to use as the root disk. When we initiate our Overcloud creation, the director provisions this node and writes the Overcloud image to this disk.

Note

Make sure to configure the BIOS of each node to include booting from the chosen root disk. The recommended boot order is network boot, then root disk boot.

Important

Do not use name to set the root disk as this value can change when the node boots.

5.5. Completing Basic Configuration

This concludes the required steps for basic configuration of your Overcloud. You can now either:

Important

A basic Overcloud uses local LVM storage for block storage, which is not a supported configuration. It is recommended to use an external storage solution for block storage. For example, see Section 6.7, “Configuring NFS Storage” for configuring an NFS share for block storage.

Chapter 6. Configuring Advanced Customizations for the Overcloud

This chapter follows on from Chapter 5, Configuring Basic Overcloud Requirements. At this point, the director has registered the nodes and configured the necessary services for Overcloud creation. Now you can customize your Overcloud using the methods in this chapter.

Note

The examples in this chapter are optional steps for configuring the Overcloud. These steps are only required to provide the Overcloud with additional functionality. Use only the steps that apply to the needs of your environment.

6.1. Understanding Heat Templates

The custom configurations in this chapter use Heat templates and environment files to define certain aspects of the Overcloud, such as network isolation and network interface configuration. This section provides a basic introduction to heat templates so that you can understand the structure and format of these templates in the context of the Red Hat OpenStack Platform director.

6.1.1. Heat Templates

The director uses Heat Orchestration Templates (HOT) as a template format for its Overcloud deployment plan. Templates in HOT format are mostly expressed in YAML format. The purpose of a template is to define and create a stack, which is a collection of resources that heat creates, and the configuration of the resources. Resources are objects in OpenStack and can include compute resources, network configuration, security groups, scaling rules, and custom resources.
The structure of a Heat template has three main sections:
  • Parameters - These are settings passed to heat, which provides a way to customize a stack, and any default values for parameters without passed values. These are defined in the parameters section of a template.
  • Resources - These are the specific objects to create and configure as part of a stack. OpenStack contains a set of core resources that span across all components. These are defined in the resources section of a template.
  • Output - These are values passed from heat after the stack's creation. You can access these values either through the heat API or client tools. These are defined in the output section of a template.
Here is an example of a basic heat template:
heat_template_version: 2013-05-23

description: > A very basic Heat template.

parameters:
  key_name:
    type: string
    default: lars
    description: Name of an existing key pair to use for the instance
  flavor:
    type: string
    description: Instance type for the instance to be created
    default: m1.small
  image:
    type: string
    default: cirros
    description: ID or name of the image to use for the instance

resources:
  my_instance:
    type: OS::Nova::Server
    properties:
      name: My Cirros Instance
      image: { get_param: image }
      flavor: { get_param: flavor }
      key_name: { get_param: key_name }

output:
  instance_name:
    description: Get the instance's name
    value: { get_attr: [ my_instance, name ] }
This template uses the resource type type: OS::Nova::Server to create an instance called my_instance with a particular flavor, image, and key. The stack can return the value of instance_name, which is called My Cirros Instance.
When Heat processes a template it creates a stack for the template and a set of child stacks for resource templates. This creates a hierarchy of stacks that descend from the main stack you define with your template. You can view the stack hierarchy using this following command:
$ heat stack-list --show-nested

6.1.2. Environment Files

An environment file is a special type of template that provides customization for your Heat templates. This includes three key parts:
  • Resource Registry - This section defines custom resource names, linked to other heat templates. This essentially provides a method to create custom resources that do not exist within the core resource collection. These are defined in the resource_registry section of an environment file.
  • Parameters - These are common settings you apply to the top-level template's parameters. For example, if you have a template that deploys nested stacks, such as resource registry mappings, the parameters only apply to the top-level template and not templates for the nested resources. Parameters are defined in the parameters section of an environment file.
  • Parameter Defaults - These parameters modify the default values for parameters in all templates. For example, if you have a Heat template that deploys nested stacks, such as resource registry mappings,the parameter defaults apply to all templates. In other words, the top-level template and those defining all nested resources. The parameter defaults are defined in the parameter_defaults section of an environment file.

Important

It is recommended to use parameter_defaults instead of parameters When creating custom environment files for your Overcloud. This is so the parameters apply to all stack templates for the Overcloud.
An example of a basic environment file:
resource_registry:
  OS::Nova::Server::MyServer: myserver.yaml

parameter_defaults:
  NetworkName: my_network

parameters:
  MyIP: 192.168.0.1
For example, this environment file (my_env.yaml) might be included when creating a stack from a certain Heat template (my_template.yaml). The my_env.yaml files creates a new resource type called OS::Nova::Server::MyServer. The myserver.yaml file is a Heat template file that provides an implementation for this resource type that overrides any built-in ones. You can include the OS::Nova::Server::MyServer resource in your my_template.yaml file.
The MyIP applies a parameter only to the main Heat template that deploys along with this environment file. In this example, it only applies to the parameters in my_template.yaml.
The NetworkName applies to both the main Heat template (in this example, my_template.yaml) and the templates associated with resources included the main template, such as the OS::Nova::Server::MyServer resource and its myserver.yaml template in this example.

6.1.3. Core Overcloud Heat Templates

The director contains a core heat template collection for the Overcloud. This collection is stored in /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates.
There are many heat templates and environment files in this collection. However, the main files and directories to note in this template collection are:
  • overcloud.yaml - This is the main template file used to create the Overcloud environment.
  • overcloud-resource-registry-puppet.yaml - This is the main environment file used to create the Overcloud environment. It provides a set of configurations for Puppet modules stored on the Overcloud image. After the director writes the Overcloud image to each node, heat starts the Puppet configuration for each node using the resources registered in this environment file.
  • environments - A directory that contains example environment files to apply to your Overcloud deployment.

6.2. Isolating Networks

The director provides methods to configure isolated Overcloud networks. This means the Overcloud environment separates network traffic types into different networks, which in turn assigns network traffic to specific network interfaces or bonds. After configuring isolated networks, the director configures the OpenStack services to use the isolated networks. If no isolated networks are configured, all services run on the Provisioning network.
This example uses separate networks for all services:
  • Network 1 - Provisioning
  • Network 2 - Internal API
  • Network 3 - Tenant Networks
  • Network 4 - Storage
  • Network 5 - Storage Management
  • Network 6 - Management
  • Network 7 - External and Floating IP (mapped after Overcloud creation)
In this example, each Overcloud node uses two network interfaces in a bond to serve networks in tagged VLANs. The following network assignments apply to this bond:

Table 6.1. Network Subnet and VLAN Assignments

Network Type
Subnet
VLAN
Internal API
172.16.0.0/24
201
Tenant
172.17.0.0/24
202
Storage
172.18.0.0/24
203
Storage Management
172.19.0.0/24
204
Management
172.20.0.0/24
205
External / Floating IP
10.1.1.0/24
100
For more examples of network configuration, see Appendix E, Network Interface Template Examples.

6.2.1. Creating Custom Interface Templates

The Overcloud network configuration requires a set of the network interface templates. You customize these templates to configure the node interfaces on a per role basis. These templates are standard heat templates in YAML format (see Section 6.1, “Understanding Heat Templates”). The director contains a set of example templates to get you started:
  • /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/config/single-nic-vlans - Directory containing templates for single NIC with VLANs configuration on a per role basis.
  • /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/config/bond-with-vlans - Directory containing templates for bonded NIC configuration on a per role basis.
  • /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/config/multiple-nics - Directory containing templates for multiple NIC configuration using one NIC per role.
  • /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/config/single-nic-linux-bridge-vlans - Directory containing templates for single NIC with VLANs configuration on a per role basis and using a Linux bridge instead of an Open vSwitch bridge.
For this example, use the default bonded NIC example configuration as a basis. Copy the version located at /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/config/bond-with-vlans.
$ cp -r /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/config/bond-with-vlans ~/templates/nic-configs
This creates a local set of heat templates that define a bonded network interface configuration for each role. Each template contains the standard parameters, resources, and output sections. For this example, you would only edit the resources section. Each resources section begins with the following:
resources:
OsNetConfigImpl:
  type: OS::Heat::StructuredConfig
  properties:
    group: os-apply-config
    config:
      os_net_config:
        network_config:
This creates a request for the os-apply-config command and os-net-config subcommand to configure the network properties for a node. The network_config section contains your custom interface configuration arranged in a sequence based on type, which includes the following:
interface
Defines a single network interface. The configuration defines each interface using either the actual interface name ("eth0", "eth1", "enp0s25") or a set of numbered interfaces ("nic1", "nic2", "nic3").
          - type: interface
            name: nic2
vlan
Defines a VLAN. Use the VLAN ID and subnet passed from the parameters section.
          - type: vlan
            vlan_id: {get_param: ExternalNetworkVlanID}
            addresses:
              - ip_netmask: {get_param: ExternalIpSubnet}
ovs_bond
Defines a bond in Open vSwitch to join two or more interfaces together. This helps with redundancy and increases bandwidth.
          - type: ovs_bond
            name: bond1
            members:
            - type: interface
              name: nic2
            - type: interface
              name: nic3
ovs_bridge
Defines a bridge in Open vSwitch, which connects multiple interface, ovs_bond and vlan objects together.
          - type: ovs_bridge
            name: {get_input: bridge_name}
            members:
              - type: ovs_bond
                name: bond1
                members:
                  - type: interface
                    name: nic2
                    primary: true
                  - type: interface
                    name: nic3
              - type: vlan
                device: bond1
                vlan_id: {get_param: ExternalNetworkVlanID}
                addresses:
                  - ip_netmask: {get_param: ExternalIpSubnet}
linux_bond
Defines a Linux bond that joins two or more interfaces together. This helps with redundancy and increases bandwidth. Make sure to include the kernel-based bonding options in the bonding_options parameter. For more information on Linux bonding options, see 4.5.1. Bonding Module Directives in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Networking Guide.
            - type: linux_bond
              name: bond1
              members:
              - type: interface
                name: nic2
              - type: interface
                name: nic3
              bonding_options: "mode=802.3ad"
linux_bridge
Defines a Linux bridge, which connects multiple interface, linux_bond and vlan objects together.
            - type: linux_bridge
              name: bridge1
              addresses:
                - ip_netmask:
                    list_join:
                      - '/'
                      - - {get_param: ControlPlaneIp}
                        - {get_param: ControlPlaneSubnetCidr}
              members:
                - type: interface
                  name: nic1
                  primary: true
            - type: vlan
              vlan_id: {get_param: ExternalNetworkVlanID}
              device: bridge1
              addresses:
                - ip_netmask: {get_param: ExternalIpSubnet}
              routes:
                - ip_netmask: 0.0.0.0/0
                  default: true
                  next_hop: {get_param: ExternalInterfaceDefaultRoute}
See Appendix D, Network Interface Parameters for a full list of parameters for each of these items.
For this example, you use the default bonded interface configuration. For example, the /home/stack/templates/nic-configs/controller.yaml template uses the following network_config:
resources:
  OsNetConfigImpl:
    type: OS::Heat::StructuredConfig
    properties:
      group: os-apply-config
      config:
        os_net_config:
          network_config:
            - type: interface
              name: nic1
              use_dhcp: false
              addresses:
                - ip_netmask:
                    list_join:
                      - '/'
                      - - {get_param: ControlPlaneIp}
                        - {get_param: ControlPlaneSubnetCidr}
              routes:
                - ip_netmask: 169.254.169.254/32
                  next_hop: {get_param: EC2MetadataIp}
            - type: ovs_bridge
              name: {get_input: bridge_name}
              dns_servers: {get_param: DnsServers}
              members:
                - type: ovs_bond
                  name: bond1
                  ovs_options: {get_param: BondInterfaceOvsOptions}
                  members:
                    - type: interface
                      name: nic2
                      primary: true
                    - type: interface
                      name: nic3
                - type: vlan
                  device: bond1
                  vlan_id: {get_param: ExternalNetworkVlanID}
                  addresses:
                    - ip_netmask: {get_param: ExternalIpSubnet}
                  routes:
                    - default: true
                      next_hop: {get_param: ExternalInterfaceDefaultRoute}
                - type: vlan
                  device: bond1
                  vlan_id: {get_param: InternalApiNetworkVlanID}
                  addresses:
                    - ip_netmask: {get_param: InternalApiIpSubnet}
                - type: vlan
                  device: bond1
                  vlan_id: {get_param: StorageNetworkVlanID}
                  addresses:
                    - ip_netmask: {get_param: StorageIpSubnet}
                - type: vlan
                  device: bond1
                  vlan_id: {get_param: StorageMgmtNetworkVlanID}
                  addresses:
                    - ip_netmask: {get_param: StorageMgmtIpSubnet}
                - type: vlan
                  device: bond1
                  vlan_id: {get_param: TenantNetworkVlanID}
                  addresses:
                    - ip_netmask: {get_param: TenantIpSubnet}
                - type: vlan
                  device: bond1
                  vlan_id: {get_param: ManagementNetworkVlanID}
                  addresses:
                    - ip_netmask: {get_param: ManagementIpSubnet}

Note

The Management network section is commented in the network interface Heat templates. Uncomment this section to enable the Management network.
This template defines a bridge (usually the external bridge named br-ex) and creates a bonded interface called bond1 from two numbered interfaces: nic2 and nic3. The bridge also contains a number of tagged VLAN devices, which use bond1 as a parent device. The template also include an interface that connects back to the director (nic1).
For more examples of network interface templates, see Appendix E, Network Interface Template Examples.
Note that a lot of these parameters use the get_param function. You would define these in an environment file you create specifically for your networks.

Important

Unused interfaces can cause unwanted default routes and network loops. For example, your template might contain a network interface (nic4) that does not use any IP assignments for OpenStack services but still uses DHCP and/or a default route. To avoid network conflicts, remove any used interfaces from ovs_bridge devices and disable the DHCP and default route settings:
- type: interface
  name: nic4
  use_dhcp: false
  defroute: false

6.2.2. Creating a Network Environment File

The network environment file is a Heat environment file that describes the Overcloud's network environment and points to the network interface configuration templates from the previous section. You can define the subnets and VLANs for your network along with IP address ranges. You can then customize these values for the local environment.
The director contains a set of example environment files to get you started. Each environment file corresponds to the example network interface files in /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/config/:
  • /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/net-single-nic-with-vlans.yaml - Example environment file for single NIC with VLANs configuration in the single-nic-vlans) network interface directory. Environment files for disabling the External network (net-single-nic-with-vlans-no-external.yaml) or enabling IPv6 (net-single-nic-with-vlans-v6.yaml) are also available.
  • /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/net-bond-with-vlans.yaml - Example environment file for bonded NIC configuration in the bond-with-vlans network interface directory. Environment files for disabling the External network (net-bond-with-vlans-no-external.yaml) or enabling IPv6 (net-bond-with-vlans-v6.yaml) are also available.
  • /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/net-multiple-nics.yaml - Example environment file for a multiple NIC configuration in the multiple-nics network interface directory. An environment file for enabling IPv6 (net-multiple-nics-v6.yaml) is also available.
  • /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/net-single-nic-linux-bridge-with-vlans.yaml - Example environment file for single NIC with VLANs configuration using a Linux bridge instead of an Open vSwitch bridge, which uses the the single-nic-linux-bridge-vlans network interface directory.
This scenario uses a modified version of the /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/net-bond-with-vlans.yaml file. Copy this file to the stack user's templates directory.
$ cp /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/net-bond-with-vlans.yaml /home/stack/templates/network-environment.yaml
The environment file contains the following modified sections:
resource_registry:
  OS::TripleO::BlockStorage::Net::SoftwareConfig: /home/stack/templates/nic-configs/cinder-storage.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Compute::Net::SoftwareConfig: /home/stack/templates/nic-configs/compute.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Controller::Net::SoftwareConfig: /home/stack/templates/nic-configs/controller.yaml
  OS::TripleO::ObjectStorage::Net::SoftwareConfig: /home/stack/templates/nic-configs/swift-storage.yaml
  OS::TripleO::CephStorage::Net::SoftwareConfig: /home/stack/templates/nic-configs/ceph-storage.yaml

parameter_defaults:
  InternalApiNetCidr: 172.16.0.0/24
  TenantNetCidr: 172.17.0.0/24
  StorageNetCidr: 172.18.0.0/24
  StorageMgmtNetCidr: 172.19.0.0/24
  StorageMgmtNetCidr: 172.19.0.0/24
  ManagementNetCidr: 172.20.0.0/24
  ExternalNetCidr: 10.1.1.0/24
  InternalApiAllocationPools: [{'start': '172.16.0.10', 'end': '172.16.0.200'}]
  TenantAllocationPools: [{'start': '172.17.0.10', 'end': '172.17.0.200'}]
  StorageAllocationPools: [{'start': '172.18.0.10', 'end': '172.18.0.200'}]
  StorageMgmtAllocationPools: [{'start': '172.19.0.10', 'end': '172.19.0.200'}]
  ManagementAllocationPools: [{'start': '172.20.0.10', 'end': '172.20.0.200'}]
  # Leave room for floating IPs in the External allocation pool
  ExternalAllocationPools: [{'start': '10.1.1.10', 'end': '10.1.1.50'}]
  # Set to the router gateway on the external network
  ExternalInterfaceDefaultRoute: 10.1.1.1
  # Gateway router for the provisioning network (or Undercloud IP)
  ControlPlaneDefaultRoute: 192.0.2.254
  # The IP address of the EC2 metadata server. Generally the IP of the Undercloud
  EC2MetadataIp: 192.0.2.1
  # Define the DNS servers (maximum 2) for the overcloud nodes
  DnsServers: ["8.8.8.8","8.8.4.4"]
  InternalApiNetworkVlanID: 201
  StorageNetworkVlanID: 202
  StorageMgmtNetworkVlanID: 203
  TenantNetworkVlanID: 204
  ManagementNetworkVlanID: 205
  ExternalNetworkVlanID: 100
  # Set to "br-ex" if using floating IPs on native VLAN on bridge br-ex
  NeutronExternalNetworkBridge: "''"
  # Customize bonding options if required
  BondInterfaceOvsOptions:
    "bond_mode=balance-tcp"
The resource_registry section contains modified links to the custom network interface templates for each node role. See Section 6.2.1, “Creating Custom Interface Templates”.
The parameter_defaults section contains a list of parameters that define the network options for each network type. For a full reference of these options, see Appendix F, Network Environment Options.
This scenario defines options for each network. All network types use an individual VLAN and subnet used for assigning IP addresses to hosts and virtual IPs. In the example above, the allocation pool for the Internal API network starts at 172.16.0.10 and continues to 172.16.0.200 using VLAN 201. This results in static and virtual IPs assigned starting at 172.16.0.10 and upwards to 172.16.0.200 while using VLAN 201 in your environment.
The External network hosts the Horizon dashboard and Public API. If using the External network for both cloud administration and floating IPs, make sure there is room for a pool of IPs to use as floating IPs for VM instances. In this example, you only have IPs from 10.1.1.10 to 10.1.1.50 assigned to the External network, which leaves IP addresses from 10.1.1.51 and above free to use for Floating IP addresses. Alternately, place the Floating IP network on a separate VLAN and configure the Overcloud after creation to use it.
The BondInterfaceOvsOptions option provides options for our bonded interface using nic2 and nic3. For more information on bonding options, see Appendix G, Open vSwitch Bonding Options.

Important

Changing the network configuration after creating the Overcloud can cause configuration problems due to the availability of resources. For example, if a user changes a subnet range for a network in the network isolation templates, the reconfiguration might fail due to the subnet already being in use.

6.2.3. Assigning OpenStack Services to Isolated Networks

Each OpenStack service is assigned to a default network type in the resource registry. These services are then bound to IP addresses within the network type's assigned network. Although the OpenStack services are divided among these networks, the number of actual physical networks might differ as defined in the network environment file. You can reassign OpenStack services to different network types by defining a new network map in your network environment file (/home/stack/templates/network-environment.yaml). The ServiceNetMap parameter determines the network types used for each service.
For example, you can reassign the Storage Management network services to the Storage Network by modifying the highlighted sections:
parameter_defaults:
  ...
  ServiceNetMap:
    NeutronTenantNetwork: tenant
    CeilometerApiNetwork: internal_api
    MongoDbNetwork: internal_api
    CinderApiNetwork: internal_api
    CinderIscsiNetwork: storage
    GlanceApiNetwork: storage
    GlanceRegistryNetwork: internal_api
    KeystoneAdminApiNetwork: internal_api
    KeystonePublicApiNetwork: internal_api
    NeutronApiNetwork: internal_api
    HeatApiNetwork: internal_api
    NovaApiNetwork: internal_api
    NovaMetadataNetwork: internal_api
    NovaVncProxyNetwork: internal_api
    SwiftMgmtNetwork: storage_mgmt
    SwiftProxyNetwork: storage
    HorizonNetwork: internal_api
    MemcachedNetwork: internal_api
    RabbitMqNetwork: internal_api
    RedisNetwork: internal_api
    MysqlNetwork: internal_api
    CephClusterNetwork: storage_mgmt
    CephPublicNetwork: storage
    # Define which network will be used for hostname resolution
    ControllerHostnameResolveNetwork: internal_api
    ComputeHostnameResolveNetwork: internal_api
    BlockStorageHostnameResolveNetwork: internal_api
    ObjectStorageHostnameResolveNetwork: internal_api
    CephStorageHostnameResolveNetwork: storage
    ...
Changing these parameters to storage places these services on the Storage network instead of the Storage Management network. This means you only need to define a set of parameter_defaults for the Storage network and not the Storage Management network.

6.2.4. Selecting Networks to Deploy

The settings in the resource_registry section of the environment file for networks and ports do not ordinarily need to be changed. The list of networks can be changed if only a subset of the networks are desired.

Note

When specifying custom networks and ports, do not include the environments/network-isolation.yaml on the deployment command line. Instead, specify all the networks and ports in the network environment file.
In order to use isolated networks, the servers must have IP addresses on each network. You can use neutron in the Undercloud to manage IP addresses on the isolated networks, so you will need to enable neutron port creation for each network. You can override the resource registry in your environment file.
First, this is the complete set of networks and ports that can be deployed:
resource_registry:
  # This section is usually not modified, if in doubt stick to the defaults
  # TripleO overcloud networks
  OS::TripleO::Network::External: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/external.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::InternalApi: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/internal_api.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::StorageMgmt: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/storage_mgmt.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::Storage: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/storage.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::Tenant: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/tenant.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::Management: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/management.yaml

  # Port assignments for the VIPs
  OS::TripleO::Network::Ports::ExternalVipPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/external.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::Ports::InternalApiVipPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/internal_api.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::Ports::StorageVipPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/storage.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::Ports::StorageMgmtVipPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/storage_mgmt.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::Ports::TenantVipPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/tenant.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::Ports::ManagementVipPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/management.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::Ports::RedisVipPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/vip.yaml

  # Port assignments for the controller role
  OS::TripleO::Controller::Ports::ExternalPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/external.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Controller::Ports::InternalApiPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/internal_api.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Controller::Ports::StoragePort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/storage.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Controller::Ports::StorageMgmtPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/storage_mgmt.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Controller::Ports::TenantPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/tenant.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Controller::Ports::ManagementPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/management.yaml

  # Port assignments for the compute role
  OS::TripleO::Compute::Ports::InternalApiPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/internal_api.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Compute::Ports::StoragePort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/storage.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Compute::Ports::TenantPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/tenant.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Compute::Ports::ManagementPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/management.yaml

  # Port assignments for the ceph storage role
  OS::TripleO::CephStorage::Ports::StoragePort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/storage.yaml
  OS::TripleO::CephStorage::Ports::StorageMgmtPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/storage_mgmt.yaml
  OS::TripleO::CephStorage::Ports::ManagementPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/management.yaml

  # Port assignments for the swift storage role
  OS::TripleO::SwiftStorage::Ports::InternalApiPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/internal_api.yaml
  OS::TripleO::SwiftStorage::Ports::StoragePort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/storage.yaml
  OS::TripleO::SwiftStorage::Ports::StorageMgmtPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/storage_mgmt.yaml
  OS::TripleO::SwiftStorage::Ports::ManagementPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/management.yaml

  # Port assignments for the block storage role
  OS::TripleO::BlockStorage::Ports::InternalApiPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/internal_api.yaml
  OS::TripleO::BlockStorage::Ports::StoragePort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/storage.yaml
  OS::TripleO::BlockStorage::Ports::StorageMgmtPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/storage_mgmt.yaml
  OS::TripleO::BlockStorage::Ports::ManagementPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/management.yaml
The first section of this file has the resource registry declaration for the OS::TripleO::Network::* resources. By default these resources point at a noop.yaml file that does not create any networks. By pointing these resources at the YAML files for each network, you enable the creation of these networks.
The next several sections create the IP addresses for the nodes in each role. The controller nodes have IPs on each network. The compute and storage nodes each have IPs on a subset of the networks.
To deploy without one of the pre-configured networks, disable the network definition and the corresponding port definition for the role. For example, all references to storage_mgmt.yaml could be replaced with noop.yaml:
resource_registry:
  # This section is usually not modified, if in doubt stick to the defaults
  # TripleO overcloud networks
  OS::TripleO::Network::External: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/external.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::InternalApi: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/internal_api.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::StorageMgmt: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/noop.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::Storage: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/storage.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::Tenant: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/tenant.yaml

  # Port assignments for the VIPs
  OS::TripleO::Network::Ports::ExternalVipPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/external.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::Ports::InternalApiVipPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/internal_api.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::Ports::StorageVipPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/storage.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::Ports::StorageMgmtVipPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/noop.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::Ports::TenantVipPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/tenant.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Network::Ports::RedisVipPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/vip.yaml

  # Port assignments for the controller role
  OS::TripleO::Controller::Ports::ExternalPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/external.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Controller::Ports::InternalApiPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/internal_api.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Controller::Ports::StoragePort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/storage.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Controller::Ports::StorageMgmtPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/noop.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Controller::Ports::TenantPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/tenant.yaml

  # Port assignments for the compute role
  OS::TripleO::Compute::Ports::InternalApiPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/internal_api.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Compute::Ports::StoragePort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/storage.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Compute::Ports::TenantPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/tenant.yaml

  # Port assignments for the ceph storage role
  OS::TripleO::CephStorage::Ports::StoragePort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/storage.yaml
  OS::TripleO::CephStorage::Ports::StorageMgmtPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/noop.yaml

  # Port assignments for the swift storage role
  OS::TripleO::SwiftStorage::Ports::InternalApiPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/internal_api.yaml
  OS::TripleO::SwiftStorage::Ports::StoragePort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/storage.yaml
  OS::TripleO::SwiftStorage::Ports::StorageMgmtPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/noop.yaml

  # Port assignments for the block storage role
  OS::TripleO::BlockStorage::Ports::InternalApiPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/internal_api.yaml
  OS::TripleO::BlockStorage::Ports::StoragePort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/storage.yaml
  OS::TripleO::BlockStorage::Ports::StorageMgmtPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/noop.yaml

parameter_defaults:
  ServiceNetMap:
    NeutronTenantNetwork: tenant
    CeilometerApiNetwork: internal_api
    MongoDbNetwork: internal_api
    CinderApiNetwork: internal_api
    CinderIscsiNetwork: storage
    GlanceApiNetwork: storage
    GlanceRegistryNetwork: internal_api
    KeystoneAdminApiNetwork: ctlplane # Admin connection for Undercloud
    KeystonePublicApiNetwork: internal_api
    NeutronApiNetwork: internal_api
    HeatApiNetwork: internal_api
    NovaApiNetwork: internal_api
    NovaMetadataNetwork: internal_api
    NovaVncProxyNetwork: internal_api
    SwiftMgmtNetwork: storage # Changed from storage_mgmt
    SwiftProxyNetwork: storage
    HorizonNetwork: internal_api
    MemcachedNetwork: internal_api
    RabbitMqNetwork: internal_api
    RedisNetwork: internal_api
    MysqlNetwork: internal_api
    CephClusterNetwork: storage # Changed from storage_mgmt
    CephPublicNetwork: storage
    ControllerHostnameResolveNetwork: internal_api
    ComputeHostnameResolveNetwork: internal_api
    BlockStorageHostnameResolveNetwork: internal_api
    ObjectStorageHostnameResolveNetwork: internal_api
    CephStorageHostnameResolveNetwork: storage
By using noop.yaml, no network or ports are created, so the services on the Storage Management network would default to the Provisioning network. This can be changed in the ServiceNetMap in order to move the Storage Management services to another network, such as the Storage network.

6.3. Controlling Node Placement

The default behavior for the director is to randomly select nodes for each role, usually based on their profile tag. However, the director provides the ability to define specific node placement. This is a useful method to:
  • Assign specific node IDs e.g. controller-0, controller-1, etc
  • Assign custom hostnames
  • Assign specific IP addresses
  • Assign specific Virtual IP addresses

Note

Manually setting predictable IP addresses, virtual IP addresses, and ports for a network alleviates the need for allocation pools. However, it is recommended to retain allocation pools for each network to ease with scaling new nodes. Make sure that any statically defined IP addresses fall outside the allocation pools. For more information on setting allocation pools, see Section 6.2.2, “Creating a Network Environment File”.

6.3.1. Assigning Specific Node IDs

This procedure assigns node ID to specific nodes. Examples of node IDs include controller-0, controller-1, novacompute-0, novacompute-1, and so forth.
The first step is to assign the ID as a per-node capability that the Nova scheduler matches on deployment. For example:
ironic node-update <id> replace properties/capabilities='node:controller-0,boot_option:local'
This assigns the capability node:controller-0 to the node. Repeat this pattern using a unique continuous index, starting from 0, for all nodes. Make sure all nodes for a given role (Controller, Compute, or each of the storage roles) are tagged in the same way or else the Nova scheduler will not match the capabilities correctly.
The next step is to create a Heat environment file (for example, scheduler_hints_env.yaml) that uses scheduler hints to match the capabilities for each node. For example:
parameter_defaults:
  ControllerSchedulerHints:
    'capabilities:node': 'controller-%index%'
To use these scheduler hints, include the scheduler_hints_env.yaml environment file with the overcloud deploy command during Overcloud creation.
The same approach is possible for each role via these parameters:
  • ControllerSchedulerHints for Controller nodes.
  • NovaComputeSchedulerHints for Compute nodes.
  • BlockStorageSchedulerHints for Block Storage nodes.
  • ObjectStorageSchedulerHints for Object Storage nodes.
  • CephStorageSchedulerHints for Ceph Storage nodes.

Note

Node placement takes priority over profile matching. To avoid scheduling failures, use the default baremetal flavor for deployment and not the flavors designed for profile matching (compute, control, etc). For example:
$ openstack overcloud deploy ... --control-flavor baremetal --compute-flavor baremetal ...

6.3.2. Assigning Custom Hostnames

In combination with the node ID configuration in Section 6.3.1, “Assigning Specific Node IDs”, the director can also assign a specific custom hostname to each node. This is useful when you need to define where a system is located (e.g. rack2-row12), match an inventory identifier, or other situations where a custom hostname is desired.
To customize node hostnames, use the HostnameMap parameter in an environment file, such as the scheduler_hints_env.yaml file from Section 6.3.1, “Assigning Specific Node IDs”. For example:
parameter_defaults:
  ControllerSchedulerHints:
    'capabilities:node': 'controller-%index%'
  NovaComputeSchedulerHints:
    'capabilities:node': 'compute-%index%'
  HostnameMap:
    overcloud-controller-0: overcloud-controller-prod-123-0
    overcloud-controller-1: overcloud-controller-prod-456-0
    overcloud-controller-2: overcloud-controller-prod-789-0
    overcloud-compute-0: overcloud-compute-prod-abc-0
Define the HostnameMap in the parameter_defaults section, and set each mapping as the original hostname that Heat defines using HostnameFormat parameters (e.g. overcloud-controller-0) and the second value is the desired custom hostname for that node (e.g. overcloud-controller-prod-123-0).
Using this method in combination with the node ID placement ensures each node has a custom hostname.

6.3.3. Assigning Predictable IPs

For further control over the resulting environment, the director can assign Overcloud nodes with specific IPs on each network as well. Use the environments/ips-from-pool-all.yaml environment file in the core Heat template collection. Copy this file to the stack user's templates directory.
$ cp /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ips-from-pool-all.yaml ~/templates/.
There are two major sections in the ips-from-pool-all.yaml file.
The first is a set of resource_registry references that override the defaults. These tell the director to use a specific IP for a given port on a node type. Modify each resource to use the absolute path of its respective template. For example:
  OS::TripleO::Controller::Ports::ExternalPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/external_from_pool.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Controller::Ports::InternalApiPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/internal_api_from_pool.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Controller::Ports::StoragePort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/storage_from_pool.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Controller::Ports::StorageMgmtPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/storage_mgmt_from_pool.yaml
  OS::TripleO::Controller::Ports::TenantPort: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/ports/tenant_from_pool.yaml
The default configuration sets all networks on all node types to use pre-assigned IPs. To allow a particular network or node type to use default IP assignment instead, simply remove the resource_registry entries related to that node type or network from the environment file.
The second section is parameter_defaults, where the actual IP addresses are assigned. Each node type has an associated parameter:
  • ControllerIPs for Controller nodes.
  • NovaComputeIPs for Compute nodes.
  • CephStorageIPs for Ceph Storage nodes.
  • BlockStorageIPs for Block Storage nodes.
  • SwiftStorageIPs for Object Storage nodes.
Each parameter is a map of network names to a list of addresses. Each network type must have at least as many addresses as there will be nodes on that network. The director assigns addresses in order. The first node of each type receives the first address on each respective list, the second node receives the second address on each respective lists, and so forth.
For example, if an Overcloud will contain three Ceph Storage nodes, the CephStorageIPs parameter might look like:
CephStorageIPs:
  storage:
  - 172.16.1.100
  - 172.16.1.101
  - 172.16.1.102
  storage_mgmt:
  - 172.16.3.100
  - 172.16.3.101
  - 172.16.3.102
The first Ceph Storage node receives two addresses: 172.16.1.100 and 172.16.3.100. The second receives 172.16.1.101 and 172.16.3.101, and the third receives 172.16.1.102 and 172.16.3.102. The same pattern applies to the other node types.
Make sure the chosen IP addresses fall outside the allocation pools for each network defined in your network environment file (see Section 6.2.2, “Creating a Network Environment File”). For example, make sure the internal_api assignments fall outside of the InternalApiAllocationPools range. This avoids conflicts with any IPs chosen automatically. Likewise, make sure the IP assignments do not conflict with the VIP configuration, either for standard predictable VIP placement (see Section 6.3.4, “Assigning Predictable Virtual IPs”) or external load balancing (see Section 6.5, “Configuring External Load Balancing”).
To apply this configuration during a deployment, include the environment file with the openstack overcloud deploy command. If using network isolation (see Section 6.2, “Isolating Networks”), include this file after the network-isolation.yaml file. For example:
$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/network-isolation.yaml -e ~/templates/ips-from-pool-all.yaml [OTHER OPTIONS]

6.3.4. Assigning Predictable Virtual IPs

In addition to defining predictable IP addresses for each node, the director also provides a similar ability to define predictable Virtual IPs (VIPs) for clustered services. To accomplish this, edit the network environment file from Section 6.2.2, “Creating a Network Environment File” and add the VIP parameters in the parameter_defaults section:
parameter_defaults:
  ...
  ControlFixedIPs: [{'ip_address':'192.168.201.101'}]
  InternalApiVirtualFixedIPs: [{'ip_address':'172.16.0.9'}]
  PublicVirtualFixedIPs: [{'ip_address':'10.1.1.9'}]
  StorageVirtualFixedIPs: [{'ip_address':'172.18.0.9'}]
  StorageMgmtVirtualFixedIPs: [{'ip_address':'172.19.0.9'}]
  RedisVirtualFixedIPs: [{'ip_address':'172.16.0.8'}]
Select these IPs from outside of their respective allocation pool ranges. For example, select an IP address for InternalApiVirtualFixedIPs that is not within the InternalApiAllocationPools range.

6.4. Configuring Containerized Compute Nodes

The director provides an option to integrate services from OpenStack's containerization project (kolla) into the Overcloud's Compute nodes. This includes creating Compute nodes that use Red Hat Enterprise Linux Atomic Host as a base operating system and individual containers to run different OpenStack services.

Important

Containerized Compute nodes are a Technology Preview feature. Technology Preview features are not fully supported under Red Hat Subscription Service Level Agreements (SLAs), may not be functionally complete, and are not intended for production use. However, these features provide early access to upcoming product innovations, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process. For more information on the support scope for features marked as technology previews, see https://access.redhat.com/support/offerings/techpreview/.
The director's core Heat template collection includes environment files to aid the configuration of containerized Compute nodes. These files include:
  • docker.yaml - The main environment file for configuring containerized Compute nodes.
  • docker-network.yaml - The environment file for containerized Compute nodes networking without network isolation.
  • docker-network-isolation.yaml - The environment file for containerized Compute nodes using network isolation.

6.4.1. Examining the Containerized Compute Environment File (docker.yaml)

The docker.yaml file is the main environment file for the containerized Compute node configuration. It includes the entries in the resource_registry:
resource_registry:
  OS::TripleO::ComputePostDeployment: ../docker/compute-post.yaml
  OS::TripleO::NodeUserData: ../docker/firstboot/install_docker_agents.yaml
OS::TripleO::NodeUserData
Provides a Heat template that uses custom configuration on first boot. In this case, it installs the openstack-heat-docker-agents container on the Compute nodes when they first boot. This container provides a set of initialization scripts to configure the containerized Compute node and Heat hooks to communicate with the director.
OS::TripleO::ComputePostDeployment
Provides a Heat template with a set of post-configuration resources for Compute nodes. This includes a software configuration resource that provides a set of tags to Puppet:
  ComputePuppetConfig:
    type: OS::Heat::SoftwareConfig
    properties:
      group: puppet
      options:
        enable_hiera: True
        enable_facter: False
        tags: package,file,concat,file_line,nova_config,neutron_config,neutron_agent_ovs,neutron_plugin_ml2
      inputs:
      - name: tripleo::packages::enable_install
        type: Boolean
        default: True
      outputs:
      - name: result
      config:
        get_file: ../puppet/manifests/overcloud_compute.pp
These tags define the Puppet modules to pass to the openstack-heat-docker-agents container.
The docker.yaml file includes a parameter called NovaImage that replaces the standard overcloud-full image with a different image (atomic-image) when provisioning Compute nodes. See in Section 6.4.2, “Uploading the Atomic Host Image” for instructions on uploading this new image.
The docker.yaml file also includes a parameter_defaults section that defines the Docker registry and images to use for our Compute node services. You can modify this section to use a local registry instead of the default registry.access.redhat.com. See Section 6.4.3, “Using a Local Registry” for instructions on configuring a local repository.

6.4.2. Uploading the Atomic Host Image

The director requires a copy of the Cloud Image for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Atomic Host imported into its image store as atomic-image. This is because the Compute node requires this image for the base OS during the provisioning phase of the Overcloud creation.
Download a copy of the Cloud Image from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Atomic Host product page (https://access.redhat.com/downloads/content/271/ver=/rhel---7/7.2.2-2/x86_64/product-software) and save it to the images subdirectory in the stack user's home directory.
Once the image download completes, import the image into the director as the stack user.
$ glance image-create --name atomic-image --file ~/images/rhel-atomic-cloud-7.2-12.x86_64.qcow2 --disk-format qcow2 --container-format bare
This imports the image alongside the other Overcloud images.
$ glance image-list
+--------------------------------------+------------------------+
| ID                                   | Name                   |
+--------------------------------------+------------------------+
| 27b5bad7-f8b2-4dd8-9f69-32dfe84644cf | atomic-image           |
| 08c116c6-8913-427b-b5b0-b55c18a01888 | bm-deploy-kernel       |
| aec4c104-0146-437b-a10b-8ebc351067b9 | bm-deploy-ramdisk      |
| 9012ce83-4c63-4cd7-a976-0c972be747cd | overcloud-full         |
| 376e95df-c1c1-4f2a-b5f3-93f639eb9972 | overcloud-full-initrd  |
| 0b5773eb-4c64-4086-9298-7f28606b68af | overcloud-full-vmlinuz |
+--------------------------------------+------------------------+

6.4.3. Using a Local Registry

The default configuration uses Red Hat's container registry for image downloads. However, as an optional step, you can use a local registry to conserve bandwidth during the Overcloud creation process.
You can use an existing local registry or install a new one. To install a new registry, use the instructions in Chapter 2. Get Started with Docker Formatted Container Images in Getting Started with Containers.
Pull the required images into your registry:
$ sudo docker pull registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-nova-compute:latest
$ sudo docker pull registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-data:latest
$ sudo docker pull registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-nova-libvirt:latest
$ sudo docker pull registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-neutron-openvswitch-agent:latest
$ sudo docker pull registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-openvswitch-vswitchd:latest
$ sudo docker pull registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-openvswitch-db-server:latest
$ sudo docker pull registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-heat-docker-agents:latest
After pulling the images, tag them with the proper registry host:
$ sudo docker tag registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-nova-compute:latest localhost:8787/registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-nova-compute:latest
$ sudo docker tag registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-data:latest localhost:8787/registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-data:latest
$ sudo docker tag registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-nova-libvirt:latest localhost:8787/registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-nova-libvirt:latest
$ sudo docker tag registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-neutron-openvswitch-agent:latest localhost:8787/registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-neutron-openvswitch-agent:latest
$ sudo docker tag registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-openvswitch-vswitchd:latest localhost:8787/registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-openvswitch-vswitchd:latest
$ sudo docker tag registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-openvswitch-db-server:latest localhost:8787/registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-openvswitch-db-server:latest
$ sudo docker tag registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-heat-docker-agents:latest localhost:8787/registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-heat-docker-agents:latest
Push them to the registry:
$ sudo docker push localhost:8787/registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-nova-compute:latest
$ sudo docker push localhost:8787/registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-data:latest
$ sudo docker push localhost:8787/registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-nova-libvirt:latest
$ sudo docker push localhost:8787/registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-neutron-openvswitch-agent:latest
$ sudo docker push localhost:8787/registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-openvswitch-vswitchd:latest
$ sudo docker push localhost:8787/registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-openvswitch-db-server:latest
$ sudo docker push localhost:8787/registry.access.redhat.com/openstack-heat-docker-agents:latest
Create a copy of the main docker.yaml environment file in the templates subdirectory:
$ cp /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/docker.yaml ~/templates/.
Edit the file and modify the resource_registry to use absolute paths:
resource_registry:
  OS::TripleO::ComputePostDeployment: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/docker/compute-post.yaml
  OS::TripleO::NodeUserData: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/docker/firstboot/install_docker_agents.yaml
Set DockerNamespace in parameter_defaults to your registry URL. Also set DockerNamespaceIsRegistry to true For example:
parameter_defaults:
  DockerNamespace: registry.example.com:8787/registry.access.redhat.com
  DockerNamespaceIsRegistry: true
Your local registry now has the required docker images and the containerized Compute configuration is now set to use that registry.

6.4.4. Including Environment Files in the Overcloud Deployment

When running the Overcloud creation, include the main environment file (docker.yaml) and the network environment file (docker-network.yaml) for the containerized Compute nodes along with the openstack overcloud deploy command. For example:
$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/docker.yaml -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/docker-network.yaml [OTHER OPTIONS] ...
The containerized Compute nodes also function in an Overcloud with network isolation. This also requires the main environment file along with the network isolation file (docker-network-isolation.yaml). Add these files before the network isolation files from Section 6.2, “Isolating Networks”. For example:
openstack overcloud deploy --templates -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/docker.yaml -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/docker-network-isolation.yaml -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/net-single-nic-with-vlans.yaml -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/network-isolation.yaml [OTHER OPTIONS] ...
The director creates an Overcloud with containerized Compute nodes.

6.5. Configuring External Load Balancing

An Overcloud uses multiple Controllers together as a high availability cluster, which ensures maximum operational performance for your OpenStack services. In addition, the cluster provides load balancing for access to the OpenStack services, which evenly distributes traffic to the Controller nodes and reduces server overload for each node. It is also possible to use an external load balancer to perform this distribution. For example, an organization might use their own hardware-based load balancer to handle traffic distribution to the Controller nodes.
For more information about configuring external load balancing, see the dedicated External Load Balancing for the Overcloud guide for full instructions.

6.6. Configuring IPv6 Networking

As a default, the Overcloud uses Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) to configure the service endpoints. However, the Overcloud also supports Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) endpoints, which is useful for organizations that support IPv6 infrastructure. The director includes a set of environment files to help with creating IPv6-based Overclouds.
For more information about configuring IPv6 in the Overcloud, see the dedicated IPv6 Networking for the Overcloud guide for full instructions.

6.7. Configuring NFS Storage

This section describes configuring the Overcloud to use an NFS share. The installation and configuration process is based on the modification of an existing environment file in the core Heat template collection.
The core heat template collection contains a set of environment files in /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/. These environment templates help with custom configuration of some of the supported features in a director-created Overcloud. This includes an environment file to help configure storage. This file is located at /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/storage-environment.yaml. Copy this file to the stack user's template directory.
$ cp /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/storage-environment.yaml ~/templates/.
The environment file contains some parameters to help configure different storage options for Openstack's block and image storage components, cinder and glance. In this example, you will configure the Overcloud to use an NFS share. Modify the following parameters:
CinderEnableIscsiBackend
Enables the iSCSI backend. Set to false.
CinderEnableRbdBackend
Enables the Ceph Storage backend. Set to false.
CinderEnableNfsBackend
Enables the NFS backend. Set to true.
NovaEnableRbdBackend
Enables Ceph Storage for Nova ephemeral storage. Set to false.
GlanceBackend
Define the back end to use for Glance. Set to file to use file-based storage for images. The Overcloud will save these files in a mounted NFS share for Glance.
CinderNfsMountOptions
The NFS mount options for the volume storage.
CinderNfsServers
The NFS share to mount for volume storage. For example, 192.168.122.1:/export/cinder.
GlanceFilePcmkManage
Enables Pacemaker to manage the share for image storage. If disabled, the Overcloud stores images in the Controller node's file system. Set to true.
GlanceFilePcmkFstype
Defines the file system type that Pacemaker uses for image storage. Set to nfs.
GlanceFilePcmkDevice
The NFS share to mount for image storage. For example, 192.168.122.1:/export/glance.
GlanceFilePcmkOptions
The NFS mount options for the image storage.
The environment file's options should look similar to the following:
parameter_defaults:
CinderEnableIscsiBackend: false
CinderEnableRbdBackend: false
CinderEnableNfsBackend: true
NovaEnableRbdBackend: false
GlanceBackend: 'file'

CinderNfsMountOptions: 'rw,sync'
CinderNfsServers: '192.0.2.230:/cinder'

GlanceFilePcmkManage: true
GlanceFilePcmkFstype: 'nfs'
GlanceFilePcmkDevice: '192.0.2.230:/glance'
GlanceFilePcmkOptions: 'rw,sync,context=system_u:object_r:glance_var_lib_t:s0'

Important

Include the context=system_u:object_r:glance_var_lib_t:s0 in the GlanceFilePcmkOptions parameter to allow glance access to the /var/lib directory. Without this SELinux content, glance will fail to write to the mount point.
These parameters are integrated as part of the heat template collection. Setting them as such creates two NFS mount points for cinder and glance to use.
Save this file for inclusion in the Overcloud creation.

6.8. Configuring Ceph Storage

The director provides two main methods for integrating Red Hat Ceph Storage into an Overcloud.
Creating an Overcloud with its own Ceph Storage Cluster
The director has the ability to create a Ceph Storage Cluster during the creation on the Overcloud. The director creates a set of Ceph Storage nodes that use the Ceph OSD to store the data. In addition, the director install the Ceph Monitor service on the Overcloud's Controller nodes. This means if an organization creates an Overcloud with three highly available controller nodes, the Ceph Monitor also becomes a highly available service.
Integrating a Existing Ceph Storage into an Overcloud
If you already have an existing Ceph Storage Cluster, you can integrate this during an Overcloud deployment. This means you manage and scale the cluster outside of the Overcloud configuration.
For more information about configuring Overcloud Ceph Storage, see the dedicated Red Hat Ceph Storage for the Overcloud guide for full instructions on both scenarios.

6.9. Configuring Third Party Storage

The director include a couple of environment files to help configure third-party storage providers. This includes:
Dell Storage Center
Deploys a single Dell Storage Center back end for the Block Storage (cinder) service.
The environment file is located at /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/cinder-dellsc-config.yaml.
See the Dell Storage Center Back End Guide for full configuration information.
Dell EqualLogic
Deploys a single Dell EqualLogic back end for the Block Storage (cinder) service.
The environment file is located at /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/cinder-eqlx-config.yaml.
See the Dell EqualLogic Back End Guide for full configuration information.
NetApp Block Storage
Deploys a NetApp storage appliance as a back end for the Block Storage (cinder) service.
The environment file is located at /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/cinder-dellsc-config.yaml/cinder-netapp-config.yaml.
See the NetApp Block Storage Back End Guide for full configuration information.

6.10. Configuring the Overcloud Time Zone

You can set the time zone of your Overcloud deployment using the TimeZone parameter in an environment file. If you leave the TimeZone parameter blank, the Overcloud will default to UTC time.

Director recognizes the standard timezone names defined in the timezone database /usr/share/zoneinfo/. For example, if you wanted to set your time zone to Japan, you would examine the contents of /usr/share/zoneinfo to locate a suitable entry:
$ ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/
Africa      Asia       Canada   Cuba   EST      GB       GMT-0      HST      iso3166.tab  Kwajalein  MST      NZ-CHAT   posix       right      Turkey     UTC       Zulu
America     Atlantic   CET      EET    EST5EDT  GB-Eire  GMT+0      Iceland  Israel       Libya      MST7MDT  Pacific   posixrules  ROC        UCT        WET
Antarctica  Australia  Chile    Egypt  Etc      GMT      Greenwich  Indian   Jamaica      MET        Navajo   Poland    PRC         ROK        Universal  W-SU
Arctic      Brazil     CST6CDT  Eire   Europe   GMT0     Hongkong   Iran     Japan        Mexico     NZ       Portugal  PST8PDT     Singapore  US         zone.tab

The output listed above includes time zone files, and directories containing additional time zone files. For example, Japan is an individual time zone file in this result, but Africa is a directory containing additional time zone files:
$ ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/
Abidjan      Algiers  Bamako  Bissau       Bujumbura   Ceuta    Dar_es_Salaam  El_Aaiun  Harare        Kampala   Kinshasa    Lome        Lusaka  Maseru     Monrovia  Niamey       Porto-Novo  Tripoli
Accra        Asmara   Bangui  Blantyre     Cairo       Conakry  Djibouti       Freetown  Johannesburg  Khartoum  Lagos       Luanda      Malabo  Mbabane    Nairobi   Nouakchott   Sao_Tome    Tunis
Addis_Ababa  Asmera   Banjul  Brazzaville  Casablanca  Dakar    Douala         Gaborone  Juba          Kigali    Libreville  Lubumbashi  Maputo  Mogadishu  Ndjamena  Ouagadougou  Timbuktu    Windhoek

Once you have determined the time zone to use, you can enter its name into an environment file processing. For example, add the entry in a file named 'timezone.yaml' to set your timezone to Japan:
parameter_defaults:
  TimeZone: 'Japan'

Next, use the overcloud deploy process to run the template and apply the setting:
$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates -e timezone.yaml

6.11. Enabling SSL/TLS on the Overcloud

By default, the Overcloud uses unencrypted endpoints for its services; this means that the Overcloud configuration requires an additional environment file to enable SSL/TLS for its Public API endpoints.

Note

This process only enables SSL/TLS for Public API endpoints. The Internal and Admin APIs remain unencrypted.
This process requires network isolation to define the endpoints for the Public API. See Section 6.2, “Isolating Networks” for instruction on network isolation.
Ensure you have a private key and certificate authority created. See Appendix A, SSL/TLS Certificate Configuration for more information on creating a valid SSL/TLS key and certificate authority file.

Enabling SSL/TLS

Copy the enable-tls.yaml environment file from the Heat template collection:
$ cp -r /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/enable-tls.yaml ~/templates/.
Edit this file and make the following changes for these parameters:

parameter_defaults:

SSLCertificate:
Copy the contents of the certificate file into the SSLCertificate parameter. For example:
parameter_defaults:
  SSLCertificate: |
    -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
    MIIDgzCCAmugAwIBAgIJAKk46qw6ncJaMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAMFgxCzAJBgNV
    ...
    sFW3S2roS4X0Af/kSSD8mlBBTFTCMBAj6rtLBKLaQbIxEpIzrgvp
    -----END CERTIFICATE-----

Important

The certificate authority contents require the same indentation level for all new lines.
SSLKey:
Copy the contents of the private key into the SSLKey parameter. For example>
parameter_defaults:
  ...
  SSLKey: |
    -----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
    MIIEowIBAAKCAQEAqVw8lnQ9RbeI1EdLN5PJP0lVO9hkJZnGP6qb6wtYUoy1bVP7
    ...
    ctlKn3rAAdyumi4JDjESAXHIKFjJNOLrBmpQyES4XpZUC7yhqPaU
    -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----

Important

The private key contents require the same indentation level for all new lines.
EndpointMap:
The EndpointMap contains a mapping of the services using HTTPS and HTTP communication. If using DNS for SSL communication, leave this section with the defaults. However, if using an IP address for the SSL certificate's common name (see Appendix A, SSL/TLS Certificate Configuration), replace all instances of CLOUDNAME with IP_ADDRESS. Use the following command to accomplish this:
$ sed -i 's/CLOUDNAME/IP_ADDRESS/' ~/templates/enable-tls.yaml

Important

Do not substitute IP_ADDRESS or CLOUDNAME for actual values. Heat replaces these variables with the appropriate value during the Overcloud creation.

resource_registry:

OS::TripleO::NodeTLSData:
Change the resource path for OS::TripleO::NodeTLSData: to an absolute path:
resource_registry:
OS::TripleO::NodeTLSData: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/puppet/extraconfig/tls/tls-cert-inject.yaml

Injecting a Root Certificate

If the certificate signer is not in the default trust store on the Overcloud image, you must inject the certificate authority into the Overcloud image. Copy the inject-trust-anchor.yaml environment file from the heat template collection:
$ cp -r /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/inject-trust-anchor.yaml ~/templates/.
Edit this file and make the following changes for these parameters:

parameter_defaults:

SSLRootCertificate:
Copy the contents of the root certificate authority file into the SSLRootCertificate parameter. For example:
parameter_defaults:
  SSLRootCertificate: |
    -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
    MIIDgzCCAmugAwIBAgIJAKk46qw6ncJaMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAMFgxCzAJBgNV
    ...
    sFW3S2roS4X0Af/kSSD8mlBBTFTCMBAj6rtLBKLaQbIxEpIzrgvp
    -----END CERTIFICATE-----

Important

The certificate authority contents require the same indentation level for all new lines.

resource_registry:

OS::TripleO::NodeTLSCAData:
Change the resource path for OS::TripleO::NodeTLSCAData: to an absolute path:
resource_registry:
  OS::TripleO::NodeTLSCAData: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/puppet/extraconfig/tls/ca-inject.yaml

Configuring DNS Endpoints

If using a DNS hostname to access the Overcloud through SSL/TLS, create a new environment file (~/templates/cloudname.yaml) to define the hostname of the Overcloud's endpoints. Use the following parameters:

parameter_defaults:

CloudName:
The DNS hostname of the Overcloud endpoints.
DnsServers:
A list of DNS servers to use. The configured DNS servers must contain an entry for the configured CloudName that matches the IP address of the Public API.
An example of the contents for this file:
parameter_defaults:
CloudName: overcloud.example.com
DnsServers: ["10.0.0.1"]

Adding Environment Files During Overcloud Creation

The deployment command (openstack overcloud deploy) in Chapter 7, Creating the Overcloud uses the -e option to add environment files. Add the environment files from this section in the following order:
  • The environment file to enable SSL/TLS (enable-tls.yaml)
  • The environment file to set the DNS hostname (cloudname.yaml)
  • The environment file to inject the root certificate authority (inject-trust-anchor.yaml)
For example:
$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates [...] -e /home/stack/templates/enable-tls.yaml -e ~/templates/cloudname.yaml -e ~/templates/inject-trust-anchor.yaml

6.12. Registering the Overcloud

The Overcloud provides a method to register nodes to either the Red Hat Content Delivery Network, a Red Hat Satellite 5 server, or a Red Hat Satellite 6 server. You can either achieve this through environment files or the command line.

Method 1 - Command Line

The deployment command (openstack overcloud deploy) uses a set of options to define your registration details. The table in Section 7.1, “Setting Overcloud Parameters” contains these options and their descriptions. Include these options when running the deployment command in Chapter 7, Creating the Overcloud. For example:
# openstack overcloud deploy --templates --rhel-reg --reg-method satellite --reg-sat-url http://example.satellite.com  --reg-org MyOrg --reg-activation-key MyKey --reg-force [...]

Method 2 - Environment File

Copy the registration files from the Heat template collection:
$ cp -r /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/extraconfig/pre_deploy/rhel-registration ~/templates/.
Edit the ~/templates/rhel-registration/environment-rhel-registration.yaml and modify the following values to suit your registration method and details.
rhel_reg_method
Choose the registration method. Either portal, satellite, or disable.
rhel_reg_type
The type of unit to register. Leave blank to register as a system
rhel_reg_auto_attach
Automatically attach compatible subscriptions to this system. Set to true to enable.
rhel_reg_service_level
The service level to use for auto attachment.
rhel_reg_release
Use this parameter to set a release version for auto attachment. Leave blank to use the default from Red Hat Subscription Manager.
rhel_reg_pool_id
The subscription pool ID to use. Use this if not auto-attaching subscriptions.
rhel_reg_sat_url
The base URL of the Satellite server to register Overcloud nodes. Use the Satellite's HTTP URL and not the HTTPS URL for this parameter. For example, use http://satellite.example.com and not https://satellite.example.com. The Overcloud creation process uses this URL to determine whether the server is a Red Hat Satellite 5 or Red Hat Satellite 6 server. If a Red Hat Satellite 6 server, the Overcloud obtains the katello-ca-consumer-latest.noarch.rpm file, registers with subscription-manager, and installs katello-agent. If a Red Hat Satellite 5 server, the Overcloud obtains the RHN-ORG-TRUSTED-SSL-CERT file and registers with rhnreg_ks.
rhel_reg_server_url
The hostname of the subscription service to use. The default is for Customer Portal Subscription Management, subscription.rhn.redhat.com. If this option is not used, the system is registered with Customer Portal Subscription Management. The subscription server URL uses the form of https://hostname:port/prefix.
rhel_reg_base_url
Gives the hostname of the content delivery server to use to receive updates. The default is https://cdn.redhat.com. Since Satellite 6 hosts its own content, the URL must be used for systems registered with Satellite 6. The base URL for content uses the form of https://hostname:port/prefix.
rhel_reg_org
The organization to use for registration.
rhel_reg_environment
The environment to use within the chosen organization.
rhel_reg_repos
A comma-separated list of repositories to enable. See Section 2.5, “Repository Requirements” for repositories to enable.
rhel_reg_activation_key
The activation key to use for registration.
rhel_reg_user, rhel_reg_password
The username and password for registration. If possible, use activation keys for registration.
rhel_reg_machine_name
The machine name. Leave this as blank to use the hostname of the node.
rhel_reg_force
Set to true to force your registration options. For example, when re-registering nodes.
rhel_reg_sat_repo
The repository containing Red Hat Satellite 6's management tools, such as katello-agent. For example, rhel-7-server-satellite-tools-6.1-rpms.
The deployment command (openstack overcloud deploy) in Chapter 7, Creating the Overcloud uses the -e option to add environment files. Add both ~/templates/rhel-registration/environment-rhel-registration.yaml and ~/templates/rhel-registration/rhel-registration-resource-registry.yaml. For example:
$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates [...] -e /home/stack/templates/rhel-registration/environment-rhel-registration.yaml -e /home/stack/templates/rhel-registration/rhel-registration-resource-registry.yaml

Important

Registration is set as the OS::TripleO::NodeExtraConfig Heat resource. This means you can only use this resource for registration. See Section 6.14, “Customizing Overcloud Pre-Configuration” for more information.

6.13. Customizing Configuration on First Boot

The director provides a mechanism to perform configuration on all nodes upon the initial creation of the Overcloud. The director achieves this through cloud-init, which you can call using the OS::TripleO::NodeUserData resource type.
In this example, you will update the nameserver with a custom IP address on all nodes. You must first create a basic heat template (/home/stack/templates/nameserver.yaml) that runs a script to append each node's resolv.conf with a specific nameserver. You can use the OS::TripleO::MultipartMime resource type to send the configuration script.
heat_template_version: 2014-10-16

description: >
  Extra hostname configuration

resources:
  userdata:
    type: OS::Heat::MultipartMime
    properties:
      parts:
      - config: {get_resource: nameserver_config}

  nameserver_config:
    type: OS::Heat::SoftwareConfig
    properties:
      config: |
        #!/bin/bash
        echo "nameserver 192.168.1.1" >> /etc/resolv.conf

outputs:
  OS::stack_id:
    value: {get_resource: userdata}
Next, create an environment file (/home/stack/templates/firstboot.yaml) that registers your heat template as the OS::TripleO::NodeUserData resource type.
resource_registry:
  OS::TripleO::NodeUserData: /home/stack/templates/nameserver.yaml
To add the first boot configuration, add the environment file to the stack when first creating the Overcloud. For example:
$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates -e /home/stack/templates/firstboot.yaml
The -e applies the environment file to the Overcloud stack.
This adds the configuration to all nodes when they are first created and boot for the first time. Subsequent inclusions of these templates, such as updating the Overcloud stack, does not run these scripts.

Important

You can only register the OS::TripleO::NodeUserData to one heat template. Subsequent usage overrides the heat template to use.

6.14. Customizing Overcloud Pre-Configuration

The Overcloud uses Puppet for the core configuration of OpenStack components. The director provides a set of resources to provide custom configuration after the first boot completes and before the core configuration begins. These resources include:
OS::TripleO::ControllerExtraConfigPre
Additional configuration applied to Controller nodes before the core Puppet configuration.
OS::TripleO::ComputeExtraConfigPre
Additional configuration applied to Compute nodes before the core Puppet configuration.
OS::TripleO::CephStorageExtraConfigPre
Additional configuration applied to CephStorage nodes before the core Puppet configuration.
OS::TripleO::NodeExtraConfig
Additional configuration applied to all nodes roles before the core Puppet configuration.
In this example, you first create a basic heat template (/home/stack/templates/nameserver.yaml) that runs a script to append each node's resolv.conf with a variable nameserver.
heat_template_version: 2014-10-16

description: >
  Extra hostname configuration

parameters:
  server:
    type: string
  nameserver_ip:
    type: string

resources:
  ExtraPreConfig:
    type: OS::Heat::SoftwareConfig
    properties:
      group: script
      config:
        str_replace:
          template: |
            #!/bin/sh
            echo "nameserver _NAMESERVER_IP_" >> /etc/resolv.conf
          params:
            _NAMESERVER_IP_: {get_param: nameserver_ip}
  ExtraPreDeployment:
    type: OS::Heat::SoftwareDeployment
    properties:
      config: {get_resource: ExtraPreConfig}
      server: {get_param: server}
      actions: ['CREATE','UPDATE']

outputs:
  deploy_stdout:
    description: Deployment reference, used to trigger pre-deploy on changes
    value: {get_attr: [ExtraPreDeployment, deploy_stdout]}

Important

The server parameter is the server to apply the configuration and is provided by the parent template. This parameter is mandatory in all pre-configuration templates.
Next, create an environment file (/home/stack/templates/pre_config.yaml) that registers your heat template as the OS::TripleO::NodeExtraConfig resource type.
resource_registry:
OS::TripleO::NodeExtraConfig: /home/stack/templates/nameserver.yaml
parameter_defaults:
nameserver_ip: 192.168.1.1
To apply the configuration, add the environment file to the stack when creating or updating the Overcloud. For example:
$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates -e /home/stack/templates/pre_config.yaml
This applies the configuration to all nodes before the core configuration begins on either the initial Overcloud creation or subsequent updates.

Important

You can only register these resources to only one Heat template each. Subsequent usage overrides the heat template to use per resource.

6.15. Customizing Overcloud Post-Configuration

A situation might occur where you have completed the creation of your Overcloud but want to add additional configuration, either on initial creation or on a subsequent update of the Overcloud. In this case, you use the OS::TripleO::NodeExtraConfigPost resource to apply configuration using the standard OS::Heat::SoftwareConfig types. This applies additional configuration after the main Overcloud configuration completes.
In this example, you first create a basic heat template (/home/stack/templates/nameserver.yaml) that runs a script to append each node's resolv.conf with a variable nameserver.
heat_template_version: 2014-10-16

description: >
  Extra hostname configuration

parameters:
  servers:
    type: json
  nameserver_ip:
    type: string

resources:
  ExtraConfig:
    type: OS::Heat::SoftwareConfig
    properties:
      group: script
      config:
        str_replace:
          template: |
            #!/bin/sh
            echo "nameserver _NAMESERVER_IP_" >> /etc/resolv.conf
          params:
            _NAMESERVER_IP_: {get_param: nameserver_ip}

  ExtraDeployments:
    type: OS::Heat::SoftwareDeployments
    properties:
      servers:  {get_param: servers}
      config: {get_resource: ExtraConfig}
      actions: ['CREATE','UPDATE']

Important

The servers parameter is the server list to apply the configuration and is provided by the parent template. This parameter is mandatory in all OS::TripleO::NodeExtraConfigPost templates.
Next, create an environment file (/home/stack/templates/post_config.yaml) that registers your heat template as the OS::TripleO::NodeExtraConfigPost: resource type.
resource_registry:
  OS::TripleO::NodeExtraConfigPost: /home/stack/templates/nameserver.yaml

parameter_defaults:
  nameserver_ip: 192.168.1.1
To apply the configuration, add the environment file to the stack when creating or updating the Overcloud. For example:
$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates -e /home/stack/templates/post_config.yaml
This applies the configuration to all nodes after the core configuration completes on either initial Overcloud creation or subsequent updates.

Important

You can only register the OS::TripleO::NodeExtraConfigPost to only one heat template. Subsequent usage overrides the heat template to use.

6.16. Customizing Puppet Configuration Data

The Heat template collection contains a set of parameters to pass extra configuration to certain node types. These parameters save the configuration as hieradata for the node's Puppet configuration. These parameters are:
ExtraConfig
Configuration to add to all nodes.
controllerExtraConfig
Configuration to add to all Controller nodes.
NovaComputeExtraConfig
Configuration to add to all Compute nodes.
BlockStorageExtraConfig
Configuration to add to all Block Storage nodes.
ObjectStorageExtraConfig
Configuration to add to all Object Storage nodes
CephStorageExtraConfig
Configuration to add to all Ceph Storage nodes
To add extra configuration to the post-deployment configuration process, create an environment file that contains these parameters in the parameter_defaults section. For example, to increase the reserved memory for Compute hosts to 1024 MB and set the VNC keymap to Japanese:
parameter_defaults:
  NovaComputeExtraConfig:
    nova::compute::reserved_host_memory: 1024
    nova::compute::vnc_keymap: ja
Include this environment file when running openstack overcloud deploy.

Important

You can only define each parameter once. Subsequent usage overrides previous values.

6.17. Applying Custom Puppet Configuration

In certain circumstances, you might need to install and configure some additional components to your Overcloud nodes. You can achieve this with a custom Puppet manifest that applies to nodes on after the main configuration completes. As a basic example, you might intend to install motd to each node. The process for accomplishing is to first create a Heat template (/home/stack/templates/custom_puppet_config.yaml) that launches Puppet configuration.
heat_template_version: 2014-10-16

description: >
  Run Puppet extra configuration to set new MOTD

parameters:
  servers:
    type: json

resources:
  ExtraPuppetConfig:
    type: OS::Heat::SoftwareConfig
    properties:
      config: {get_file: motd.pp}
      group: puppet
      options:
        enable_hiera: True
        enable_facter: False

  ExtraPuppetDeployments:
    type: OS::Heat::SoftwareDeployments
    properties:
      config: {get_resource: ExtraPuppetConfig}
      servers: {get_param: servers}
This includes the /home/stack/templates/motd.pp within the template and passes it to nodes for configuration. The motd.pp file itself contains the Puppet classes to install and configure motd.
Next, create an environment file (/home/stack/templates/puppet_post_config.yaml) that registers your heat template as the OS::TripleO::NodeExtraConfigPost: resource type.
resource_registry:
  OS::TripleO::NodeExtraConfigPost: /home/stack/templates/custom_puppet_config.yaml
And finally include this environment file when creating or updating the Overcloud stack:
$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates -e /home/stack/templates/puppet_post_config.yaml
This applies the configuration from motd.pp to all nodes in the Overcloud.

6.18. Using Customized Core Heat Templates

When creating the Overcloud, the director uses a core set of heat templates. You can copy the standard heat templates into a local directory and use these templates for creating your Overcloud.
Copy the heat template collection in /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates to the stack user's templates directory:
$ cp -r /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates ~/templates/my-overcloud
This creates a clone of the Overcloud Heat templates. When running openstack overcloud deploy, we use the --templates option to specify your local template directory. This occurs later in this scenario (see Chapter 7, Creating the Overcloud).

Note

The director uses the default template directory (/usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates) if you specify the --templates option without a directory.

Important

Red Hat provides updates to the heat template collection over subsequent releases. Using a modified template collection can lead to a divergence between your custom copy and the original copy in /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates. Red Hat recommends using the methods from the following section instead of modifying the heat template collection:
If creating a copy of the heat template collection, you should track changes to the templates using a version control system such as git.

Chapter 7. Creating the Overcloud

The final stage in creating your OpenStack environment is to run the openstack overcloud deploy command to create it. Before running this command, you should familiarize yourself with key options and how to include custom environment files. This chapter discusses the openstack overcloud deploy command and the options associated with it.

Warning

Do not run openstack overcloud deploy as a background process. The Overcloud creation might hang in mid-deployment if started as a background process.

7.1. Setting Overcloud Parameters

The following table lists the additional parameters when using the openstack overcloud deploy command.

Table 7.1. Deployment Parameters

Parameter
Description
Example
--templates [TEMPLATES]
The directory containing the Heat templates to deploy. If blank, the command uses the default template location at /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/
~/templates/my-overcloud
--stack STACK
The name of the stack to create or update
overcloud
-t [TIMEOUT], --timeout [TIMEOUT]
Deployment timeout in minutes
240
--control-scale [CONTROL_SCALE]
The number of Controller nodes to scale out
3
--compute-scale [COMPUTE_SCALE]
The number of Compute nodes to scale out
3
--ceph-storage-scale [CEPH_STORAGE_SCALE]
The number of Ceph Storage nodes to scale out
3
--block-storage-scale [BLOCK_STORAGE_SCALE]
The number of Cinder nodes to scale out
3
--swift-storage-scale [SWIFT_STORAGE_SCALE]
The number of Swift nodes to scale out
3
--control-flavor [CONTROL_FLAVOR]
The flavor to use for Controller nodes
control
--compute-flavor [COMPUTE_FLAVOR]
The flavor to use for Compute nodes
compute
--ceph-storage-flavor [CEPH_STORAGE_FLAVOR]
The flavor to use for Ceph Storage nodes
ceph-storage
--block-storage-flavor [BLOCK_STORAGE_FLAVOR]
The flavor to use for Cinder nodes
cinder-storage
--swift-storage-flavor [SWIFT_STORAGE_FLAVOR]
The flavor to use for Swift storage nodes
swift-storage
--neutron-flat-networks [NEUTRON_FLAT_NETWORKS]
(DEPRECATED) Defines the flat networks to configure in neutron plugins. Defaults to "datacentre" to permit external network creation
datacentre
--neutron-physical-bridge [NEUTRON_PHYSICAL_BRIDGE]
(DEPRECATED) An Open vSwitch bridge to create on each hypervisor. This defaults to "br-ex". Typically, this should not need to be changed
br-ex
--neutron-bridge-mappings [NEUTRON_BRIDGE_MAPPINGS]
(DEPRECATED) The logical to physical bridge mappings to use. Defaults to mapping the external bridge on hosts (br-ex) to a physical name (datacentre). You would use this for the default floating network
datacentre:br-ex
--neutron-public-interface [NEUTRON_PUBLIC_INTERFACE]
(DEPRECATED) Defines the interface to bridge onto br-ex for network nodes
nic1, eth0
--neutron-network-type [NEUTRON_NETWORK_TYPE]
(DEPRECATED) The tenant network type for Neutron
gre or vxlan
--neutron-tunnel-types [NEUTRON_TUNNEL_TYPES]
(DEPRECATED) The tunnel types for the Neutron tenant network. To specify multiple values, use a comma separated string
'vxlan' 'gre,vxlan'
--neutron-tunnel-id-ranges [NEUTRON_TUNNEL_ID_RANGES]
(DEPRECATED) Ranges of GRE tunnel IDs to make available for tenant network allocation
1:1000
--neutron-vni-ranges [NEUTRON_VNI_RANGES]
(DEPRECATED) Ranges of VXLAN VNI IDs to make available for tenant network allocation
1:1000
--neutron-disable-tunneling
(DEPRECATED) Disables tunneling in case you aim to use a VLAN segmented network or flat network with Neutron
--neutron-network-vlan-ranges [NEUTRON_NETWORK_VLAN_RANGES]
(DEPRECATED) The Neutron ML2 and Open vSwitch VLAN mapping range to support. Defaults to permitting any VLAN on the 'datacentre' physical network
datacentre:1:1000
--neutron-mechanism-drivers [NEUTRON_MECHANISM_DRIVERS]
(DEPRECATED) The mechanism drivers for the neutron tenant network. Defaults to "openvswitch". To specify multiple values, use a comma-separated string
'openvswitch,l2population'
--libvirt-type [LIBVIRT_TYPE]
Virtualization type to use for hypervisors
kvm,qemu
--ntp-server [NTP_SERVER]
Network Time Protocol (NTP) server to use to synchronize time
pool.ntp.org
--no-proxy [NO_PROXY]
Defines custom values for the environment variable no_proxy, which excludes certain domain extensions from proxy communication
--overcloud-ssh-user OVERCLOUD_SSH_USER
Defines the SSH user to access the Overcloud nodes. Normally SSH access occurs through the heat-admin user.
ocuser
-e [EXTRA HEAT TEMPLATE], --extra-template [EXTRA HEAT TEMPLATE]
Extra environment files to pass to the Overcloud deployment. Can be specified more than once. Note that the order of environment files passed to the openstack overcloud deploy command is important. For example, parameters from each sequential environment file override the same parameters from earlier environment files.
-e ~/templates/my-config.yaml
--validation-errors-fatal
The Overcloud creation process performs a set of pre-deployment checks. This option exits if any errors occur from the pre-deployment checks. It is advisable to use this option as any errors can cause your deployment to fail.
--validation-warnings-fatal
The Overcloud creation process performs a set of pre-deployment checks. This option exits if any non-critical warnings occur from the pre-deployment checks.
--dry-run
Performs validation check on the Overcloud but does not actually create the Overcloud.
--rhel-reg
Register Overcloud nodes to the Customer Portal or Satellite 6
--reg-method
Registration method to use for the overcloud nodes
satellite for Red Hat Satellite 6 or Red Hat Satellite 5, portal for Customer Portal
--reg-org [REG_ORG]
Organization to use for registration
--reg-force
Register the system even if it is already registered
--reg-sat-url [REG_SAT_URL]
The base URL of the Satellite server to register Overcloud nodes. Use the Satellite's HTTP URL and not the HTTPS URL for this parameter. For example, use http://satellite.example.com and not https://satellite.example.com. The Overcloud creation process uses this URL to determine whether the server is a Red Hat Satellite 5 or Red Hat Satellite 6 server. If a Red Hat Satellite 6 server, the Overcloud obtains the katello-ca-consumer-latest.noarch.rpm file, registers with subscription-manager, and installs katello-agent. If a Red Hat Satellite 5 server, the Overcloud obtains the RHN-ORG-TRUSTED-SSL-CERT file and registers with rhnreg_ks.
--reg-activation-key [REG_ACTIVATION_KEY]
Activation key to use for registration

Note

Run the following command for a full list of options:
$ openstack help overcloud deploy

7.2. Including Environment Files in Overcloud Creation

The -e includes an environment file to customize your Overcloud. You can include as many environment files as necessary. However, the order of the environment files is important as the parameters and resources defined in subsequent environment files take precedence. Use the following list as an example of the environment file order:
  • Any network isolation files, including the initialization file (environments/network-isolation.yaml) from the heat template collection and then your custom NIC configuration file. See Section 6.2, “Isolating Networks” for more information on network isolation.
  • Any external load balancing environment files.
  • Any storage environment files such as Ceph Storage, NFS, iSCSI, etc.
  • Any environment files for Red Hat CDN or Satellite registration.
  • Any other custom environment files.
Any environment files added to the Overcloud using the -e option become part of your Overcloud's stack definition. The director requires these environment files for re-deployment and post-deployment functions in Chapter 8, Performing Tasks after Overcloud Creation. Failure to include these files can result in damage to your Overcloud.
If you aim to later modify the Overcloud configuration, you should:
  1. Modify parameters in the custom environment files and Heat templates
  2. Run the openstack overcloud deploy command again with the same environment files
Do not edit the Overcloud configuration directly as such manual configuration gets overridden by the director's configuration when updating the Overcloud stack with the director.

Important

Save the original deployment command for later use and modification. For example, save your deployment command in a script file called deploy-overcloud.sh:
#!/bin/bash
openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
  -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/network-isolation.yaml \
  -e ~/templates/network-environment.yaml \
  -e ~/templates/storage-environment.yaml \
  -t 150 \
  --control-scale 3 \
  --compute-scale 3 \
  --ceph-storage-scale 3 \
  --swift-storage-scale 0 \
  --block-storage-scale 0 \
  --compute-flavor compute \
  --control-flavor control \
  --ceph-storage-flavor ceph-storage \
  --swift-storage-flavor swift-storage \
  --block-storage-flavor block-storage \
  --ntp-server pool.ntp.org \
  --neutron-network-type vxlan \
  --neutron-tunnel-types vxlan \
  --libvirt-type qemu
This retains the Overcloud deployment command's parameters and environment files for future use, such as Overcloud modifications and scaling. You can then edit and rerun this script to suit future customizations to the Overcloud.

7.3. Overcloud Creation Example

The following command is an example of how to start the Overcloud creation with custom environment files included:
$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/network-isolation.yaml -e ~/templates/network-environment.yaml -e ~/templates/storage-environment.yaml --control-scale 3 --compute-scale 3 --ceph-storage-scale 3 --control-flavor control --compute-flavor compute --ceph-storage-flavor ceph-storage --ntp-server pool.ntp.org --neutron-network-type vxlan --neutron-tunnel-types vxlan
This command contains the following additional options:
  • --templates - Creates the Overcloud using the Heat template collection in /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates.
  • -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/network-isolation.yaml - The -e option adds an additional environment file to the Overcloud deployment. In this case, it is an environment file that initializes network isolation configuration.
  • -e ~/templates/network-environment.yaml - The -e option adds an additional environment file to the Overcloud deployment. In this case, it is the network environment file from Section 6.2.2, “Creating a Network Environment File”.
  • -e ~/templates/storage-environment.yaml - The -e option adds an additional environment file to the Overcloud deployment. In this case, it is a custom environment file that initializes our storage configuration.
  • --control-scale 3 - Scale the Controller nodes to three.
  • --compute-scale 3 - Scale the Compute nodes to three.
  • --ceph-storage-scale 3 - Scale the Ceph Storage nodes to three.
  • --control-flavor control - Use the a specific flavor for the Controller nodes.
  • --compute-flavor compute - Use the a specific flavor for the Compute nodes.
  • --ceph-storage-flavor ceph-storage - Use the a specific flavor for the Ceph Storage nodes.
  • --ntp-server pool.ntp.org - Use an NTP server for time synchronization. This is useful for keeping the Controller node cluster in synchronization.
  • --neutron-network-type vxlan - Use Virtual Extensible LAN (VXLAN) for the neutron networking in the Overcloud.
  • --neutron-tunnel-types vxlan - Use Virtual Extensible LAN (VXLAN) for neutron tunneling in the Overcloud.

7.4. Monitoring the Overcloud Creation

The Overcloud creation process begins and the director provisions your nodes. This process takes some time to complete. To view the status of the Overcloud creation, open a separate terminal as the stack user and run:
$ source ~/stackrc                # Initializes the stack user to use the CLI commands
$ heat stack-list --show-nested
The heat stack-list --show-nested command shows the current stage of the Overcloud creation.

7.5. Accessing the Overcloud

The director generates a script to configure and help authenticate interactions with your Overcloud from the director host. The director saves this file, overcloudrc, in your stack user's home director. Run the following command to use this file:
$ source ~/overcloudrc
This loads the necessary environment variables to interact with your Overcloud from the director host's CLI. To return to interacting with the director's host, run the following command:
$ source ~/stackrc
Each node in the Overcloud also contains a user called heat-admin. The stack user has SSH access to this user on each node. To access a node over SSH, find the IP address of the desired node:
$ nova list
Then connect to the node using the heat-admin user and the node's IP address:
$ ssh heat-admin@192.0.2.23

7.6. Completing the Overcloud Creation

This concludes the creation of the Overcloud. For post-creation functions, see Chapter 8, Performing Tasks after Overcloud Creation.

Chapter 8. Performing Tasks after Overcloud Creation

This chapter explores some of the functions you perform after creating your Overcloud of choice.

8.1. Creating the Overcloud Tenant Network

The Overcloud requires a Tenant network for instances. Source the overcloud and create an initial Tenant network in Neutron. For example:
$ source ~/overcloudrc
$ neutron net-create default
$ neutron subnet-create --name default --gateway 172.20.1.1 default 172.20.0.0/16
This creates a basic Neutron network called default. The Overcloud automatically assigns IP addresses from this network using an internal DHCP mechanism.
Confirm the created network with neutron net-list:
$ neutron net-list
+-----------------------+-------------+----------------------------------------------------+
| id                    | name        | subnets                                            |
+-----------------------+-------------+----------------------------------------------------+
| 95fadaa1-5dda-4777... | default     | 7e060813-35c5-462c-a56a-1c6f8f4f332f 172.20.0.0/16 |
+-----------------------+-------------+----------------------------------------------------+

8.2. Creating the Overcloud External Network

You previously configured the node interfaces to use the External network in Section 6.2, “Isolating Networks”. However, you still need to create this network on the Overcloud so that you can assign floating IP addresses to instances.

Using a Native VLAN

This procedure assumes a dedicated interface or native VLAN for the External network.
Source the overcloud and create an External network in Neutron. For example:
$ source ~/overcloudrc
$ neutron net-create nova --router:external --provider:network_type flat --provider:physical_network datacentre
$ neutron subnet-create --name nova --enable_dhcp=False --allocation-pool=start=10.1.1.51,end=10.1.1.250 --gateway=10.1.1.1 nova 10.1.1.0/24
In this example, you create a network with the name nova. The Overcloud requires this specific name for the default floating IP pool. This is also important for the validation tests in Section 8.5, “Validating the Overcloud”.
This command also maps the network to the datacentre physical network. As a default, datacentre maps to the br-ex bridge. Leave this option as the default unless you have used custom neutron settings during the Overcloud creation.

Using a Non-Native VLAN

If not using the native VLAN, assign the network to a VLAN using the following commands:
$ source ~/overcloudrc
$ neutron net-create nova --router:external --provider:network_type vlan --provider:physical_network datacentre --provider:segmentation_id 104
$ neutron subnet-create --name nova --enable_dhcp=False --allocation-pool=start=10.1.1.51,end=10.1.1.250 --gateway=10.1.1.1 nova 10.1.1.0/24
The provider:segmentation_id value defines the VLAN to use. In this case, you can use 104.
Confirm the created network with neutron net-list:
$ neutron net-list
+-----------------------+-------------+---------------------------------------------------+
| id                    | name        | subnets                                           |
+-----------------------+-------------+---------------------------------------------------+
| d474fe1f-222d-4e32... | nova        | 01c5f621-1e0f-4b9d-9c30-7dc59592a52f 10.1.1.0/24  |
+-----------------------+-------------+---------------------------------------------------+

8.3. Creating Additional Floating IP Networks

Floating IP networks can use any bridge, not just br-ex, as long as you meet the following conditions:
  • NeutronExternalNetworkBridge is set to "''" in your network environment file.
  • You have mapped the additional bridge during deployment. For example, to map a new bridge called br-floating to the floating physical network:
    $ openstack overcloud deploy --templates -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/network-isolation.yaml -e ~/templates/network-environment.yaml --neutron-bridge-mappings datacentre:br-ex,floating:br-floating
Create the Floating IP network after creating the Overcloud:
$ neutron net-create ext-net --router:external --provider:physical_network floating --provider:network_type vlan --provider:segmentation_id 105
$ neutron subnet-create --name ext-subnet --enable_dhcp=False --allocation-pool start=10.1.2.51,end=10.1.2.250 --gateway 10.1.2.1 ext-net 10.1.2.0/24

8.4. Creating the Overcloud Provider Network

A provider network is a network attached physically to a network existing outside of the deployed Overcloud. This can be an existing infrastructure network or a network that provides external access directly to instances through routing instead of floating IPs.
When creating a provider network, you associate it with a physical network, which uses a bridge mapping. This is similar to floating IP network creation. You add the provider network to both the Controller and the Compute nodes because the Compute nodes attach VM virtual network interfaces directly to the attached network interface.
For example, if the desired provider network is a VLAN on the br-ex bridge, use the following command to add a provider network on VLAN 201:
$ neutron net-create --provider:physical_network datacentre --provider:network_type vlan --provider:segmentation_id 201 --shared provider_network
This command creates a shared network. It is also possible to specify a tenant instead of specifying --shared. That network will only be available to the specified tenant. If you mark a provider network as external, only the operator may create ports on that network.
Add a subnet to a provider network if you want neutron to provide DHCP services to the tenant instances:
$ neutron subnet-create --name provider-subnet --enable_dhcp=True --allocation-pool start=10.9.101.50,end=10.9.101.100 --gateway 10.9.101.254 provider_network 10.9.101.0/24

8.5. Validating the Overcloud

The Overcloud uses Tempest to conduct a series of integration tests. This procedure shows how to validate your Overcloud using Tempest. If running this test from the Undercloud, ensure the Undercloud host has access to the Overcloud's Internal API network. For example, add a temporary VLAN on the Undercloud host to access the Internal API network (ID: 201) using the 172.16.0.201/24 address:
$ source ~/stackrc
$ sudo ovs-vsctl add-port br-ctlplane vlan201 tag=201 -- set interface vlan201 type=internal
$ sudo ip l set dev vlan201 up; sudo ip addr add 172.16.0.201/24 dev vlan201
Before running Tempest, check that the heat_stack_owner role exists in your Overcloud:
$ source ~/overcloudrc
$ openstack role list
+----------------------------------+------------------+
| ID                               | Name             |
+----------------------------------+------------------+
| 6226a517204846d1a26d15aae1af208f | swiftoperator    |
| 7c7eb03955e545dd86bbfeb73692738b | heat_stack_owner |
+----------------------------------+------------------+
If the role does not exist, create it:
$ keystone role-create --name heat_stack_owner
Set up a tempest directory in your stack user's home directory and install a local version of the Tempest suite:
$ mkdir ~/tempest
$ cd ~/tempest
$ /usr/share/openstack-tempest-liberty/tools/configure-tempest-directory
This creates a local version of the Tempest tool set.
After the Overcloud creation process completed, the director created a file named ~/tempest-deployer-input.conf. This file provides a set of Tempest configuration options relevant to your Overcloud. Run the following command to use this file to configure Tempest:
$ tools/config_tempest.py --deployer-input ~/tempest-deployer-input.conf --debug --create identity.uri $OS_AUTH_URL identity.admin_password $OS_PASSWORD --network-id d474fe1f-222d-4e32-9242-cd1fefe9c14b
The $OS_AUTH_URL and $OS_PASSWORD environment variables use values set from the overcloudrc file sourced previously. The --network-id is the UUID of the external network created in Section 8.2, “Creating the Overcloud External Network”.

Important

The configuration script downloads the Cirros image for the Tempest tests. Make sure the director has access to the Internet or uses a proxy with access to the Internet. Set the http_proxy environment variable to use a proxy for command line operations.
Run the full suite of Tempest tests with the following command:
$ tools/run-tests.sh

Note

The full Tempest test suite might take hours. Alternatively, run part of the tests using the '.*smoke' option.
$ tools/run-tests.sh '.*smoke'
Each test runs against the Overcloud, and the subsequent output displays each test and its result. You can see more information about each test in the tempest.log file generated in the same directory. For example, the output might show the following failed test:
      {2} tempest.api.compute.servers.test_servers.ServersTestJSON.test_create_specify_keypair [18.305114s] ... FAILED
This corresponds to a log entry that contains more information. Search the log for the last two parts of the test namespace separated with a colon. In this example, search for ServersTestJSON:test_create_specify_keypair in the log:
$ grep "ServersTestJSON:test_create_specify_keypair" tempest.log -A 4
2016-03-17 14:49:31.123 10999 INFO tempest_lib.common.rest_client [req-a7a29a52-0a52-4232-9b57-c4f953280e2c ] Request (ServersTestJSON:test_create_specify_keypair): 500 POST http://192.168.201.69:8774/v2/2f8bef15b284456ba58d7b149935cbc8/os-keypairs 4.331s
2016-03-17 14:49:31.123 10999 DEBUG tempest_lib.common.rest_client [req-a7a29a52-0a52-4232-9b57-c4f953280e2c ] Request - Headers: {'Content-Type': 'application/json', 'Accept': 'application/json', 'X-Auth-Token': '<omitted>'}
        Body: {"keypair": {"name": "tempest-key-722237471"}}
    Response - Headers: {'status': '500', 'content-length': '128', 'x-compute-request-id': 'req-a7a29a52-0a52-4232-9b57-c4f953280e2c', 'connection': 'close', 'date': 'Thu, 17 Mar 2016 04:49:31 GMT', 'content-type': 'application/json; charset=UTF-8'}
        Body: {"computeFault": {"message": "The server has either erred or is incapable of performing the requested operation.", "code": 500}} _log_request_full /usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/tempest_lib/common/rest_client.py:414

Note

The -A 4 option shows the next four lines, which are usually the request header and body and response header and body.
After completing the validation, remove any temporary connections to the Overcloud's Internal API. In this example, use the following commands to remove the previously created VLAN on the Undercloud:
$ source ~/stackrc
$ sudo ovs-vsctl del-port vlan201

8.6. Fencing the Controller Nodes

Fencing is the process of isolating a node to protect a cluster and its resources. Without fencing, a faulty node can cause data corruption in a cluster.
The director uses Pacemaker to provide a highly available cluster of Controller nodes. Pacemaker uses a process called STONITH (Shoot-The-Other-Node-In-The-Head) to help fence faulty nodes. By default, STONITH is disabled on your cluster and requires manual configuration so that Pacemaker can control the power management of each node in the cluster.

Note

Login to each node as the heat-admin user from the stack user on the director. The Overcloud creation automatically copies the stack user's SSH key to each node's heat-admin.
Verify you have a running cluster with pcs status:
  $ sudo pcs status
  Cluster name: openstackHA
  Last updated: Wed Jun 24 12:40:27 2015
  Last change: Wed Jun 24 11:36:18 2015
  Stack: corosync
  Current DC: lb-c1a2 (2) - partition with quorum
  Version: 1.1.12-a14efad
  3 Nodes configured
  141 Resources configured
Verify that stonith is disabled with pcs property show:
$ sudo pcs property show
Cluster Properties:
cluster-infrastructure: corosync
cluster-name: openstackHA
dc-version: 1.1.12-a14efad
have-watchdog: false
stonith-enabled: false
The Controller nodes contain a set of fencing agents for the various power management devices the director supports. This includes:

Table 8.1. Fence Agents

Device
Type
fence_ipmilan
The Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
fence_idrac, fence_drac5
Dell Remote Access Controller (DRAC)
fence_ilo
Integrated Lights-Out (iLO)
fence_ucs
fence_xvm, fence_virt
Libvirt and SSH
The rest of this section uses the IPMI agent (fence_ipmilan) as an example.
View a full list of IPMI options that Pacemaker supports:
$ sudo pcs stonith describe fence_ipmilan
Each node requires configuration of IPMI devices to control the power management. This involves adding a stonith device to Pacemaker for each node. Use the following commands for the cluster:

Note

The second command in each example is to prevent the node from asking to fence itself.
For Controller node 0:
$ sudo pcs stonith create my-ipmilan-for-controller-0 fence_ipmilan pcmk_host_list=overcloud-controller-0 ipaddr=192.0.2.205 login=admin passwd=p@55w0rd! lanplus=1 cipher=1 op monitor interval=60s
$ sudo pcs constraint location my-ipmilan-for-controller-0 avoids overcloud-controller-0
For Controller node 1:
$ sudo pcs stonith create my-ipmilan-for-controller-1 fence_ipmilan pcmk_host_list=overcloud-controller-1 ipaddr=192.0.2.206 login=admin passwd=p@55w0rd! lanplus=1 cipher=1 op monitor interval=60s
$ sudo pcs constraint location my-ipmilan-for-controller-1 avoids overcloud-controller-1
For Controller node 2:
$ sudo pcs stonith create my-ipmilan-for-controller-2 fence_ipmilan pcmk_host_list=overcloud-controller-2 ipaddr=192.0.2.207 login=admin passwd=p@55w0rd! lanplus=1 cipher=1 op monitor interval=60s
$ sudo pcs constraint location my-ipmilan-for-controller-2 avoids overcloud-controller-2
Run the following command to see all stonith resources:
$ sudo pcs stonith show
Run the following command to see a specific stonith resource:
$ sudo pcs stonith show [stonith-name]
Finally, enable fencing by setting the stonith property to true:
$ sudo pcs property set stonith-enabled=true
Verify the property:
$ sudo pcs property show

8.7. Modifying the Overcloud Environment

Sometimes you might intend to modify the Overcloud to add additional features, or change the way it operates. To modify the Overcloud, make modifications to your custom environment files and Heat templates, then rerun the openstack overcloud deploy command from your initial Overcloud creation. For example, if you created an Overcloud using Chapter 7, Creating the Overcloud, you would rerun the following command:
$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/network-isolation.yaml -e ~/templates/network-environment.yaml -e ~/templates/storage-environment.yaml --control-scale 3 --compute-scale 3 --ceph-storage-scale 3 --control-flavor control --compute-flavor compute --ceph-storage-flavor ceph-storage --ntp-server pool.ntp.org --neutron-network-type vxlan --neutron-tunnel-types vxlan
The director checks the overcloud stack in heat, and then updates each item in the stack with the environment files and heat templates. It does not recreate the Overcloud, but rather changes the existing Overcloud.
If you aim to include a new environment file, add it to the openstack overcloud deploy command with a -e option. For example:
$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/network-isolation.yaml -e ~/templates/network-environment.yaml -e ~/templates/storage-environment.yaml -e ~/templates/new-environment.yaml --control-scale 3 --compute-scale 3 --ceph-storage-scale 3 --control-flavor control --compute-flavor compute --ceph-storage-flavor ceph-storage --ntp-server pool.ntp.org --neutron-network-type vxlan --neutron-tunnel-types vxlan
This includes the new parameters and resources from the environment file into the stack.

Important

It is advisable not to make manual modifications to the Overcloud's configuration as the director might overwrite these modifications later.

8.8. Importing Virtual Machines into the Overcloud

Use the following procedure if you have an existing OpenStack environment and aim to migrate its virtual machines to your Red Hat OpenStack Platform environment.
Create a new image by taking a snapshot of a running server and download the image.
$ nova image-create instance_name image_name
$ glance image-download image_name --file exported_vm.qcow2
Upload the exported image into the Overcloud and launch a new instance.
$ glance image-create --name imported_image --file exported_vm.qcow2 --disk-format qcow2 --container-format bare
$ nova boot --poll --key-name default --flavor m1.demo --image imported_image --nic net-id=net_id imported

Important

Each VM disk has to be copied from the existing OpenStack environment and into the new Red Hat OpenStack Platform. Snapshots using QCOW will lose their original layering system.

8.9. Migrating VMs from an Overcloud Compute Node

In some situations, you might perform maintenance on an Overcloud Compute node. To prevent downtime, migrate the VMs on the Compute node to another Compute node in the Overcloud using the following procedures.

Procedure 8.1. Setting up Compute Node SSH Keys

All Compute nodes require a shared SSH key so each host's nova user has access during the migration process. Use the following procedure to setup an SSH key pair on each Compute node.
  1. Generate an SSH key:
    $ ssh-keygen -t rsa -f nova_id_rsa
    
  2. Copy the SSH key to the nova user's home directory on each Compute node.
  3. Log into each Compute node as the nova user and run the following script to set up the keys:
    NOVA_SSH=/var/lib/nova/.ssh
    mkdir ${NOVA_SSH}
    
    cp nova_id_rsa ${NOVA_SSH}/id_rsa
    chmod 600 ${NOVA_SSH}/id_rsa
    cp nova_id_rsa.pub ${NOVA_SSH}/id_rsa.pub
    cp nova_id_rsa.pub ${NOVA_SSH}/authorized_keys
    
    chown -R nova.nova ${NOVA_SSH}
    
    # enable login for nova user on compute hosts:
    usermod -s /bin/bash nova
    
    # add ssh keys of overcloud nodes into known hosts:
    ssh-keyscan -t rsa `os-apply-config --key hosts --type raw --key-default '' | awk '{print $1}'` >> /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts
    

Procedure 8.2. Migrating Instances off the Compute Node

  1. From the director, source the overcloudrc and obtain a list of the current nova services:
    $ source ~/stack/overcloudrc
    $ nova service-list
    
  2. Disable the nova-compute service on the node you intend to migrate.
    $ nova service-disable [hostname] nova-compute
    
    This prevents new instances from being scheduled on it.
  3. Begin the process of migrating instances off the node:
    $ nova host-servers-migrate [hostname]
    
  4. The current status of the migration process can be retrieved with the command:
    $ nova migration-list
    
  5. When migration of each instance completes, its state in nova will change to VERIFY_RESIZE. This gives you an opportunity to confirm that the migration completed successfully, or to roll it back. To confirm the migration, use the command:
    $ nova resize-confirm [server-name]
    
This migrates all instances from a host. You can now perform maintenance on the host without any instance downtime. To return the host to an enabled state, run the following command:
$ nova service-enable [hostname] nova-compute

8.10. Protecting the Overcloud from Removal

To avoid accidental removal of the Overcloud with the heat stack-delete overcloud command, Heat contains a set of policies to restrict certain actions. Edit the /etc/heat/policy.json and find the following parameter:
"stacks:delete": "rule:deny_stack_user"
Change it to:
"stacks:delete": "rule:deny_everybody"
Save the file.
This prevents removal of the Overcloud with the heat client. To allow removal of the Overcloud, revert the policy to the original value.

8.11. Removing the Overcloud

The whole Overcloud can be removed when desired.

Procedure 8.3. Removing the Overcloud

  1. Delete any existing Overcloud:
    $ heat stack-delete overcloud
    
  2. Confirm the deletion of the Overcloud:
    $ heat stack-list
    
    Deletion takes a few minutes.
Once the removal completes, follow the standard steps in the deployment scenarios to recreate your Overcloud.

Chapter 9. Scaling and Replacing Nodes

There might be situations where you need to add or remove nodes after the creation of the Overcloud. For example, you might need to add more Compute nodes to the Overcloud. This situation requires updating the Overcloud.

Warning

No upgrade or scale-up operations are possible while implementing High Availability for instances (as described in https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en/red-hat-openstack-platform/8/single/high-availability-for-compute-instances/). Any attempts to do so will fail.
In addition, enabling High Availability for Instances will prevent you from using the director to upgrade the overcloud in the future. This applies to both major and minor upgrades. For more information, see https://access.redhat.com/solutions/2661641.
Use the following table to determine support for scaling each node type:

Table 9.1. Scale Support for Each Node Type

Node Type
Scale Up?
Scale Down?
Notes
Controller
N
N
Compute
Y
Y
Ceph Storage Nodes
Y
N
You must have at least 1 Ceph Storage node from the initial Overcloud creation.
Block Storage Nodes
N
N
Object Storage Nodes
Y
Y
Requires manual ring management, which is described in Section 9.6, “Replacing Object Storage Nodes”.

Important

Make sure to leave at least 10 GB free space before scaling the Overcloud. This free space accommodates image conversion and caching during the node provisioning process.

9.1. Adding Compute or Ceph Storage Nodes

To add more nodes to the director's node pool, create a new JSON file (for example, newnodes.json) containing the new node details to register:
{
  "nodes":[
    {
        "mac":[
            "dd:dd:dd:dd:dd:dd"
        ],
        "cpu":"4",
        "memory":"6144",
        "disk":"40",
        "arch":"x86_64",
        "pm_type":"pxe_ipmitool",
        "pm_user":"admin",
        "pm_password":"p@55w0rd!",
        "pm_addr":"192.0.2.207"
    },
    {
        "mac":[
            "ee:ee:ee:ee:ee:ee"
        ],
        "cpu":"4",
        "memory":"6144",
        "disk":"40",
        "arch":"x86_64",
        "pm_type":"pxe_ipmitool",
        "pm_user":"admin",
        "pm_password":"p@55w0rd!",
        "pm_addr":"192.0.2.208"
    }
  ]
}
See Section 5.1, “Registering Nodes for the Overcloud” for an explanation of these parameters.
Run the following command to register these nodes:
$ openstack baremetal import --json newnodes.json
After registering the new nodes, launch the introspection process for them. Use the following commands for each new node:
$ ironic node-list
$ ironic node-set-maintenance [NODE UUID] true
$ openstack baremetal introspection start [NODE UUID]
$ ironic node-set-maintenance [NODE UUID] false
This detects and benchmarks the hardware properties of the nodes.
After the introspection process completes, tag each new node for its desired role. For example, for a Compute node, use the following command:
$ ironic node-update [NODE UUID] add properties/capabilities='profile:compute,boot_option:local'
Alternatively, you can automatically tag new nodes into desired roles using the Automated Health Check (AHC) Tools. See Appendix C, Automatic Profile Tagging for more information.
Set the boot images to use during the deployment. Find the UUIDs for the bm-deploy-kernel and bm-deploy-ramdisk images:
$ glance image-list
+--------------------------------------+------------------------+
| ID                                   | Name                   |
+--------------------------------------+------------------------+
| 09b40e3d-0382-4925-a356-3a4b4f36b514 | bm-deploy-kernel       |
| 765a46af-4417-4592-91e5-a300ead3faf6 | bm-deploy-ramdisk      |
| ef793cd0-e65c-456a-a675-63cd57610bd5 | overcloud-full         |
| 9a51a6cb-4670-40de-b64b-b70f4dd44152 | overcloud-full-initrd  |
| 4f7e33f4-d617-47c1-b36f-cbe90f132e5d | overcloud-full-vmlinuz |
+--------------------------------------+------------------------+
Set these UUIDs for the new node's deploy_kernel and deploy_ramdisk settings:
$ ironic node-update [NODE UUID] add driver_info/deploy_kernel='09b40e3d-0382-4925-a356-3a4b4f36b514'
$ ironic node-update [NODE UUID] add driver_info/deploy_ramdisk='765a46af-4417-4592-91e5-a300ead3faf6'
Scaling the Overcloud requires running the openstack overcloud deploy again with the desired number of nodes for a role. For example, to scale to 5 Compute nodes:
$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates --compute-scale 5 [OTHER_OPTIONS]
This updates the entire Overcloud stack. Note that this only updates the stack. It does not delete the Overcloud and replace the stack.

Important

Make sure to include all environment files and options from your initial Overcloud creation. This includes the same scale parameters for non-Compute nodes.

9.2. Removing Compute Nodes

There might be situations where you need to remove Compute nodes from the Overcloud. For example, you might need to replace a problematic Compute node.

Important

Before removing a Compute node from the Overcloud, migrate the workload from the node to other Compute nodes. See Section 8.9, “Migrating VMs from an Overcloud Compute Node” for more details.
Next, disable the node's Compute service on the Overcloud. This stops the node from scheduling new instances.
$ source ~/stack/overcloudrc
$ nova service-list
$ nova service-disable [hostname] nova-compute
$ source ~/stack/stackrc
Removing Overcloud nodes requires an update to the overcloud stack in the director using the local template files. First identify the UUID of the Overcloud stack:
$ heat stack-list
Identify the UUIDs of the nodes to delete:
$ nova list
Run the following command to delete the nodes from the stack and update the plan accordingly:
$ openstack overcloud node delete --stack [STACK_UUID] --templates -e [ENVIRONMENT_FILE] [NODE1_UUID] [NODE2_UUID] [NODE3_UUID]

Important

If you passed any extra environment files when you created the Overcloud, pass them here again using the -e or --environment-file option to avoid making undesired manual changes to the Overcloud.

Important

Make sure the openstack overcloud node delete command runs to completion before you continue. Use the openstack stack list command and check the overcloud stack has reached an UPDATE_COMPLETE status.
Finally, remove the node's Compute service:
$ source ~/stack/overcloudrc
$ nova service-delete [service-id]
$ source ~/stack/stackrc
And remove the node's Open vSwitch agent:
$ source ~/stack/overcloudrc
$ neutron agent-list
$ neutron agent-delete [openvswitch-agent-id]
$ source ~/stack/stackrc
You are now free to remove the node from the Overcloud and re-provision it for other purposes.

9.3. Replacing Compute Nodes

If a Compute node fails, you can replace the node with a working one. Replacing a Compute node uses the following process:
  1. Migrate workload off the existing Compute node and shutdown the node. See Section 8.9, “Migrating VMs from an Overcloud Compute Node” for this process.
  2. Remove the Compute node from the Overcloud. See Section 9.2, “Removing Compute Nodes” for this process.
  3. Scale out the Overcloud with a new Compute node. See Chapter 9, Scaling and Replacing Nodes for this process.
This process ensures that a node can be replaced without affecting the availability of any instances.

9.4. Replacing Controller Nodes

In certain circumstances a Controller node in a high availability cluster might fail. In these situations, you must remove the node from the cluster and replace it with a new Controller node. This also includes ensuring the node connects to the other nodes in the cluster.
This section provides instructions on how to replace a Controller node. The process involves running the openstack overcloud deploy command to update the Overcloud with a request to replace a controller node. Note that this process is not completely automatic; during the Overcloud stack update process, the openstack overcloud deploy command will at some point report a failure and halt the Overcloud stack update. At this point, the process requires some manual intervention. Then the openstack overcloud deploy process can continue.

9.4.1. Preliminary Checks

Before attempting to replace an Overcloud Controller node, it is important to check the current state of your Red Hat OpenStack Platform environment. Checking the current state can help avoid complications during the Controller replacement process. Use the following list of preliminary checks to determine if it is safe to perform a Controller node replacement. Run all commands for these checks on the Undercloud.
  1. Check the current status of the overcloud stack on the Undercloud:
    $ source stackrc
    $ heat stack-list --show-nested
    
    The overcloud stack and its subsequent child stacks should have either a CREATE_COMPLETE or UPDATE_COMPLETE.
  2. Perform a backup of the Undercloud databases:
    $ mkdir /home/stack/backup
    $ sudo mysqldump --all-databases --quick --single-transaction | gzip > /home/stack/backup/dump_db_undercloud.sql.gz
    $ sudo systemctl stop openstack-ironic-api.service openstack-ironic-conductor.service openstack-ironic-inspector.service openstack-ironic-inspector-dnsmasq.service
    $ sudo cp /var/lib/ironic-inspector/inspector.sqlite /home/stack/backup
    $ sudo systemctl start openstack-ironic-api.service openstack-ironic-conductor.service openstack-ironic-inspector.service openstack-ironic-inspector-dnsmasq.service
    
  3. Check your Undercloud contains 10 GB free storage to accomodate for image caching and conversion when provisioning the new node.
  4. Check the status of Pacemaker on the running Controller nodes. For example, if 192.168.0.47 is the IP address of a running Controller node, use the following command to get the Pacemaker status:
    $ ssh heat-admin@192.168.0.47 'sudo pcs status'
    
    The output should show all services running on the existing nodes and stopped on the failed node.
  5. Check the following parameters on each node of the Overcloud's MariaDB cluster:
    • wsrep_local_state_comment: Synced
    • wsrep_cluster_size: 2
    Use the following command to check these parameters on each running Controller node (respectively using 192.168.0.47 and 192.168.0.46 for IP addresses):
    $ for i in 192.168.0.47 192.168.0.46 ; do echo "*** $i ***" ; ssh heat-admin@$i "sudo mysql --exec=\"SHOW STATUS LIKE 'wsrep_local_state_comment'\" ; sudo mysql --exec=\"SHOW STATUS LIKE 'wsrep_cluster_size'\""; done
    
  6. Check the RabbitMQ status. For example, if 192.168.0.47 is the IP address of a running Controller node, use the following command to get the status
    $ ssh heat-admin@192.168.0.47 "sudo rabbitmqctl cluster_status"
    
    The running_nodes key should only show the two available nodes and not the failed node.
  7. Disable fencing, if enabled. For example, if 192.168.0.47 is the IP address of a running Controller node, use the following command to disable fencing:
    $ ssh heat-admin@192.168.0.47 "sudo pcs property set stonith-enabled=false"
    
    Check the fencing status with the following command:
    $ ssh heat-admin@192.168.0.47 "sudo pcs property show stonith-enabled"
    
  8. Check the nova-compute service on the director node:
    $ sudo systemctl status openstack-nova-compute
    $ nova hypervisor-list
    
    The output should show all non-maintenance mode nodes as up.
  9. Make sure all Undercloud services are running:
    $ sudo systemctl list-units httpd\* mariadb\* neutron\* openstack\* openvswitch\* rabbitmq\*
    

9.4.2. Node Replacement

Identify the index of the node to remove. The node index is the suffix on the instance name from nova list output.
[stack@director ~]$ nova list
+--------------------------------------+------------------------+
| ID                                   | Name                   |
+--------------------------------------+------------------------+
| 861408be-4027-4f53-87a6-cd3cf206ba7a | overcloud-compute-0    |
| 0966e9ae-f553-447a-9929-c4232432f718 | overcloud-compute-1    |
| 9c08fa65-b38c-4b2e-bd47-33870bff06c7 | overcloud-compute-2    |
| a7f0f5e1-e7ce-4513-ad2b-81146bc8c5af | overcloud-controller-0 |
| cfefaf60-8311-4bc3-9416-6a824a40a9ae | overcloud-controller-1 |
| 97a055d4-aefd-481c-82b7-4a5f384036d2 | overcloud-controller-2 |
+--------------------------------------+------------------------+
In this example, the aim is to remove the overcloud-controller-1 node and replace it with overcloud-controller-3. First, set the node into maintenance mode so the director does not reprovision the failed node. Correlate the instance ID from nova list with the node ID from ironic node-list
[stack@director ~]$ ironic node-list
+--------------------------------------+------+--------------------------------------+
| UUID                                 | Name | Instance UUID                        |
+--------------------------------------+------+--------------------------------------+
| 36404147-7c8a-41e6-8c72-a6e90afc7584 | None | 7bee57cf-4a58-4eaf-b851-2a8bf6620e48 |
| 91eb9ac5-7d52-453c-a017-c0e3d823efd0 | None | None                                 |
| 75b25e9a-948d-424a-9b3b-f0ef70a6eacf | None | None                                 |
| 038727da-6a5c-425f-bd45-fda2f4bd145b | None | 763bfec2-9354-466a-ae65-2401c13e07e5 |
| dc2292e6-4056-46e0-8848-d6e96df1f55d | None | 2017b481-706f-44e1-852a-2ee857c303c4 |
| c7eadcea-e377-4392-9fc3-cf2b02b7ec29 | None | 5f73c7d7-4826-49a5-b6be-8bfd558f3b41 |
| da3a8d19-8a59-4e9d-923a-6a336fe10284 | None | cfefaf60-8311-4bc3-9416-6a824a40a9ae |
| 807cb6ce-6b94-4cd1-9969-5c47560c2eee | None | c07c13e6-a845-4791-9628-260110829c3a |
+--------------------------------------+------+--------------------------------------+
Set the node into maintenance mode:
[stack@director ~]$ ironic node-set-maintenance da3a8d19-8a59-4e9d-923a-6a336fe10284 true
Tag the new node as with the control profile.
[stack@director ~]$ ironic node-update 75b25e9a-948d-424a-9b3b-f0ef70a6eacf add properties/capabilities='profile:control,boot_option:local'
Create a YAML file (~/templates/remove-controller.yaml) that defines the node index to remove:
parameters:
  ControllerRemovalPolicies:
    [{'resource_list': ['1']}]

Important

If replacing the node with index 0, edit the heat templates and change the bootstrap node index and node validation index before starting replacement. Create a copy of the director's Heat template collection (see Section 6.18, “Using Customized Core Heat Templates” and run the following command on the overcloud.yaml file:
$ sed -i "s/resource\.0/resource.1/g" ~/templates/my-overcloud/overcloud.yaml
This changes the node index for the following resources:
ControllerBootstrapNodeConfig:
  type: OS::TripleO::BootstrapNode::SoftwareConfig
    properties:
      bootstrap_nodeid: {get_attr: [Controller, resource.0.hostname]}
      bootstrap_nodeid_ip: {get_attr: [Controller, resource.0.ip_address]}
And:
AllNodesValidationConfig:
  type: OS::TripleO::AllNodes::Validation
  properties:
    PingTestIps:
      list_join:
      - ' '
      - - {get_attr: [Controller, resource.0.external_ip_address]}
        - {get_attr: [Controller, resource.0.internal_api_ip_address]}
        - {get_attr: [Controller, resource.0.storage_ip_address]}
        - {get_attr: [Controller, resource.0.storage_mgmt_ip_address]}
        - {get_attr: [Controller, resource.0.tenant_ip_address]}
After identifying the node index, redeploy the Overcloud and include the remove-controller.yaml environment file:
[stack@director ~]$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates --control-scale 3 -e ~/templates/remove-controller.yaml [OTHER OPTIONS]

Important

If you passed any extra environment files or options when you created the Overcloud, pass them again here to avoid making undesired changes to the Overcloud.
However, note that -e ~/templates/remove-controller.yaml is only required once in this instance. This is because node removal process happens only once and should not run on subsequent runs.
The director removes the old node, creates a new one, and updates the Overcloud stack. You can check the status of the Overcloud stack with the following command:
[stack@director ~]$ heat stack-list --show-nested

Important

The removal process might cause the RHELUnregistrationDeployment resource to hang due to the removed Controller node being unavailable. If this occurs, send a signal to the resource using the following commands:
# heat resource-list -n 5 -f name=RHELUnregistrationDeployment overcloud
# heat resource-signal [STACK_NAME] RHELUnregistrationDeployment
Replace [STACK_NAME] with the removed Controller's substack. For example, overcloud-Controller-yfbet6xh6oov-1-f5v5pmcfvv2k-NodeExtraConfig-zuiny44lei3w for Controller node 1.
During the ControllerNodesPostDeployment stage, the Overcloud stack will time out and halt with an UPDATE_FAILED error at ControllerLoadBalancerDeployment_Step1. This is expected behavior and manual intervention is required as per the next section.

9.4.3. Manual Intervention

During the ControllerNodesPostDeployment stage, wait until the Overcloud stack times out and halts with an UPDATE_FAILED error at ControllerLoadBalancerDeployment_Step1. This is because some Puppet modules do not support nodes replacement. This point in the process requires some manual intervention. Follow these configuration steps:
  1. Get a list of IP addresses for the Controller nodes. For example:
    [stack@director ~]$ nova list
    ... +------------------------+ ... +-------------------------+
    ... | Name                   | ... | Networks                |
    ... +------------------------+ ... +-------------------------+
    ... | overcloud-compute-0    | ... | ctlplane=192.168.0.44   |
    ... | overcloud-controller-0 | ... | ctlplane=192.168.0.47   |
    ... | overcloud-controller-2 | ... | ctlplane=192.168.0.46   |
    ... | overcloud-controller-3 | ... | ctlplane=192.168.0.48   |
    ... +------------------------+ ... +-------------------------+
    
  2. Check the nodeid value of the removed node in the /etc/corosync/corosync.conf file on an existing node. For example, the existing node is overcloud-controller-0 at 192.168.0.47:
    [stack@director ~]$ ssh heat-admin@192.168.0.47 "sudo cat /etc/corosync/corosync.conf"
    
    This displays a nodelist that contains the ID for the removed node (overcloud-controller-1):
    nodelist {
      node {
        ring0_addr: overcloud-controller-0
        nodeid: 1
      }
      node {
        ring0_addr: overcloud-controller-1
        nodeid: 2
      }
      node {
        ring0_addr: overcloud-controller-2
        nodeid: 3
      }
    }
    
    Note the nodeid value of the removed node for later. In this example, it is 2.
  3. Delete the failed node from the Corosync configuration on each node and restart Corosync. For this example, log into overcloud-controller-0 and overcloud-controller-2 and run the following commands:
    [stack@director] ssh heat-admin@192.168.201.47 "sudo pcs cluster localnode remove overcloud-controller-1"
    [stack@director] ssh heat-admin@192.168.201.47 "sudo pcs cluster reload corosync"
    [stack@director] ssh heat-admin@192.168.201.46 "sudo pcs cluster localnode remove overcloud-controller-1"
    [stack@director] ssh heat-admin@192.168.201.46 "sudo pcs cluster reload corosync"
    
  4. Log into one of the remaining nodes and delete the node from the cluster with the crm_node command:
    [stack@director] ssh heat-admin@192.168.201.47
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo crm_node -R overcloud-controller-1 --force
    
    Stay logged into this node.
  5. Delete the failed node from the RabbitMQ cluster:
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo rabbitmqctl forget_cluster_node rabbit@overcloud-controller-1
    
  6. Delete the failed node from MongoDB. First, find the IP address for the node's Interal API connection.
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo netstat -tulnp | grep 27017
    tcp        0      0 192.168.0.47:27017    0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      13415/mongod
    
    Check that the node is the primary replica set:
    [root@overcloud-controller-0 ~]# echo "db.isMaster()" | mongo --host 192.168.0.47:27017
    MongoDB shell version: 2.6.11
    connecting to: 192.168.0.47:27017/echo
    {
      "setName" : "tripleo",
      "setVersion" : 1,
      "ismaster" : true,
      "secondary" : false,
      "hosts" : [
        "192.168.0.47:27017",
        "192.168.0.46:27017",
        "192.168.0.45:27017"
      ],
      "primary" : "192.168.0.47:27017",
      "me" : "192.168.0.47:27017",
      "electionId" : ObjectId("575919933ea8637676159d28"),
      "maxBsonObjectSize" : 16777216,
      "maxMessageSizeBytes" : 48000000,
      "maxWriteBatchSize" : 1000,
      "localTime" : ISODate("2016-06-09T09:02:43.340Z"),
      "maxWireVersion" : 2,
      "minWireVersion" : 0,
      "ok" : 1
    }
    bye
    
    This should indicate if the current node is the primary. If not, use the IP address of the node indicated in the primary key.
    Connect to MongoDB on the primary node:
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ mongo --host 192.168.0.47
    MongoDB shell version: 2.6.9
    connecting to: 192.168.0.47:27017/test
    Welcome to the MongoDB shell.
    For interactive help, type "help".
    For more comprehensive documentation, see
    http://docs.mongodb.org/
    Questions? Try the support group
    http://groups.google.com/group/mongodb-user
    tripleo:PRIMARY>
    
    Check the status of the MongoDB cluster:
    tripleo:PRIMARY> rs.status()
    
    Identify the node using the _id key and remove the failed node using the name key. In this case, we remove Node 1, which has 192.168.0.45:27017 for name:
    tripleo:PRIMARY> rs.remove('192.168.0.45:27017')
    

    Important

    You must run the command against the PRIMARY replica set. If you see the following message:
    "replSetReconfig command must be sent to the current replica set primary."
    
    Relog into MongoDB on the node designated as PRIMARY.

    Note

    The following output is normal when removing the failed node's replica set:
    2016-05-07T03:57:19.541+0000 DBClientCursor::init call() failed
    2016-05-07T03:57:19.543+0000 Error: error doing query: failed at src/mongo/shell/query.js:81
    2016-05-07T03:57:19.545+0000 trying reconnect to 192.168.0.47:27017 (192.168.0.47) failed
    2016-05-07T03:57:19.547+0000 reconnect 192.168.0.47:27017 (192.168.0.47) ok
    
    Exit MongoDB:
    tripleo:PRIMARY> exit
    
  7. Update list of nodes in the Galera cluster:
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo pcs resource update galera wsrep_cluster_address=gcomm://overcloud-controller-0,overcloud-controller-3,overcloud-controller-2
    
  8. Configure the Galera cluster check on the new node. Copy the /etc/sysconfig/clustercheck from the existing node to the same location on the new node.
  9. Configure the root user's Galera access on the new node. Copy the /root/.my.cnf from the existing node to the same location on the new node.
  10. Add the new node to the cluster:
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo pcs cluster node add overcloud-controller-3
    
  11. Check the /etc/corosync/corosync.conf file on each node. If the nodeid of the new node is the same as the removed node, update the value to a new nodeid value. For example, the /etc/corosync/corosync.conf file contains an entry for the new node (overcloud-controller-3):
    nodelist {
      node {
        ring0_addr: overcloud-controller-0
        nodeid: 1
      }
      node {
        ring0_addr: overcloud-controller-2
        nodeid: 3
      }
      node {
        ring0_addr: overcloud-controller-3
        nodeid: 2
      }
    }
    
    Note that in this example, the new node uses the same nodeid of the removed node. Update this value to a unused node ID value. For example:
    node {
      ring0_addr: overcloud-controller-3
      nodeid: 4
    }
    
    Update this nodeid value on each Controller node's /etc/corosync/corosync.conf file, including the new node.
  12. Restart the Corosync service on the existing nodes only. For example, on overcloud-controller-0:
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo pcs cluster reload corosync
    
    And on overcloud-controller-2:
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-2 ~]$ sudo pcs cluster reload corosync
    
    Do not run this command on the new node.
  13. Start the new Controller node:
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo pcs cluster start overcloud-controller-3
    
  14. Enable the keystone service on the new node. Copy the /etc/keystone directory from a remaining node to the director host:
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo -i
    [root@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ scp -r /etc/keystone stack@192.168.0.1:~/.
    
    Log in to the new Controller node. Remove the /etc/keystone directory from the new Controller node and copy the keystone files from the director host:
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-3 ~]$ sudo -i
    [root@overcloud-controller-3 ~]$ rm -rf /etc/keystone
    [root@overcloud-controller-3 ~]$ scp -r stack@192.168.0.1:~/keystone /etc/.
    [root@overcloud-controller-3 ~]$ chown -R keystone: /etc/keystone
    [root@overcloud-controller-3 ~]$ chown root /etc/keystone/logging.conf /etc/keystone/default_catalog.templates
    
    Edit /etc/keystone/keystone.conf and set the admin_bind_host and public_bind_host parameters to new Controller node's IP address. To find these IP addresses, use the ip addr command and look for the IP address within the following networks:
    • admin_bind_host - Provisioning network
    • public_bind_host - Internal API network

    Note

    These networks might differ if you deployed the Overcloud using a custom ServiceNetMap parameter.
    For example, if the Provisioning network uses the 192.168.0.0/24 subnet and the Internal API uses the 172.17.0.0/24 subnet, use the following commands to find the node’s IP addresses on those networks:
    [root@overcloud-controller-3 ~]$ ip addr | grep "192\.168\.0\..*/24"
    [root@overcloud-controller-3 ~]$ ip addr | grep "172\.17\.0\..*/24"
    
  15. Enable and restart some services through Pacemaker. The cluster is currently in maintenance mode and you will need to temporarily disable it to enable the service. For example:
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-3 ~]$ sudo pcs property set maintenance-mode=false --wait
    
  16. Wait until the Galera service starts on all nodes.
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-3 ~]$ sudo pcs status | grep galera -A1
    Master/Slave Set: galera-master [galera]
    Masters: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-2 overcloud-controller-3 ]
    
    If need be, perform a `cleanup` on the new node:
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-3 ~]$ sudo pcs resource cleanup galera --node overcloud-controller-3
    
  17. Wait until the Keystone service starts on all nodes.
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-3 ~]$ sudo pcs status | grep keystone -A1
    Clone Set: openstack-keystone-clone [openstack-keystone]
    Started: [ overcloud-controller-0 overcloud-controller-2 overcloud-controller-3 ]
    
    If need be, perform a `cleanup` on the new node:
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-3 ~]$ sudo pcs resource cleanup openstack-keystone-clone --node overcloud-controller-3
    
  18. Switch the cluster back into maintenance mode:
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-3 ~]$ sudo pcs property set maintenance-mode=true --wait
    
The manual configuration is complete. Re-run the Overcloud deployment command to continue the stack update:
[stack@director ~]$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates --control-scale 3 [OTHER OPTIONS]

Important

If you passed any extra environment files or options when you created the Overcloud, pass them again here to avoid making undesired changes to the Overcloud.
However, note that the remove-controller.yaml file is no longer needed.

9.4.4. Finalizing Overcloud Services

After the Overcloud stack update completes, some final configuration is required. Log in to one of the Controller nodes and refresh any stopped services in Pacemaker:
[heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ for i in `sudo pcs status|grep -B2 Stop |grep -v "Stop\|Start"|awk -F"[" '/\[/ {print substr($NF,0,length($NF)-1)}'`; do echo $i; sudo pcs resource cleanup $i; done
Perform a final status check to make sure services are running correctly:
[heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo pcs status

Note

If any services have failed, use the pcs resource cleanup command to restart them after resolving them.
Add the fencing details for the new node using the procedure in Section 8.6, “Fencing the Controller Nodes” as a guide, then reenable fencing. Use the following command to enable fencing:
[heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo pcs property set stonith-enabled=true
Exit to the director
[heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ exit

9.4.5. Finalizing Overcloud Network Agents

Source the overcloudrc file so that you can interact with the Overcloud. Check your routers to make sure the L3 agents are properly hosting the routers in your Overcloud environment. In this example, we use a router with the name r1:
[stack@director ~]$ source ~/overcloudrc
[stack@director ~]$ neutron l3-agent-list-hosting-router r1
This list might still show the old node instead of the new node. To replace it, list the L3 network agents in your environment:
[stack@director ~]$ neutron agent-list | grep "neutron-l3-agent"
Identify the UUID for the agents on the new node and the old node. Add the router to the agent on the new node and remove the router from old node. For example:
[stack@director ~]$ neutron l3-agent-router-add fd6b3d6e-7d8c-4e1a-831a-4ec1c9ebb965 r1
[stack@director ~]$ neutron l3-agent-router-remove b40020af-c6dd-4f7a-b426-eba7bac9dbc2 r1
Perform a final check on the router and make all are active:
[stack@director ~]$ neutron l3-agent-list-hosting-router r1
Delete the existing Neutron agents that point to old Controller node. For example:
[stack@director ~]$ neutron agent-list -F id -F host | grep overcloud-controller-1
| ddae8e46-3e8e-4a1b-a8b3-c87f13c294eb | overcloud-controller-1.localdomain |
[stack@director ~]$ neutron agent-delete ddae8e46-3e8e-4a1b-a8b3-c87f13c294eb

9.4.6. Finalizing Compute Services

Compute services for the removed node still exist in the Overcloud and require removal. Source the overcloudrc file so that you can interact with the Overcloud. Check the compute services for the removed node:
[stack@director ~]$ source ~/overcloudrc
[stack@director ~]$ nova service-list | grep "overcloud-controller-1.localdomain"
Remove the compute services for the node. For example, if the nova-scheduler service for overcloud-controller-1.localdomain has an ID of 5, run the following command:
[stack@director ~]$ nova service-delete 5
Perform this task for each service of the removed node.
Check the openstack-nova-consoleauth service on the new node.
[stack@director ~]$ nova service-list | grep consoleauth
If the service is not running, log into a Controller node and restart the service:
[stack@director] ssh heat-admin@192.168.201.47
[heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ pcs resource restart openstack-nova-consoleauth

9.4.7. Conclusion

The failed Controller node and its related services are now replaced with a new node.

Important

If you disabled automatic ring building for Object Storage, like in Section 9.6, “Replacing Object Storage Nodes”, you need to manually build the Object Storage ring files for the new node. See Section 9.6, “Replacing Object Storage Nodes” for more information on manually building ring files.

9.5. Replacing Ceph Storage Nodes

The director provides a method to replace Ceph Storage nodes in a director-created cluster. You can find these instructions in the Red Hat Ceph Storage for the Overcloud.

9.6. Replacing Object Storage Nodes

To replace nodes on the Object Storage cluster, you need to:
  • Update the Overcloud with the new Object Storage nodes and prevent Director from creating the ring files.
  • Manually add/remove the nodes to the cluster using swift-ring-builder.
The following procedure describes how to replace nodes while maintaining the integrity of the cluster. In this example, we have a two node Object Storage cluster. The aim is to add an additional node, then replace the faulty node.
First, create an environment file called ~/templates/swift-ring-prevent.yaml with the following content:
parameter_defaults:
  SwiftRingBuild: false
  RingBuild: false
  ObjectStorageCount: 3
The SwiftRingBuild and RingBuild parameters define whether the Overcloud automatically builds the ring files for Object Storage and Controller nodes respectively. The ObjectStorageCount defines how many Object Storage nodes in our environment. In this situation, we scale from 2 to 3 nodes.
Include the swift-ring-prevent.yaml file with the rest of your Overcloud’s environment files as part of the openstack overcloud deploy:
$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates [ENVIRONMENT_FILES] -e swift-ring-prevent.yaml

Note

Add this file to the end of the environment file list so its parameters supercede previous environment file parameters.
After redeployment completes, the Overcloud now contains an additional Object Storage node. However, the node's storage directory has not been created and ring files for the node's object store are unbuilt. This means you must create the storage directory and build the ring files manually.

Note

Use the following procedure to also build ring files on Controller nodes.
Login to the new node and create the storage directory:
$ sudo mkdir -p /srv/node/d1
$ sudo chown -R swift:swift /srv/node/d1

Note

You can also mount an external storage device at this directory.
Copy the existing ring files to the node. Log into a Controller node as the heat-admin user and then change to the superuser. For example, given a Controller node with an IP address of 192.168.201.24.
$ ssh heat-admin@192.168.201.24
$ sudo -i
Copy the /etc/swift/*.builder files from the Controller node to the new Object Storage node's /etc/swift/ directory. If necessary, transfer the files to the director host:
[root@overcloud-controller-0 ~]# scp /etc/swift/*.builder stack@192.1.2.1:~/.
Then transfer the files to the new node:
[stack@director ~]$ scp ~/*.builder heat-admin@192.1.2.24:~/.
Log into the new Object Storage node as the heat-admin user and then change to the superuser. For example, given a Object Storage node with an IP address of 192.168.201.29.
$ ssh heat-admin@192.168.201.29
$ sudo -i
Copy the files to the /etc/swift directory:
# cp /home/heat-admin/*.builder /etc/swift/.
Add the new Object Storage node to the account, container, and object rings. Run the following commands for the new node:
# swift-ring-builder /etc/swift/account.builder add zX-IP:6002/d1 weight
# swift-ring-builder /etc/swift/container.builder add zX-IP:6001/d1 weight
# swift-ring-builder /etc/swift/object.builder add zX-IP:6000/d1 weight
Replace the following values in these commands:
zX
Replace X with the corresponding integer of a specified zone (for example, z1 for Zone 1).
IP
The IP that the account, container, and object services use to listen. This should match the IP address of each storage node; specifically, the value of bind_ip in the DEFAULT sections of /etc/swift/object-server.conf, /etc/swift/account-server.conf, and /etc/swift/container-server.conf.
weight
Describes relative weight of the device in comparison to other devices. This is usually 100.

Note

Check the existing values of the current nodes in the ring file using the swift-ring-builder on the rings files alone:
# swift-ring-builder /etc/swift/account.builder
Remove the node you aim to replace from the account, container, and object rings. Run the following commands for each node:
# swift-ring-builder /etc/swift/account.builder remove IP
# swift-ring-builder /etc/swift/container.builder remove IP
# swift-ring-builder /etc/swift/object.builder remove IP
Replace IP with the IP address of the node.
Redistribute the partitions across all the nodes:
# swift-ring-builder /etc/swift/account.builder rebalance
# swift-ring-builder /etc/swift/container.builder rebalance
# swift-ring-builder /etc/swift/object.builder rebalance
Change the ownership of all /etc/swift/ contents to the root user and swift group:
# chown -R root:swift /etc/swift
Restart the openstack-swift-proxy service:
# systemctl restart openstack-swift-proxy.service
At this point, the ring files (*.ring.gz and *.builder) should be updated on the new node:
/etc/swift/account.builder
/etc/swift/account.ring.gz
/etc/swift/container.builder
/etc/swift/container.ring.gz
/etc/swift/object.builder
/etc/swift/object.ring.gz
Copy these files to /etc/swift/ on the Controller nodes and the existing Object Storage nodes (except for the node to remove). If necessary, transfer the files to the director host:
[root@overcloud-objectstorage-2 swift]# scp *.builder stack@192.1.2.1:~/
[root@overcloud-objectstorage-2 swift]# scp *.ring.gz stack@192.1.2.1:~/
Then copy the files to the /etc/swift/ on each node.
On each node, change the ownership of all /etc/swift/ contents to the root user and swift group:
# chown -R root:swift /etc/swift
The new node is added and a part of the ring. Before removing the old node from the ring, check that the new node completes a full data replication pass.
To remove the old node from the ring, reduce the ObjectStorageCount to the omit the old ring. In this case, we reduce from 3 to 2:
parameter_defaults:
  SwiftRingBuild: false
  RingBuild: false
  ObjectStorageCount: 2
Create a new environment file (remove-object-node.yaml) to identify and remove the old Object Storage node. In this case, we remove overcloud-objectstorage-1:
parameter_defaults:
  ObjectStorageRemovalPolicies:
    [{'resource_list': ['1']}]
Include both environment files with the deployment command:
$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates -e swift-ring-prevent.yaml -e remove-object-node.yaml ...
The director deletes the Object Storage node from the Overcloud and updates the rest of the nodes on the Overcloud to accommodate the node removal.

Chapter 10. Troubleshooting Director Issues

An error can occur at certain stages of the director's processes. This section provides some information for diagnosing common problems.
Note the common logs for the director's components:
  • The /var/log directory contains logs for many common OpenStack Platform components as well as logs for standard Red Hat Enterprise Linux applications.
  • The journald service provides logs for various components. Note that ironic uses two units: openstack-ironic-api and openstack-ironic-conductor. Likewise, ironic-inspector uses two units as well: openstack-ironic-inspector and openstack-ironic-inspector-dnsmasq. Use both units for each respective component. For example:
    $ sudo journalctl -u openstack-ironic-inspector -u openstack-ironic-inspector-dnsmasq
    
  • ironic-inspector also stores the ramdisk logs in /var/log/ironic-inspector/ramdisk/ as gz-compressed tar files. Filenames contain date, time, and the IPMI address of the node. Use these logs for diagnosing introspection issues.

10.1. Troubleshooting Node Registration

Issues with node registration usually arise from issues with incorrect node details. In this case, use ironic to fix problems with node data registered. Here are a few examples:

Procedure 10.1. Fixing an Incorrect MAC Address

  1. Find out the assigned port UUID:
    $ ironic node-port-list [NODE UUID]
    
  2. Update the MAC address:
    $ ironic port-update [PORT UUID] replace address=[NEW MAC]
    

Procedure 10.2. Fix an Incorrect IPMI Address

  • Run the following command:
    $ ironic node-update [NODE UUID] replace driver_info/ipmi_address=[NEW IPMI ADDRESS]
    

10.2. Troubleshooting Hardware Introspection

The discovery and introspection process must run to completion. However, ironic's Discovery daemon (ironic-inspector) times out after a default 1 hour period if the discovery ramdisk provides no response. Sometimes this might indicate a bug in the discovery ramdisk but usually it happens due to an environment misconfiguration, particularly BIOS boot settings.
Here are some common scenarios where environment misconfiguration occurs and advice on how to diagnose and resolve them.

Errors with Starting Node Introspection

Normally the introspection process uses the baremetal introspection, which acts an an umbrella command for ironic's services. However, if running the introspection directly with ironic-inspector, it might fail to discover nodes in the AVAILABLE state, which is meant for deployment and not for discovery. Change the node status to the MANAGEABLE state before discovery:
$ ironic node-set-provision-state [NODE UUID] manage
Then, when discovery completes, change back to AVAILABLE before provisioning:
$ ironic node-set-provision-state [NODE UUID] provide

Introspected node is not booting in PXE

Before a node reboots, ironic-inspector adds the MAC address of the node to the Undercloud firewall's ironic-inspector chain. This allows the node to boot over PXE. To verify the correct configuration, run the following command:
$ sudo iptables -L
The output should display the following chain table with the MAC address:
Chain ironic-inspector (1 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
DROP       all  --  anywhere             anywhere             MAC xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx
ACCEPT     all  --  anywhere             anywhere
If the MAC address is not there, the most common cause is a corruption in the ironic-inspector cache, which is in an SQLite database. To fix it, delete the SQLite file:
$ sudo rm /var/lib/ironic-inspector/inspector.sqlite
And recreate it:
$ sudo ironic-inspector-dbsync --config-file /etc/ironic-inspector/inspector.conf upgrade
$ sudo systemctl restart openstack-ironic-inspector

Stopping the Discovery Process

Currently ironic-inspector does not provide a direct means for stopping discovery. The recommended path is to wait until the process times out. If necessary, change the timeout setting in /etc/ironic-inspector/inspector.conf to change the timeout period to another period in minutes.
In worst case scenarios, you can stop discovery for all nodes using the following process:

Procedure 10.3. Stopping the Discovery Process

  1. Change the power state of each node to off:
    $ ironic node-set-power-state [NODE UUID] off
    
  2. Remove ironic-inspector cache and restart it:
    $ rm /var/lib/ironic-inspector/inspector.sqlite
    $ sudo systemctl restart openstack-ironic-inspector
    
  3. Resynchronize the ironic-inspector cache:
    $ sudo ironic-inspector-dbsync --config-file /etc/ironic-inspector/inspector.conf upgrade
    

Accessing the Introspection Ramdisk

The introspection ramdisk uses a dynamic login element. This means you can provide either a temporary password or an SSH key to access the node during introspection debugging. Use the following process to set up ramdisk access:
  1. Provide a temporary password to the openssl passwd -1 command to generate an MD5 hash. For example:
    $ openssl passwd -1 mytestpassword
    $1$enjRSyIw$/fYUpJwr6abFy/d.koRgQ/
    
  2. Edit the /httpboot/inspector.ipxe file, find the line starting with kernel, and append the rootpwd parameter and the MD5 hash. For example:
    kernel http://192.2.0.1:8088/agent.kernel ipa-inspection-callback-url=http://192.168.0.1:5050/v1/continue ipa-inspection-collectors=default,extra-hardware,logs systemd.journald.forward_to_console=yes BOOTIF=${mac} ipa-debug=1 ipa-inspection-benchmarks=cpu,mem,disk rootpwd="$1$enjRSyIw$/fYUpJwr6abFy/d.koRgQ/" selinux=0
    
    Alternatively, you can append the sshkey parameter with your public SSH key.

    Note

    Quotation marks are required for both the rootpwd and sshkey parameters.
  3. Start the introspection and find the IP address from either the arp command or the DHCP logs:
    $ arp
    $ sudo journalctl -u openstack-ironic-inspector-dnsmasq
    
  4. SSH as a root user with the temporary password or the SSH key.
    $ ssh root@192.0.2.105
    

Checking the Introspection Storage

The director uses OpenStack Object Storage (swift) to save the hardware data obtained during the introspection process. If this service is not running, the introspection can fail. Check all services related to OpenStack Object Storage to ensure the service is running:
$ sudo systemctl list-units openstack-swift*

10.3. Troubleshooting Overcloud Creation

There are three layers where the deployment can fail:
  • Orchestration (heat and nova services)
  • Bare Metal Provisioning (ironic service)
  • Post-Deployment Configuration (Puppet)
If an Overcloud deployment has failed at any of these levels, use the OpenStack clients and service log files to diagnose the failed deployment.

10.3.1. Orchestration

In most cases, Heat shows the failed Overcloud stack after the Overcloud creation fails:
$ heat stack-list

+-----------------------+------------+--------------------+----------------------+
| id                    | stack_name | stack_status       | creation_time        |
+-----------------------+------------+--------------------+----------------------+
| 7e88af95-535c-4a55... | overcloud  | CREATE_FAILED      | 2015-04-06T17:57:16Z |
+-----------------------+------------+--------------------+----------------------+
If the stack list is empty, this indicates an issue with the initial Heat setup. Check your Heat templates and configuration options, and check for any error messages that presented after running openstack overcloud deploy.

10.3.2. Bare Metal Provisioning

Check ironic to see all registered nodes and their current status:
$ ironic node-list

+----------+------+---------------+-------------+-----------------+-------------+
| UUID     | Name | Instance UUID | Power State | Provision State | Maintenance |
+----------+------+---------------+-------------+-----------------+-------------+
| f1e261...| None | None          | power off   | available       | False       |
| f0b8c1...| None | None          | power off   | available       | False       |
+----------+------+---------------+-------------+-----------------+-------------+
Here are some common issues that arise from the provisioning process.
  • Review the Provision State and Maintenance columns in the resulting table. Check for the following:
    • An empty table, or fewer nodes than you expect
    • Maintenance is set to True
    • Provision State is set to manageable
    This usually indicates an issue with the registration or discovery processes. For example, if Maintenance sets itself to True automatically, the nodes are usually using the wrong power management credentials.
  • If Provision State is available, then the problem occurred before bare metal deployment has even started.
  • If Provision State is active and Power State is power on, the bare metal deployment has finished successfully. This means that the problem occurred during the post-deployment configuration step.
  • If Provision State is wait call-back for a node, the bare metal provisioning process has not yet finished for this node. Wait until this status changes, otherwise, connect to the virtual console of the failed node and check the output.
  • If Provision State is error or deploy failed, then bare metal provisioning has failed for this node. Check the bare metal node's details:
    $ ironic node-show [NODE UUID]
    
    Look for last_error field, which contains error description. If the error message is vague, you can use logs to clarify it:
    $ sudo journalctl -u openstack-ironic-conductor -u openstack-ironic-api
    
  • If you see wait timeout error and the node Power State is power on, connect to the virtual console of the failed node and check the output.

10.3.3. Post-Deployment Configuration

Many things can occur during the configuration stage. For example, a particular Puppet module could fail to complete due to an issue with the setup. This section provides a process to diagnose such issues.

Procedure 10.4. Diagnosing Post-Deployment Configuration Issues

  1. List all the resources from the Overcloud stack to see which one failed:
    $ heat resource-list overcloud
    
    This shows a table of all resources and their states. Look for any resources with a CREATE_FAILED.
  2. Show the failed resource:
    $ heat resource-show overcloud [FAILED RESOURCE]
    
    Check for any information in the resource_status_reason field that can help your diagnosis.
  3. Use the nova command to see the IP addresses of the Overcloud nodes.
    $ nova list
    
    Log in as the heat-admin user to one of the deployed nodes. For example, if the stack's resource list shows the error occurred on a Controller node, log in to a Controller node. The heat-admin user has sudo access.
    $ ssh heat-admin@192.0.2.14
    
  4. Check the os-collect-config log for a possible reason for the failure.
    $ sudo journalctl -u os-collect-config
    
  5. In some cases, nova fails deploying the node in entirety. This situation would be indicated by a failed OS::Heat::ResourceGroup for one of the Overcloud role types. Use nova to see the failure in this case.
    $ nova list
    $ nova show [SERVER ID]
    
    The most common error shown will reference the error message No valid host was found. See Section 10.5, “Troubleshooting "No Valid Host Found" Errors” for details on troubleshooting this error. In other cases, look at the following log files for further troubleshooting:
    • /var/log/nova/*
    • /var/log/heat/*
    • /var/log/ironic/*
  6. Use the SOS toolset, which gathers information about system hardware and configuration. Use this information for diagnostic purposes and debugging. SOS is commonly used to help support technicians and developers. SOS is useful on both the Undercloud and Overcloud. Install the sos package:
    $ sudo yum install sos
    
    Generate a report:
    $ sudo sosreport --all-logs
    
The post-deployment process for Controller nodes uses six main steps for the deployment. This includes:

Table 10.1. Controller Node Configuration Steps

Step
Description
ControllerLoadBalancerDeployment_Step1
Initial load balancing software configuration, including Pacemaker, RabbitMQ, Memcached, Redis, and Galera.
ControllerServicesBaseDeployment_Step2
Initial cluster configuration, including Pacemaker configuration, HAProxy, MongoDB, Galera, Ceph Monitor, and database initialization for OpenStack Platform services.
ControllerRingbuilderDeployment_Step3
Initial ring build for OpenStack Object Storage (swift).
ControllerOvercloudServicesDeployment_Step4
Configuration of all OpenStack Platform services (nova, neutron, cinder, sahara, ceilometer, heat, horizon, aodh, gnocchi).
ControllerOvercloudServicesDeployment_Step5
Configure service start up settings in Pacemaker, including constraints to determine service start up order and service start up parameters.
ControllerOvercloudServicesDeployment_Step6
Final pass of the Overcloud configuration.

10.4. Troubleshooting IP Address Conflicts on the Provisioning Network

Discovery and deployment tasks will fail if the destination hosts are allocated an IP address which is already in use. To avoid this issue, you can perform a port scan of the Provisioning network to determine whether the discovery IP range and host IP range are free.
Perform the following steps from the Undercloud host:

Procedure 10.5. Identify active IP addresses

  1. Install nmap:
    # yum install nmap
    
  2. Use nmap to scan the IP address range for active addresses. This example scans the 192.0.2.0/24 range, replace this with the IP subnet of the Provisioning network (using CIDR bitmask notation):
    # nmap -sn 192.0.2.0/24
    
  3. Review the output of the nmap scan:
    For example, you should see the IP address(es) of the Undercloud, and any other hosts that are present on the subnet. If any of the active IP addresses conflict with the IP ranges in undercloud.conf, you will need to either change the IP address ranges or free up the IP addresses before introspecting or deploying the Overcloud nodes.
    # nmap -sn 192.0.2.0/24
    
    Starting Nmap 6.40 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2015-10-02 15:14 EDT
    Nmap scan report for 192.0.2.1
    Host is up (0.00057s latency).
    Nmap scan report for 192.0.2.2
    Host is up (0.00048s latency).
    Nmap scan report for 192.0.2.3
    Host is up (0.00045s latency).
    Nmap scan report for 192.0.2.5
    Host is up (0.00040s latency).
    Nmap scan report for 192.0.2.9
    Host is up (0.00019s latency).
    Nmap done: 256 IP addresses (5 hosts up) scanned in 2.45 seconds
    

10.5. Troubleshooting "No Valid Host Found" Errors

Sometimes the /var/log/nova/nova-conductor.log contains the following error:
NoValidHost: No valid host was found. There are not enough hosts available.
This means the nova Scheduler could not find a bare metal node suitable for booting the new instance. This in turn usually means a mismatch between resources that nova expects to find and resources that ironic advertised to nova. Check the following in this case:
  1. Make sure introspection succeeds for you. Otherwise check that each node contains the required ironic node properties. For each node:
    $ ironic node-show [NODE UUID]
    
    Check the properties JSON field has valid values for keys cpus, cpu_arch, memory_mb and local_gb.
  2. Check that the nova flavor used does not exceed the ironic node properties above for a required number of nodes:
    $ nova flavor-show [FLAVOR NAME]
    
  3. Check that sufficient nodes are in the available state according to ironic node-list. Nodes in manageable state usually mean a failed introspection.
  4. Check the nodes are not in maintenance mode. Use ironic node-list to check. A node automatically changing to maintenance mode usually means incorrect power credentials. Check them and then remove maintenance mode:
    $ ironic node-set-maintenance [NODE UUID] off
    
  5. If you're using the Automated Health Check (AHC) tools to perform automatic node tagging, check that you have enough nodes corresponding to each flavor/profile. Check the capabilities key in properties field for ironic node-show. For example, a node tagged for the Compute role should contain profile:compute.
  6. It takes some time for node information to propagate from ironic to nova after introspection. The director's tool usually accounts for it. However, if you performed some steps manually, there might be a short period of time when nodes are not available to nova. Use the following command to check the total resources in your system.:
    $ nova hypervisor-stats
    

10.6. Troubleshooting the Overcloud after Creation

After creating your Overcloud, you might want to perform certain Overcloud operations in the future. For example, you might aim to scale your available nodes, or replace faulty nodes. Certain issues might arise when performing these operations. This section provides some advice to diagnose and troubleshoot failed post-creation operations.

10.6.1. Overcloud Stack Modifications

Problems can occur when modifying the overcloud stack through the director. Example of stack modifications include:
  • Scaling Nodes
  • Removing Nodes
  • Replacing Nodes
Modifying the stack is similar to the process of creating the stack, in that the director checks the availability of the requested number of nodes, provisions additional or removes existing nodes, and then applies the Puppet configuration. Here are some guidelines to follow in situations when modifying the overcloud stack.
As an initial step, follow the advice set in Section 10.3, “Troubleshooting Overcloud Creation”. These same steps can help diagnose problems with updating the Overcloud heat stack. In particular, use the following command to help identify problematic resources:
heat stack-list --show-nested
List all stacks. The --show-nested displays all child stacks and their respective parent stacks. This command helps identify the point where a stack failed.
heat resource-list overcloud
List all resources in the overcloud stack and their current states. This helps identify which resource is causing failures in the stack. You can trace this resource failure to its respective parameters and configuration in the heat template collection and the Puppet modules.
heat event-list overcloud
List all events related to the overcloud stack in chronological order. This includes the initiation, completion, and failure of all resources in the stack. This helps identify points of resource failure.
The next few sections provide advice to diagnose issues on specific node types.

10.6.2. Controller Service Failures

The Overcloud Controller nodes contain the bulk of Red Hat OpenStack Platform services. Likewise, you might use multiple Controller nodes in a high availability cluster. If a certain service on a node is faulty, the high availability cluster provides a certain level of failover. However, it then becomes necessary to diagnose the faulty service to ensure your Overcloud operates at full capacity.
The Controller nodes use Pacemaker to manage the resources and services in the high availability cluster. The Pacemaker Configuration System (pcs) command is a tool that manages a Pacemaker cluster. Run this command on a Controller node in the cluster to perform configuration and monitoring functions. Here are few commands to help troubleshoot Overcloud services on a high availability cluster:
pcs status
Provides a status overview of the entire cluster including enabled resources, failed resources, and online nodes.
pcs resource show
Shows a list of resources, and their respective nodes.
pcs resource disable [resource]
Stop a particular resource.
pcs resource enable [resource]
Start a particular resource.
pcs cluster standby [node]
Place a node in standby mode. The node is no longer available in the cluster. This is useful for performing maintenance on a specific node without affecting the cluster.
pcs cluster unstandby [node]
Remove a node from standby mode. The node becomes available in the cluster again.
Use these Pacemaker commands to identify the faulty component and/or node. After identifying the component, view the respective component log file in /var/log/.

10.6.3. Compute Service Failures

Compute nodes use the Compute service to perform hypervisor-based operations. This means the main diagnosis for Compute nodes revolves around this service. For example:
  • View the status of the service using the following systemd function:
    $ sudo systemctl status openstack-nova-compute.service
    
    Likewise, view the systemd journal for the service using the following command:
    $ sudo journalctl -u openstack-nova-compute.service
    
  • The primary log file for Compute nodes is /var/log/nova/nova-compute.log. If issues occur with Compute node communication, this log file is usually a good place to start a diagnosis.
  • If performing maintenance on the Compute node, migrate the existing instances from the host to an operational Compute node, then disable the node. See Section 8.9, “Migrating VMs from an Overcloud Compute Node” for more information on node migrations.

10.6.4. Ceph Storage Service Failures

For any issues that occur with Red Hat Ceph Storage clusters, see Part X. Logging and Debugging in the Red Hat Ceph Storage Configuration Guide. This section provides information on diagnosing logs for all Ceph storage services.

10.7. Tuning the Undercloud

The advice in this section aims to help increase the performance of your Undercloud. Implement the recommendations as necessary.
  • The OpenStack Authentication service (keystone) uses a token-based system for access to other OpenStack services. After a certain period, the database accumulates many unused tokens. It is recommended you create a cronjob to flush the token table in the database. For example, to flush the token table at 4 a.m. each day:
    0 04 * * * /bin/keystone-manage token_flush
    
  • Heat stores a copy of all template files in its database's raw_template table each time you run openstack overcloud deploy. The raw_template table retains all past templates and grows in size. To remove unused templates in the raw_templates table, create a daily cronjob that clears unused templates that exist in the database for longer than a day:
    0 04 * * * /bin/heat-manage purge_deleted -g days 1
    
  • The openstack-heat-engine and openstack-heat-api services might consume too many resources at times. If so, set max_resources_per_stack=-1 in /etc/heat/heat.conf and restart the heat services:
    $ sudo systemctl restart openstack-heat-engine openstack-heat-api
    
  • Sometimes the director might not have enough resources to perform concurrent node provisioning. The default is 10 nodes at the same time. To reduce the number of concurrent nodes, set the max_concurrent_builds parameter in /etc/nova/nova.conf to a value less than 10 and restart the nova services:
    $ sudo systemctl restart openstack-nova-api openstack-nova-scheduler
    
  • Edit the /etc/my.cnf.d/server.cnf file. Some recommended values to tune include:
    max_connections
    Number of simultaneous connections to the database. The recommended value is 4096.
    innodb_additional_mem_pool_size
    The size in bytes of a memory pool the database uses to store data dictionary information and other internal data structures. The default is usually 8M and an ideal value is 20M for the Undercloud.
    innodb_buffer_pool_size
    The size in bytes of the buffer pool, the memory area where the database caches table and index data. The default is usually 128M and an ideal value is 1000M for the Undercloud.
    innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit
    Controls the balance between strict ACID compliance for commit operations, and higher performance that is possible when commit-related I/O operations are rearranged and done in batches. Set to 1.
    innodb_lock_wait_timeout
    The length of time in seconds a database transaction waits for a row lock before giving up. Set to 50.
    innodb_max_purge_lag
    This variable controls how to delay INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE operations when purge operations are lagging. Set to 10000.
    innodb_thread_concurrency
    The limit of concurrent operating system threads. Ideally, provide at least two threads for each CPU and disk resource. For example, if using a quad-core CPU and a single disk, use 10 threads.
  • Ensure that heat has enough workers to perform an Overcloud creation. Usually, this depends on how many CPUs the Undercloud has. To manually set the number of workers, edit the /etc/heat/heat.conf file, set the num_engine_workers parameter to the number of workers you need (ideally 4), and restart the heat engine:
    $ sudo systemctl restart openstack-heat-engine
    

10.8. Important Logs for Undercloud and Overcloud

Use the following logs to find out information about the Undercloud and Overcloud when troubleshooting.

Table 10.2. Important Logs for Undercloud and Overcloud

Information
Undercloud or Overcloud
Log Location
General director services
Undercloud
/var/log/nova/*
/var/log/heat/*
/var/log/ironic/*
Introspection
Undercloud
/var/log/ironic/*
/var/log/ironic-inspector/*
Provisioning
Undercloud
/var/log/ironic/*
Cloud-Init Log
Overcloud
/var/log/cloud-init.log
Overcloud Configuration (Summary of Last Puppet Run)
Overcloud
/var/lib/puppet/state/last_run_summary.yaml
Overcloud Configuration (Report from Last Puppet Run)
Overcloud
/var/lib/puppet/state/last_run_report.yaml
Overcloud Configuration (All Puppet Reports)
Overcloud
/var/lib/puppet/reports/overcloud-*/*
General Overcloud services
Overcloud
/var/log/ceilometer/*
/var/log/ceph/*
/var/log/cinder/*
/var/log/glance/*
/var/log/heat/*
/var/log/horizon/*
/var/log/httpd/*
/var/log/keystone/*
/var/log/libvirt/*
/var/log/neutron/*
/var/log/nova/*
/var/log/openvswitch/*
/var/log/rabbitmq/*
/var/log/redis/*
/var/log/swift/*
High availability log
Overcloud
/var/log/pacemaker.log

Appendix A. SSL/TLS Certificate Configuration

As an optional part of the processes outlined in Section 4.6, “Configuring the Director” or Section 6.11, “Enabling SSL/TLS on the Overcloud”, you can set SSL/TLS for communication on either the Undercloud or Overcloud. However, if using an SSL/TLS certificate with your own certificate authority, the certificate requires a certain configuration for use.

Creating a Certificate Authority

Normally you sign your SSL/TLS certificates with an external certificate authority. In some situations, you might aim to use your own certificate authority. For example, you might aim to have an internal-only certificate authority.
For example, generate a key and certificate pair to act as the certificate authority:
$ openssl genrsa -out ca.key.pem 4096
$ openssl req  -key ca.key.pem -new -x509 -days 7300 -extensions v3_ca -out ca.crt.pem
The openssl req command asks for certain details about your authority. Enter these details.
This creates the a certificate file called ca.crt.pem. Copy this file to each client that aims to access your Red Hat Openstack Platform environment and run the following command to add it to the certificate authority trust bundle:
$ sudo cp ca.crt.pem /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/
$ sudo update-ca-trust extract

Creating an SSL/TLS Certificate

This next procedure creates a signed certificate for either the Undercloud and Overcloud.
Copy the default OpenSSL configuration file for customization.
$ cp /etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf .
Edit the custom openssl.cnf file and set SSL parameters to use for the director. An example of the types of parameters to modify include:
[req]
distinguished_name = req_distinguished_name
req_extensions = v3_req

[req_distinguished_name]
countryName = Country Name (2 letter code)
countryName_default = AU
stateOrProvinceName = State or Province Name (full name)
stateOrProvinceName_default = Queensland
localityName = Locality Name (eg, city)
localityName_default = Brisbane
organizationalUnitName = Organizational Unit Name (eg, section)
organizationalUnitName_default = Red Hat
commonName = Common Name
commonName_default = 192.168.0.1
commonName_max = 64

[ v3_req ]
# Extensions to add to a certificate request
basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
subjectAltName = @alt_names

[alt_names]
IP.1 = 192.168.0.1
DNS.1 = 192.168.0.1
DNS.2 = instack.localdomain
DNS.3 = vip.localdomain

Important

Set the commonName_default to the IP address, or fully qualified domain name if using one, of the Public API:
  • For the Undercloud, use the undercloud_public_vip parameter in undercloud.conf. If using a fully qualified domain name for this IP address, use the domain name instead.
  • For the Overcloud, use the IP address for the Public API, which is the first address for the ExternalAllocationPools parameter in your network isolation environment file. If using a fully qualified domain name for this IP address, use the domain name instead.
Include the same Public API IP address as an IP entry and a DNS entry in the alt_names section. If also using DNS, include the hostname for the server as DNS entries in the same section. For more information about openssl.cnf, run man openssl.cnf.
Run the following commands to generate the key (server.key.pem), the certificate signing request (server.csr.pem), and the signed certificate (server.crt.pem):
$ openssl genrsa -out server.key.pem 2048
$ openssl req -config openssl.cnf -key server.key.pem -new -out server.csr.pem
$ openssl ca -config openssl.cnf -extensions v3_req -days 3650 -in server.csr.pem -out server.crt.pem -cert ca.cert.pem

Important

The openssl req command asks for several details for the certificate, including the Common Name. Make sure the Common Name is set to the IP address of the Public API for the Undercloud or Overcloud (depending on which certificate set you are creating). The openssl.cnf file should use this IP address as a default value.
Use this key pair to create a SSL/TLS certificate for either the Undercloud or Overcloud.

Using the Certificate with the Undercloud

Run the following command to create the certificate:
$ cat server.crt.pem server.key.pem > undercloud.pem
This creates a undercloud.pem for use with the undercloud_service_certificate option in the undercloud.conf file. This file also requires a special SELinux context so that the HAProxy tool can read it. Use the following example as a guide:
$ sudo mkdir /etc/pki/instack-certs
$ sudo cp ~/undercloud.pem /etc/pki/instack-certs/.
$ sudo semanage fcontext -a -t etc_t "/etc/pki/instack-certs(/.*)?"
$ sudo restorecon -R /etc/pki/instack-certs
Add the certificate authority to the Undercloud's list of trusted Certificate Authorities:
$ sudo cp ca.crt.pem /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/
$ sudo update-ca-trust extract
Add the undercloud.pem file location to the undercloud_service_certificate option in the undercloud.conf file. For example:
undercloud_service_certificate = /etc/pki/instack-certs/undercloud.pem
Continue installing the Undercloud as per the instructions in Section 4.6, “Configuring the Director”.

Using the Certificate with the Overcloud

Use the certificate with the enable-tls.yaml file from Section 6.11, “Enabling SSL/TLS on the Overcloud”.

Appendix B. Power Management Drivers

Although IPMI is the main method the director uses for power management control, the director also supports other power management types. This appendix provides a list of the supported power management features. Use these power management settings for Section 5.1, “Registering Nodes for the Overcloud”.

B.1. Dell Remote Access Controller (DRAC)

DRAC is an interface that provides out-of-band remote management features including power management and server monitoring.
pm_type
Set this option to pxe_drac.
pm_user, pm_password
The DRAC username and password.
pm_addr
The IP address of the DRAC host.

B.2. Integrated Lights-Out (iLO)

iLO from Hewlett-Packard is an interface that provides out-of-band remote management features including power management and server monitoring.
pm_type
Set this option to pxe_ilo.
pm_user, pm_password
The iLO username and password.
pm_addr
The IP address of the iLO interface.

Additional Notes

  • Edit the /etc/ironic/ironic.conf file and add pxe_ilo to the enabled_drivers option to enable this driver.
  • The director also requires an additional set of utilities for iLo. Install the python-proliantutils package and restart the openstack-ironic-conductor service:
    $ sudo yum install python-proliantutils
    $ sudo systemctl restart openstack-ironic-conductor.service
    
  • HP nodes must a 2015 firmware version for successful introspection. The director has been successfully tested with nodes using firmware version 1.85 (May 13 2015).
  • Using a shared iLO port is not supported.

B.3. iBoot

iBoot from Dataprobe is a power unit that provide remote power management for systems.
pm_type
Set this option to pxe_iboot.
pm_user, pm_password
The iBoot username and password.
pm_addr
The IP address of the iBoot interface.
pm_relay_id (Optional)
The iBoot relay ID for the host. The default is 1.
pm_port (Optional)
The iBoot port. The default is 9100.

Additional Notes

  • Edit the /etc/ironic/ironic.conf file and add pxe_iboot to the enabled_drivers option to enable this driver.

B.4. Cisco Unified Computing System (UCS)

UCS from Cisco is a data center platform that unites compute, network, storage access, and virtualization resources. This driver focuses on the power management for bare metal systems connected to the UCS.
pm_type
Set this option to pxe_ucs.
pm_user, pm_password
The UCS username and password.
pm_addr
The IP address of the UCS interface.
pm_service_profile
The UCS service profile to use. Usually takes the format of org-root/ls-[service_profile_name]. For example:
"pm_service_profile": "org-root/ls-Nova-1"

Additional Notes

  • Edit the /etc/ironic/ironic.conf file and add pxe_ucs to the enabled_drivers option to enable this driver.
  • The director also requires an additional set of utilities for UCS. Install the python-UcsSdk package and restart the openstack-ironic-conductor service:
    $ sudo yum install python-UcsSdk
    $ sudo systemctl restart openstack-ironic-conductor.service
    

B.5. Fujitsu Integrated Remote Management Controller (iRMC)

Fujitsu's iRMC is a Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) with integrated LAN connection and extended functionality. This driver focuses on the power management for bare metal systems connected to the iRMC.

Important

iRMC S4 or higher is required.
pm_type
Set this option to pxe_irmc.
pm_user, pm_password
The username and password for the iRMC interface.
pm_addr
The IP address of the iRMC interface.
pm_port (Optional)
The port to use for iRMC operations. The default is 443.
pm_auth_method (Optional)
The authentication method for iRMC operations. Use either basic or digest. The default is basic
pm_client_timeout (Optional)
Timeout (in seconds) for iRMC operations. The default is 60 seconds.
pm_sensor_method (Optional)
Sensor data retrieval method. Use either ipmitool or scci. The default is ipmitool.

Additional Notes

  • Edit the /etc/ironic/ironic.conf file and add pxe_irmc to the enabled_drivers option to enable this driver.
  • The director also requires an additional set of utilities if you enabled SCCI as the sensor method. Install the python-scciclient package and restart the openstack-ironic-conductor service:
    $ yum install python-scciclient
    $ sudo systemctl restart openstack-ironic-conductor.service
    

B.6. SSH and Virsh

The director can access a host running libvirt through SSH and use virtual machines as nodes. The director uses virsh to control the power management of these nodes.

Important

This option is available for testing and evaluation purposes only. It is not recommended for Red Hat OpenStack Platform enterprise environments.
pm_type
Set this option to pxe_ssh.
pm_user, pm_password
The SSH username and contents of the SSH private key. The private key must be on one line with new lines replaced with escape characters (\n). For example:
-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----\nMIIEogIBAAKCAQEA .... kk+WXt9Y=\n-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
Add the SSH public key to the libvirt server's authorized_keys collection.
pm_addr
The IP address of the virsh host.

Additional Notes

  • The server hosting libvirt requires an SSH key pair with the public key set as the pm_password attribute.
  • Ensure the chosen pm_user has full access to the libvirt environment.

B.7. Fake PXE Driver

This driver provides a method to use bare metal devices without power management. This means the director does not control the registered bare metal devices and as such require manual control of power at certain points in the introspect and deployment processes.

Important

This option is available for testing and evaluation purposes only. It is not recommended for Red Hat OpenStack Platform enterprise environments.
pm_type
Set this option to fake_pxe.

Additional Notes

  • This driver does not use any authentication details because it does not control power management.
  • Edit the /etc/ironic/ironic.conf file and add fake_pxe to the enabled_drivers option to enable this driver. Restart the baremetal services after editing the file:
    $ sudo systemctl restart openstack-ironic-api openstack-ironic-conductor
    
  • When performing introspection on nodes, manually power the nodes after running the openstack baremetal introspection bulk start command.
  • When performing Overcloud deployment, check the node status with the ironic node-list command. Wait until the node status changes from deploying to deploy wait-callback and then manually power the nodes.
  • After the Overcloud provisioning process completes, reboot the nodes. To check the completion of provisioning, check the node status with the ironic node-list command, wait until the node status changes to active, then manually reboot all Overcloud nodes.

Appendix C. Automatic Profile Tagging

The introspection process performs a series of benchmark tests. The director saves the data from these tests. You can create a set of policies that use this data in various ways. For example:
  • The policies can identify and isolate underperforming or unstable nodes from use in the Overcloud.
  • The policies can define whether to automatically tag nodes into specific profiles.
These policy files use a JSON format that contains a set of rules. Each rule defines a description, a condition, and an action.

Description

This is a plain text description of the rule.
Example:
"description": "A new rule for my node tagging policy"

Conditions

A condition defines an evaluation using the following key-value pattern:
field
Defines the field to evaluate.
op
Defines the operation to use for the evaluation. This includes the following:
  • eq - Equal to
  • ne - Not equal to
  • lt - Less than
  • gt - Greater than
  • le - Less than or equal to
  • ge - Greater than or equal to
  • in-net - Checks that an IP address is in a given network
  • matches - Requires a full match against a given regular expression
  • contains - Requires a value to contain a given regular expression;
  • is-empty - Checks that field is empty.
invert
Boolean value to define whether to invert the result of the evaluation.
multiple
Defines the evaluation to use if multiple results exist. This includes:
  • any - Requires any result to match
  • all - Requires all results to match
  • first - Requires the first result to match
value
Defines the value in the evaluation. If the field and operation result in the value, the condition return a true result. If not, the condition returns false.
Example:
"conditions": [
  {
    "field": "local_gb",
    "op": "ge",
    "value": 1024
  }
],

Actions

An action is performed if the condition returns as true. It uses the action key and additional keys depending on the value of action:
  • fail - Fails the introspection. Requires a message parameter for the failure message.
  • set-attribute - Sets an attribute on an Ironic node. Requires a path field, which is the path to an Ironic attribute (e.g. /driver_info/ipmi_address), and a value to set.
  • set-capability - Sets a capability on an Ironic node. Requires name and value fields, which are the name and the value for a new capability accordingly. The existing value for this same capability is replaced. For example, use this to define node profiles.
  • extend-attribute - The same as set-attribute but treats the existing value as a list and appends value to it. If the optional unique parameter is set to True, nothing is added if the given value is already in a list.
Example:
"actions": [
  {
    "action": "set-capability",
    "name": "profile",
    "value": "swift-storage"
  }
]

Policy File Example

The following is an example JSON file (rules.json) with the introspection rules to apply:
[
  {
    "description": "Fail introspection for unexpected nodes",
    "conditions": [
      {
        "op": "lt",
        "field": "memory_mb",
        "value": 4096
      }
    ],
    "actions": [
      {
        "action": "fail",
        "message": "Memory too low, expected at least 4 GiB"
      }
    ]
  },
  {
    "description": "Assign profile for object storage",
    "conditions": [
      {
        "op": "ge",
        "field": "local_gb",
        "value": 1024
      }
    ],
    "actions": [
      {
        "action": "set-capability",
        "name": "profile",
        "value": "swift-storage"
      }
    ]
  },
  {
    "description": "Assign possible profiles for compute and controller",
    "conditions": [
      {
        "op": "lt",
        "field": "local_gb",
        "value": 1024
      },
      {
        "op": "ge",
        "field": "local_gb",
        "value": 40
      }
    ],
    "actions": [
      {
        "action": "set-capability",
        "name": "compute_profile",
        "value": "1"
      },
      {
        "action": "set-capability",
        "name": "control_profile",
        "value": "1"
      },
      {
        "action": "set-capability",
        "name": "profile",
        "value": null
      }
    ]
  }
]
This example consists of three rules:
  • Fail introspection if memory is lower is 4096 MiB. Such rules can be applied to exclude nodes that should not become part of your cloud.
  • Nodes with hard drive size 1 TiB and bigger are assigned the swift-storage profile unconditionally.
  • Nodes with hard drive less than 1 TiB but more than 40 GiB can be either Compute or Controller nodes. We assign two capabilities (compute_profile and control_profile) so that the openstack overcloud profiles match command can later make the final choice. For that to work, we remove the existing profile capability, otherwise it will have priority.
Other nodes are not changed.

Note

Using introspection rules to assign the profile capability always overrides the existing value. However, [PROFILE]_profile capabilities are ignored for nodes with an existing profile capability.

Importing Policy Files

Import the policy file into the director with the following command:
$ openstack baremetal introspection rule import rules.json
Then run the introspection process.
$ openstack baremetal introspection bulk start
After introspection completes, check the nodes and their assigned profiles:
$ openstack overcloud profiles list
If you made a mistake in introspection rules, you can delete them all:
$ openstack baremetal introspection rule purge

Matching Nodes to Roles

To automatically assign a certain number of nodes to appropriate roles, use the openstack overcloud profiles match command how many nodes to assign to a certain role. For example, to automatically match three Controller nodes, three Compute nodes, and three Ceph Storage nodes, use the following command:
$ openstack overcloud profiles match --control-flavor control --control-scale 3 --compute-flavor compute --compute-scale 3 --ceph-storage-flavor ceph-storage --ceph-storage-scale 3
This assigns the nodes to appropriate roles based on the rules in the previously imported policy file.

Automatic Profile Tagging Properties

Automatic Profile Tagging evaluates the following node properties for the field attribute of each condition:
Property
Description
memory_mb
The amount of memory for the node in MB.
cpus
The total number of cores for the node’s CPUs.
cpu_arch
The architecture of the node’s CPUs.
local_gb
The total storage space of the node’s root disk. See Section 5.4, “Defining the Root Disk for Nodes” for more information about setting the root disk for a node.

Appendix D. Network Interface Parameters

The following table defines the Heat template parameters for network interface types.

Table D.1. Interface options

Option
Default
Description
name
Name of the Interface
use_dhcp
False
Use DHCP to get an IP address
use_dhcpv6
False
Use DHCP to get a v6 IP address
addresses
A sequence of IP addresses assigned to the interface
routes
A sequence of routes assigned to the interface
mtu
1500
The maximum transmission unit (MTU) of the connection
primary
False
Defines the interface as the primary interface
defroute
True
Use this interface as the default route
persist_mapping
False
Write the device alias configuration instead of the system names
dhclient_args
None
Arguments to pass to the DHCP client
dns_servers
None
List of DNS servers to use for the interface

Table D.2. VLAN options

Option
Default
Description
vlan_id
The VLAN ID
device
The VLAN's parent device to attach the VLAN. For example, use this parameter to attach the VLAN to a bonded interface device.
use_dhcp
False
Use DHCP to get an IP address
use_dhcpv6
False
Use DHCP to get a v6 IP address
addresses
A sequence of IP addresses assigned to the VLAN
routes
A sequence of routes assigned to the VLAN
mtu
1500
The maximum transmission unit (MTU) of the connection
primary
False
Defines the VLAN as the primary interface
defroute
True
Use this interface as the default route
persist_mapping
False
Write the device alias configuration instead of the system names
dhclient_args
None
Arguments to pass to the DHCP client
dns_servers
None
List of DNS servers to use for the VLAN

Table D.3. OVS Bond options

Option
Default
Description
name
Name of the bond
use_dhcp
False
Use DHCP to get an IP address
use_dhcpv6
False
Use DHCP to get a v6 IP address
addresses
A sequence of IP addresses assigned to the bond
routes
A sequence of routes assigned to the bond
mtu
1500
The maximum transmission unit (MTU) of the connection
primary
False
Defines the interface as the primary interface
members
A sequence of interface objects to use in the bond
ovs_options
A set of options to pass to OVS when creating the bond
ovs_extra
A set of options to to set as the OVS_EXTRA parameter in the bond's network configuration file
defroute
True
Use this interface as the default route
persist_mapping
False
Write the device alias configuration instead of the system names
dhclient_args
None
Arguments to pass to the DHCP client
dns_servers
None
List of DNS servers to use for the bond

Table D.4. OVS Bridge options

Option
Default
Description
name
Name of the bridge
use_dhcp
False
Use DHCP to get an IP address
use_dhcpv6
False
Use DHCP to get a v6 IP address
addresses
A sequence of IP addresses assigned to the bridge
routes
A sequence of routes assigned to the bridge
mtu
1500
The maximum transmission unit (MTU) of the connection
members
A sequence of interface, VLAN, and bond objects to use in the bridge
ovs_options
A set of options to pass to OVS when creating the bridge
ovs_extra
A set of options to to set as the OVS_EXTRA parameter in the bridge's  network configuration file
defroute
True
Use this interface as the default route
persist_mapping
False
Write the device alias configuration instead of the system names
dhclient_args
None
Arguments to pass to the DHCP client
dns_servers
None
List of DNS servers to use for the bridge

Table D.5. Linux Bond options

Option
Default
Description
name
Name of the bond
use_dhcp
False
Use DHCP to get an IP address
use_dhcpv6
False
Use DHCP to get a v6 IP address
addresses
A sequence of IP addresses assigned to the bond
routes
A sequence of routes assigned to the bond
mtu
1500
The maximum transmission unit (MTU) of the connection
primary
False
Defines the interface as the primary interface
members
A sequence of interface objects to use in the bond
bonding_options
A set of options when creating the bond. For more information on Linux bonding options, see 4.5.1. Bonding Module Directives in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Networking Guide.
defroute
True
Use this interface as the default route
persist_mapping
False
Write the device alias configuration instead of the system names
dhclient_args
None
Arguments to pass to the DHCP client
dns_servers
None
List of DNS servers to use for the bond

Table D.6. Linux Bridge options

Option
Default
Description
name
Name of the bridge
use_dhcp
False
Use DHCP to get an IP address
use_dhcpv6
False
Use DHCP to get a v6 IP address
addresses
A sequence of IP addresses assigned to the bridge
routes
A sequence of routes assigned to the bridge
mtu
1500
The maximum transmission unit (MTU) of the connection
members
A sequence of interface, VLAN, and bond objects to use in the bridge
defroute
True
Use this interface as the default route
persist_mapping
False
Write the device alias configuration instead of the system names
dhclient_args
None
Arguments to pass to the DHCP client
dns_servers
None
List of DNS servers to use for the bridge

Appendix E. Network Interface Template Examples

This appendix provides a few example Heat templates to demonstrate network interface configuration.

E.1. Configuring Interfaces

Individual interfaces might require modification. The example below shows modifications required to use the second NIC to connect to an infrastructure network with DHCP addresses, and to use the third and fourth NICs for the bond:
network_config:
  # Add a DHCP infrastructure network to nic2
  -
    type: interface
    name: nic2
    use_dhcp: true
  -
    type: ovs_bridge
    name: br-bond
    members:
      -
        type: ovs_bond
        name: bond1
        ovs_options: {get_param: BondInterfaceOvsOptions}
        members:
          # Modify bond NICs to use nic3 and nic4
          -
            type: interface
            name: nic3
            primary: true
          -
            type: interface
            name: nic4
The network interface template uses either the actual interface name ("eth0", "eth1", "enp0s25") or a set of numbered interfaces ("nic1", "nic2", "nic3"). The network interfaces of hosts within a role do not have to be exactly the same when using numbered interfaces (nic1, nic2, etc.) instead of named interfaces (eth0, eno2, etc.). For example, one host might have interfaces em1 and em2, while another has eno1 and eno2, but you can refer to both hosts' NICs as nic1 and nic2.
The order of numbered interfaces corresponds to the order of named network interface types:
  • ethX interfaces, such as eth0, eth1, etc. These are usually onboard interfaces.
  • enoX interfaces, such as eno0, eno1, etc. These are usually onboard interfaces.
  • enX interfaces, sorted alpha numerically, such as enp3s0, enp3s1, ens3, etc. These are usually add-on interfaces.
The numbered NIC scheme only takes into account the interfaces that are live, for example, if they have a cable attached to the switch. If you have some hosts with four interfaces and some with six interfaces, you should use nic1 to nic4 and only plug four cables on each host.

E.2. Configuring Routes and Default Routes

There are two ways a host has default routes set. If the interface is using DHCP and the DHCP server offers a gateway address, the system uses a default route for that gateway. Otherwise, you can set a default route on an interface with a static IP.
Although the Linux kernel supports multiple default gateways, it only uses the one with the lowest metric. If there are multiple DHCP interfaces, this can result in an unpredictable default gateway. In this case, it is recommended to set defroute=no for interfaces other than the one using the default route.
For example, you might want a DHCP interface (nic3) to be the default route. Use the following YAML to disable the default route on another DHCP interface (nic2):
# No default route on this DHCP interface
- type: interface
  name: nic2
  use_dhcp: true
  defroute: false
# Instead use this DHCP interface as the default route
- type: interface
  name: nic3
  use_dhcp: true

Note

The defroute parameter only applies to routes obtained through DHCP.
To set a static route on an interface with a static IP, specify a route to the subnet. For example, you can set a route to the 10.1.2.0/24 subnet through the gateway at 172.17.0.1 on the Internal API network:
    - type: vlan
      device: bond1
      vlan_id: {get_param: InternalApiNetworkVlanID}
      addresses:
      - ip_netmask: {get_param: InternalApiIpSubnet}
      routes:
      - ip_netmask: 10.1.2.0/24
        next_hop: 172.17.0.1

E.3. Using the Native VLAN for Floating IPs

Neutron uses a default empty string for its external bridge mapping. This maps the physical interface to the br-int instead of using br-ex directly. This model allows multiple Floating IP networks using either VLANs or multiple physical connections.
Use the NeutronExternalNetworkBridge parameter in the parameter_defaults section of your network isolation environment file:
  parameter_defaults:
    # Set to "br-ex" when using floating IPs on the native VLAN
    NeutronExternalNetworkBridge: "''"
Using only one Floating IP network on the native VLAN of a bridge means you can optionally set the neutron external bridge. This results in the packets only having to traverse one bridge instead of two, which might result in slightly lower CPU usage when passing traffic over the Floating IP network.
The next section contains changes to the NIC config to put the External network on the native VLAN. If the External network is mapped to br-ex, you can use the External network for Floating IPs in addition to the horizon dashboard, and Public APIs.

E.4. Using the Native VLAN on a Trunked Interface

If a trunked interface or bond has a network on the native VLAN, the IP addresses are assigned directly to the bridge and there will be no VLAN interface.
For example, if the External network is on the native VLAN, a bonded configuration looks like this:
network_config:
  - type: ovs_bridge
    name: {get_input: bridge_name}
    dns_servers: {get_param: DnsServers}
    addresses:
      - ip_netmask: {get_param: ExternalIpSubnet}
    routes:
      - ip_netmask: 0.0.0.0/0
        next_hop: {get_param: ExternalInterfaceDefaultRoute}
    members:
      - type: ovs_bond
        name: bond1
        ovs_options: {get_param: BondInterfaceOvsOptions}
        members:
          - type: interface
            name: nic3
            primary: true
          - type: interface
            name: nic4

Note

When moving the address (and possibly route) statements onto the bridge, remove the corresponding VLAN interface from the bridge. Make the changes to all applicable roles. The External network is only on the controllers, so only the controller template requires a change. The Storage network on the other hand is attached to all roles, so if the Storage network is on the default VLAN, all roles require modifications.

E.5. Configuring Jumbo Frames

The Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) setting determines the maximum amount of data transmitted with a single Ethernet frame. Using a larger value results in less overhead since each frame adds data in the form of a header. The default value is 1500 and using a higher value requires the configuration of the switch port to support jumbo frames. Most switches support an MTU of at least 9000, but many are configured for 1500 by default.
The MTU of a VLAN cannot exceed the MTU of the physical interface. Make sure to include the MTU value on the bond and/or interface.
The Storage, Storage Management, Internal API, and Tenant networking all benefit from jumbo frames. In testing, Tenant networking throughput was over 300% greater when using jumbo frames in conjunction with VXLAN tunnels.

Note

It is recommended that the Provisioning interface, External interface, and any floating IP interfaces be left at the default MTU of 1500. Connectivity problems are likely to occur otherwise. This is because routers typically cannot forward jumbo frames across Layer 3 boundaries.
- type: ovs_bond
  name: bond1
  mtu: 9000
  ovs_options: {get_param: BondInterfaceOvsOptions}
  members:
    - type: interface
      name: nic3
      mtu: 9000
      primary: true
    - type: interface
      name: nic4
      mtu: 9000

# The external interface should stay at default
- type: vlan
  device: bond1
  vlan_id: {get_param: ExternalNetworkVlanID}
  addresses:
    - ip_netmask: {get_param: ExternalIpSubnet}
  routes:
    - ip_netmask: 0.0.0.0/0
      next_hop: {get_param: ExternalInterfaceDefaultRoute}

# MTU 9000 for Internal API, Storage, and Storage Management
- type: vlan
  device: bond1
  mtu: 9000
  vlan_id: {get_param: InternalApiNetworkVlanID}
  addresses:
  - ip_netmask: {get_param: InternalApiIpSubnet}

Appendix F. Network Environment Options

Table F.1. Network Environment Options

Parameter
Description
Example
InternalApiNetCidr
The network and subnet for the Internal API network
172.17.0.0/24
StorageNetCidr
The network and subnet for the Storage network
StorageMgmtNetCidr
The network and subnet for the Storage Management network
TenantNetCidr
The network and subnet for the Tenant network
ExternalNetCidr
The network and subnet for the External network
InternalApiAllocationPools
The allocation pool for the Internal API network in a tuple format
[{'start': '172.17.0.10', 'end': '172.17.0.200'}]
StorageAllocationPools
The allocation pool for the Storage network in a tuple format
StorageMgmtAllocationPools
The allocation pool for the Storage Management network in a tuple format
TenantAllocationPools
The allocation pool for the Tenant network in a tuple format
ExternalAllocationPools
The allocation pool for the External network in a tuple format
InternalApiNetworkVlanID
The VLAN ID for the Internal API network
200
StorageNetworkVlanID
The VLAN ID for the Storage network
StorageMgmtNetworkVlanID
The VLAN ID for the Storage Management network
TenantNetworkVlanID
The VLAN ID for the Tenant network
ExternalNetworkVlanID
The VLAN ID for the External network
ExternalInterfaceDefaultRoute
The gateway IP address for the External network
10.1.2.1
ControlPlaneDefaultRoute
Gateway router for the Provisioning network (or Undercloud IP)
ControlPlaneDefaultRoute: 192.0.2.254
ControlPlaneSubnetCidr
CIDR subnet mask length for provisioning network
ControlPlaneSubnetCidr: 24
EC2MetadataIp
The IP address of the EC2 metadata server. Generally the IP of the Undercloud.
EC2MetadataIp: 192.0.2.1
DnsServers
Define the DNS servers for the Overcloud nodes. Include a maximum of two.
DnsServers: ["8.8.8.8","8.8.4.4"]
BondInterfaceOvsOptions
The options for bonding interfaces
BondInterfaceOvsOptions:"bond_mode=balance-tcp"
NeutronFlatNetworks
Defines the flat networks to configure in neutron plugins. Defaults to "datacentre" to permit external network creation
NeutronFlatNetworks: "datacentre"
NeutronExternalNetworkBridge
An Open vSwitch bridge to create on each hypervisor. This defaults to "br-ex". Set to "br-ex" if using floating IPs on native VLAN on bridge br-ex. Typically, this should not need to be changed.
NeutronExternalNetworkBridge: "br-ex"
NeutronBridgeMappings
The logical to physical bridge mappings to use. Defaults to mapping the external bridge on hosts (br-ex) to a physical name (datacentre). You would use this for the default floating network
NeutronBridgeMappings: "datacentre:br-ex"
NeutronPublicInterface
Defines the interface to bridge onto br-ex for network nodes
NeutronPublicInterface: "eth0"
NeutronNetworkType
The tenant network type for Neutron
NeutronNetworkType: "vxlan"
NeutronTunnelTypes
The tunnel types for the neutron tenant network. To specify multiple values, use a comma separated string.
NeutronTunnelTypes: 'gre,vxlan'
NeutronTunnelIdRanges
Ranges of GRE tunnel IDs to make available for tenant network allocation
NeutronTunnelIdRanges "1:1000"
NeutronVniRanges
Ranges of VXLAN VNI IDs to make available for tenant network allocation
NeutronVniRanges: "1:1000"
NeutronEnableTunnelling
Defines whether to enable or disable tunneling in case you aim to use a VLAN segmented network or flat network with Neutron. Defaults to enabled
NeutronNetworkVLANRanges
The neutron ML2 and Open vSwitch VLAN mapping range to support. Defaults to permitting any VLAN on the 'datacentre' physical network.
NeutronNetworkVLANRanges: "datacentre:1:1000"
NeutronMechanismDrivers
The mechanism drivers for the neutron tenant network. Defaults to "openvswitch". To specify multiple values, use a comma-separated string
NeutronMechanismDrivers: 'openvswitch,l2population'

Appendix G. Open vSwitch Bonding Options

The Overcloud provides networking through Open vSwitch (OVS), which provides several options for bonded interfaces. In Section 6.2.2, “Creating a Network Environment File”, you can configure a bonded interface in the network environment file using the following parameter:
  BondInterfaceOvsOptions:
    "bond_mode=balance-tcp"
The following table provides some explanation of these options and some alternatives depending on your hardware.

Important

Do not use LACP with OVS-based bonds, as this configuration is problematic and unsupported. Instead, consider using bond_mode=balance-slb as a replacement for this functionality. In addition, you can still use LACP with Linux bonding in your network interface templates:
      - type: linux_bond
        name: bond1
        members:
        - type: interface
          name: nic2
        - type: interface
          name: nic3
        bonding_options: "mode=802.3ad"
For more information on Linux bonding options, see 4.5.1. Bonding Module Directives in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Networking Guide.
For the technical details behind this requirement, see BZ#1267291.

Table G.1. Bonding Options

bond_mode=balance-tcp
This mode will perform load balancing by taking layer 2 to layer 4 data into consideration. For example, destination MAC address, IP address, and TCP port. In addition, balance-tcp requires that LACP be configured on the switch. This mode is similar to mode 4 bonds used by the Linux bonding driver. balance-tcp is recommended when possible, as LACP provides the highest resiliency for link failure detection, and supplies additional diagnostic information about the bond.
The recommended option is to configure balance-tcp with LACP. This setting attempts to configure LACP, but will fallback to active-backup if LACP cannot be negotiated with the physical switch.
bond_mode=balance-slb
Balances flows based on source MAC address and output VLAN, with periodic rebalancing as traffic patterns change. Bonding with balance-slb allows a limited form of load balancing without the remote switch's knowledge or cooperation. SLB assigns each source MAC and VLAN pair to a link and transmits all packets from that MAC and VLAN through that link. This mode uses a simple hashing algorithm based on source MAC address and VLAN number, with periodic rebalancing as traffic patterns change. This mode is similar to mode 2 bonds used by the Linux bonding driver. This mode is used when the switch is configured with bonding but is not configured to use LACP (static instead of dynamic bonds).
bond_mode=active-backup
This mode offers active/standby failover where the standby NIC resumes network operations when the active connection fails. Only one MAC address is presented to the physical switch. This mode does not require any special switch support or configuration, and works when the links are connected to separate switches. This mode does not provide load balancing.
lacp=[active|passive|off]
Controls the Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) behavior. Only certain switches support LACP. If your switch does not support LACP, use bond_mode=balance-slb or bond_mode=active-backup.
Do not use LACP with OVS-based bonds, as this configuration is problematic and unsupported. Instead, consider using bond_mode=balance-slb as a replacement for this functionality. In addition, you can still use LACP with Linux bonding. For the technical details behind this requirement, see BZ#1267291.
other-config:lacp-fallback-ab=true
Sets the LACP behavior to switch to bond_mode=active-backup as a fallback.
other_config:lacp-time=[fast|slow]
Set the LACP heartbeat to 1 second (fast) or 30 seconds (slow). The default is slow.
other_config:bond-detect-mode=[miimon|carrier]
Set the link detection to use miimon heartbeats (miimon) or monitor carrier (carrier). The default is carrier.
other_config:bond-miimon-interval=100
If using miimon, set the heartbeat interval in milliseconds.
other_config:bond_updelay=1000
Number of milliseconds a link must be up to be activated to prevent flapping.
other_config:bond-rebalance-interval=10000
Milliseconds between rebalancing flows between bond members. Set to zero to disable.

Important

If you experience packet drops or performance issues using Linux bonds with Provider networks, consider disabling Large Receive Offload (LRO) on the standby interfaces.
Avoid adding a Linux bond to an OVS bond, as port-flapping and loss of connectivity can occur. This is a result of a packet-loop through the standby interface.

Appendix H. Revision History

Revision History
Revision 8.0-0Tue Nov 24 2015Dan Macpherson
OpenStack Platform 8 Beta release

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