Creating and managing images

Red Hat OpenStack Platform 17.1

Create and manage images in Red Hat OpenStack Platform by using the Image service (glance)

OpenStack Documentation Team

Abstract

This guide provides procedures for creating and managing images, and procedures for configuring the Image service (glance).

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Chapter 1. The Image service (glance)

The Image service (glance) provides discovery, registration, and delivery services for disk and server images. It provides the ability to copy or snapshot a server image, and immediately store it. You can use stored images as templates to commission new servers quickly and more consistently than installing a server operating system and individually configuring services.

1.1. Virtual Machine image formats

A virtual machine (VM) image is a file that contains a virtual disk with a bootable operating system installed. VM images are supported in different formats. The following formats are available in Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP):

  • RAW - Unstructured disk image format.
  • QCOW2 - Disk format supported by QEMU emulator. This format includes QCOW2v3 (sometimes referred to as QCOW3), which requires QEMU 1.1 or higher.
  • ISO - Sector-by-sector copy of the data on a disk, stored in a binary file.
  • AKI - Indicates an Amazon Kernel Image.
  • AMI - Indicates an Amazon Machine Image.
  • ARI - Indicates an Amazon RAMDisk Image.
  • VDI - Disk format supported by VirtualBox VM monitor and the QEMU emulator.
  • VHD - Common disk format used by VM monitors from VMware, VirtualBox, and others.
  • PLOOP - A disk format supported and used by Virtuozzo to run OS containers.
  • OVA - Indicates that what is stored in the Image service (glance) is an OVA tar archive file.
  • DOCKER - Indicates that what is stored in the Image service (glance) is a Docker tar archive of the container file system.

Although ISO is not normally considered a VM image format, because ISOs contain bootable file systems with an installed operating system, you use them in the same way as other VM image files.

1.2. Supported Image service back ends

The following Image service (glance) back-end scenarios are supported:

  • RADOS Block Device (RBD) is the default back end when you use Ceph.
  • RBD multi-store.
  • Object Storage (swift). The Image service uses the Object Storage type and back end as the default.
  • Block Storage (cinder).
  • NFS

    Important

    Although NFS is a supported Image service deployment option, more robust options are available.

    NFS is not native to the Image service. When you mount an NFS share on the Image service, the Image service does not manage the operation. The Image service writes data to the file system but is unaware that the back end is an NFS share.

    In this type of deployment, the Image service cannot retry a request if the share fails. This means that when a failure occurs on the back end, the store might enter read-only mode, or it might continue to write data to the local file system, in which case you risk data loss. To recover from this situation, you must ensure that the share is mounted and in sync, and then restart the Image service. For these reasons, Red Hat does not recommend NFS as an Image service back end.

    However, if you do choose to use NFS as an Image service back end, some of the following best practices can help to mitigate risks:

    • Use a reliable production-grade NFS back end.
    • Ensure that you have a strong and reliable connection between Controller nodes and the NFS back end: Layer 2 (L2) network connectivity is recommended.
    • Include monitoring and alerts for the mounted share.
    • Set underlying file system permissions. Write permissions must be present in the shared file system that you use as a store.
    • Ensure that the user and the group that the glance-api process runs on do not have write permissions on the mount point at the local file system. This means that the process can detect possible mount failure and put the store into read-only mode during a write attempt.

1.3. Image signing and verification

Image signing and verification protects image integrity and authenticity by enabling deployers to sign images and save the signatures and public key certificates as image properties.

Note

Image signing and verification is not supported if Nova is using RADOS Block Device (RBD) to store virtual machines disks.

For information on image signing and verification, see Validating Image service (glance) images in the Managing secrets with the Key Manager service guide.

1.4. Image format conversion

You can convert images to a different format by activating the image conversion plugin when you import images to the Image service (glance).

You can activate or deactivate the image conversion plugin based on your Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) deployment configuration. The deployer configures the preferred format of images for the deployment.

Internally, the Image service receives the bits of the image in a particular format and stores the bits in a temporary location. The Image service triggers the plugin to convert the image to the target format and move the image to a final destination. When the task is finished, the Image service deletes the temporary location. The Image service does not retain the format that was uploaded initially.

You can trigger image conversion only when importing an image. It does not run when uploading an image.

Use the Image service command-line client for image management.

For example:

$ glance image-create-via-import \
    --disk-format qcow2 \
    --container-format bare \
    --name <name> \
    --visibility public \
    --import-method web-download \
    --uri http://server/image.qcow2
  • Replace <name> with the name of your image.

1.5. Improving scalability with Image service caching

Use the Image service (glance) API caching mechanism to store copies of images on Image service API servers and retrieve them automatically to improve scalability. With Image service caching, you can run glance-api on multiple hosts. This means that it does not need to retrieve the same image from back-end storage multiple times. Image service caching does not affect any Image service operations.

Configure Image service caching with the Red Hat OpenStack Platform director (tripleo) heat templates:

Procedure

  1. In an environment file, set the value of the GlanceCacheEnabled parameter to true, which automatically sets the flavor value to keystone+cachemanagement in the glance-api.conf heat template:

    parameter_defaults:
        GlanceCacheEnabled: true
  2. Include the environment file in the openstack overcloud deploy command when you redeploy the overcloud.
  3. Optional: Tune the glance_cache_pruner to an alternative frequency when you redeploy the overcloud. The following example shows a frequency of 5 minutes:

    parameter_defaults:
      ControllerExtraConfig:
        glance::cache::pruner::minute: '*/5'

    Adjust the frequency according to your needs to avoid file system full scenarios. Include the following elements when you choose an alternative frequency:

    • The size of the files that you want to cache in your environment.
    • The amount of available file system space.
    • The frequency at which the environment caches images.

1.6. Image pre-caching

You can use Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) director to pre-cache images as part of the glance-api service.

Use the Image service (glance) command-line client for image management.

1.6.1. Configuring the default interval for periodic image pre-caching

The Image service (glance) pre-caching periodic job runs every 300 seconds (5 minutes default time) on each controller node where the glance-api service is running. To change the default time, you can set the cache_prefetcher_interval parameter under the Default section in the glance-api.conf environment file.

Procedure

  1. Add a new interval with the ExtraConfig parameter in an environment file on the undercloud according to your requirements:

    parameter_defaults:
      ControllerExtraConfig:
        glance::config::glance_api_config:
          DEFAULT/cache_prefetcher_interval:
            value: '<300>'
    • Replace <300> with the number of seconds that you want as an interval to pre-cache images.
  2. After you adjust the interval in the environment file in /home/stack/templates/, log in as the stack user and deploy the configuration:

    $ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
    -e /home/stack/templates/<env_file>.yaml
    • Replace <env_file> with the name of the environment file that contains the ExtraConfig settings that you added.

      Important

      If you passed any extra environment files when you created the overcloud, pass them again here by using the -e option to avoid making undesired changes to the overcloud.

Additional resources

For more information about the openstack overcloud deploy command, see Deployment command in the Installing and managing Red Hat OpenStack Platform with director guide.

1.6.2. Preparing to use a periodic job to pre-cache an image

To use a periodic job to pre-cache an image, you must use the glance-cache-manage command connected directly to the node where the glance_api service is running. Do not use a proxy, which hides the node that answers a service request. Because the undercloud might not have access to the network where the glance_api service is running, run commands on the first overcloud node, which is called controller-0 by default.

Complete the following prerequisite procedure to ensure that you run commands from the correct host, have the necessary credentials, and are also running the glance-cache-manage commands from inside the glance-api container.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the undercloud as the stack user and identify the provisioning IP address of controller-0:

    (undercloud) [stack@site-undercloud-0 ~]$ openstack server list -f value -c Name -c Networks | grep controller
    overcloud-controller-1 ctlplane=192.168.24.40
    overcloud-controller-2 ctlplane=192.168.24.13
    overcloud-controller-0 ctlplane=192.168.24.71
    (undercloud) [stack@site-undercloud-0 ~]$
  2. To authenticate to the overcloud, copy the credentials that are stored in /home/stack/overcloudrc, by default, to controller-0:

    $ scp ~/overcloudrc tripleo-admin@192.168.24.71:/home/tripleo-admin/
  3. Connect to controller-0:

    $ ssh tripleo-admin@192.168.24.71
  4. On controller-0 as the tripleo-admin user, identify the IP address of the glance_api service. In the following example, the IP address is 172.25.1.105:

    (overcloud) [root@controller-0 ~]# grep -A 10 '^listen glance_api' /var/lib/config-data/puppet-generated/haproxy/etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg
    listen glance_api
     server central-controller0-0.internalapi.redhat.local 172.25.1.105:9292 check fall 5 inter 2000 rise 2
  5. Because the glance-cache-manage command is only available in the glance_api container, create a script to exec into that container where the environment variables to authenticate to the overcloud are already set. Create a script called glance_pod.sh in /home/tripleo-admin on controller-0 with the following contents:

    sudo podman exec -ti \
     -e NOVA_VERSION=$NOVA_VERSION \
     -e COMPUTE_API_VERSION=$COMPUTE_API_VERSION \
     -e OS_USERNAME=$OS_USERNAME \
     -e OS_PROJECT_NAME=$OS_PROJECT_NAME \
     -e OS_USER_DOMAIN_NAME=$OS_USER_DOMAIN_NAME \
     -e OS_PROJECT_DOMAIN_NAME=$OS_PROJECT_DOMAIN_NAME \
     -e OS_NO_CACHE=$OS_NO_CACHE \
     -e OS_CLOUDNAME=$OS_CLOUDNAME \
     -e no_proxy=$no_proxy \
     -e OS_AUTH_TYPE=$OS_AUTH_TYPE \
     -e OS_PASSWORD=$OS_PASSWORD \
     -e OS_AUTH_URL=$OS_AUTH_URL \
     -e OS_IDENTITY_API_VERSION=$OS_IDENTITY_API_VERSION \
     -e OS_COMPUTE_API_VERSION=$OS_COMPUTE_API_VERSION \
     -e OS_IMAGE_API_VERSION=$OS_IMAGE_API_VERSION \
     -e OS_VOLUME_API_VERSION=$OS_VOLUME_API_VERSION \
     -e OS_REGION_NAME=$OS_REGION_NAME \
    glance_api /bin/bash
  6. Source the overcloudrc file and run the glance_pod.sh script to exec into the glance_api container with the necessary environment variables to authenticate to the overcloud Controller node.

    [tripleo-admin@controller-0 ~]$ source overcloudrc
    (overcloudrc) [tripleo-admin@central-controller-0 ~]$ bash glance_pod.sh
    ()[glance@controller-0 /]$
  7. Use a command such as glance image-list to verify that the container can run authenticated commands against the overcloud.

    ()[glance@controller-0 /]$ glance image-list
    +--------------------------------------+----------------------------------+
    | ID                                   | Name                             |
    +--------------------------------------+----------------------------------+
    | ad2f8daf-56f3-4e10-b5dc-d28d3a81f659 | cirros-0.4.0-x86_64-disk.img       |
    +--------------------------------------+----------------------------------+
    ()[glance@controller-0 /]$

1.6.3. Using a periodic job to pre-cache an image

When you have completed the prerequisite procedure in Section 1.6.2, “Preparing to use a periodic job to pre-cache an image”, you can use a periodic job to pre-cache an image.

Procedure

  1. As the admin user, queue an image to cache:

    $ glance-cache-manage --host=<host_ip> queue-image <image_id>
    • Replace <host_ip> with the IP address of the Controller node where the glance-api container is running.
    • Replace <image_id> with the ID of the image that you want to queue.

      When you have queued the images that you want to pre-cache, the cache_images periodic job prefetches all queued images concurrently.

      Note

      Because the image cache is local to each node, if your Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) deployment is HA, with 3, 5, or 7 Controllers, then you must specify the host address with the --host option when you run the glance-cache-manage command.

  2. Run the following command to view the images in the image cache:

    $ glance-cache-manage --host=<host_ip> list-cached
    • Replace <host_ip> with the IP address of the host in your environment.

1.6.4. Image caching command options

You can use the following glance-cache-manage command options to queue images for caching and manage cached images:

  • list-cached to list all images that are currently cached.
  • list-queued to list all images that are currently queued for caching.
  • queue-image to queue an image for caching.
  • delete-cached-image to purge an image from the cache.
  • delete-all-cached-images to remove all images from the cache.
  • delete-queued-image to delete an image from the cache queue.
  • delete-all-queued-images to delete all images from the cache queue.

1.7. Using the Image service API to enable sparse image upload

With the Image service (glance) API, you can use sparse image upload to reduce network traffic and save storage space. This feature is particularly useful in distributed compute node (DCN) environments. With a sparse image file, the Image service does not write null byte sequences. The Image service writes data with a given offset. Storage back ends interpret these offsets as null bytes that do not actually consume storage space.

Use the Image service command-line client for image management.

Limitations

  • Sparse image upload is supported only with Ceph RADOS Block Device (RBD).
  • Sparse image upload is not supported for file systems.
  • Sparseness is not maintained during the transfer between the client and the Image service API. The image is sparsed at the Image service API level.

Prerequisites

  • Your Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) deployment uses RBD for the Image service back end.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the undercloud node as the stack user.
  2. Source the stackrc credentials file:

    $ source stackrc
  3. Create an environment file with the following content:

    parameter_defaults:
        GlanceSparseUploadEnabled: true
  4. Add your new environment file to the stack with your other environment files and deploy the overcloud:

    $ openstack overcloud deploy \
        --templates \
        …
        -e <existing_overcloud_environment_files> \
        -e <new_environment_file>.yaml \
        ...

For more information about uploading images, see Uploading an image.

Verification

You can import an image and check its size to verify sparse image upload.

The following procedure uses example commands. Replace the values with those from your environment where appropriate.

  1. Download the image file locally:

    $ wget <file_location>/<file_name>
    • Replace <file_location> with the location of the file.
    • Replace <file_name> with the name of the file.

      For example:

      $ wget https://cloud.centos.org/centos/6/images/CentOS-6-x86_64-GenericCloud-1508.qcow2
  2. Check the disk size and the virtual size of the image to be uploaded:

    $ qemu-img info <file_name>

    For example:

    $ qemu-img info CentOS-6-x86_64-GenericCloud-1508.qcow2
    
    image: CentOS-6-x86_64-GenericCloud-1508.qcow2
    file format: qcow2
    virtual size: 8 GiB (8589934592 bytes)
    disk size: 1.09 GiB
    cluster_size: 65536
    Format specific information:
    compat: 0.10
    refcount bits: 1
  3. Import the image:

    $ glance image-create-via-import --disk-format qcow2 --container-format bare --name centos_1 --file <file_name>
  4. Record the image ID. It is required in a subsequent step.
  5. Verify that the image is imported and in an active state:

    $ glance image show <image_id>
  6. From a Ceph Storage node, verify that the size of the image is less than the virtual size from the output of step 1:

    $ sudo rbd -p images diff <image_id> | awk '{ SUM += $2 } END { print SUM/1024/1024/1024 " GB" }'
    
    1.03906 GB
  7. Optional: You can confirm that rbd_thin_provisioning is configured in the Image service configuration file on the Controller nodes:

    1. Use SSH to access a Controller node:

      $ ssh -A -t tripleo-admin@<controller_node_IP_address>
    2. Confirm that rbd_thin_provisioning equals True on that Controller node:

      $ sudo podman exec -it glance_api sh -c 'grep ^rbd_thin_provisioning /etc/glance/glance-api.conf'

1.8. Secure metadef APIs

In Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP), cloud administrators can define key value pairs and tag metadata with metadata definition (metadef) APIs. There is no limit on the number of metadef namespaces, objects, properties, resources, or tags that cloud administrators can create.

Image service policies control metadef APIs. By default, only cloud administrators can create, update, or delete (CUD) metadef APIs. This limitation prevents metadef APIs from exposing information to unauthorized users and mitigates the risk of a malicious user filling the Image service (glance) database with unlimited resources, which can create a Denial of Service (DoS) style attack. However, cloud administrators can override the default policy.

1.9. Enabling metadef API access for cloud users

Cloud administrators with users who depend on write access to metadata definition (metadef) APIs can make those APIs accessible to all users by overriding the default admin-only policy. In this type of configuration, however, there is the potential to unintentionally leak sensitive resource names, such as customer names and internal projects. Administrators must audit their systems to identify previously created resources that might be vulnerable even if only read-access is enabled for all users.

Procedure

  1. As a cloud administrator, log in to the undercloud and create a file for policy overrides. For example:

    $ cat open-up-glance-api-metadef.yaml
  2. Configure the policy override file to allow metadef API read-write access to all users:

    GlanceApiPolicies: {
        glance-metadef_default: { key: 'metadef_default', value: '' },
        glance-get_metadef_namespace: { key: 'get_metadef_namespace', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-get_metadef_namespaces: { key: 'get_metadef_namespaces', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-modify_metadef_namespace: { key: 'modify_metadef_namespace', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-add_metadef_namespace: { key: 'add_metadef_namespace', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-delete_metadef_namespace: { key: 'delete_metadef_namespace', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-get_metadef_object: { key: 'get_metadef_object', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-get_metadef_objects: { key: 'get_metadef_objects', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-modify_metadef_object: { key: 'modify_metadef_object', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-add_metadef_object: { key: 'add_metadef_object', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-delete_metadef_object: { key: 'delete_metadef_object', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-list_metadef_resource_types: { key: 'list_metadef_resource_types', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-get_metadef_resource_type: { key: 'get_metadef_resource_type', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-add_metadef_resource_type_association: { key: 'add_metadef_resource_type_association', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-remove_metadef_resource_type_association: { key: 'remove_metadef_resource_type_association', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-get_metadef_property: { key: 'get_metadef_property', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-get_metadef_properties: { key: 'get_metadef_properties', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-modify_metadef_property: { key: 'modify_metadef_property', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-add_metadef_property: { key: 'add_metadef_property', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-remove_metadef_property: { key: 'remove_metadef_property', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-get_metadef_tag: { key: 'get_metadef_tag', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-get_metadef_tags: { key: 'get_metadef_tags', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-modify_metadef_tag: { key: 'modify_metadef_tag', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-add_metadef_tag: { key: 'add_metadef_tag', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-add_metadef_tags: { key: 'add_metadef_tags', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-delete_metadef_tag: { key: 'delete_metadef_tag', value: 'rule:metadef_default' },
        glance-delete_metadef_tags: { key: 'delete_metadef_tags', value: 'rule:metadef_default' }
      }
    Note

    You must configure all metadef policies to use rule:metadeta_default.

  3. Include the new policy file in the deployment command with the -e option when you deploy the overcloud:

    $ openstack overcloud deploy -e open-up-glance-api-metadef.yaml

Chapter 2. Creating RHEL KVM or RHOSP-compatible images

To create images that you can manage in the Red Hat OpenStack (RHOSP) Image service (glance), you can use Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) guest images, or you can manually create RHOSP-compatible images in the QCOW2 format by using RHEL ISO files or Windows ISO files.

2.1. Using a KVM guest image with Red Hat OpenStack Platform

You can use one of the following ready Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) guest QCOW2 images:

These images are configured with cloud-init and must take advantage of EC2-compatible metadata services for provisioning SSH keys to function correctly.

Ready Windows KVM guest QCOW2 images are not available.

Note

For KVM guest images:

  • The root account in the image is deactivated, but sudo access is granted to a special user named cloud-user.
  • There is no root password set for this image.

The root password is locked in /etc/shadow by placing !! in the second field.

For a Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) instance, generate an SSH keypair from the RHOSP dashboard or command line, and use that key combination to perform an SSH public authentication to the instance as root user.

When you launch the instance, this public key is injected to it. You can then authenticate by using the private key that you download when you create the keypair.

2.2. Creating custom RHEL or Windows images

To create custom Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) or Windows images that you can use with the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Image service (glance), ensure that you have the prerequiste tools in place.

2.2.1. Prerequisites

  • A Linux host machine to create an image. This can be any machine on which you can install and run the Linux packages, except for the undercloud or the overcloud.
  • The advanced-virt repository is enabled:

    $ sudo subscription-manager repos --enable=advanced-virt-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms
  • The virt-manager application is installed to have all packages necessary to create a guest operating system:

    $ sudo dnf module install -y virt
  • The libguestfs-tools package is installed to have a set of tools to access and modify virtual machine images:

    $ sudo dnf install -y libguestfs-tools-c
  • A RHEL 9 or 8 ISO file or a Windows ISO file. For more information about RHEL ISO files, see RHEL 9.0 Binary DVD or RHEL 8.6 Binary DVD. If you do not have a Windows ISO file, see the Microsoft Evaluation Center to download an evaluation image.
  • A text editor, if you want to change the kickstart files (RHEL only).
Important

If you install the libguestfs-tools package on the undercloud, deactivate iscsid.socket to avoid port conflicts with the tripleo_iscsid service on the undercloud:

$ sudo systemctl disable --now iscsid.socket

When you have the prerequisites in place, you can proceed to create a RHEL or Windows image:

2.2.2. Creating a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9 image

Manually create a Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) compatible image in the QCOW2 format by using a Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 9 ISO file.

Note

You must run all commands with the [root@host]# on your host machine.

Procedure

  1. Start the installation by using virt-install:

    [root@host]# virt-install \
      --virt-type kvm \
      --name <rhel9> \
      --ram <2048> \
      --cdrom </var/lib/libvirt/images/rhel-9.0-x86_64-dvd.iso> \
      --disk <rhel9.qcow2>,format=qcow2 \
      --network=bridge:virbr0 \
      --graphics vnc,listen=127.0.0.1 \
      --noautoconsole \
      --os-variant=<rhel9.0>
    • Replace the values in angle brackets <> with the correct values for your RHEL 9 image.

      This command launches an instance and starts the installation process.

      Note

      If the instance does not launch automatically, run the virt-viewer command to view the console:

      [root@host]# virt-viewer <rhel9>
  2. Configure the instance:

    1. At the initial Installer boot menu, select Install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9.
    2. Choose the appropriate Language and Keyboard options.
    3. When prompted about which type of devices your installation uses, select Auto-detected installation media.
    4. When prompted about which type of installation destination, select Local Standard Disks. For other storage options, select Automatically configure partitioning.
    5. Choose the Basic Server install, which installs an SSH server.
    6. For network and host name, select eth0 for network and choose a host name for your device. The default host name is localhost.localdomain.
    7. Enter a password in the Root Password field and enter the same password again in the Confirm field.

      Result
      The installation process completes and the Complete! screen is displayed.
  3. After the installation is complete, reboot the instance and log in as the root user.
  4. Update the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 file so that it contains only the following values:

    TYPE=Ethernet
    DEVICE=eth0
    ONBOOT=yes
    BOOTPROTO=dhcp
    NM_CONTROLLED=no
  5. Reboot the machine.
  6. Register the machine with the Content Delivery Network.

    # sudo subscription-manager register
    # sudo subscription-manager attach --pool=Valid-Pool-Number-123456
    # sudo subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-9-server-rpms
  7. Update the system:

    # dnf -y update
  8. Install the cloud-init packages:

    # dnf install -y cloud-utils-growpart cloud-init
  9. Edit the /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg configuration file and add the following content under cloud_init_modules:

    - resolv-conf

    The resolv-conf option automatically configures the resolv.conf file when an instance boots for the first time. This file contains information related to the instance such as nameservers, domain, and other options.

  10. Add the following line to /etc/sysconfig/network to avoid issues when accessing the EC2 metadata service:

    NOZEROCONF=yes
  11. To ensure that the console messages appear in the Log tab on the dashboard and the nova console-log output, add the following boot option to the /etc/default/grub file:

    GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="console=tty0 console=ttyS0,115200n8"
  12. Run the grub2-mkconfig command:

    # grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg

    The output is as follows:

    Generating grub configuration file ...
    Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-3.10.0-229.9.2.el9.x86_64
    Found initrd image: /boot/initramfs-3.10.0-229.9.2.el9.x86_64.img
    Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-3.10.0-121.el9.x86_64
    Found initrd image: /boot/initramfs-3.10.0-121.el9.x86_64.img
    Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-0-rescue-b82a3044fb384a3f9aeacf883474428b
    Found initrd image: /boot/initramfs-0-rescue-b82a3044fb384a3f9aeacf883474428b.img
    done
  13. Deregister the instance so that the resulting image does not contain the subscription details for this instance:

    # subscription-manager repos --disable=*
    # subscription-manager unregister
    # dnf clean all
  14. Power off the instance:

    # poweroff
  15. Reset and clean the image by using the virt-sysprep command so that it can be used to create instances without issues:

    [root@host]# virt-sysprep -d <rhel9>
  16. Reduce the image size by converting any free space within the disk image back to free space within the host:

    [root@host]# virt-sparsify \
      --compress <rhel9.qcow2> <rhel9-cloud.qcow2>

    This command creates a new <rhel9-cloud.qcow2> file in the location from where the command is run.

    Note

    You must manually resize the partitions of instances based on the image in accordance with the disk space in the flavor that is applied to the instance.

The <rhel9-cloud.qcow2> image file is ready to be uploaded to the Image service. For more information about uploading this image to your RHOSP deployment, see Uploading an image.

2.2.3. Creating a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 image

Manually create a Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) compatible image in the QCOW2 format by using a Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 8 ISO file.

Note

You must run all commands with the [root@host]# on your host machine.

Procedure

  1. Start the installation by using virt-install:

    [root@host]# virt-install \
      --virt-type kvm \
      --name <rhel86-cloud-image> \
      --ram <2048> \
      --vcpus <2> \
      --disk <rhel86.qcow2>,format=qcow2,size=<10> \
      --location <rhel-8.6-x86_64-boot.iso> \
      --network=bridge:virbr0 \
      --graphics vnc,listen=127.0.0.1 \
      --noautoconsole \
      --os-variant <rhel8.6>
    • Replace the values in angle brackets <> with the correct values for your RHEL 8 image.

      This command launches an instance and starts the installation process.

      Note

      If the instance does not launch automatically, run the virt-viewer command to view the console:

      [root@host]# virt-viewer <rhel86-cloud-image>
  2. Configure the instances:

    1. At the initial Installer boot menu, select Install or upgrade an existing system and follow the installation prompts. Accept the defaults.

      The disk installer provides an option to test your installation media before installation. Select OK to run the test or Skip to proceed without testing.

    2. Choose the appropriate Language and Keyboard options.
    3. When prompted about which type of devices your installation uses, select Basic Storage Devices.
    4. Choose a host name for your device. The default host name is localhost.localdomain.
    5. Set the timezone and root password.
    6. Based on the space on the disk, choose the type of installation you want from the options in the Which type of installation would you like? window.
    7. Choose the Basic Server install, which installs an SSH server.
    8. The installation process completes and the Congratulations, your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation is complete screen is displayed.
  3. Reboot the instance and log in as the root user.
  4. Update the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 file so that it contains only the following values:

    TYPE=Ethernet
    DEVICE=eth0
    ONBOOT=yes
    BOOTPROTO=dhcp
    NM_CONTROLLED=no
  5. Reboot the machine.
  6. Register the machine with the Content Delivery Network:

    # sudo subscription-manager register
    # sudo subscription-manager attach --pool=Valid-Pool-Number-123456
    # sudo subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-8-server-rpms
  7. Update the system:

    # dnf -y update
  8. Install the cloud-init packages:

    # dnf install -y cloud-utils-growpart cloud-init
  9. Edit the /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg configuration file and add the following content under cloud_init_modules.

    - resolv-conf

    The resolv-conf option automatically configures the resolv.conf file when an instance boots for the first time. This file contains information related to the instance such as nameservers, domain, and other options.

  10. To prevent network issues, create /etc/udev/rules.d/75-persistent-net-generator.rules:

    # echo "#" > /etc/udev/rules.d/75-persistent-net-generator.rules

    This prevents the /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules file from being created. If the /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules file is created, networking might not function correctly when you boot from snapshots because the network interface is created as eth1 instead of eth0 and the IP address is not assigned.

  11. Add the following line to /etc/sysconfig/network to avoid issues when accessing the EC2 metadata service:

    NOZEROCONF=yes
  12. To ensure that the console messages appear in the Log tab on the dashboard and the nova console-log output, add the following boot option to the /etc/grub.conf file:

    console=tty0 console=ttyS0,115200n8
  13. Deregister the virtual machine so that the resulting image does not contain the same subscription details for this instance:

    # subscription-manager repos --disable=*
    # subscription-manager unregister
    # dnf clean all
  14. Power off the instance:

    # poweroff
  15. Reset and clean the image by using the virt-sysprep command so that it can be used to create instances without issues:

    [root@host]# virt-sysprep -d <rhel86-cloud-image>
  16. Reduce the image size by using the virt-sparsify command. This command converts any free space within the disk image back to free space within the host:

    [root@host]# virt-sparsify \
      --compress <rhel86.qcow2> <rhel86-cloud.qcow2>

    This command creates a new <rhel86-cloud.qcow2> file in the location from where the command is run.

    Note

    You must manually resize the partitions of instances based on the image in accordance with the disk space in the flavor that is applied to the instance.

The <rhel86-cloud.qcow2> image file is ready to be uploaded to the Image service. For more information about uploading this image to your RHOSP deployment, see Uploading an image.

2.2.4. Creating a Windows image

Manually create a Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) compatible image in the QCOW2 format by using a Windows ISO file.

Note

You must run all commands with the [root@host]# on your host machine.

Procedure

  1. Start the installation by using virt-install:

    [root@host]# virt-install \
        --name=<name> \
        --disk size=<size> \
        --cdrom=<path> \
        --os-type=windows \
        --network=bridge:virbr0 \
        --graphics spice \
        --ram=<ram>
    • Replace the following values of the virt-install parameters:

      • <name> — the name that the Windows instance has.
      • <size> — disk size in GB.
      • <path> — the path to the Windows installation ISO file.
      • <ram> — the requested amount of RAM in MB.

        Note

        The --os-type=windows parameter ensures that the clock is configured correctly for the Windows guest, and enables its Hyper-V enlightenment features. You must also set os_type=windows in the image metadata before uploading the image to the Image service (glance).

  2. The virt-install command saves the guest image as /var/lib/libvirt/images/<name>.qcow2 by default. If you want to keep the guest image elsewhere, change the parameter of the --disk option:

    --disk path=<filename>,size=<size>
    • Replace <filename> with the name of the file that stores the instance image, and optionally its path. For example, path=win8.qcow2,size=8 creates an 8 GB file named win8.qcow2 in the current working directory.

      Tip

      If the guest does not launch automatically, run the virt-viewer command to view the console:

      [root@host]# virt-viewer <name>

      For more information about how to install Windows, see the relevant Microsoft documentation.

  3. To allow the newly installed Windows system to use the virtualized hardware, you might need to install VirtIO drivers. To do so, install the image by attaching it as a CD-ROM drive to the Windows instance. To install the virtio-win package, you must add the VirtIO ISO image to the instance, and install the VirtIO drivers. For more information, see Installing KVM paravirtualized drivers for Windows virtual machines in Configuring and managing virtualization.
  4. To complete the configuration, download and execute Cloudbase-Init on the Windows system. At the end of the installation of Cloudbase-Init, select the Run Sysprep and Shutdown checkboxes. The Sysprep tool makes the guest unique by generating an OS ID, which is used by certain Microsoft services.

    Important

    Red Hat does not provide technical support for Cloudbase-Init. If you encounter an issue, see Contact Cloudbase Solutions.

When the Windows system shuts down, the <name>.qcow2 image file is ready to be uploaded to the Image service. For more information about uploading this image to your RHOSP deployment, see Uploading an image. a properties, see Image configuration parameters.

2.3. Creating an image for UEFI Secure Boot

When the overcloud contains UEFI Secure Boot Compute nodes, you can create a Secure Boot instance image that cloud users can use to launch Secure Boot instances.

Procedure

  1. Create a new image for UEFI Secure Boot:

    $ openstack image create --file <base_image_file> uefi_secure_boot_image
    • Replace <base_image_file> with an image file that supports UEFI and the GUID Partition Table (GPT) standard, and includes an EFI system partition.
  2. If the default machine type is not q35, then set the machine type to q35:

    $ openstack image set --property hw_machine_type=q35 uefi_secure_boot_image
  3. Specify that the instance must be scheduled on a UEFI Secure Boot host:

    $ openstack image set \
     --property hw_firmware_type=uefi \
     --property os_secure_boot=required \
     uefi_secure_boot_image

2.4. Metadata properties for virtual hardware

The Compute service (nova) has deprecated support for using libosinfo data to set default device models. Instead, use the following image metadata properties to configure the optimal virtual hardware for an instance:

  • os_distro
  • os_version
  • hw_cdrom_bus
  • hw_disk_bus
  • hw_scsi_model
  • hw_vif_model
  • hw_video_model
  • hypervisor_type

For more information about these metadata properties, see Image configuration parameters.

Chapter 3. Managing images, image properties, and image formats

Manage images and the properties and formats of images that you upload, import, or store in the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Image service (glance).

3.1. Uploading images to the Image service

Upload an image to the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Image service (glance).

Procedure

  • Use the glance image-create command with the property option to upload an image.

    For example:

    $ glance image-create --name <name> \
        --is-public true --disk-format qcow2 \
        --container-format bare \
        --file <image-file> \
        --property <image-metadata>

3.2. Image service image import methods

You can import images to the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Image service (glance) in the following ways:

  • Use the web-download (default) method to import images from a URI.
  • Use the glance-direct method to import images from a local file system.
  • Use the copy-image method to copy an existing image to other Image service back ends that are in your deployment. Use this import method only if multiple Image service back ends are enabled in your deployment.

The web-download method is enabled by default. The cloud administrator configures import methods. You can run the glance import-info command to list available import options.

3.2.1. Importing an image from a remote URI

You can use the web-download image import method to copy an image from a remote URI to the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Image service (glance).

The Image service web download method uses a two-stage process to perform the import:

  1. The web download method creates an image record.
  2. The web download method retrieves the image from the specified URI.

The URI is subject to optional denylist and allowlist filtering.

The Image Property Injection plugin may inject metadata properties to the image. These injected properties determine which Compute nodes the image instances are launched on.

Procedure

. Create an image and specify the URI of the image to import:

+

$ glance image-create-via-import \
    --container-format <container-format> \
    --disk-format <disk-format> \
    --name <name> \
    --import-method web-download \
    --uri <uri>

+ Replace <container-format> with the container format that you are setting set for your image (None, ami, ari, aki, bare, ovf, ova, docker). Replace <disk-format> with the disk format that you are setting set for your image (None, ami, ari, aki, vhd, vhdx, vmdk, raw, qcow2, vdi, iso, ploop). Replace <name> with a descriptive name for your image. Replace <uri> with the URI of your image.

Verification

  • Check the availability of the image:

    $ glance image-show <image-id>
    • Replace <image-id> with the ID you provided during image creation.

3.2.2. Importing an image from a local volume

The glance-direct image import method creates an image record, which generates an image ID. When you upload an image to the Image service (glance) from a local volume, the image is stored in a staging area and is made active after it passes any configured checks. The glance-direct method requires a shared staging area when used in a highly available (HA) configuration.

Note

If you upload images by using the glance-direct import method, the upload can fail in a HA environment if a common staging area is not present. In a HA active-active environment, API calls are distributed to the Image service controllers. The download API call can be sent to a different controller than the API call to upload the image.

The glance-direct image import method uses three different calls to import an image:

  • glance image-create
  • glance image-stage
  • glance image-import

Procedure

  • Use the glance image-create-via-import command to perform all three of the glance-direct calls in one command:

    $ glance image-create-via-import \
        --container-format <container-format> \
        --disk-format <disk-format> \
        --name <name> \
        --file </path/to/image>
    • Replace <container-format>, <disk-format>, <name>, and </path/to/image> with the relevant values for your image.

      When the image moves from the staging area to the back-end location, the image is listed. However, it might take some time for the image to become active.

Verification

  • Check the availability of the image:

    $ glance image-show <image-id>
    • Replace <image-id> with the ID that you provided during image creation.

3.3. Updating image properties

Update the properties of images that you have stored in the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Image service (glance).

Procedure

3.4. Enabling image conversion

You can upload a QCOW2 image to the Image service (glance) by enabling the GlanceImageImportPlugins parameter. You can then convert the QCOW2 image to RAW format.

Note

Image conversion is automatically enabled when you use Red Hat Ceph Storage RADOS Block Device (RBD) to store images and boot Nova instances.

To enable image conversion, create an environment file that contains the following parameter value. Include the new environment file with the -e option in the openstack overcloud deploy command:

parameter_defaults:
  GlanceImageImportPlugins:'image_conversion'

Use the Image service command-line client for image management.

3.4.1. Converting an image to RAW format

Red Hat Ceph Storage can store, but does not support using, QCOW2 images to host virtual machine (VM) disks.

When you upload a QCOW2 image and create a VM from it, the compute node downloads the image, converts the image to RAW, and uploads it back into Ceph, which can then use it. This process affects the time it takes to create VMs, especially during parallel VM creation.

For example, when you create multiple VMs simultaneously, uploading the converted image to the Ceph cluster might impact already running workloads. The upload process can starve those workloads of IOPS and impede storage responsiveness.

To boot VMs in Ceph more efficiently (ephemeral back end or boot from volume), the glance image format must be RAW.

Procedure

  1. Converting an image to RAW might yield an image that is larger in size than the original QCOW2 image file. Run the following command before the conversion to determine the final RAW image size:

    $ qemu-img info <image>.qcow2
  2. Convert an image from QCOW2 to RAW format:

    $ qemu-img convert -p -f qcow2 -O raw <original qcow2 image>.qcow2 <new raw image>.raw

3.4.2. Configuring disk formats with the GlanceDiskFormats parameter

You can the configure the Image service (glance) to enable or reject disk formats by using the GlanceDiskFormats parameter.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the undercloud host as the stack user.
  2. Source the undercloud credentials file:

    $ source ~/stackrc
  3. Include the GlanceDiskFormats parameter in an environment file, for example, glance_disk_formats.yaml:

    parameter_defaults:
      GlanceDiskFormats:
        - <disk_format>
    • For example, use the following configuration to enable only RAW and ISO disk formats:

      parameter_defaults:
        GlanceDiskFormats:
        - raw
        - iso
    • Use the following example configuration to reject QCOW2 disk images:

      parameter_defaults:
        GlanceDiskFormats:
        - raw
        - iso
        - aki
        - ari
        - ami
  4. Include the environment file that contains your new configuration in the openstack overcloud deploy command with any other environment files that are relevant to your environment:

    $ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
      -e <overcloud_environment_files> \
      -e <new_environment_file> \
      …
    • Replace <overcloud_environment_files> with the list of environment files that are part of your deployment.
    • Replace <new_environment_file> with the environment file that contains your new configuration.

For more information about the disk formats available in RHOSP, see Image configuration parameters.

3.4.3. Storing an image in RAW format

With the GlanceImageImportPlugins parameter enabled, run the following command to store a previously created image in RAW format:

$ glance image-create-via-import \
    --disk-format qcow2 \
    --container-format bare \
    --name <name> \
    --visibility public \
    --import-method web-download \
    --uri <http://server/image.qcow2>
  • Replace <name> with the name of the image; this is the name that will appear in glance image-list.
  • Replace <http://server/image.qcow2> with the location and file name of the QCOW2 image.
Note

This command example creates the image record and imports it by using the web-download method. The glance-api downloads the image from the --uri location during the import process. If web-download is not available, glanceclient cannot automatically download the image data. Run the glance import-info command to list the available image import methods.

3.5. Hiding or unhiding images

You can hide public images from normal listings presented to users. For example, you can hide obsolete CentOS 7 images and show only the latest version to simplify the user experience. Users can discover and use hidden images.

To create a hidden image, add the --hidden argument to the glance image-create command.

Procedure

  • Hide an image:

    $ glance image-update <image_id> --hidden 'true'
  • Unhide an image:

    $ glance image-update <image_id> --hidden 'false'
  • List hidden images:

    $ glance image-list --hidden 'true'

3.6. Deleting images from the Image service

Use the glance image-delete command to delete one or more images that you do not need to store in the Image service (glance).

Procedure

  • Delete one or more images:

    $ glance image-delete <image-id> [<image-id> ...]
    • Replace <image-id> with the ID of the image you want to delete.

      Warning

      The glance image-delete command permanently deletes the image and all copies of the image, as well as the image instance and metadata.

Chapter 4. Configuring the image import method and shared staging

The default settings for the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Image service (glance) are determined by the heat templates that you use when you install RHOSP. The Image service heat template is deployment/glance/glance-api-container-puppet.yaml.

You can import images by using the web-download method or the glance-direct method. For more information about these import methods, see Image service image import methods.

4.1. Creating and deploying the glance-settings.yaml file

Use a custom environment file to configure the import parameters. These parameters override the default values that are present in the core heat template collection. The example environment content contains parameters for the interoperable image import.

parameter_defaults:
  # Configure NFS backend
  GlanceBackend: file
  GlanceNfsEnabled: true
  GlanceNfsShare: 192.168.122.1:/export/glance

  # Enable glance-direct import method
  GlanceEnabledImportMethods: glance-direct,web-download

  # Configure NFS staging area (required for glance-direct import method)
  GlanceStagingNfsShare: 192.168.122.1:/export/glance-staging

The GlanceBackend, GlanceNfsEnabled, and GlanceNfsShare parameters are defined in the Overcloud parameters guide.

Use two new parameters for interoperable image import to define the import method and a shared NFS staging area.

GlanceEnabledImportMethods
Defines the available import methods, web-download (default) and glance-direct. This parameter is necessary only if you want to enable additional methods besides web-download.
GlanceStagingNfsShare
Configures the NFS staging area that the glance-direct import method uses. This space can be shared among nodes in a high-availability cluster configuration. If you want to use this parameter, you must also set the GlanceNfsEnabled parameter to true.

Procedure

  1. Create a new file, for example, glance-settings.yaml. Use the syntax from the example to populate this file.
  2. Include the glance-settings.yaml file in the openstack overcloud deploy command, as well as any other environment files that are relevant to your deployment:

    $ openstack overcloud deploy --templates -e glance-settings.yaml

For more information about using environment files, see the Installing and managing Red Hat OpenStack Platform with director guide.

4.2. Controlling image web-import sources

You can limit the sources of web-import image downloads by adding URI blocklists and allowlists to the optional glance-image-import.conf file.

You can allow or block image source URIs at three levels:

  • scheme (allowed_schemes, disallowed_schemes)
  • host (allowed_hosts, disallowed_hosts)
  • port (allowed_ports, disallowed_ports)

If you specify both allowlist and blocklist at any level, the allowlist is honored and the blocklist is ignored.

The Image service (glance) applies the following decision logic to validate image source URIs:

  1. The scheme is checked.

    1. Missing scheme: reject
    2. If there is an allowlist, and the scheme is not present in the allowlist: reject. Otherwise, skip C and continue on to 2.
    3. If there is a blocklist, and the scheme is present in the blocklist: reject.
  2. The host name is checked.

    1. Missing host name: reject
    2. If there is an allowlist, and the host name is not present in the allowlist: reject. Otherwise, skip C and continue on to 3.
    3. If there is a blocklist, and the host name is present in the blocklist: reject.
  3. If there is a port in the URI, the port is checked.

    1. If there is a allowlist, and the port is not present in the allowlist: reject. Otherwise, skip B and continue on to 4.
    2. If there is a blocklist, and the port is present in the blocklist: reject.
  4. The URI is accepted as valid.

If you allow a scheme, either by adding it to an allowlist or by not adding it to a blocklist, any URI that uses the default port for that scheme by not including a port in the URI is allowed. If it does include a port in the URI, the URI is validated according to the default decision logic.

4.2.1. Image import allowlist example

In this example, the default port for FTP is 21.

Because ftp is in the list for allowed_schemes, this URL to the image resource is allowed: ftp://example.org/some/resource.

However, because 21 is not in the list for allowed_ports, this URL to the same image resource is rejected: ftp://example.org:21/some/resource.

allowed_schemes = [http,https,ftp]
disallowed_schemes = []
allowed_hosts = []
disallowed_hosts = []
allowed_ports = [80,443]
disallowed_ports = []

4.2.2. Default image import blocklist and allowlist settings

The glance-image-import.conf file is an optional file that contains the following default options:

  • allowed_schemes - [http, https]
  • disallowed_schemes - empty list
  • allowed_hosts - empty list
  • disallowed_hosts - empty list
  • allowed_ports - [80, 443]
  • disallowed_ports - empty list

If you use the defaults, end users can access URIs by using only the http or https scheme. The only ports that users can specify are 80 and 443. Users do not have to specify a port, but if they do, it must be either 80 or 443.

You can find the glance-image-import.conf file in the etc/ subdirectory of the Image service source code tree. Ensure that you are looking in the correct branch for your release of Red Hat OpenStack Platform.

4.3. Injecting metadata on image import to control where instances launch

Cloud users can upload images to the Image service (glance) and use these images to launch instances. Cloud users must launch these images on a specific set of Compute nodes. You can control the assignment of an instance to a Compute node by using image metadata properties.

The Image Property Injection plugin injects metadata properties to images during import. Specify the properties by editing the [image_import_opts] and [inject_metadata_properties] sections of the glance-image-import.conf file.

To enable the Image Property Injection plugin, add the following line to the [image_import_opts] section:

[image_import_opts]
image_import_plugins = [inject_image_metadata]

To limit the metadata injection to images provided by a certain set of users, set the ignore_user_roles parameter. For example, use the following configuration to inject one value for property1 and two values for property2 into images downloaded by any non-admin user.

[DEFAULT]
[image_conversion]
[image_import_opts]
image_import_plugins = [inject_image_metadata]
[import_filtering_opts]
[inject_metadata_properties]
ignore_user_roles = admin
inject = PROPERTY1:value,PROPERTY2:value;another value

The parameter ignore_user_roles is a comma-separated list of the Identity service (keystone) roles that the plugin ignores. This means that if the user that makes the image import call has any of these roles, the plugin does not inject any properties into the image.

The parameter inject is a comma-separated list of properties and values that are injected into the image record for the imported image. Each property and value must be quoted and separated by a colon (‘:’).

You can find the glance-image-import.conf file in the etc/ subdirectory of the Image service source code tree. Ensure that you are looking in the correct branch for your release of Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP).

Chapter 5. Image service with multiple stores

The Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Image service (glance) supports using multiple stores with distributed edge architecture so that you can have an image pool at every edge site.

5.1. Image copies on multiple stores

When you use multiple stores with distributed edge architecture, you can have an image pool at every edge site. You can copy images between the central site, which is also known as the hub site, and the edge sites.

The image metadata contains the location of each copy. For example, an image present on two edge sites is exposed as a single UUID with three locations: the central site plus the two edge sites. This means you can have copies of image data that share a single UUID on many stores. For more information about locations, see Understanding the location of images.

With a RADOS Block Device (RBD) image pool at every edge site, you can boot Virtual Machines (VMs) quickly by using Ceph RBD copy-on-write (COW) and snapshot layering technology. This means that you can boot VMs from volumes and have live migration. For more information about layering with Ceph RBD, see Ceph block device layering in the Block Device Guide.

When you launch an instance at an edge site, the required image is copied to the local Image service (glance) store automatically. However, you can copy images in advance from the central Image store to edge sites by using glance multistore to save time during instance launch.

5.2. Requirements of storage edge architecture

Refer to the following requirements to use images with edge sites:

  • A copy of each image must exist in the Image service (glance) at the central location.
  • You must copy images from an edge site to the central location before you can copy them to other edge sites.
  • You must use raw images when deploying a Distributed Compute Node (DCN) architecture with Red Hat Ceph Storage.
  • RADOS Block Device (RBD) must be the storage driver for the Image, Compute, and Block Storage services.
  • For each site, you must assign the same value to the NovaComputeAvailabilityZone and CinderStorageAvailabilityZone parameters.

5.3. Importing an image to multiple stores

Use the interoperable image import workflow to import image data into multiple Red Hat Ceph Storage clusters. You can import images to the Image service (glance) that are available on the local file system or through a web server.

If you import an image from a web server, the image can be imported into multiple stores at once. If the image is not available on a web server, you can import the image from a local file system into the central store and then copy it to additional stores. For more information, see Copy an existing image to multiple stores.

Use the Image service command-line client for image management.

Important

Always store an image copy on the central site, even if there are no instances using the image at the central location. For more information about importing images into the Image service, see the Deploying a Distributed Compute Node architecture guide.

5.3.1. Managing image import failures

You can manage failures of the image import operation by using the --allow-failure parameter:

  • If the value of the --allow-failure parameter to true, the image status becomes active after the first store successfully imports the data. This is the default setting. You can view a list of stores that failed to import the image data by using the os_glance_failed_import image property.
  • If you set the value of the --allow-failure parameter to false, the image status only becomes active after all specified stores successfully import the data. Failure of any store to import the image data results in an image status of failed. The image is not imported into any of the specified stores.

5.3.2. Importing image data to multiple stores

Because the default setting of the --allow-failure parameter is true, you do not need to include the parameter in the command if it is acceptable for some stores to fail to import the image data.

Note

This procedure does not require all stores to successfully import the image data.

Procedure

  • Import image data to multiple, specified stores:

    $ glance image-create-via-import \
    --container-format bare \
    --name <image-name> \
    --import-method web-download \
    --uri <uri> \
    --stores <store-1>,<store-2>,<store-3>
    • Replace <image-name> with the name of the image you want to import.
    • Replace <uri> with the URI of the image.
    • Replace <store-1>, <store-2>, and <store-3> with the names of the stores to which you want to import the image data.
    • Alternatively, replace --stores with --all-stores true to upload the image to all the stores.
Note

The glance image-create-via-import command, which automatically converts the QCOW2 image to RAW format, works only with the web-download method. The glance-direct method is available, but it works only in deployments with a configured shared file system.

5.3.3. Importing image data to multiple stores without failure

This procedure requires all stores to successfully import the image data.

Procedure

  1. Import image data to multiple, specified stores:

    $ glance image-create-via-import \
    --container-format bare \
    --name <image-name> \
    --import-method web-download \
    --uri <uri> \
    --stores <store-1>,<store-2>,<store-3>
    • Replace <image-name> with the name of the image you want to import.
    • Replace <uri> with the URI of the image.
    • Replace <store-1>, <store-2>, and <store-3> with the names of stores to which you want to copy the image data.
    • Alternatively, replace --stores with --all-stores true to upload the image to all the stores.

      Note

      With the --allow-failure parameter set to false, the Image service (glance) does not ignore stores that fail to import the image data. You can view the list of failed stores with the image property os_glance_failed_import. For more information, see Section 5.4, “Checking the progress of the image import operation”.

  2. Verify that the image data was added to specific stores:

    $ glance image-show <image-id> | grep stores

    Replace <image-id> with the ID of the original existing image.

    The output displays a comma-delimited list of stores.

5.3.4. Importing image data to a single store

You can use the Image service (glance) to import image data to a single store.

Procedure

  1. Import image data to a single store:

    $ glance image-create-via-import \
    --container-format bare \
    --name <image-name> \
    --import-method web-download \
    --uri <uri> \
    --store <store>
    • Replace <image-name> with the name of the image you want to import.
    • Replace <uri> with the URI of the image.
    • Replace <store> with the name of the store to which you want to copy the image data.

      Note

      If you do not include the options of --stores, --all-stores, or --store in the command, the Image service creates the image in the central store.

  2. Verify that the image data was added to specific store:

    $ glance image-show <image-id> | grep stores
    • Replace <image-id> with the ID of the original existing image.

      The output displays a comma-delimited list of stores.

5.4. Checking the progress of the image import operation

The interoperable image import workflow sequentially imports image data into stores. The size of the image, the number of stores, and the network speed between the central site and the edge sites impact how long it takes for the image import operation to complete.

You can follow the progress of the image import by looking at two image properties, which appear in notifications sent during the image import operation:

  • The os_glance_importing_to_stores property lists the stores that have not imported the image data. At the beginning of the import, all requested stores show up in the list. Each time a store successfully imports the image data, the Image service removes the store from the list.
  • The os_glance_failed_import property lists the stores that fail to import the image data. This list is empty at the beginning of the image import operation.
Note

In the following procedure, the environment has three Red Hat Ceph Storage clusters: the central store and two stores at the edge, dcn0 and dcn1.

Procedure

  1. Verify that the image data was added to specific stores:

    $ glance image-show <image-id>
    • Replace <image-id> with the ID of the original existing image.

      The output displays a comma-delimited list of stores similar to the following example snippet:

      | os_glance_failed_import       |
      | os_glance_importing_to_stores | central,dcn0,dcn1
      | status                        | importing
  2. Monitor the status of the image import operation. When you precede a command with watch, the command output refreshes every two seconds.

    $ watch glance image-show <image-id>
    • Replace <image-id> with the ID of the original existing image.

      The status of the operation changes as the image import operation progresses:

      | os_glance_failed_import       |
      | os_glance_importing_to_stores | dcn0,dcn1
      | status                        | importing

      Output that shows that an image failed to import resembles the following example:

      | os_glance_failed_import       | dcn0
      | os_glance_importing_to_stores | dcn1
      | status                        | importing

      After the operation completes, the status changes to active:

      | os_glance_failed_import       | dcn0
      | os_glance_importing_to_stores |
      | status                        | active

5.5. Copying an existing image to multiple stores

This feature enables you to copy existing images using Red Hat OpenStack Image service (glance) image data into multiple Red Hat Ceph Storage stores at the edge by using the interoperable image import workflow.

Note

The image must be present at the central site before you copy it to any edge sites. Only the image owner or administrator can copy existing images to newly added stores.

You can copy existing image data either by setting --all-stores to true or by specifying specific stores to receive the image data.

  • The default setting for the --all-stores option is false. If --all-stores is false, you must specify which stores receive the image data by using --stores <store-1>,<store-2>. If the image data is already present in any of the specified stores, the request fails.
  • If you set all-stores to true, and the image data already exists in some of the stores, then those stores are excluded from the list.

After you specify which stores receive the image data, the Image service (glance) copies data from the central site to a staging area. Then the Image service imports the image data by using the interoperable image import workflow. For more information, see Importing an image to multiple stores.

Use the Image service command-line client for image management.

Important

Red Hat recommends that administrators carefully avoid closely timed image copy requests. Two closely timed copy-image operations for the same image causes race conditions and unexpected results. Existing image data remains as it is, but copying data to new stores fails.

5.5.1. Copying an image to all stores

Use the following procedure to copy image data to all available stores.

Procedure

  1. Copy image data to all available stores:

    $ glance image-import <image-id> \
    --all-stores true \
    --import-method copy-image
    • Replace <image-id> with the name of the image you want to copy.
  2. Confirm that the image data successfully replicated to all available stores:

    $ glance image-list --include-stores

    For information about how to check the status of the image import operation, see Section 5.4, “Checking the progress of the image import operation”.

5.5.2. Copying an image to specific stores

Use the following procedure to copy image data to specific stores.

Procedure

  1. Copy image data to specific stores:

    $ glance image-import <image-id> \
    --stores <store-1>,<store-2> \
    --import-method copy-image
    • Replace <image-id> with the name of the image you want to copy.
    • Replace <store-1> and <store-2> with the names of the stores to which you want to copy the image data.
  2. Confirm that the image data successfully replicated to the specified stores:

    $ glance image-list --include-stores

    For information about how to check the status of the image import operation, see Section 5.4, “Checking the progress of the image import operation”.

5.6. Deleting an image from a specific store

Delete an existing image copy on a specific store by using the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Image service (glance).

Use the Image service command-line client for image management.

Procedure

  • Delete an image from a specific store:

    $ glance stores-delete --store <store-id> <image-id>
  • Replace <store-id> with the name of the store on which the image copy should be deleted.
  • Replace <image-id> with the ID of the image you want to delete.
Warning

The glance image-delete command permanently deletes the image across all the sites. All image copies are deleted, as well as the image instance and metadata.

5.7. Listing image locations and location properties

Although an image can be present on multiple sites, there is only a single Universal Unique Identifier (UUID) for a given image. The image metadata contains the locations of each copy. For example, an image present on two edge sites is exposed as a single UUID with three locations: the central site and the two edge sites.

Note

Use the Image service (glance) command-line client instead of the OpenStack command-line client for image management. However, use the openstack image show command to list image location properties. The glance image-show command output does not include locations.

Procedure

  1. Show the sites on which a copy of the image exists:

    $ glance image-show ID | grep "stores"
    
    | stores |  default_backend,dcn1,dcn2

    In the example, the image is present on the central site, the default_backend, and on the two edge sites dcn1 and dcn2.

  2. Alternatively, you can run the glance image-list command with the --include-stores option to see the sites where the images exist:

    $ glance image-list --include-stores
    
    | ID                                   | Name    | Stores
    
    | 2bd882e7-1da0-4078-97fe-f1bb81f61b00 | cirros | default_backend,dcn1,dcn2
  3. List the image location properties to show the details of each location:

    $ openstack image show ID -c properties
    
    | properties |
    
    (--- cut ---)
    locations='[{'url': 'rbd://79b70c32-df46-4741-93c0-8118ae2ae284/images/2bd882e7-1da0-4078-97fe-f1bb81f61b00/snap', 'metadata': {'store': 'default_backend'}}, {'url': 'rbd://63df2767-8ddb-4e06-8186-8c155334f487/images/2bd882e7-1da0-4078-97fe-f1bb81f61b00/snap', 'metadata': {'store': 'dcn1'}}, {'url': 'rbd://1b324138-2ef9-4ef9-bd9e-aa7e6d6ead78/images/2bd882e7-1da0-4078-97fe-f1bb81f61b00/snap', 'metadata': {'store': 'dcn2'}}]',
    (--- cut --)

    The image properties show the different Ceph RBD URIs for the location of each image.

    In the example, the central image location URI is:

    rbd://79b70c32-df46-4741-93c0-8118ae2ae284/images/2bd882e7-1da0-4078-97fe-f1bb81f61b00/snap', 'metadata': {'store': 'default_backend'}}

    The URI is composed of the following data:

    • 79b70c32-df46-4741-93c0-8118ae2ae284 corresponds to the central Ceph FSID. Each Ceph cluster has a unique FSID.
    • The default value for all sites is images, which corresponds to the Ceph pool on which the images are stored.
    • 2bd882e7-1da0-4078-97fe-f1bb81f61b00 corresponds to the image UUID. The UUID is the same for a given image regardless of its location.
    • The metadata shows the glance store to which this location maps. In this example, it maps to the default_backend, which is the central hub site.

Appendix A. Image service command options

You can use the following optional arguments with the glance image-create and glance image-update commands.

Table A.1. Command options

Specific toOptionDescription

All

--architecture <ARCHITECTURE>

Operating system architecture as specified in https://docs.openstack.org/glance/latest/user/common-image-properties.html#architecture

All

--protected [True_False]

If true, image will not be deletable.

All

--name <NAME>

Descriptive name for the image

All

--instance-uuid <INSTANCE_UUID>

Metadata that can be used to record which instance this image is associated with. (Informational only, does not create an instance snapshot.)

All

--min-disk <MIN_DISK>

Amount of disk space (in GB) required to boot image.

All

--visibility <VISIBILITY>

Scope of image accessibility. Valid values: public, private, community, shared

All

--kernel-id <KERNEL_ID>

ID of image stored in the Image service (glance) that should be used as the kernel when booting an AMI-style image.

All

--os-version <OS_VERSION>

Operating system version as specified by the distributor

All

--disk-format <DISK_FORMAT>

Format of the disk. Valid values: None, ami, ari, aki, vhd, vhdx, vmdk, raw, qcow2, vdi, iso, ploop

All

--os-distro <OS_DISTRO>

Common name of operating system distribution as specified in https://docs.openstack.org/glance/latest/user/common-image-properties.html#os-distro

All

--owner <OWNER>

Owner of the image

All

--ramdisk-id <RAMDISK_ID>

ID of image stored in the Image service that should be used as the ramdisk when booting an AMI-style image.

All

--min-ram <MIN_RAM>

Amount of RAM (in MB) required to boot image.

All

--container-format <CONTAINER_FORMAT>

Format of the container. Valid values: None, ami, ari, aki, bare, ovf, ova, docker

All

--property <key=value>

Arbitrary property to associate with image. May be used multiple times.

glance image-create

--tags <TAGS> [<TAGS> ...]

List of strings related to the image

glance image-create

--id <ID>

An identifier for the image

glance image-update

--remove-property

Key name of arbitrary property to remove from the image.

Appendix B. Image configuration parameters

You can use the following keys with the property option for both the glance image-create and glance image-update commands.

Table B.1. Property keys

Specific toKeyDescriptionSupported values

All

architecture

The CPU architecture that must be supported by the hypervisor. For example, x86_64, arm, or ppc64. Run uname -m to get the architecture of a machine.

  • aarch - ARM 64-bit
  • alpha - DEC 64-bit RISC
  • armv7l - ARM Cortex-A7 MPCore
  • cris- Ethernet, Token Ring, AXis-Code Reduced Instruction Set
  • i686 - Intel sixth-generation x86 (P6 micro architecture)
  • ia64 - Itanium
  • lm32 - Lattice Micro32
  • m68k - Motorola 68000
  • microblaze - Xilinx 32-bit FPGA (Big Endian)
  • microblazeel - Xilinx 32-bit FPGA (Little Endian)
  • mips - MIPS 32-bit RISC (Big Endian)
  • mipsel - MIPS 32-bit RISC (Little Endian)
  • mips64 - MIPS 64-bit RISC (Big Endian)
  • mips64el - MIPS 64-bit RISC (Little Endian)
  • openrisc - OpenCores RISC
  • parisc - HP Precision Architecture RISC
  • parisc64 - HP Precision Architecture 64-bit RISC
  • ppc - PowerPC 32-bit
  • ppc64 - PowerPC 64-bit
  • ppcemb - PowerPC (Embedded 32-bit)
  • s390 - IBM Enterprise Systems Architecture/390
  • s390x - S/390 64-bit
  • sh4 - SuperH SH-4 (Little Endian)
  • sh4eb - SuperH SH-4 (Big Endian)
  • sparc - Scalable Processor Architecture, 32-bit
  • sparc64 - Scalable Processor Architecture, 64-bit
  • unicore32 - Microprocessor Research and Development Center RISC Unicore32
  • x86_64 - 64-bit extension of IA-32
  • xtensa - Tensilica Xtensa configurable microprocessor core
  • xtensaeb - Tensilica Xtensa configurable microprocessor core (Big Endian)

All

hypervisor_type

The hypervisor type.

kvm, vmware

All

instance_uuid

For snapshot images, this is the UUID of the server used to create this image.

Valid server UUID

All

kernel_id

The ID of an image stored in the Image Service that should be used as the kernel when booting an AMI-style image.

Valid image ID

All

os_distro

The common name of the operating system distribution in lowercase.

  • arch - Arch Linux. Do not use archlinux or org.archlinux.
  • centos - Community Enterprise Operating System. Do not use org.centos or CentOS.
  • debian - Debian. Do not use Debian or org.debian.
  • fedora - Fedora. Do not use Fedora, org.fedora, or org.fedoraproject.
  • freebsd - FreeBSD. Do not use org.freebsd, freeBSD, or FreeBSD.
  • gentoo - Gentoo Linux. Do not use Gentoo or org.gentoo.
  • mandrake - Mandrakelinux (MandrakeSoft) distribution. Do not use mandrakelinux or MandrakeLinux.
  • mandriva - Mandriva Linux. Do not use mandrivalinux.
  • mes - Mandriva Enterprise Server. Do not use mandrivaent or mandrivaES.
  • msdos - Microsoft Disc Operating System. Do not use ms-dos.
  • netbsd - NetBSD. Do not use NetBSD or org.netbsd.
  • netware - Novell NetWare. Do not use novell or NetWare.
  • openbsd - OpenBSD. Do not use OpenBSD or org.openbsd.
  • opensolaris - OpenSolaris. Do not use OpenSolaris or org.opensolaris.
  • opensuse - openSUSE. Do not use suse, SuSE, or org.opensuse.
  • rhel - Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Do not use redhat, RedHat, or com.redhat.
  • sled - SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop. Do not use com.suse.
  • ubuntu - Ubuntu. Do not use Ubuntu, com.ubuntu, org.ubuntu, or canonical.
  • windows - Microsoft Windows. Do not use com.microsoft.server.

All

os_version

The operating system version as specified by the distributor.

Version number (for example, "11.10")

All

ramdisk_id

The ID of image stored in the Image Service that should be used as the ramdisk when booting an AMI-style image.

Valid image ID

All

vm_mode

The virtual machine mode. This represents the host/guest ABI (application binary interface) used for the virtual machine.

hvm-Fully virtualized. This is the mode used by QEMU and KVM.

libvirt API driver

hw_cdrom_bus

Specifies the type of disk controller to attach CD-ROM devices to.

scsi, virtio, ide, or usb. If you specify iscsi, you must set the hw_scsi_model parameter to virtio-scsi.

libvirt API driver

hw_disk_bus

Specifies the type of disk controller to attach disk devices to.

scsi, virtio, ide, or usb. Note that if using iscsi, the hw_scsi_model needs to be set to virtio-scsi.

libvirt API driver

hw_firmware_type

Specifies the type of firmware to use to boot the instance.

Set to one of the following valid values:

  • bios
  • uefi

libvirt API driver

hw_machine_type

Enables booting an ARM system using the specified machine type. If an ARM image is used and its machine type is not explicitly specified, then Compute uses the virt machine type as the default for ARMv7 and AArch64.

Valid types can be viewed by using the virsh capabilities command. The machine types are displayed in the machine tag.

libvirt API driver

hw_numa_nodes

Number of NUMA nodes to expose to the instance (does not override flavor definition).

Integer.

libvirt API driver

hw_numa_cpus.0

Mapping of vCPUs N-M to NUMA node 0 (does not override flavor definition).

Comma-separated list of integers.

libvirt API driver

hw_numa_cpus.1

Mapping of vCPUs N-M to NUMA node 1 (does not override flavor definition).

Comma-separated list of integers.

libvirt API driver

hw_numa_mem.0

Mapping N MB of RAM to NUMA node 0 (does not override flavor definition).

Integer

libvirt API driver

hw_numa_mem.1

Mapping N MB of RAM to NUMA node 1 (does not override flavor definition).

Integer

libvirt API driver

hw_pci_numa_affinity_policy

Specifies the NUMA affinity policy for PCI passthrough devices and SR-IOV interfaces.

Set to one of the following valid values:

  • required: The Compute service creates an instance that requests a PCI device only when at least one of the NUMA nodes of the instance has affinity with the PCI device. This option provides the best performance.
  • preferred: The Compute service attempts a best effort selection of PCI devices based on NUMA affinity. If affinity is not possible, then the Compute service schedules the instance on a NUMA node that has no affinity with the PCI device.
  • legacy: (Default) The Compute service creates instances that request a PCI device in one of the following cases:

    • The PCI device has affinity with at least one of the NUMA nodes.
    • The PCI devices do not provide information about their NUMA affinities.

libvirt API driver

hw_qemu_guest_agent

Guest agent support. If set to yes, and if qemu-ga is also installed, file systems can be quiesced (frozen) and snapshots created automatically.

yes / no

libvirt API driver

hw_rng_model

Adds a random number generator (RNG) device to instances launched with this image.

The instance flavor enables the RNG device by default. To disable the RNG device, the cloud administrator must set hw_rng:allowed to False on the flavor.

The default entropy source is /dev/random. To specify a hardware RNG device, set rng_dev_path to /dev/hwrng in your Compute environment file.

virtio, or other supported device.

libvirt API driver

hw_scsi_model

Enables the use of VirtIO SCSI (virtio-scsi) to provide block device access for compute instances; by default, instances use VirtIO Block (virtio-blk). VirtIO SCSI is a para-virtualized SCSI controller device that provides improved scalability and performance, and supports advanced SCSI hardware.

virtio-scsi

libvirt API driver

hw_tpm_model

Set to the model of TPM device to use. Ignored if hw:tpm_version is not configured.

  • tpm-tis: (Default) TPM Interface Specification.
  • tpm-crb: Command-Response Buffer. Compatible only with TPM version 2.0.

libvirt API driver

hw_tpm_version

Set to the version of TPM to use. TPM version 2.0 is the only supported version.

2.0

libvirt API driver

hw_video_model

The video device driver for the display device to use in virtual machine instances.

Set to one of the following values to specify the supported driver to use:

  • virtio - (Default) Recommended Driver for the virtual machine display device, supported by most architectures. The VirtIO GPU driver is included in RHEL-7 and later, and Linux kernel versions 4.4 and later. If an instance kernel has the VirtIO GPU driver, then the instance can use all the VirtIO GPU features. If an instance kernel does not have the VirtIO GPU driver, the VirtIO GPU device gracefully falls back to VGA compatibility mode, which provides a working display for the instance.
  • qxl - Deprecated Driver for Spice or noVNC environments that is no longer maintained.
  • cirrus - Legacy driver, supported only for backward compatibility. Do not use for new instances.
  • vga - Use this driver for IBM Power environments.
  • gop - Not supported for QEMU/KVM environments.
  • xen - Not supported for KVM environments.
  • vmvga - Legacy driver, do not use.
  • none - Use this value to disable emulated graphics or video in virtual GPU (vGPU) instances where the driver is configured separately.

libvirt API driver

hw_video_ram

Maximum RAM for the video image. Used only if a hw_video:ram_max_mb value has been set in the flavor’s extra_specs and that value is higher than the value set in hw_video_ram.

Integer in MB (for example, 64)

libvirt API driver

hw_watchdog_action

Enables a virtual hardware watchdog device that carries out the specified action if the server hangs. The watchdog uses the i6300esb device (emulating a PCI Intel 6300ESB). If hw_watchdog_action is not specified, the watchdog is disabled.

  • disabled-The device is not attached. Allows the user to disable the watchdog for the image, even if it has been enabled using the image’s flavor. The default value for this parameter is disabled.
  • reset-Forcefully reset the guest.
  • poweroff-Forcefully power off the guest.
  • pause-Pause the guest.
  • none-Only enable the watchdog; do nothing if the server hangs.

libvirt API driver

os_command_line

The kernel command line to be used by the libvirt driver, instead of the default. For Linux Containers(LXC), the value is used as arguments for initialization. This key is valid only for Amazon kernel, ramdisk, or machine images (aki, ari, or ami).

 

libvirt API driver

os_secure_boot

Use to create an instance that is protected with UEFI Secure Boot.

Set to one of the following valid values:

  • required: Enables Secure Boot for instances launched with this image. The instance is only launched if the Compute service locates a host that can support Secure Boot. If no host is found, the Compute service returns a "No valid host" error.
  • disabled: Disables Secure Boot for instances launched with this image. Disabled by default.
  • optional: Enables Secure Boot for instances launched with this image only when the Compute service determines that the host can support Secure Boot.

libvirt API driver and VMware API driver

hw_vif_model

Specifies the model of virtual network interface device to use.

The valid options depend on the configured hypervisor.

  • KVM and QEMU: e1000, ne2k_pci, pcnet, rtl8139, and virtio.
  • VMware: e1000, e1000e, VirtualE1000, VirtualE1000e, VirtualPCNet32, VirtualSriovEthernetCard, and VirtualVmxnet.
  • Xen: e1000, netfront, ne2k_pci, pcnet, and rtl8139.

VMware API driver

vmware_adaptertype

The virtual SCSI or IDE controller used by the hypervisor.

lsiLogic, busLogic, or ide

VMware API driver

vmware_ostype

A VMware GuestID which describes the operating system installed in the image. This value is passed to the hypervisor when creating a virtual machine. If not specified, the key defaults to otherGuest.

For more information, see Images with VMware vSphere.

VMware API driver

vmware_image_version

Currently unused.

1

XenAPI driver

auto_disk_config

If true, the root partition on the disk is automatically resized before the instance boots. This value is only taken into account by the Compute service when using a Xen-based hypervisor with the XenAPI driver. The Compute service will only attempt to resize if there is a single partition on the image, and only if the partition is in ext3 or ext4 format.

true / false

libvirt API driver and XenAPI driver

os_type

The operating system installed on the image. The XenAPI driver contains logic that takes different actions depending on the value of the os_type parameter of the image. For example, for os_type=windows images, it creates a FAT32-based swap partition instead of a Linux swap partition, and it limits the injected host name to less than 16 characters.

linux or windows

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