Chapter 1. Using Fernet keys for encryption in the overcloud

Fernet is the default token provider, that replaces uuid. You can review your Fernet deployment and rotate the Fernet keys.

1.1. Reviewing the Fernet deployment

Review your configuration to confirm that Fernet tokens are working correctly.

Procedure

  1. Retrieve the IP address of the controller node:

    [stack@director ~]$ source ~/stackrc
    [stack@director ~]$ openstack server list
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | ID                                   | Name                    | Status | Networks            |
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | 756fbd73-e47b-46e6-959c-e24d7fb71328 | overcloud-controller-0  | ACTIVE | ctlplane=192.0.2.16 |
    | 62b869df-1203-4d58-8e45-fac6cd4cfbee | overcloud-novacompute-0 | ACTIVE | ctlplane=192.0.2.8  |
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
  2. SSH into the Controller node:

    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ ssh heat-admin@192.0.2.16
  3. Retrieve the values of the token driver and provider settings:

    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo crudini --get /var/lib/config-data/puppet-generated/keystone/etc/keystone/keystone.conf token driver
    sql
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo crudini --get /var/lib/config-data/puppet-generated/keystone/etc/keystone/keystone.conf token provider
    fernet
  4. Test the Fernet provider:

    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ exit
    [stack@director ~]$ source ~/overcloudrc
    [stack@director ~]$ openstack token issue
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Field | Value |
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | expires | 2016-09-20 05:26:17+00:00 |
    | id | gAAAAABX4LppE8vaiFZ992eah2i3edpO1aDFxlKZq6a_RJzxUx56QVKORrmW0-oZK3-Xuu2wcnpYq_eek2SGLz250eLpZOzxKBR0GsoMfxJU8mEFF8NzfLNcbuS-iz7SV-N1re3XEywSDG90JcgwjQfXW-8jtCm-n3LL5IaZexAYIw059T_-cd8 |
    | project_id | 26156621d0d54fc39bf3adb98e63b63d |
    | user_id | 397daf32cadd490a8f3ac23a626ac06c |
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

    The result includes the long Fernet token.

1.2. Fernet key rotation cycles

When you decide the length of Fernet key rotation cycles, follow the security posture of your organization. If your organization does not have guidance, a monthly rotation cycle is good practice for security reasons.

Fernet uses three types of keys, which are stored in /var/lib/config-data/puppet-generated/keystone/etc/keystone/fernet-keys. The highest-numbered directory contains the primary key, which generates new tokens and decrypts existing tokens.

Fernet key rotation uses the following process: . The primary key becomes the secondary key. . The <system> issues a new primary key. The outgoing primary key is no longer valid. You can use secondary keys to decrypt tokens that were associated with previous primary keys, but you cannot issue new tokens.

1.3. Rotating the Fernet keys by using the Workflow service

By default, director manages the overcloud Fernet keys. This setting is managed in an environment file using ManageKeystoneFernetKeys. As a result, the Fernet keys are stored in the Workflow service (mistral), in the KeystoneFernetKeys section. This approach means that you can rotate the Fernet keys with the Workflow service and the keys persist after stack updates.

Procedure

  1. Review the existing Fernet keys:

    1. Identify the Fernet key location. Log in to a Controller node as the heat-admin user and use the crudini command to query the Fernet keys:

      [stack@<undercloud_host> ~]$ ssh heat-admin@overcloud-controller-o
      [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo crudini --get /var/lib/config-data/puppet-generated/keystone/etc/keystone/keystone.conf fernet_tokens key_repository
      /etc/keystone/fernet-keys
      Note

      The /etc/keystone/ directory refers to the container file system path.

    2. Inspect the current Fernet key directories:

      [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo ls /var/lib/config-data/puppet-generated/keystone/etc/keystone/fernet-keys
      0  1  2
      • 0 - Contains the staged key, which becomes the next primary key) and is always numbered 0.
      • 1 - Contains the secondary key.
      • 2 - Contains the primary key. This number increments each time that the keys rotate. The highest number always serves as the primary key.

        Note
        • The maximum number of keys is set with max_active_keys property. The default is 5 keys.
        • The keys propagate across all Controller nodes.
  2. Rotate the Fernet keys by using the workflow command:

    [stack@director ~]$ source ~/stackrc
    [stack@director ~]$ openstack workflow execution create tripleo.fernet_keys.v1.rotate_fernet_keys {"container": "overcloud"}
    --------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Field             | Value                                     |
    --------------------------------------------------------------+
    | ID                | 58c9c664-b966-4f82-b368-af5ed8de5b47      |
    | Workflow ID       | 78f0990a-3d34-4bf2-a127-10c149bb275c      |
    | Workflow name     | tripleo.fernet_keys.v1.rotate_fernet_keys |
    | Description       |                                           |
    | Task Execution ID | <none>                                    |
    | State             | RUNNING                                   |
    | State info        | None                                      |
    | Created at        | 2017-12-20 11:13:50                       |
    | Updated at        | 2017-12-20 11:13:50                       |
    --------------------------------------------------------------+

Verification

  1. Retrieve the ID and ensure that the workflow is successful.

    [stack@director ~]$ openstack workflow execution show 58c9c664-b966-4f82-b368-af5ed8de5b47
    --------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Field             | Value                                     |
    --------------------------------------------------------------+
    | ID                | 58c9c664-b966-4f82-b368-af5ed8de5b47      |
    | Workflow ID       | 78f0990a-3d34-4bf2-a127-10c149bb275c      |
    | Workflow name     | tripleo.fernet_keys.v1.rotate_fernet_keys |
    | Description       |                                           |
    | Task Execution ID | <none>                                    |
    | State             | SUCCESS                                   |
    | State info        | None                                      |
    | Created at        | 2017-12-20 11:13:50                       |
    | Updated at        | 2017-12-20 11:15:00                       |
    --------------------------------------------------------------+
  2. On the Controller node, review the number of Fernet keys, and compare with the previous result.

    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo ls /var/lib/config-data/puppet-generated/keystone/etc/keystone/fernet-keys
    0  1  2  3
    • 0 - Contains the staged key and always be numbered 0. This key becomes a primary key during the next rotation.
    • 1 & 2 - Contain the secondary keys.
    • 3 - Contains the primary key. This number increments each time the keys rotate. The highest number always serves as the primary key.

      Note
      • The maximum number of keys is set wit the max_active_keys property. The default is 5 keys.
      • The keys propagate across all Controller nodes.