Chapter 7. Configuring instance scheduling and placement

The Compute scheduler service determines on which Compute node or host aggregate to place an instance. When the Compute (nova) service receives a request to launch or move an instance, it uses the specifications provided in the request, the flavor, and the image to find a suitable host. For example, a flavor can specify the traits an instance requires a host to have, such as the type of storage disk, or the Intel CPU instruction set extension.

The Compute scheduler service uses the configuration of the following components, in the following order, to determine on which Compute node to launch or move an instance:

  1. Placement service prefilters: The Compute scheduler service uses the Placement service to filter the set of candidate Compute nodes based on specific attributes. For example, the Placement service automatically excludes disabled Compute nodes.
  2. Filters: Used by the Compute scheduler service to determine the initial set of Compute nodes on which to launch an instance.
  3. Weights: The Compute scheduler service prioritizes the filtered Compute nodes using a weighting system. The highest weight has the highest priority.

In the following diagram, host 1 and 3 are eligible after filtering. Host 1 has the highest weight and therefore has the highest priority for scheduling.

Scheduling hosts

7.1. Prefiltering using the Placement service

The Compute service (nova) interacts with the Placement service when it creates and manages instances. The Placement service tracks the inventory and usage of resource providers, such as a Compute node, a shared storage pool, or an IP allocation pool, and their available quantitative resources, such as the available vCPUs. Any service that needs to manage the selection and consumption of resources can use the Placement service.

The Placement service also tracks the mapping of available qualitative resources to resource providers, such as the type of storage disk trait a resource provider has.

The Placement service applies prefilters to the set of candidate Compute nodes based on Placement service resource provider inventories and traits. You can create prefilters based on the following criteria:

  • Supported image types
  • Traits
  • Projects or tenants
  • Availability zone

7.1.1. Filtering by requested image type support

You can exclude Compute nodes that do not support the disk format of the image used to launch an instance. This is useful when your environment uses Red Hat Ceph Storage as an ephemeral backend, which does not support QCOW2 images. Enabling this feature ensures that the scheduler does not send requests to launch instances using a QCOW2 image to Compute nodes backed by Red Hat Ceph Storage.

Procedure

  1. Open your Compute environment file.
  2. To exclude Compute nodes that do not support the disk format of the image used to launch an instance, set the NovaSchedulerQueryImageType parameter to True in the Compute environment file.
  3. Save the updates to your Compute environment file.
  4. Add your Compute environment file to the stack with your other environment files and deploy the overcloud:

    (undercloud)$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
     -e [your environment files] \
     -e /home/stack/templates/<compute_environment_file>.yaml

7.1.2. Filtering by resource provider traits

Each resource provider has a set of traits. Traits are the qualitative aspects of a resource provider, for example, the type of storage disk, or the Intel CPU instruction set extension.

The Compute node reports its capabilities to the Placement service as traits. An instance can specify which of these traits it requires, or which traits the resource provider must not have. The Compute scheduler can use these traits to identify a suitable Compute node or host aggregate to host an instance.

To enable your cloud users to create instances on hosts that have particular traits, you can define a flavor that requires or forbids a particular trait, and you can create an image that requires or forbids a particular trait.

For a list of the available traits, see the os-traits library. You can also create custom traits, as required.

7.1.2.1. Creating an image that requires or forbids a resource provider trait

You can create an instance image that your cloud users can use to launch instances on hosts that have particular traits.

Procedure

  1. Create a new image:

    (overcloud)$ openstack image create ... trait-image
  2. Identify the trait you require a host or host aggregate to have. You can select an existing trait, or create a new trait:

    • To use an existing trait, list the existing traits to retrieve the trait name:

      (overcloud)$ openstack --os-placement-api-version 1.6 trait list
    • To create a new trait, enter the following command:

      (overcloud)$ openstack --os-placement-api-version 1.6 trait \
       create CUSTOM_TRAIT_NAME

      Custom traits must begin with the prefix CUSTOM_ and contain only the letters A through Z, the numbers 0 through 9 and the underscore “_” character.

  3. Collect the existing resource provider traits of each host:

    (overcloud)$ existing_traits=$(openstack --os-placement-api-version 1.6 resource provider trait list -f value <host_uuid> | sed 's/^/--trait /')
  4. Check the existing resource provider traits for the traits you require a host or host aggregate to have:

    (overcloud)$ echo $existing_traits
  5. If the traits you require are not already added to the resource provider, then add the existing traits and your required traits to the resource providers for each host:

    (overcloud)$ openstack --os-placement-api-version 1.6 \
     resource provider trait set $existing_traits \
     --trait <TRAIT_NAME> \
     <host_uuid>

    Replace <TRAIT_NAME> with the name of the trait that you want to add to the resource provider. You can use the --trait option more than once to add additional traits, as required.

    Note

    This command performs a full replacement of the traits for the resource provider. Therefore, you must retrieve the list of existing resource provider traits on the host and set them again to prevent them from being removed.

  6. To schedule instances on a host or host aggregate that has a required trait, add the trait to the image extra specs. For example, to schedule instances on a host or host aggregate that supports AVX-512, add the following trait to the image extra specs:

    (overcloud)$ openstack image set \
     --property trait:HW_CPU_X86_AVX512BW=required \
     trait-image
  7. To filter out hosts or host aggregates that have a forbidden trait, add the trait to the image extra specs. For example, to prevent instances from being scheduled on a host or host aggregate that supports multi-attach volumes, add the following trait to the image extra specs:

    (overcloud)$ openstack image set \
     --property trait:COMPUTE_VOLUME_MULTI_ATTACH=forbidden \
     trait-image

7.1.2.2. Creating a flavor that requires or forbids a resource provider trait

You can create flavors that your cloud users can use to launch instances on hosts that have particular traits.

Procedure

  1. Create a flavor:

    (overcloud)$ openstack flavor create --vcpus 1 --ram 512 \
     --disk 2 trait-flavor
  2. Identify the trait you require a host or host aggregate to have. You can select an existing trait, or create a new trait:

    • To use an existing trait, list the existing traits to retrieve the trait name:

      (overcloud)$ openstack --os-placement-api-version 1.6 trait list
    • To create a new trait, enter the following command:

      (overcloud)$ openstack --os-placement-api-version 1.6 trait \
       create CUSTOM_TRAIT_NAME

      Custom traits must begin with the prefix CUSTOM_ and contain only the letters A through Z, the numbers 0 through 9 and the underscore “_” character.

  3. Collect the existing resource provider traits of each host:

    (overcloud)$ existing_traits=$(openstack --os-placement-api-version 1.6 resource provider trait list -f value <host_uuid> | sed 's/^/--trait /')
  4. Check the existing resource provider traits for the traits you require a host or host aggregate to have:

    (overcloud)$ echo $existing_traits
  5. If the traits you require are not already added to the resource provider, then add the existing traits and your required traits to the resource providers for each host:

    (overcloud)$ openstack --os-placement-api-version 1.6 \
     resource provider trait set $existing_traits \
     --trait <TRAIT_NAME> \
     <host_uuid>

    Replace <TRAIT_NAME> with the name of the trait that you want to add to the resource provider. You can use the --trait option more than once to add additional traits, as required.

    Note

    This command performs a full replacement of the traits for the resource provider. Therefore, you must retrieve the list of existing resource provider traits on the host and set them again to prevent them from being removed.

  6. To schedule instances on a host or host aggregate that has a required trait, add the trait to the flavor extra specs. For example, to schedule instances on a host or host aggregate that supports AVX-512, add the following trait to the flavor extra specs:

    (overcloud)$ openstack flavor set \
     --property trait:HW_CPU_X86_AVX512BW=required \
     trait-flavor
  7. To filter out hosts or host aggregates that have a forbidden trait, add the trait to the flavor extra specs. For example, to prevent instances from being scheduled on a host or host aggregate that supports multi-attach volumes, add the following trait to the flavor extra specs:

    (overcloud)$ openstack flavor set \
     --property trait:COMPUTE_VOLUME_MULTI_ATTACH=forbidden \
     trait-flavor

7.1.3. Filtering by isolating host aggregates

You can restrict scheduling on a host aggregate to only those instances whose flavor and image traits match the metadata of the host aggregate. The combination of flavor and image metadata must require all the host aggregate traits to be eligible for scheduling on Compute nodes in that host aggregate.

Procedure

  1. Open your Compute environment file.
  2. To isolate host aggregates to host only instances whose flavor and image traits match the aggregate metadata, set the NovaSchedulerEnableIsolatedAggregateFiltering parameter to True in the Compute environment file.
  3. Save the updates to your Compute environment file.
  4. Add your Compute environment file to the stack with your other environment files and deploy the overcloud:

    (undercloud)$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
     -e [your environment files] \
     -e /home/stack/templates/<compute_environment_file>.yaml
  5. Identify the traits you want to isolate the host aggregate for. You can select an existing trait, or create a new trait:

    • To use an existing trait, list the existing traits to retrieve the trait name:

      (overcloud)$ openstack --os-placement-api-version 1.6 trait list
    • To create a new trait, enter the following command:

      (overcloud)$ openstack --os-placement-api-version 1.6 trait \
       create CUSTOM_TRAIT_NAME

      Custom traits must begin with the prefix CUSTOM_ and contain only the letters A through Z, the numbers 0 through 9 and the underscore “_” character.

  6. Collect the existing resource provider traits of each Compute node:

    (overcloud)$ existing_traits=$(openstack --os-placement-api-version 1.6 resource provider trait list -f value <host_uuid> | sed 's/^/--trait /')
  7. Check the existing resource provider traits for the traits you want to isolate the host aggregate for:

    (overcloud)$ echo $existing_traits
  8. If the traits you require are not already added to the resource provider, then add the existing traits and your required traits to the resource providers for each Compute node in the host aggregate:

    (overcloud)$ openstack --os-placement-api-version 1.6 \
     resource provider trait set $existing_traits \
     --trait <TRAIT_NAME> \
     <host_uuid>

    Replace <TRAIT_NAME> with the name of the trait that you want to add to the resource provider. You can use the --trait option more than once to add additional traits, as required.

    Note

    This command performs a full replacement of the traits for the resource provider. Therefore, you must retrieve the list of existing resource provider traits on the host and set them again to prevent them from being removed.

  9. Repeat steps 6 - 8 for each Compute node in the host aggregate.
  10. Add the metadata property for the trait to the host aggregate:

    (overcloud)$ openstack --os-compute-api-version 2.53 aggregate set \
     --property trait:<TRAIT_NAME>=required <aggregate_name>
  11. Add the trait to a flavor or an image:

    (overcloud)$ openstack flavor set \
     --property trait:<TRAIT_NAME>=required <flavor>
    (overcloud)$ openstack image set \
     --property trait:<TRAIT_NAME>=required <image>

7.1.4. Filtering by availability zone using the Placement service

You can use the Placement service to honor availability zone requests. To use the Placement service to filter by availability zone, placement aggregates must exist that match the membership and UUID of the availability zone host aggregates.

Procedure

  1. Open your Compute environment file.
  2. To use the Placement service to filter by availability zone, set the NovaSchedulerQueryPlacementForAvailabilityZone parameter to True in the Compute environment file.
  3. Remove the AvailabilityZoneFilter filter from the NovaSchedulerEnabledFilters parameter.
  4. Save the updates to your Compute environment file.
  5. Add your Compute environment file to the stack with your other environment files and deploy the overcloud:

    (undercloud)$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
     -e [your environment files] \
     -e /home/stack/templates/<compute_environment_file>.yaml

Additional resources

7.2. Configuring filters and weights for the Compute scheduler service

You need to configure the filters and weights for the Compute scheduler service to determine the initial set of Compute nodes on which to launch an instance.

Procedure

  1. Open your Compute environment file.
  2. Add the filters you want the scheduler to use to the NovaSchedulerEnabledFilters parameter, for example:

    parameter_defaults:
      NovaSchedulerEnabledFilters:
        - AggregateInstanceExtraSpecsFilter
        - ComputeFilter
        - ComputeCapabilitiesFilter
        - ImagePropertiesFilter
  3. Specify which attribute to use to calculate the weight of each Compute node, for example:

    parameter_defaults:
      ComputeExtraConfig:
        nova::config::nova_config:
          filter_scheduler/weight_classes:
            value: nova.scheduler.weights.all_weighers

    For more information on the available attributes, see Compute scheduler weights.

  4. Optional: Configure the multiplier to apply to each weigher. For example, to specify that the available RAM of a Compute node has a higher weight than the other default weighers, and that the Compute scheduler prefers Compute nodes with more available RAM over those nodes with less available RAM, use the following configuration:

    parameter_defaults:
      ComputeExtraConfig:
        nova::config::nova_config:
          filter_scheduler/weight_classes:
            value: nova.scheduler.weights.all_weighers
          filter_scheduler/ram_weight_multiplier:
            value: 2.0
    Tip

    You can also set multipliers to a negative value. In the above example, to prefer Compute nodes with less available RAM over those nodes with more available RAM, set ram_weight_multiplier to -2.0.

  5. Save the updates to your Compute environment file.
  6. Add your Compute environment file to the stack with your other environment files and deploy the overcloud:

    (undercloud)$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
     -e [your environment files] \
     -e /home/stack/templates/<compute_environment_file>.yaml

Additional resources

7.3. Compute scheduler filters

You configure the NovaSchedulerEnabledFilters parameter in your Compute environment file to specify the filters the Compute scheduler must apply when selecting an appropriate Compute node to host an instance. The default configuration applies the following filters:

  • AvailabilityZoneFilter: The Compute node must be in the requested availability zone.
  • ComputeFilter: The Compute node can service the request.
  • ComputeCapabilitiesFilter: The Compute node satisfies the flavor extra specs.
  • ImagePropertiesFilter: The Compute node satisfies the requested image properties.
  • ServerGroupAntiAffinityFilter: The Compute node is not already hosting an instance in a specified group.
  • ServerGroupAffinityFilter: The Compute node is already hosting instances in a specified group.

You can add and remove filters. The following table describes all the available filters.

Table 7.1. Compute scheduler filters

FilterDescription

AggregateImagePropertiesIsolation

Use this filter to match the image metadata of an instance with host aggregate metadata. If any of the host aggregate metadata matches the metadata of the image, then the Compute nodes that belong to that host aggregate are candidates for launching instances from that image. The scheduler only recognises valid image metadata properties. For details on valid image metadata properties, see Image configuration parameters.

AggregateInstanceExtraSpecsFilter

Use this filter to match namespaced properties defined in the flavor extra specs of an instance with host aggregate metadata.

You must scope your flavor extra_specs keys by prefixing them with the aggregate_instance_extra_specs: namespace.

If any of the host aggregate metadata matches the metadata of the flavor extra spec, then the Compute nodes that belong to that host aggregate are candidates for launching instances from that image.

AggregateIoOpsFilter

Use this filter to filter hosts by I/O operations with a per-aggregate filter_scheduler/max_io_ops_per_host value. If the per-aggregate value is not found, the value falls back to the global setting. If the host is in more than one aggregate and more than one value is found, the scheduler uses the minimum value.

AggregateMultiTenancyIsolation

Use this filter to limit the availability of Compute nodes in project-isolated host aggregates to a specified set of projects. Only projects specified using the filter_tenant_id metadata key can launch instances on Compute nodes in the host aggregate. For more information, see Creating a project-isolated host aggregate.

Note

The project can still place instances on other hosts. To restrict this, use the NovaSchedulerPlacementAggregateRequiredForTenants parameter.

AggregateNumInstancesFilter

Use this filter to limit the number of instances each Compute node in an aggregate can host. You can configure the maximum number of instances per-aggregate by using the filter_scheduler/max_instances_per_host parameter. If the per-aggregate value is not found, the value falls back to the global setting. If the Compute node is in more than one aggregate, the scheduler uses the lowest max_instances_per_host value.

AggregateTypeAffinityFilter

Use this filter to pass hosts if no flavor metadata key is set, or the flavor aggregate metadata value contains the name of the requested flavor. The value of the flavor metadata entry is a string that may contain either a single flavor name or a comma-separated list of flavor names, such as m1.nano or m1.nano,m1.small.

AllHostsFilter

Use this filter to consider all available Compute nodes for instance scheduling.

Note

Using this filter does not disable other filters.

AvailabilityZoneFilter

Use this filter to launch instances on a Compute node in the availability zone specified by the instance.

ComputeCapabilitiesFilter

Use this filter to match namespaced properties defined in the flavor extra specs of an instance against the Compute node capabilities. You must prefix the flavor extra specs with the capabilities: namespace.

A more efficient alternative to using the ComputeCapabilitiesFilter filter is to use CPU traits in your flavors, which are reported to the Placement service. Traits provide consistent naming for CPU features. For more information, see Filtering by using resource provider traits.

ComputeFilter

Use this filter to pass all Compute nodes that are operational and enabled. This filter should always be present.

DifferentHostFilter

Use this filter to enable scheduling of an instance on a different Compute node from a set of specific instances. To specify these instances when launching an instance, use the --hint argument with different_host as the key and the instance UUID as the value:

$ openstack server create --image cedef40a-ed67-4d10-800e-17455edce175 \
  --flavor 1 --hint different_host=a0cf03a5-d921-4877-bb5c-86d26cf818e1 \
  --hint different_host=8c19174f-4220-44f0-824a-cd1eeef10287 server-1

ImagePropertiesFilter

Use this filter to filter Compute nodes based on the following properties defined on the instance image:

  • hw_architecture - Corresponds to the architecture of the host, for example, x86, ARM, and Power.
  • img_hv_type - Corresponds to the hypervisor type, for example, KVM, QEMU, Xen, and LXC.
  • img_hv_requested_version - Corresponds to the hypervisor version the Compute service reports.
  • hw_vm_mode - Corresponds to the hyperviser type, for example hvm, xen, uml, or exe.

Compute nodes that can support the specified image properties contained in the instance are passed to the scheduler. For more information on image properties, see Image configuration parameters.

IsolatedHostsFilter

Use this filter to only schedule instances with isolated images on isolated Compute nodes. You can also prevent non-isolated images from being used to build instances on isolated Compute nodes by configuring filter_scheduler/restrict_isolated_hosts_to_isolated_images.

To specify the isolated set of images and hosts use the filter_scheduler/isolated_hosts and filter_scheduler/isolated_images configuration options, for example:

parameter_defaults:
  ComputeExtraConfig:
    nova::config::nova_config:
      filter_scheduler/isolated_hosts:
        value: server1, server2
      filter_scheduler/isolated_images:
        value: 342b492c-128f-4a42-8d3a-c5088cf27d13, ebd267a6-ca86-4d6c-9a0e-bd132d6b7d09

IoOpsFilter

Use this filter to filter out hosts that have concurrent I/O operations that exceed the configured filter_scheduler/max_io_ops_per_host, which specifies the maximum number of I/O intensive instances allowed to run on the host.

MetricsFilter

Use this filter to limit scheduling to Compute nodes that report the metrics configured by using metrics/weight_setting.

To use this filter, add the following configuration to your Compute environment file:

parameter_defaults:
  ComputeExtraConfig:
    nova::config::nova_config:
      DEFAULT/compute_monitors:
        value: 'cpu.virt_driver'

By default, the Compute scheduler service updates the metrics every 60 seconds.

NUMATopologyFilter

Use this filter to schedule instances with a NUMA topology on NUMA-capable Compute nodes. Use flavor extra_specs and image properties to specify the NUMA topology for an instance. The filter tries to match the instance NUMA topology to the Compute node topology, taking into consideration the over-subscription limits for each host NUMA cell.

NumInstancesFilter

Use this filter to filter out Compute nodes that have more instances running than specified by the max_instances_per_host option.

PciPassthroughFilter

Use this filter to schedule instances on Compute nodes that have the devices that the instance requests by using the flavor extra_specs.

Use this filter if you want to reserve nodes with PCI devices, which are typically expensive and limited, for instances that request them.

SameHostFilter

Use this filter to enable scheduling of an instance on the same Compute node as a set of specific instances. To specify these instances when launching an instance, use the --hint argument with same_host as the key and the instance UUID as the value:

$ openstack server create --image cedef40a-ed67-4d10-800e-17455edce175 \
  --flavor 1 --hint same_host=a0cf03a5-d921-4877-bb5c-86d26cf818e1 \
  --hint same_host=8c19174f-4220-44f0-824a-cd1eeef10287 server-1

ServerGroupAffinityFilter

Use this filter to schedule instances in an affinity server group on the same Compute node. To create the server group, enter the following command:

$ openstack server group create --policy affinity <group_name>

To launch an instance in this group, use the --hint argument with group as the key and the group UUID as the value:

$ openstack server create --image <image> \
  --flavor <flavor> \
  --hint group=<group_uuid> <instance_name>

ServerGroupAntiAffinityFilter

Use this filter to schedule instances that belong to an anti-affinity server group on different Compute nodes. To create the server group, enter the following command:

$ openstack server group create --policy anti-affinity <group_name>

To launch an instance in this group, use the --hint argument with group as the key and the group UUID as the value:

$ openstack server create --image <image> \
  --flavor <flavor> \
  --hint group=<group_uuid> <instance_name>

SimpleCIDRAffinityFilter

Use this filter to schedule instances on Compute nodes that have a specific IP subnet range. To specify the required range, use the --hint argument to pass the keys build_near_host_ip and cidr when launching an instance:

$ openstack server create --image <image> \
  --flavor <flavor> \
  --hint build_near_host_ip=<ip_address> \
  --hint cidr=<subnet_mask> <instance_name>

7.4. Compute scheduler weights

Each Compute node has a weight that the scheduler can use to prioritize instance scheduling. After the Compute scheduler applies the filters, it selects the Compute node with the largest weight from the remaining candidate Compute nodes.

The Compute scheduler determines the weight of each Compute node by performing the following tasks:

  1. The scheduler normalizes each weight to a value between 0.0 and 1.0.
  2. The scheduler multiplies the normalized weight by the weigher multiplier.

The Compute scheduler calculates the weight normalization for each resource type by using the lower and upper values for the resource availability across the candidate Compute nodes:

  • Nodes with the lowest availability of a resource (minval) are assigned '0'.
  • Nodes with the highest availability of a resource (maxval) are assigned '1'.
  • Nodes with resource availability within the minval - maxval range are assigned a normalized weight calculated by using the following formula:

    (node_resource_availability - minval) / (maxval - minval)

If all the Compute nodes have the same availability for a resource then they are all normalized to 0.

For example, the scheduler calculates the normalized weights for available vCPUs across 10 Compute nodes, each with a different number of available vCPUs, as follows:

Compute node

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

No of vCPUs

5

5

10

10

15

20

20

15

10

5

Normalized weight

0

0

0.33

0.33

0.67

1

1

0.67

0.33

0

The Compute scheduler uses the following formula to calculate the weight of a Compute node:

(w1_multiplier * norm(w1)) + (w2_multiplier * norm(w2)) + ...

The following table describes the available configuration options for weights.

Note

Weights can be set on host aggregates using the aggregate metadata key with the same name as the options detailed in the following table. If set on the host aggregate, the host aggregate value takes precedence.

Table 7.2. Compute scheduler weights

Configuration optionTypeDescription

filter_scheduler/weight_classes

String

Use this parameter to configure which of the following attributes to use for calculating the weight of each Compute node:

  • nova.scheduler.weights.ram.RAMWeigher - Weighs the available RAM on the Compute node.
  • nova.scheduler.weights.cpu.CPUWeigher - Weighs the available CPUs on the Compute node.
  • nova.scheduler.weights.disk.DiskWeigher - Weighs the available disks on the Compute node.
  • nova.scheduler.weights.metrics.MetricsWeigher - Weighs the metrics of the Compute node.
  • nova.scheduler.weights.affinity.ServerGroupSoftAffinityWeigher - Weighs the proximity of the Compute node to other nodes in the given instance group.
  • nova.scheduler.weights.affinity.ServerGroupSoftAntiAffinityWeigher - Weighs the proximity of the Compute node to other nodes in the given instance group.
  • nova.scheduler.weights.compute.BuildFailureWeigher - Weighs Compute nodes by the number of recent failed boot attempts.
  • nova.scheduler.weights.io_ops.IoOpsWeigher - Weighs Compute nodes by their workload.
  • nova.scheduler.weights.pci.PCIWeigher - Weighs Compute nodes by their PCI availability.
  • nova.scheduler.weights.cross_cell.CrossCellWeigher - Weighs Compute nodes based on which cell they are in, giving preference to Compute nodes in the source cell when moving an instance.
  • nova.scheduler.weights.all_weighers - (Default) Uses all the above weighers.

filter_scheduler/ram_weight_multiplier

Floating point

Use this parameter to specify the multiplier to use to weigh hosts based on the available RAM.

Set to a positive value to prefer hosts with more available RAM, which spreads instances across many hosts.

Set to a negative value to prefer hosts with less available RAM, which fills up (stacks) hosts as much as possible before scheduling to a less-used host.

The absolute value, whether positive or negative, controls how strong the RAM weigher is relative to other weighers.

Default: 1.0 - The scheduler spreads instances across all hosts evenly.

filter_scheduler/disk_weight_multiplier

 Floating point

Use this parameter to specify the multiplier to use to weigh hosts based on the available disk space.

Set to a positive value to prefer hosts with more available disk space, which spreads instances across many hosts.

Set to a negative value to prefer hosts with less available disk space, which fills up (stacks) hosts as much as possible before scheduling to a less-used host.

The absolute value, whether positive or negative, controls how strong the disk weigher is relative to other weighers.

Default: 1.0 - The scheduler spreads instances across all hosts evenly.

filter_scheduler/cpu_weight_multiplier

 Floating point

Use this parameter to specify the multiplier to use to weigh hosts based on the available vCPUs.

Set to a positive value to prefer hosts with more available vCPUs, which spreads instances across many hosts.

Set to a negative value to prefer hosts with less available vCPUs, which fills up (stacks) hosts as much as possible before scheduling to a less-used host.

The absolute value, whether positive or negative, controls how strong the vCPU weigher is relative to other weighers.

Default: 1.0 - The scheduler spreads instances across all hosts evenly.

filter_scheduler/io_ops_weight_multiplier

 Floating point

Use this parameter to specify the multiplier to use to weigh hosts based on the host workload.

Set to a negative value to prefer hosts with lighter workloads, which distributes the workload across more hosts.

Set to a positive value to prefer hosts with heavier workloads, which schedules instances onto hosts that are already busy.

The absolute value, whether positive or negative, controls how strong the I/O operations weigher is relative to other weighers.

Default: -1.0 - The scheduler distributes the workload across more hosts.

filter_scheduler/build_failure_weight_multiplier

Floating point

Use this parameter to specify the multiplier to use to weigh hosts based on recent build failures.

Set to a positive value to increase the significance of build failures recently reported by the host. Hosts with recent build failures are then less likely to be chosen.

Set to 0 to disable weighing compute hosts by the number of recent failures.

Default: 1000000.0

filter_scheduler/cross_cell_move_weight_multiplier

Floating point

Use this parameter to specify the multiplier to use to weigh hosts during a cross-cell move. This option determines how much weight is placed on a host which is within the same source cell when moving an instance. By default, the scheduler prefers hosts within the same source cell when migrating an instance.

Set to a positive value to prefer hosts within the same cell the instance is currently running. Set to a negative value to prefer hosts located in a different cell from that where the instance is currently running.

Default: 1000000.0

filter_scheduler/pci_weight_multiplier

Positive floating point

Use this parameter to specify the multiplier to use to weigh hosts based on the number of PCI devices on the host and the number of PCI devices requested by an instance. If an instance requests PCI devices, then the more PCI devices a Compute node has the higher the weight allocated to the Compute node.

For example, if there are three hosts available, one with a single PCI device, one with multiple PCI devices and one without any PCI devices, then the Compute scheduler prioritizes these hosts based on the demands of the instance. The scheduler should prefer the first host if the instance requests one PCI device, the second host if the instance requires multiple PCI devices and the third host if the instance does not request a PCI device.

Configure this option to prevent non-PCI instances from occupying resources on hosts with PCI devices.

Default: 1.0

filter_scheduler/host_subset_size

Integer

Use this parameter to specify the size of the subset of filtered hosts from which to select the host. You must set this option to at least 1. A value of 1 selects the first host returned by the weighing functions. The scheduler ignores any value less than 1 and uses 1 instead.

Set to a value greater than 1 to prevent multiple scheduler processes handling similar requests selecting the same host, creating a potential race condition. By selecting a host randomly from the N hosts that best fit the request, the chance of a conflict is reduced. However, the higher you set this value, the less optimal the chosen host may be for a given request.

Default: 1

filter_scheduler/soft_affinity_weight_multiplier

Positive floating point

Use this parameter to specify the multiplier to use to weigh hosts for group soft-affinity.

Note

You need to specify the microversion when creating a group with this policy:

$ openstack --os-compute-api-version 2.15 server group create --policy soft-affinity <group_name>

Default: 1.0

filter_scheduler/soft_anti_affinity_weight_multiplier

Positive floating point

Use this parameter to specify the multiplier to use to weigh hosts for group soft-anti-affinity.

Note

You need to specify the microversion when creating a group with this policy:

$ openstack --os-compute-api-version 2.15 server group create --policy soft-affinity <group_name>

Default: 1.0

metrics/weight_multiplier

Floating point

Use this parameter to specify the multiplier to use for weighting metrics. By default, weight_multiplier=1.0, which spreads instances across possible hosts.

Set to a number greater than 1.0 to increase the effect of the metric on the overall weight.

Set to a number between 0.0 and 1.0 to reduce the effect of the metric on the overall weight.

Set to 0.0 to ignore the metric value and return the value of the weight_of_unavailable option.

Set to a negative number to prioritize the host with lower metrics, and stack instances in hosts.

Default: 1.0

metrics/weight_setting

Comma-separated list of metric=ratio pairs

Use this parameter to specify the metrics to use for weighting, and the ratio to use to calculate the weight of each metric. Valid metric names:

  • cpu.frequency - CPU frequency
  • cpu.user.time - CPU user mode time
  • cpu.kernel.time - CPU kernel time
  • cpu.idle.time - CPU idle time
  • cpu.iowait.time - CPU I/O wait time
  • cpu.user.percent - CPU user mode percentage
  • cpu.kernel.percent - CPU kernel percentage
  • cpu.idle.percent - CPU idle percentage
  • cpu.iowait.percent - CPU I/O wait percentage
  • cpu.percent - Generic CPU use

Example: weight_setting=cpu.user.time=1.0

metrics/required

Boolean

Use this parameter to specify how to handle configured metrics/weight_setting metrics that are unavailable:

  • True - Metrics are required. If the metric is unavailable, an exception is raised. To avoid the exception, use the MetricsFilter filter in NovaSchedulerEnabledFilters.
  • False - The unavailable metric is treated as a negative factor in the weighing process. Set the returned value by using the weight_of_unavailable configuration option.

metrics/weight_of_unavailable

Floating point

Use this parameter to specify the weight to use if any metrics/weight_setting metric is unavailable, and metrics/required=False.

Default: -10000.0

7.5. Declaring custom traits and resource classes

As an administrator, you can declare which custom physical features and consumable resources are available on the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) overcloud nodes by defining a custom inventory of resources in a YAML file, provider.yaml.

You can declare the availability of physical host features by defining custom traits, such as CUSTOM_DIESEL_BACKUP_POWER, CUSTOM_FIPS_COMPLIANT, and CUSTOM_HPC_OPTIMIZED. You can also declare the availability of consumable resources by defining resource classes, such as CUSTOM_DISK_IOPS, and CUSTOM_POWER_WATTS.

Note

You can use flavor metadata to request custom resources and custom traits. For more information, see Instance bare-metal resource class and Instance resource traits.

Procedure

  1. Create a file in /home/stack/templates/ called provider.yaml.
  2. To configure the resource provider, add the following configuration to your provider.yaml file:

    meta:
      schema_version: '1.0'
    providers:
      - identification:
          uuid: <node_uuid>
    • Replace <node_uuid> with the UUID for the node, for example, '5213b75d-9260-42a6-b236-f39b0fd10561'. Alternatively, you can use the name property to identify the resource provider: name: 'EXAMPLE_RESOURCE_PROVIDER'.
  3. To configure the available custom resource classes for the resource provider, add the following configuration to your provider.yaml file:

    meta:
      schema_version: '1.0'
    providers:
      - identification:
          uuid: <node_uuid>
        inventories:
          additional:
            - CUSTOM_EXAMPLE_RESOURCE_CLASS:
                total: <total_available>
                reserved: <reserved>
                min_unit: <min_unit>
                max_unit: <max_unit>
                step_size: <step_size>
                allocation_ratio: <allocation_ratio>
    • Replace CUSTOM_EXAMPLE_RESOURCE_CLASS with the name of the resource class. Custom resource classes must begin with the prefix CUSTOM_ and contain only the letters A through Z, the numbers 0 through 9 and the underscore “_” character.
    • Replace <total_available> with the number of available CUSTOM_EXAMPLE_RESOURCE_CLASS for this resource provider.
    • Replace <reserved> with the number of available CUSTOM_EXAMPLE_RESOURCE_CLASS for this resource provider.
    • Replace <min_unit> with the minimum units of resources a single instance can consume.
    • Replace <max_unit> with the maximum units of resources a single instance can consume.
    • Replace <step_size> with the number of available CUSTOM_EXAMPLE_RESOURCE_CLASS for this resource provider.
    • Replace <allocation_ratio> with the value to set the allocation ratio. If allocation_ratio is set to 1.0, then no overallocation is allowed. But if allocation_ration is greater than 1.0, then the total available resource is more than the physically existing one.
  4. To configure the available traits for the resource provider, add the following configuration to your provider.yaml file:

    meta:
      schema_version: '1.0'
    providers:
      - identification:
          uuid: <node_uuid>
        inventories:
          additional:
          ...
          traits:
          additional:
            - 'CUSTOM_EXAMPLE_TRAIT'
    • Replace CUSTOM_EXAMPLE_TRAIT with the name of the trait. Custom traits must begin with the prefix CUSTOM_ and contain only the letters A through Z, the numbers 0 through 9 and the underscore “_” character.

      Example provider.yaml file

      The following example declares one custom resource class and one custom trait for a resource provider.

      meta:
        schema_version: 1.0
      providers:
        - identification:
            uuid: $COMPUTE_NODE
          inventories:
            additional:
              CUSTOM_LLC:
                # Describing LLC on this compute node
                # max_unit indicates maximum size of single LLC
                # total indicates sum of sizes of all LLC
                total: 22 1
                reserved: 2 2
                min_unit: 1 3
                max_unit: 11 4
                step_size: 1 5
                allocation_ratio: 1.0 6
          traits:
              additional:
                  # Describing that this compute node enables support for
                  # P-state control
                  - CUSTOM_P_STATE_ENABLED
      1
      This hypervisor has 22 units of last level cache (LLC).
      2
      Two of the units of LLC are reserved for the host.
      3 4
      The min_unit and max_unit values define how many units of resources a single VM can consume.
      5
      The step size defines the increments of consumption.
      6
      The allocation ratio configures the overallocation of resources.
  5. Save and close the provider.yaml file.
  6. Add the provider.yaml file to the stack with your other environment files and deploy the overcloud:

    (undercloud)$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
    -e [your environment files] \
    -e /home/stack/templates/provider.yaml

7.6. Creating and managing host aggregates

As a cloud administrator, you can partition a Compute deployment into logical groups for performance or administrative purposes. Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) provides the following mechanisms for partitioning logical groups:

Host aggregate

A host aggregate is a grouping of Compute nodes into a logical unit based on attributes such as the hardware or performance characteristics. You can assign a Compute node to one or more host aggregates.

You can map flavors and images to host aggregates by setting metadata on the host aggregate, and then matching flavor extra specs or image metadata properties to the host aggregate metadata. The Compute scheduler can use this metadata to schedule instances when the required filters are enabled. Metadata that you specify in a host aggregate limits the use of that host to any instance that has the same metadata specified in its flavor or image.

You can configure weight multipliers for each host aggregate by setting the xxx_weight_multiplier configuration option in the host aggregate metadata.

You can use host aggregates to handle load balancing, enforce physical isolation or redundancy, group servers with common attributes, or separate classes of hardware.

When you create a host aggregate, you can specify a zone name. This name is presented to cloud users as an availability zone that they can select.

Availability zones

An availability zone is the cloud user view of a host aggregate. A cloud user cannot view the Compute nodes in the availability zone, or view the metadata of the availability zone. The cloud user can only see the name of the availability zone.

You can assign each Compute node to only one availability zone. You can configure a default availability zone where instances will be scheduled when the cloud user does not specify a zone. You can direct cloud users to use availability zones that have specific capabilities.

7.6.1. Enabling scheduling on host aggregates

To schedule instances on host aggregates that have specific attributes, update the configuration of the Compute scheduler to enable filtering based on the host aggregate metadata.

Procedure

  1. Open your Compute environment file.
  2. Add the following values to the NovaSchedulerEnabledFilters parameter, if they are not already present:

    • AggregateInstanceExtraSpecsFilter: Add this value to filter Compute nodes by host aggregate metadata that match flavor extra specs.

      Note

      For this filter to perform as expected, you must scope the flavor extra specs by prefixing the extra_specs key with the aggregate_instance_extra_specs: namespace.

    • AggregateImagePropertiesIsolation: Add this value to filter Compute nodes by host aggregate metadata that match image metadata properties.

      Note

      To filter host aggregate metadata by using image metadata properties, the host aggregate metadata key must match a valid image metadata property. For information about valid image metadata properties, see Image configuration parameters.

    • AvailabilityZoneFilter: Add this value to filter by availability zone when launching an instance.

      Note

      Instead of using the AvailabilityZoneFilter Compute scheduler service filter, you can use the Placement service to process availability zone requests. For more information, see Filtering by availability zone using the Placement service.

  3. Save the updates to your Compute environment file.
  4. Add your Compute environment file to the stack with your other environment files and deploy the overcloud:

    (undercloud)$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
      -e [your environment files] \
      -e /home/stack/templates/<compute_environment_file>.yaml

7.6.2. Creating a host aggregate

As a cloud administrator, you can create as many host aggregates as you require.

Procedure

  1. To create a host aggregate, enter the following command:

    (overcloud)# openstack aggregate create <aggregate_name>

    Replace <aggregate_name> with the name you want to assign to the host aggregate.

  2. Add metadata to the host aggregate:

    (overcloud)# openstack aggregate set \
     --property <key=value> \
     --property <key=value> \
     <aggregate_name>
    • Replace <key=value> with the metadata key-value pair. If you are using the AggregateInstanceExtraSpecsFilter filter, the key can be any arbitrary string, for example, ssd=true. If you are using the AggregateImagePropertiesIsolation filter, the key must match a valid image metadata property. For more information about valid image metadata properties, see Image configuration parameters.
    • Replace <aggregate_name> with the name of the host aggregate.
  3. Add the Compute nodes to the host aggregate:

    (overcloud)# openstack aggregate add host \
     <aggregate_name> \
     <host_name>
    • Replace <aggregate_name> with the name of the host aggregate to add the Compute node to.
    • Replace <host_name> with the name of the Compute node to add to the host aggregate.
  4. Create a flavor or image for the host aggregate:

    • Create a flavor:

      (overcloud)$ openstack flavor create \
        --ram <size_mb> \
        --disk <size_gb> \
        --vcpus <no_reserved_vcpus> \
        host-agg-flavor
    • Create an image:

      (overcloud)$ openstack image create host-agg-image
  5. Set one or more key-value pairs on the flavor or image that match the key-value pairs on the host aggregate.

    • To set the key-value pairs on a flavor, use the scope aggregate_instance_extra_specs:

      (overcloud)# openstack flavor set \
       --property aggregate_instance_extra_specs:ssd=true \
       host-agg-flavor
    • To set the key-value pairs on an image, use valid image metadata properties as the key:

      (overcloud)# openstack image set \
       --property os_type=linux \
       host-agg-image

7.6.3. Creating an availability zone

As a cloud administrator, you can create an availability zone that cloud users can select when they create an instance.

Procedure

  1. To create an availability zone, you can create a new availability zone host aggregate, or make an existing host aggregate an availability zone:

    1. To create a new availability zone host aggregate, enter the following command:

      (overcloud)# openstack aggregate create \
       --zone <availability_zone> \
       <aggregate_name>
      • Replace <availability_zone> with the name you want to assign to the availability zone.
      • Replace <aggregate_name> with the name you want to assign to the host aggregate.
    2. To make an existing host aggregate an availability zone, enter the following command:

      (overcloud)# openstack aggregate set --zone <availability_zone> \
        <aggregate_name>
      • Replace <availability_zone> with the name you want to assign to the availability zone.
      • Replace <aggregate_name> with the name of the host aggregate.
  2. Optional: Add metadata to the availability zone:

    (overcloud)# openstack aggregate set --property <key=value> \
      <aggregate_name>
    • Replace <key=value> with your metadata key-value pair. You can add as many key-value properties as required.
    • Replace <aggregate_name> with the name of the availability zone host aggregate.
  3. Add Compute nodes to the availability zone host aggregate:

    (overcloud)# openstack aggregate add host <aggregate_name> \
      <host_name>
    • Replace <aggregate_name> with the name of the availability zone host aggregate to add the Compute node to.
    • Replace <host_name> with the name of the Compute node to add to the availability zone.

7.6.4. Deleting a host aggregate

To delete a host aggregate, you first remove all the Compute nodes from the host aggregate.

Procedure

  1. To view a list of all the Compute nodes assigned to the host aggregate, enter the following command:

    (overcloud)# openstack aggregate show <aggregate_name>
  2. To remove all assigned Compute nodes from the host aggregate, enter the following command for each Compute node:

    (overcloud)# openstack aggregate remove host <aggregate_name> \
      <host_name>
    • Replace <aggregate_name> with the name of the host aggregate to remove the Compute node from.
    • Replace <host_name> with the name of the Compute node to remove from the host aggregate.
  3. After you remove all the Compute nodes from the host aggregate, enter the following command to delete the host aggregate:

    (overcloud)# openstack aggregate delete <aggregate_name>

7.6.5. Creating a project-isolated host aggregate

You can create a host aggregate that is available only to specific projects. Only the projects that you assign to the host aggregate can launch instances on the host aggregate.

Note

Project isolation uses the Placement service to filter host aggregates for each project. This process supersedes the functionality of the AggregateMultiTenancyIsolation filter. You therefore do not need to use the AggregateMultiTenancyIsolation filter.

Procedure

  1. Open your Compute environment file.
  2. To schedule project instances on the project-isolated host aggregate, set the NovaSchedulerLimitTenantsToPlacementAggregate parameter to True in the Compute environment file.
  3. Optional: To ensure that only the projects that you assign to a host aggregate can create instances on your cloud, set the NovaSchedulerPlacementAggregateRequiredForTenants parameter to True.

    Note

    NovaSchedulerPlacementAggregateRequiredForTenants is False by default. When this parameter is False, projects that are not assigned to a host aggregate can create instances on any host aggregate.

  4. Save the updates to your Compute environment file.
  5. Add your Compute environment file to the stack with your other environment files and deploy the overcloud:

    (undercloud)$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
      -e [your environment files] \
      -e /home/stack/templates/<compute_environment_file>.yaml \
  6. Create the host aggregate.
  7. Retrieve the list of project IDs:

    (overcloud)# openstack project list
  8. Use the filter_tenant_id<suffix> metadata key to assign projects to the host aggregate:

    (overcloud)# openstack aggregate set \
     --property filter_tenant_id<ID0>=<project_id0> \
     --property filter_tenant_id<ID1>=<project_id1> \
     ...
     --property filter_tenant_id<IDn>=<project_idn> \
     <aggregate_name>
    • Replace <ID0>, <ID1>, and all IDs up to <IDn> with unique values for each project filter that you want to create.
    • Replace <project_id0>, <project_id1>, and all project IDs up to <project_idn> with the ID of each project that you want to assign to the host aggregate.
    • Replace <aggregate_name> with the name of the project-isolated host aggregate.

      For example, use the following syntax to assign projects 78f1, 9d3t, and aa29 to the host aggregate project-isolated-aggregate:

      (overcloud)# openstack aggregate set \
       --property filter_tenant_id0=78f1 \
       --property filter_tenant_id1=9d3t \
       --property filter_tenant_id2=aa29 \
       project-isolated-aggregate
      Tip

      You can create a host aggregate that is available only to a single specific project by omitting the suffix from the filter_tenant_id metadata key:

      (overcloud)# openstack aggregate set \
       --property filter_tenant_id=78f1 \
       single-project-isolated-aggregate

Additional resources