Chapter 7. keystone

The following chapter contains information about the configuration options in the keystone service.

7.1. keystone.conf

This section contains options for the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

7.1.1. DEFAULT

The following table outlines the options available under the [DEFAULT] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

.

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

admin_token = None

string value

Using this feature is NOT recommended. Instead, use the keystone-manage bootstrap command. The value of this option is treated as a "shared secret" that can be used to bootstrap Keystone through the API. This "token" does not represent a user (it has no identity), and carries no explicit authorization (it effectively bypasses most authorization checks). If set to None, the value is ignored and the admin_token middleware is effectively disabled.

conn_pool_min_size = 2

integer value

The pool size limit for connections expiration policy

conn_pool_ttl = 1200

integer value

The time-to-live in sec of idle connections in the pool

control_exchange = keystone

string value

The default exchange under which topics are scoped. May be overridden by an exchange name specified in the transport_url option.

debug = False

boolean value

If set to true, the logging level will be set to DEBUG instead of the default INFO level.

default_log_levels = ['amqp=WARN', 'amqplib=WARN', 'boto=WARN', 'qpid=WARN', 'sqlalchemy=WARN', 'suds=INFO', 'oslo.messaging=INFO', 'oslo_messaging=INFO', 'iso8601=WARN', 'requests.packages.urllib3.connectionpool=WARN', 'urllib3.connectionpool=WARN', 'websocket=WARN', 'requests.packages.urllib3.util.retry=WARN', 'urllib3.util.retry=WARN', 'keystonemiddleware=WARN', 'routes.middleware=WARN', 'stevedore=WARN', 'taskflow=WARN', 'keystoneauth=WARN', 'oslo.cache=INFO', 'oslo_policy=INFO', 'dogpile.core.dogpile=INFO']

list value

List of package logging levels in logger=LEVEL pairs. This option is ignored if log_config_append is set.

default_publisher_id = None

string value

Default publisher_id for outgoing notifications. If left undefined, Keystone will default to using the server’s host name.

executor_thread_pool_size = 64

integer value

Size of executor thread pool when executor is threading or eventlet.

fatal_deprecations = False

boolean value

Enables or disables fatal status of deprecations.

insecure_debug = False

boolean value

If set to true, then the server will return information in HTTP responses that may allow an unauthenticated or authenticated user to get more information than normal, such as additional details about why authentication failed. This may be useful for debugging but is insecure.

`instance_format = [instance: %(uuid)s] `

string value

The format for an instance that is passed with the log message.

`instance_uuid_format = [instance: %(uuid)s] `

string value

The format for an instance UUID that is passed with the log message.

list_limit = None

integer value

The maximum number of entities that will be returned in a collection. This global limit may be then overridden for a specific driver, by specifying a list_limit in the appropriate section (for example, [assignment]). No limit is set by default. In larger deployments, it is recommended that you set this to a reasonable number to prevent operations like listing all users and projects from placing an unnecessary load on the system.

log-config-append = None

string value

The name of a logging configuration file. This file is appended to any existing logging configuration files. For details about logging configuration files, see the Python logging module documentation. Note that when logging configuration files are used then all logging configuration is set in the configuration file and other logging configuration options are ignored (for example, log-date-format).

log-date-format = %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S

string value

Defines the format string for %%(asctime)s in log records. Default: %(default)s . This option is ignored if log_config_append is set.

log-dir = None

string value

(Optional) The base directory used for relative log_file paths. This option is ignored if log_config_append is set.

log-file = None

string value

(Optional) Name of log file to send logging output to. If no default is set, logging will go to stderr as defined by use_stderr. This option is ignored if log_config_append is set.

log_rotate_interval = 1

integer value

The amount of time before the log files are rotated. This option is ignored unless log_rotation_type is setto "interval".

log_rotate_interval_type = days

string value

Rotation interval type. The time of the last file change (or the time when the service was started) is used when scheduling the next rotation.

log_rotation_type = none

string value

Log rotation type.

logging_context_format_string = %(asctime)s.%(msecs)03d %(process)d %(levelname)s %(name)s [%(request_id)s %(user_identity)s] %(instance)s%(message)s

string value

Format string to use for log messages with context. Used by oslo_log.formatters.ContextFormatter

logging_debug_format_suffix = %(funcName)s %(pathname)s:%(lineno)d

string value

Additional data to append to log message when logging level for the message is DEBUG. Used by oslo_log.formatters.ContextFormatter

logging_default_format_string = %(asctime)s.%(msecs)03d %(process)d %(levelname)s %(name)s [-] %(instance)s%(message)s

string value

Format string to use for log messages when context is undefined. Used by oslo_log.formatters.ContextFormatter

logging_exception_prefix = %(asctime)s.%(msecs)03d %(process)d ERROR %(name)s %(instance)s

string value

Prefix each line of exception output with this format. Used by oslo_log.formatters.ContextFormatter

logging_user_identity_format = %(user)s %(tenant)s %(domain)s %(user_domain)s %(project_domain)s

string value

Defines the format string for %(user_identity)s that is used in logging_context_format_string. Used by oslo_log.formatters.ContextFormatter

max_logfile_count = 30

integer value

Maximum number of rotated log files.

max_logfile_size_mb = 200

integer value

Log file maximum size in MB. This option is ignored if "log_rotation_type" is not set to "size".

max_param_size = 64

integer value

Limit the sizes of user & project ID/names.

max_project_tree_depth = 5

integer value

Maximum depth of the project hierarchy, excluding the project acting as a domain at the top of the hierarchy. WARNING: Setting it to a large value may adversely impact performance.

max_token_size = 255

integer value

Similar to [DEFAULT] max_param_size, but provides an exception for token values. With Fernet tokens, this can be set as low as 255. With UUID tokens, this should be set to 32).

notification_format = cadf

string value

Define the notification format for identity service events. A basic notification only has information about the resource being operated on. A cadf notification has the same information, as well as information about the initiator of the event. The cadf option is entirely backwards compatible with the basic option, but is fully CADF-compliant, and is recommended for auditing use cases.

notification_opt_out = ['identity.authenticate.success', 'identity.authenticate.pending', 'identity.authenticate.failed']

multi valued

You can reduce the number of notifications keystone emits by explicitly opting out. Keystone will not emit notifications that match the patterns expressed in this list. Values are expected to be in the form of identity.<resource_type>.<operation>. By default, all notifications related to authentication are automatically suppressed. This field can be set multiple times in order to opt-out of multiple notification topics. For example, the following suppresses notifications describing user creation or successful authentication events: notification_opt_out=identity.user.create notification_opt_out=identity.authenticate.success

public_endpoint = None

uri value

The base public endpoint URL for Keystone that is advertised to clients (NOTE: this does NOT affect how Keystone listens for connections). Defaults to the base host URL of the request. For example, if keystone receives a request to http://server:5000/v3/users, then this will option will be automatically treated as http://server:5000. You should only need to set option if either the value of the base URL contains a path that keystone does not automatically infer (/prefix/v3), or if the endpoint should be found on a different host.

publish_errors = False

boolean value

Enables or disables publication of error events.

rate_limit_burst = 0

integer value

Maximum number of logged messages per rate_limit_interval.

rate_limit_except_level = CRITICAL

string value

Log level name used by rate limiting: CRITICAL, ERROR, INFO, WARNING, DEBUG or empty string. Logs with level greater or equal to rate_limit_except_level are not filtered. An empty string means that all levels are filtered.

rate_limit_interval = 0

integer value

Interval, number of seconds, of log rate limiting.

rpc_conn_pool_size = 30

integer value

Size of RPC connection pool.

rpc_response_timeout = 60

integer value

Seconds to wait for a response from a call.

strict_password_check = False

boolean value

If set to true, strict password length checking is performed for password manipulation. If a password exceeds the maximum length, the operation will fail with an HTTP 403 Forbidden error. If set to false, passwords are automatically truncated to the maximum length.

syslog-log-facility = LOG_USER

string value

Syslog facility to receive log lines. This option is ignored if log_config_append is set.

transport_url = rabbit://

string value

The network address and optional user credentials for connecting to the messaging backend, in URL format. The expected format is:

driver://[user:pass@]host:port[,[userN:passN@]hostN:portN]/virtual_host?query

Example: rabbit://rabbitmq:password@127.0.0.1:5672//

For full details on the fields in the URL see the documentation of oslo_messaging.TransportURL at https://docs.openstack.org/oslo.messaging/latest/reference/transport.html

use-journal = False

boolean value

Enable journald for logging. If running in a systemd environment you may wish to enable journal support. Doing so will use the journal native protocol which includes structured metadata in addition to log messages.This option is ignored if log_config_append is set.

use-json = False

boolean value

Use JSON formatting for logging. This option is ignored if log_config_append is set.

use-syslog = False

boolean value

Use syslog for logging. Existing syslog format is DEPRECATED and will be changed later to honor RFC5424. This option is ignored if log_config_append is set.

use_eventlog = False

boolean value

Log output to Windows Event Log.

use_stderr = False

boolean value

Log output to standard error. This option is ignored if log_config_append is set.

watch-log-file = False

boolean value

Uses logging handler designed to watch file system. When log file is moved or removed this handler will open a new log file with specified path instantaneously. It makes sense only if log_file option is specified and Linux platform is used. This option is ignored if log_config_append is set.

7.1.2. application_credential

The following table outlines the options available under the [application_credential] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.1. application_credential

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

cache_time = None

integer value

Time to cache application credential data in seconds. This has no effect unless global caching is enabled.

caching = True

boolean value

Toggle for application credential caching. This has no effect unless global caching is enabled.

driver = sql

string value

Entry point for the application credential backend driver in the keystone.application_credential namespace. Keystone only provides a sql driver, so there is no reason to change this unless you are providing a custom entry point.

user_limit = -1

integer value

Maximum number of application credentials a user is permitted to create. A value of -1 means unlimited. If a limit is not set, users are permitted to create application credentials at will, which could lead to bloat in the keystone database or open keystone to a DoS attack.

7.1.3. assignment

The following table outlines the options available under the [assignment] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.2. assignment

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

driver = sql

string value

Entry point for the assignment backend driver (where role assignments are stored) in the keystone.assignment namespace. Only a SQL driver is supplied by keystone itself. Unless you are writing proprietary drivers for keystone, you do not need to set this option.

prohibited_implied_role = ['admin']

list value

A list of role names which are prohibited from being an implied role.

7.1.4. auth

The following table outlines the options available under the [auth] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.3. auth

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

application_credential = None

string value

Entry point for the application_credential auth plugin module in the keystone.auth.application_credential namespace. You do not need to set this unless you are overriding keystone’s own application_credential authentication plugin.

external = None

string value

Entry point for the external (REMOTE_USER) auth plugin module in the keystone.auth.external namespace. Supplied drivers are DefaultDomain and Domain. The default driver is DefaultDomain, which assumes that all users identified by the username specified to keystone in the REMOTE_USER variable exist within the context of the default domain. The Domain option expects an additional environment variable be presented to keystone, REMOTE_DOMAIN, containing the domain name of the REMOTE_USER (if REMOTE_DOMAIN is not set, then the default domain will be used instead). You do not need to set this unless you are taking advantage of "external authentication", where the application server (such as Apache) is handling authentication instead of keystone.

mapped = None

string value

Entry point for the mapped auth plugin module in the keystone.auth.mapped namespace. You do not need to set this unless you are overriding keystone’s own mapped authentication plugin.

methods = ['external', 'password', 'token', 'oauth1', 'mapped', 'application_credential']

list value

Allowed authentication methods. Note: You should disable the external auth method if you are currently using federation. External auth and federation both use the REMOTE_USER variable. Since both the mapped and external plugin are being invoked to validate attributes in the request environment, it can cause conflicts.

oauth1 = None

string value

Entry point for the OAuth 1.0a auth plugin module in the keystone.auth.oauth1 namespace. You do not need to set this unless you are overriding keystone’s own oauth1 authentication plugin.

password = None

string value

Entry point for the password auth plugin module in the keystone.auth.password namespace. You do not need to set this unless you are overriding keystone’s own password authentication plugin.

token = None

string value

Entry point for the token auth plugin module in the keystone.auth.token namespace. You do not need to set this unless you are overriding keystone’s own token authentication plugin.

7.1.5. cache

The following table outlines the options available under the [cache] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.4. cache

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

backend = dogpile.cache.null

string value

Cache backend module. For eventlet-based or environments with hundreds of threaded servers, Memcache with pooling (oslo_cache.memcache_pool) is recommended. For environments with less than 100 threaded servers, Memcached (dogpile.cache.memcached) or Redis (dogpile.cache.redis) is recommended. Test environments with a single instance of the server can use the dogpile.cache.memory backend.

backend_argument = []

multi valued

Arguments supplied to the backend module. Specify this option once per argument to be passed to the dogpile.cache backend. Example format: "<argname>:<value>".

config_prefix = cache.oslo

string value

Prefix for building the configuration dictionary for the cache region. This should not need to be changed unless there is another dogpile.cache region with the same configuration name.

debug_cache_backend = False

boolean value

Extra debugging from the cache backend (cache keys, get/set/delete/etc calls). This is only really useful if you need to see the specific cache-backend get/set/delete calls with the keys/values. Typically this should be left set to false.

enabled = True

boolean value

Global toggle for caching.

expiration_time = 600

integer value

Default TTL, in seconds, for any cached item in the dogpile.cache region. This applies to any cached method that doesn’t have an explicit cache expiration time defined for it.

memcache_dead_retry = 300

integer value

Number of seconds memcached server is considered dead before it is tried again. (dogpile.cache.memcache and oslo_cache.memcache_pool backends only).

memcache_pool_connection_get_timeout = 10

integer value

Number of seconds that an operation will wait to get a memcache client connection.

memcache_pool_maxsize = 10

integer value

Max total number of open connections to every memcached server. (oslo_cache.memcache_pool backend only).

memcache_pool_unused_timeout = 60

integer value

Number of seconds a connection to memcached is held unused in the pool before it is closed. (oslo_cache.memcache_pool backend only).

memcache_servers = ['localhost:11211']

list value

Memcache servers in the format of "host:port". (dogpile.cache.memcache and oslo_cache.memcache_pool backends only).

memcache_socket_timeout = 1.0

floating point value

Timeout in seconds for every call to a server. (dogpile.cache.memcache and oslo_cache.memcache_pool backends only).

proxies = []

list value

Proxy classes to import that will affect the way the dogpile.cache backend functions. See the dogpile.cache documentation on changing-backend-behavior.

7.1.6. catalog

The following table outlines the options available under the [catalog] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.5. catalog

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

cache_time = None

integer value

Time to cache catalog data (in seconds). This has no effect unless global and catalog caching are both enabled. Catalog data (services, endpoints, etc.) typically does not change frequently, and so a longer duration than the global default may be desirable.

caching = True

boolean value

Toggle for catalog caching. This has no effect unless global caching is enabled. In a typical deployment, there is no reason to disable this.

driver = sql

string value

Entry point for the catalog driver in the keystone.catalog namespace. Keystone provides a sql option (which supports basic CRUD operations through SQL), a templated option (which loads the catalog from a templated catalog file on disk), and a endpoint_filter.sql option (which supports arbitrary service catalogs per project).

list_limit = None

integer value

Maximum number of entities that will be returned in a catalog collection. There is typically no reason to set this, as it would be unusual for a deployment to have enough services or endpoints to exceed a reasonable limit.

template_file = default_catalog.templates

string value

Absolute path to the file used for the templated catalog backend. This option is only used if the [catalog] driver is set to templated.

7.1.7. cors

The following table outlines the options available under the [cors] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.6. cors

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

allow_credentials = True

boolean value

Indicate that the actual request can include user credentials

allow_headers = ['X-Auth-Token', 'X-Openstack-Request-Id', 'X-Subject-Token', 'X-Project-Id', 'X-Project-Name', 'X-Project-Domain-Id', 'X-Project-Domain-Name', 'X-Domain-Id', 'X-Domain-Name', 'Openstack-Auth-Receipt']

list value

Indicate which header field names may be used during the actual request.

allow_methods = ['GET', 'PUT', 'POST', 'DELETE', 'PATCH']

list value

Indicate which methods can be used during the actual request.

allowed_origin = None

list value

Indicate whether this resource may be shared with the domain received in the requests "origin" header. Format: "<protocol>://<host>[:<port>]", no trailing slash. Example: https://horizon.example.com

expose_headers = ['X-Auth-Token', 'X-Openstack-Request-Id', 'X-Subject-Token', 'Openstack-Auth-Receipt']

list value

Indicate which headers are safe to expose to the API. Defaults to HTTP Simple Headers.

max_age = 3600

integer value

Maximum cache age of CORS preflight requests.

7.1.8. credential

The following table outlines the options available under the [credential] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.7. credential

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

auth_ttl = 15

integer value

The length of time in minutes for which a signed EC2 or S3 token request is valid from the timestamp contained in the token request.

cache_time = None

integer value

Time to cache credential data in seconds. This has no effect unless global caching is enabled.

caching = True

boolean value

Toggle for caching only on retrieval of user credentials. This has no effect unless global caching is enabled.

driver = sql

string value

Entry point for the credential backend driver in the keystone.credential namespace. Keystone only provides a sql driver, so there’s no reason to change this unless you are providing a custom entry point.

key_repository = /etc/keystone/credential-keys/

string value

Directory containing Fernet keys used to encrypt and decrypt credentials stored in the credential backend. Fernet keys used to encrypt credentials have no relationship to Fernet keys used to encrypt Fernet tokens. Both sets of keys should be managed separately and require different rotation policies. Do not share this repository with the repository used to manage keys for Fernet tokens.

provider = fernet

string value

Entry point for credential encryption and decryption operations in the keystone.credential.provider namespace. Keystone only provides a fernet driver, so there’s no reason to change this unless you are providing a custom entry point to encrypt and decrypt credentials.

7.1.9. database

The following table outlines the options available under the [database] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.8. database

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

backend = sqlalchemy

string value

The back end to use for the database.

connection = None

string value

The SQLAlchemy connection string to use to connect to the database.

connection_debug = 0

integer value

Verbosity of SQL debugging information: 0=None, 100=Everything.

`connection_parameters = `

string value

Optional URL parameters to append onto the connection URL at connect time; specify as param1=value1&param2=value2&…​

connection_recycle_time = 3600

integer value

Connections which have been present in the connection pool longer than this number of seconds will be replaced with a new one the next time they are checked out from the pool.

connection_trace = False

boolean value

Add Python stack traces to SQL as comment strings.

db_inc_retry_interval = True

boolean value

If True, increases the interval between retries of a database operation up to db_max_retry_interval.

db_max_retries = 20

integer value

Maximum retries in case of connection error or deadlock error before error is raised. Set to -1 to specify an infinite retry count.

db_max_retry_interval = 10

integer value

If db_inc_retry_interval is set, the maximum seconds between retries of a database operation.

db_retry_interval = 1

integer value

Seconds between retries of a database transaction.

max_overflow = 50

integer value

If set, use this value for max_overflow with SQLAlchemy.

max_pool_size = 5

integer value

Maximum number of SQL connections to keep open in a pool. Setting a value of 0 indicates no limit.

max_retries = 10

integer value

Maximum number of database connection retries during startup. Set to -1 to specify an infinite retry count.

mysql_enable_ndb = False

boolean value

If True, transparently enables support for handling MySQL Cluster (NDB).

mysql_sql_mode = TRADITIONAL

string value

The SQL mode to be used for MySQL sessions. This option, including the default, overrides any server-set SQL mode. To use whatever SQL mode is set by the server configuration, set this to no value. Example: mysql_sql_mode=

pool_timeout = None

integer value

If set, use this value for pool_timeout with SQLAlchemy.

retry_interval = 10

integer value

Interval between retries of opening a SQL connection.

slave_connection = None

string value

The SQLAlchemy connection string to use to connect to the slave database.

sqlite_synchronous = True

boolean value

If True, SQLite uses synchronous mode.

use_db_reconnect = False

boolean value

Enable the experimental use of database reconnect on connection lost.

7.1.10. domain_config

The following table outlines the options available under the [domain_config] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.9. domain_config

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

cache_time = 300

integer value

Time-to-live (TTL, in seconds) to cache domain-specific configuration data. This has no effect unless [domain_config] caching is enabled.

caching = True

boolean value

Toggle for caching of the domain-specific configuration backend. This has no effect unless global caching is enabled. There is normally no reason to disable this.

driver = sql

string value

Entry point for the domain-specific configuration driver in the keystone.resource.domain_config namespace. Only a sql option is provided by keystone, so there is no reason to set this unless you are providing a custom entry point.

7.1.11. endpoint_filter

The following table outlines the options available under the [endpoint_filter] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.10. endpoint_filter

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

driver = sql

string value

Entry point for the endpoint filter driver in the keystone.endpoint_filter namespace. Only a sql option is provided by keystone, so there is no reason to set this unless you are providing a custom entry point.

return_all_endpoints_if_no_filter = True

boolean value

This controls keystone’s behavior if the configured endpoint filters do not result in any endpoints for a user + project pair (and therefore a potentially empty service catalog). If set to true, keystone will return the entire service catalog. If set to false, keystone will return an empty service catalog.

7.1.12. endpoint_policy

The following table outlines the options available under the [endpoint_policy] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.11. endpoint_policy

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

driver = sql

string value

Entry point for the endpoint policy driver in the keystone.endpoint_policy namespace. Only a sql driver is provided by keystone, so there is no reason to set this unless you are providing a custom entry point.

7.1.13. eventlet_server

The following table outlines the options available under the [eventlet_server] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.12. eventlet_server

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

admin_bind_host = 0.0.0.0

host address value

(DEPRECATED FOR REMOVAL) The IP address of the network interface for the admin service to listen on.

admin_port = 35357

port value

(DEPRECATED FOR REMOVAL) The port number for the admin service to listen on.

public_bind_host = 0.0.0.0

host address value

(DEPRECATED FOR REMOVAL) The IP address of the network interface for the public service to listen on.

public_port = 5000

port value

(DEPRECATED FOR REMOVAL) The port number for the public service to listen on.

7.1.14. federation

The following table outlines the options available under the [federation] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.13. federation

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

`assertion_prefix = `

string value

Prefix to use when filtering environment variable names for federated assertions. Matched variables are passed into the federated mapping engine.

caching = True

boolean value

Toggle for federation caching. This has no effect unless global caching is enabled. There is typically no reason to disable this.

driver = sql

string value

Entry point for the federation backend driver in the keystone.federation namespace. Keystone only provides a sql driver, so there is no reason to set this option unless you are providing a custom entry point.

federated_domain_name = Federated

string value

(DEPRECATED FOR REMOVAL) An arbitrary domain name that is reserved to allow federated ephemeral users to have a domain concept. Note that an admin will not be able to create a domain with this name or update an existing domain to this name. You are not advised to change this value unless you really have to.

remote_id_attribute = None

string value

Default value for all protocols to be used to obtain the entity ID of the Identity Provider from the environment. For mod_shib, this would be Shib-Identity-Provider. For mod_auth_openidc, this could be HTTP_OIDC_ISS. For mod_auth_mellon, this could be MELLON_IDP. This can be overridden on a per-protocol basis by providing a remote_id_attribute to the federation protocol using the API.

sso_callback_template = /etc/keystone/sso_callback_template.html

string value

Absolute path to an HTML file used as a Single Sign-On callback handler. This page is expected to redirect the user from keystone back to a trusted dashboard host, by form encoding a token in a POST request. Keystone’s default value should be sufficient for most deployments.

trusted_dashboard = []

multi valued

A list of trusted dashboard hosts. Before accepting a Single Sign-On request to return a token, the origin host must be a member of this list. This configuration option may be repeated for multiple values. You must set this in order to use web-based SSO flows. For example: trusted_dashboard=https://acme.example.com/auth/websso trusted_dashboard=https://beta.example.com/auth/websso

7.1.15. fernet_receipts

The following table outlines the options available under the [fernet_receipts] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.14. fernet_receipts

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

key_repository = /etc/keystone/fernet-keys/

string value

Directory containing Fernet receipt keys. This directory must exist before using keystone-manage fernet_setup for the first time, must be writable by the user running keystone-manage fernet_setup or keystone-manage fernet_rotate, and of course must be readable by keystone’s server process. The repository may contain keys in one of three states: a single staged key (always index 0) used for receipt validation, a single primary key (always the highest index) used for receipt creation and validation, and any number of secondary keys (all other index values) used for receipt validation. With multiple keystone nodes, each node must share the same key repository contents, with the exception of the staged key (index 0). It is safe to run keystone-manage fernet_rotate once on any one node to promote a staged key (index 0) to be the new primary (incremented from the previous highest index), and produce a new staged key (a new key with index 0); the resulting repository can then be atomically replicated to other nodes without any risk of race conditions (for example, it is safe to run keystone-manage fernet_rotate on host A, wait any amount of time, create a tarball of the directory on host A, unpack it on host B to a temporary location, and atomically move (mv) the directory into place on host B). Running keystone-manage fernet_rotate twice on a key repository without syncing other nodes will result in receipts that can not be validated by all nodes.

max_active_keys = 3

integer value

This controls how many keys are held in rotation by keystone-manage fernet_rotate before they are discarded. The default value of 3 means that keystone will maintain one staged key (always index 0), one primary key (the highest numerical index), and one secondary key (every other index). Increasing this value means that additional secondary keys will be kept in the rotation.

7.1.16. fernet_tokens

The following table outlines the options available under the [fernet_tokens] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.15. fernet_tokens

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

key_repository = /etc/keystone/fernet-keys/

string value

Directory containing Fernet token keys. This directory must exist before using keystone-manage fernet_setup for the first time, must be writable by the user running keystone-manage fernet_setup or keystone-manage fernet_rotate, and of course must be readable by keystone’s server process. The repository may contain keys in one of three states: a single staged key (always index 0) used for token validation, a single primary key (always the highest index) used for token creation and validation, and any number of secondary keys (all other index values) used for token validation. With multiple keystone nodes, each node must share the same key repository contents, with the exception of the staged key (index 0). It is safe to run keystone-manage fernet_rotate once on any one node to promote a staged key (index 0) to be the new primary (incremented from the previous highest index), and produce a new staged key (a new key with index 0); the resulting repository can then be atomically replicated to other nodes without any risk of race conditions (for example, it is safe to run keystone-manage fernet_rotate on host A, wait any amount of time, create a tarball of the directory on host A, unpack it on host B to a temporary location, and atomically move (mv) the directory into place on host B). Running keystone-manage fernet_rotate twice on a key repository without syncing other nodes will result in tokens that can not be validated by all nodes.

max_active_keys = 3

integer value

This controls how many keys are held in rotation by keystone-manage fernet_rotate before they are discarded. The default value of 3 means that keystone will maintain one staged key (always index 0), one primary key (the highest numerical index), and one secondary key (every other index). Increasing this value means that additional secondary keys will be kept in the rotation.

7.1.17. healthcheck

The following table outlines the options available under the [healthcheck] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.16. healthcheck

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

backends = []

list value

Additional backends that can perform health checks and report that information back as part of a request.

detailed = False

boolean value

Show more detailed information as part of the response. Security note: Enabling this option may expose sensitive details about the service being monitored. Be sure to verify that it will not violate your security policies.

disable_by_file_path = None

string value

Check the presence of a file to determine if an application is running on a port. Used by DisableByFileHealthcheck plugin.

disable_by_file_paths = []

list value

Check the presence of a file based on a port to determine if an application is running on a port. Expects a "port:path" list of strings. Used by DisableByFilesPortsHealthcheck plugin.

path = /healthcheck

string value

(DEPRECATED FOR REMOVAL) The path to respond to healtcheck requests on.

7.1.18. identity

The following table outlines the options available under the [identity] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.17. identity

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

cache_time = 600

integer value

Time to cache identity data (in seconds). This has no effect unless global and identity caching are enabled.

caching = True

boolean value

Toggle for identity caching. This has no effect unless global caching is enabled. There is typically no reason to disable this.

default_domain_id = default

string value

This references the domain to use for all Identity API v2 requests (which are not aware of domains). A domain with this ID can optionally be created for you by keystone-manage bootstrap. The domain referenced by this ID cannot be deleted on the v3 API, to prevent accidentally breaking the v2 API. There is nothing special about this domain, other than the fact that it must exist to order to maintain support for your v2 clients. There is typically no reason to change this value.

domain_config_dir = /etc/keystone/domains

string value

Absolute path where keystone should locate domain-specific [identity] configuration files. This option has no effect unless [identity] domain_specific_drivers_enabled is set to true. There is typically no reason to change this value.

domain_configurations_from_database = False

boolean value

By default, domain-specific configuration data is read from files in the directory identified by [identity] domain_config_dir. Enabling this configuration option allows you to instead manage domain-specific configurations through the API, which are then persisted in the backend (typically, a SQL database), rather than using configuration files on disk.

domain_specific_drivers_enabled = False

boolean value

A subset (or all) of domains can have their own identity driver, each with their own partial configuration options, stored in either the resource backend or in a file in a domain configuration directory (depending on the setting of [identity] domain_configurations_from_database). Only values specific to the domain need to be specified in this manner. This feature is disabled by default, but may be enabled by default in a future release; set to true to enable.

driver = sql

string value

Entry point for the identity backend driver in the keystone.identity namespace. Keystone provides a sql and ldap driver. This option is also used as the default driver selection (along with the other configuration variables in this section) in the event that [identity] domain_specific_drivers_enabled is enabled, but no applicable domain-specific configuration is defined for the domain in question. Unless your deployment primarily relies on ldap AND is not using domain-specific configuration, you should typically leave this set to sql.

list_limit = None

integer value

Maximum number of entities that will be returned in an identity collection.

max_password_length = 4096

integer value

Maximum allowed length for user passwords. Decrease this value to improve performance. Changing this value does not effect existing passwords.

password_hash_algorithm = bcrypt

string value

The password hashing algorithm to use for passwords stored within keystone.

password_hash_rounds = None

integer value

This option represents a trade off between security and performance. Higher values lead to slower performance, but higher security. Changing this option will only affect newly created passwords as existing password hashes already have a fixed number of rounds applied, so it is safe to tune this option in a running cluster. The default for bcrypt is 12, must be between 4 and 31, inclusive. The default for scrypt is 16, must be within range(1,32). The default for pbkdf_sha512 is 60000, must be within range(1,1<<32) WARNING: If using scrypt, increasing this value increases BOTH time AND memory requirements to hash a password.

salt_bytesize = None

integer value

Number of bytes to use in scrypt and pbkfd2_sha512 hashing salt. Default for scrypt is 16 bytes. Default for pbkfd2_sha512 is 16 bytes. Limited to a maximum of 96 bytes due to the size of the column used to store password hashes.

scrypt_block_size = None

integer value

Optional block size to pass to scrypt hash function (the r parameter). Useful for tuning scrypt to optimal performance for your CPU architecture. This option is only used when the password_hash_algorithm option is set to scrypt. Defaults to 8.

scrypt_parallelism = None

integer value

Optional parallelism to pass to scrypt hash function (the p parameter). This option is only used when the password_hash_algorithm option is set to scrypt. Defaults to 1.

7.1.19. identity_mapping

The following table outlines the options available under the [identity_mapping] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.18. identity_mapping

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

backward_compatible_ids = True

boolean value

The format of user and group IDs changed in Juno for backends that do not generate UUIDs (for example, LDAP), with keystone providing a hash mapping to the underlying attribute in LDAP. By default this mapping is disabled, which ensures that existing IDs will not change. Even when the mapping is enabled by using domain-specific drivers ([identity] domain_specific_drivers_enabled), any users and groups from the default domain being handled by LDAP will still not be mapped to ensure their IDs remain backward compatible. Setting this value to false will enable the new mapping for all backends, including the default LDAP driver. It is only guaranteed to be safe to enable this option if you do not already have assignments for users and groups from the default LDAP domain, and you consider it to be acceptable for Keystone to provide the different IDs to clients than it did previously (existing IDs in the API will suddenly change). Typically this means that the only time you can set this value to false is when configuring a fresh installation, although that is the recommended value.

driver = sql

string value

Entry point for the identity mapping backend driver in the keystone.identity.id_mapping namespace. Keystone only provides a sql driver, so there is no reason to change this unless you are providing a custom entry point.

generator = sha256

string value

Entry point for the public ID generator for user and group entities in the keystone.identity.id_generator namespace. The Keystone identity mapper only supports generators that produce 64 bytes or less. Keystone only provides a sha256 entry point, so there is no reason to change this value unless you’re providing a custom entry point.

7.1.20. jwt_tokens

The following table outlines the options available under the [jwt_tokens] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.19. jwt_tokens

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

jws_private_key_repository = /etc/keystone/jws-keys/private

string value

Directory containing private keys for signing JWS tokens. This directory must exist in order for keystone’s server process to start. It must also be readable by keystone’s server process. It must contain at least one private key that corresponds to a public key in keystone.conf [jwt_tokens] jws_public_key_repository. In the event there are multiple private keys in this directory, keystone will use a key named private.pem to sign tokens. In the future, keystone may support the ability to sign tokens with multiple private keys. For now, only a key named private.pem within this directory is required to issue JWS tokens. This option is only applicable in deployments issuing JWS tokens and setting keystone.conf [token] provider = jws.

jws_public_key_repository = /etc/keystone/jws-keys/public

string value

Directory containing public keys for validating JWS token signatures. This directory must exist in order for keystone’s server process to start. It must also be readable by keystone’s server process. It must contain at least one public key that corresponds to a private key in keystone.conf [jwt_tokens] jws_private_key_repository. This option is only applicable in deployments issuing JWS tokens and setting keystone.conf [token] provider = jws.

7.1.21. ldap

The following table outlines the options available under the [ldap] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.20. ldap

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

alias_dereferencing = default

string value

The LDAP dereferencing option to use for queries involving aliases. A value of default falls back to using default dereferencing behavior configured by your ldap.conf. A value of never prevents aliases from being dereferenced at all. A value of searching dereferences aliases only after name resolution. A value of finding dereferences aliases only during name resolution. A value of always dereferences aliases in all cases.

auth_pool_connection_lifetime = 60

integer value

The maximum end user authentication connection lifetime to the LDAP server in seconds. When this lifetime is exceeded, the connection will be unbound and removed from the connection pool. This option has no effect unless [ldap] use_auth_pool is also enabled.

auth_pool_size = 100

integer value

The size of the connection pool to use for end user authentication. This option has no effect unless [ldap] use_auth_pool is also enabled.

chase_referrals = None

boolean value

Sets keystone’s referral chasing behavior across directory partitions. If left unset, the system’s default behavior will be used.

connection_timeout = -1

integer value

The connection timeout to use with the LDAP server. A value of -1 means that connections will never timeout.

debug_level = None

integer value

Sets the LDAP debugging level for LDAP calls. A value of 0 means that debugging is not enabled. This value is a bitmask, consult your LDAP documentation for possible values.

group_ad_nesting = False

boolean value

If enabled, group queries will use Active Directory specific filters for nested groups.

group_additional_attribute_mapping = []

list value

A list of LDAP attribute to keystone group attribute pairs used for mapping additional attributes to groups in keystone. The expected format is <ldap_attr>:<group_attr>, where ldap_attr is the attribute in the LDAP object and group_attr is the attribute which should appear in the identity API.

group_attribute_ignore = []

list value

List of group attributes to ignore on create and update. or whether a specific group attribute should be filtered for list or show group.

group_desc_attribute = description

string value

The LDAP attribute mapped to group descriptions in keystone.

group_filter = None

string value

The LDAP search filter to use for groups.

group_id_attribute = cn

string value

The LDAP attribute mapped to group IDs in keystone. This must NOT be a multivalued attribute. Group IDs are expected to be globally unique across keystone domains and URL-safe.

group_member_attribute = member

string value

The LDAP attribute used to indicate that a user is a member of the group.

group_members_are_ids = False

boolean value

Enable this option if the members of the group object class are keystone user IDs rather than LDAP DNs. This is the case when using posixGroup as the group object class in Open Directory.

group_name_attribute = ou

string value

The LDAP attribute mapped to group names in keystone. Group names are expected to be unique only within a keystone domain and are not expected to be URL-safe.

group_objectclass = groupOfNames

string value

The LDAP object class to use for groups. If setting this option to posixGroup, you may also be interested in enabling the [ldap] group_members_are_ids option.

group_tree_dn = None

string value

The search base to use for groups. Defaults to the [ldap] suffix value.

page_size = 0

integer value

Defines the maximum number of results per page that keystone should request from the LDAP server when listing objects. A value of zero (0) disables paging.

password = None

string value

The password of the administrator bind DN to use when querying the LDAP server, if your LDAP server requires it.

pool_connection_lifetime = 600

integer value

The maximum connection lifetime to the LDAP server in seconds. When this lifetime is exceeded, the connection will be unbound and removed from the connection pool. This option has no effect unless [ldap] use_pool is also enabled.

pool_connection_timeout = -1

integer value

The connection timeout to use when pooling LDAP connections. A value of -1 means that connections will never timeout. This option has no effect unless [ldap] use_pool is also enabled.

pool_retry_delay = 0.1

floating point value

The number of seconds to wait before attempting to reconnect to the LDAP server. This option has no effect unless [ldap] use_pool is also enabled.

pool_retry_max = 3

integer value

The maximum number of times to attempt reconnecting to the LDAP server before aborting. A value of zero prevents retries. This option has no effect unless [ldap] use_pool is also enabled.

pool_size = 10

integer value

The size of the LDAP connection pool. This option has no effect unless [ldap] use_pool is also enabled.

query_scope = one

string value

The search scope which defines how deep to search within the search base. A value of one (representing oneLevel or singleLevel) indicates a search of objects immediately below to the base object, but does not include the base object itself. A value of sub (representing subtree or wholeSubtree) indicates a search of both the base object itself and the entire subtree below it.

suffix = cn=example,cn=com

string value

The default LDAP server suffix to use, if a DN is not defined via either [ldap] user_tree_dn or [ldap] group_tree_dn.

tls_cacertdir = None

string value

An absolute path to a CA certificate directory to use when communicating with LDAP servers. There is no reason to set this option if you’ve also set [ldap] tls_cacertfile.

tls_cacertfile = None

string value

An absolute path to a CA certificate file to use when communicating with LDAP servers. This option will take precedence over [ldap] tls_cacertdir, so there is no reason to set both.

tls_req_cert = demand

string value

Specifies which checks to perform against client certificates on incoming TLS sessions. If set to demand, then a certificate will always be requested and required from the LDAP server. If set to allow, then a certificate will always be requested but not required from the LDAP server. If set to never, then a certificate will never be requested.

url = ldap://localhost

string value

URL(s) for connecting to the LDAP server. Multiple LDAP URLs may be specified as a comma separated string. The first URL to successfully bind is used for the connection.

use_auth_pool = True

boolean value

Enable LDAP connection pooling for end user authentication. There is typically no reason to disable this.

use_pool = True

boolean value

Enable LDAP connection pooling for queries to the LDAP server. There is typically no reason to disable this.

use_tls = False

boolean value

Enable TLS when communicating with LDAP servers. You should also set the [ldap] tls_cacertfile and [ldap] tls_cacertdir options when using this option. Do not set this option if you are using LDAP over SSL (LDAPS) instead of TLS.

user = None

string value

The user name of the administrator bind DN to use when querying the LDAP server, if your LDAP server requires it.

user_additional_attribute_mapping = []

list value

A list of LDAP attribute to keystone user attribute pairs used for mapping additional attributes to users in keystone. The expected format is <ldap_attr>:<user_attr>, where ldap_attr is the attribute in the LDAP object and user_attr is the attribute which should appear in the identity API.

user_attribute_ignore = ['default_project_id']

list value

List of user attributes to ignore on create and update, or whether a specific user attribute should be filtered for list or show user.

user_default_project_id_attribute = None

string value

The LDAP attribute mapped to a user’s default_project_id in keystone. This is most commonly used when keystone has write access to LDAP.

user_description_attribute = description

string value

The LDAP attribute mapped to user descriptions in keystone.

user_enabled_attribute = enabled

string value

The LDAP attribute mapped to the user enabled attribute in keystone. If setting this option to userAccountControl, then you may be interested in setting [ldap] user_enabled_mask and [ldap] user_enabled_default as well.

user_enabled_default = True

string value

The default value to enable users. This should match an appropriate integer value if the LDAP server uses non-boolean (bitmask) values to indicate if a user is enabled or disabled. If this is not set to True, then the typical value is 512. This is typically used when [ldap] user_enabled_attribute = userAccountControl.

user_enabled_emulation = False

boolean value

If enabled, keystone uses an alternative method to determine if a user is enabled or not by checking if they are a member of the group defined by the [ldap] user_enabled_emulation_dn option. Enabling this option causes keystone to ignore the value of [ldap] user_enabled_invert.

user_enabled_emulation_dn = None

string value

DN of the group entry to hold enabled users when using enabled emulation. Setting this option has no effect unless [ldap] user_enabled_emulation is also enabled.

user_enabled_emulation_use_group_config = False

boolean value

Use the [ldap] group_member_attribute and [ldap] group_objectclass settings to determine membership in the emulated enabled group. Enabling this option has no effect unless [ldap] user_enabled_emulation is also enabled.

user_enabled_invert = False

boolean value

Logically negate the boolean value of the enabled attribute obtained from the LDAP server. Some LDAP servers use a boolean lock attribute where "true" means an account is disabled. Setting [ldap] user_enabled_invert = true will allow these lock attributes to be used. This option will have no effect if either the [ldap] user_enabled_mask or [ldap] user_enabled_emulation options are in use.

user_enabled_mask = 0

integer value

Bitmask integer to select which bit indicates the enabled value if the LDAP server represents "enabled" as a bit on an integer rather than as a discrete boolean. A value of 0 indicates that the mask is not used. If this is not set to 0 the typical value is 2. This is typically used when [ldap] user_enabled_attribute = userAccountControl. Setting this option causes keystone to ignore the value of [ldap] user_enabled_invert.

user_filter = None

string value

The LDAP search filter to use for users.

user_id_attribute = cn

string value

The LDAP attribute mapped to user IDs in keystone. This must NOT be a multivalued attribute. User IDs are expected to be globally unique across keystone domains and URL-safe.

user_mail_attribute = mail

string value

The LDAP attribute mapped to user emails in keystone.

user_name_attribute = sn

string value

The LDAP attribute mapped to user names in keystone. User names are expected to be unique only within a keystone domain and are not expected to be URL-safe.

user_objectclass = inetOrgPerson

string value

The LDAP object class to use for users.

user_pass_attribute = userPassword

string value

The LDAP attribute mapped to user passwords in keystone.

user_tree_dn = None

string value

The search base to use for users. Defaults to the [ldap] suffix value.

7.1.22. memcache

The following table outlines the options available under the [memcache] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.21. memcache

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

dead_retry = 300

integer value

Number of seconds memcached server is considered dead before it is tried again. This is used by the key value store system.

pool_connection_get_timeout = 10

integer value

Number of seconds that an operation will wait to get a memcache client connection. This is used by the key value store system.

pool_maxsize = 10

integer value

Max total number of open connections to every memcached server. This is used by the key value store system.

pool_unused_timeout = 60

integer value

Number of seconds a connection to memcached is held unused in the pool before it is closed. This is used by the key value store system.

socket_timeout = 3

integer value

(DEPRECATED FOR REMOVAL) Timeout in seconds for every call to a server. This is used by the key value store system.

7.1.23. oauth1

The following table outlines the options available under the [oauth1] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.22. oauth1

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

access_token_duration = 86400

integer value

Number of seconds for the OAuth Access Token to remain valid after being created. This is the amount of time the consumer has to interact with the service provider (which is typically keystone). Setting this option to zero means that access tokens will last forever.

driver = sql

string value

Entry point for the OAuth backend driver in the keystone.oauth1 namespace. Typically, there is no reason to set this option unless you are providing a custom entry point.

request_token_duration = 28800

integer value

Number of seconds for the OAuth Request Token to remain valid after being created. This is the amount of time the user has to authorize the token. Setting this option to zero means that request tokens will last forever.

7.1.24. oslo_messaging_amqp

The following table outlines the options available under the [oslo_messaging_amqp] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.23. oslo_messaging_amqp

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

addressing_mode = dynamic

string value

Indicates the addressing mode used by the driver. Permitted values: legacy - use legacy non-routable addressing routable - use routable addresses dynamic - use legacy addresses if the message bus does not support routing otherwise use routable addressing

anycast_address = anycast

string value

Appended to the address prefix when sending to a group of consumers. Used by the message bus to identify messages that should be delivered in a round-robin fashion across consumers.

broadcast_prefix = broadcast

string value

address prefix used when broadcasting to all servers

connection_retry_backoff = 2

integer value

Increase the connection_retry_interval by this many seconds after each unsuccessful failover attempt.

connection_retry_interval = 1

integer value

Seconds to pause before attempting to re-connect.

connection_retry_interval_max = 30

integer value

Maximum limit for connection_retry_interval + connection_retry_backoff

container_name = None

string value

Name for the AMQP container. must be globally unique. Defaults to a generated UUID

default_notification_exchange = None

string value

Exchange name used in notification addresses. Exchange name resolution precedence: Target.exchange if set else default_notification_exchange if set else control_exchange if set else notify

default_notify_timeout = 30

integer value

The deadline for a sent notification message delivery. Only used when caller does not provide a timeout expiry.

default_reply_retry = 0

integer value

The maximum number of attempts to re-send a reply message which failed due to a recoverable error.

default_reply_timeout = 30

integer value

The deadline for an rpc reply message delivery.

default_rpc_exchange = None

string value

Exchange name used in RPC addresses. Exchange name resolution precedence: Target.exchange if set else default_rpc_exchange if set else control_exchange if set else rpc

default_send_timeout = 30

integer value

The deadline for an rpc cast or call message delivery. Only used when caller does not provide a timeout expiry.

default_sender_link_timeout = 600

integer value

The duration to schedule a purge of idle sender links. Detach link after expiry.

group_request_prefix = unicast

string value

address prefix when sending to any server in group

idle_timeout = 0

integer value

Timeout for inactive connections (in seconds)

link_retry_delay = 10

integer value

Time to pause between re-connecting an AMQP 1.0 link that failed due to a recoverable error.

multicast_address = multicast

string value

Appended to the address prefix when sending a fanout message. Used by the message bus to identify fanout messages.

notify_address_prefix = openstack.org/om/notify

string value

Address prefix for all generated Notification addresses

notify_server_credit = 100

integer value

Window size for incoming Notification messages

pre_settled = ['rpc-cast', 'rpc-reply']

multi valued

Send messages of this type pre-settled. Pre-settled messages will not receive acknowledgement from the peer. Note well: pre-settled messages may be silently discarded if the delivery fails. Permitted values: rpc-call - send RPC Calls pre-settled rpc-reply- send RPC Replies pre-settled rpc-cast - Send RPC Casts pre-settled notify - Send Notifications pre-settled

pseudo_vhost = True

boolean value

Enable virtual host support for those message buses that do not natively support virtual hosting (such as qpidd). When set to true the virtual host name will be added to all message bus addresses, effectively creating a private subnet per virtual host. Set to False if the message bus supports virtual hosting using the hostname field in the AMQP 1.0 Open performative as the name of the virtual host.

reply_link_credit = 200

integer value

Window size for incoming RPC Reply messages.

rpc_address_prefix = openstack.org/om/rpc

string value

Address prefix for all generated RPC addresses

rpc_server_credit = 100

integer value

Window size for incoming RPC Request messages

`sasl_config_dir = `

string value

Path to directory that contains the SASL configuration

`sasl_config_name = `

string value

Name of configuration file (without .conf suffix)

`sasl_default_realm = `

string value

SASL realm to use if no realm present in username

`sasl_mechanisms = `

string value

Space separated list of acceptable SASL mechanisms

server_request_prefix = exclusive

string value

address prefix used when sending to a specific server

ssl = False

boolean value

Attempt to connect via SSL. If no other ssl-related parameters are given, it will use the system’s CA-bundle to verify the server’s certificate.

`ssl_ca_file = `

string value

CA certificate PEM file used to verify the server’s certificate

`ssl_cert_file = `

string value

Self-identifying certificate PEM file for client authentication

`ssl_key_file = `

string value

Private key PEM file used to sign ssl_cert_file certificate (optional)

ssl_key_password = None

string value

Password for decrypting ssl_key_file (if encrypted)

ssl_verify_vhost = False

boolean value

By default SSL checks that the name in the server’s certificate matches the hostname in the transport_url. In some configurations it may be preferable to use the virtual hostname instead, for example if the server uses the Server Name Indication TLS extension (rfc6066) to provide a certificate per virtual host. Set ssl_verify_vhost to True if the server’s SSL certificate uses the virtual host name instead of the DNS name.

trace = False

boolean value

Debug: dump AMQP frames to stdout

unicast_address = unicast

string value

Appended to the address prefix when sending to a particular RPC/Notification server. Used by the message bus to identify messages sent to a single destination.

7.1.25. oslo_messaging_kafka

The following table outlines the options available under the [oslo_messaging_kafka] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.24. oslo_messaging_kafka

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

compression_codec = none

string value

The compression codec for all data generated by the producer. If not set, compression will not be used. Note that the allowed values of this depend on the kafka version

conn_pool_min_size = 2

integer value

(DEPRECATED FOR REMOVAL) The pool size limit for connections expiration policy

conn_pool_ttl = 1200

integer value

(DEPRECATED FOR REMOVAL) The time-to-live in sec of idle connections in the pool

consumer_group = oslo_messaging_consumer

string value

Group id for Kafka consumer. Consumers in one group will coordinate message consumption

enable_auto_commit = False

boolean value

Enable asynchronous consumer commits

kafka_consumer_timeout = 1.0

floating point value

Default timeout(s) for Kafka consumers

kafka_max_fetch_bytes = 1048576

integer value

Max fetch bytes of Kafka consumer

max_poll_records = 500

integer value

The maximum number of records returned in a poll call

pool_size = 10

integer value

(DEPRECATED FOR REMOVAL) Pool Size for Kafka Consumers

producer_batch_size = 16384

integer value

Size of batch for the producer async send

producer_batch_timeout = 0.0

floating point value

Upper bound on the delay for KafkaProducer batching in seconds

sasl_mechanism = PLAIN

string value

Mechanism when security protocol is SASL

security_protocol = PLAINTEXT

string value

Protocol used to communicate with brokers

`ssl_cafile = `

string value

CA certificate PEM file used to verify the server certificate

7.1.26. oslo_messaging_notifications

The following table outlines the options available under the [oslo_messaging_notifications] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.25. oslo_messaging_notifications

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

driver = []

multi valued

The Drivers(s) to handle sending notifications. Possible values are messaging, messagingv2, routing, log, test, noop

retry = -1

integer value

The maximum number of attempts to re-send a notification message which failed to be delivered due to a recoverable error. 0 - No retry, -1 - indefinite

topics = ['notifications']

list value

AMQP topic used for OpenStack notifications.

transport_url = None

string value

A URL representing the messaging driver to use for notifications. If not set, we fall back to the same configuration used for RPC.

7.1.27. oslo_messaging_rabbit

The following table outlines the options available under the [oslo_messaging_rabbit] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.26. oslo_messaging_rabbit

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

amqp_auto_delete = False

boolean value

Auto-delete queues in AMQP.

amqp_durable_queues = False

boolean value

Use durable queues in AMQP.

direct_mandatory_flag = True

integer value

Enable/Disable the RabbitMQ mandatory flag for direct send. The direct send is used as reply,so the MessageUndeliverable exception is raised in case the client queue does not exist.

heartbeat_in_pthread = False

boolean value

EXPERIMENTAL: Run the health check heartbeat threadthrough a native python thread. By default if thisoption isn’t provided the health check heartbeat willinherit the execution model from the parent process. Byexample if the parent process have monkey patched thestdlib by using eventlet/greenlet then the heartbeatwill be run through a green thread.

heartbeat_rate = 2

integer value

How often times during the heartbeat_timeout_threshold we check the heartbeat.

heartbeat_timeout_threshold = 60

integer value

Number of seconds after which the Rabbit broker is considered down if heartbeat’s keep-alive fails (0 disables heartbeat).

kombu_compression = None

string value

EXPERIMENTAL: Possible values are: gzip, bz2. If not set compression will not be used. This option may not be available in future versions.

kombu_failover_strategy = round-robin

string value

Determines how the next RabbitMQ node is chosen in case the one we are currently connected to becomes unavailable. Takes effect only if more than one RabbitMQ node is provided in config.

kombu_missing_consumer_retry_timeout = 60

integer value

How long to wait a missing client before abandoning to send it its replies. This value should not be longer than rpc_response_timeout.

kombu_reconnect_delay = 1.0

floating point value

How long to wait before reconnecting in response to an AMQP consumer cancel notification.

rabbit_ha_queues = False

boolean value

Try to use HA queues in RabbitMQ (x-ha-policy: all). If you change this option, you must wipe the RabbitMQ database. In RabbitMQ 3.0, queue mirroring is no longer controlled by the x-ha-policy argument when declaring a queue. If you just want to make sure that all queues (except those with auto-generated names) are mirrored across all nodes, run: "rabbitmqctl set_policy HA ^(?!amq\.).* {"ha-mode": "all"} "

rabbit_interval_max = 30

integer value

Maximum interval of RabbitMQ connection retries. Default is 30 seconds.

rabbit_login_method = AMQPLAIN

string value

The RabbitMQ login method.

rabbit_qos_prefetch_count = 0

integer value

Specifies the number of messages to prefetch. Setting to zero allows unlimited messages.

rabbit_retry_backoff = 2

integer value

How long to backoff for between retries when connecting to RabbitMQ.

rabbit_retry_interval = 1

integer value

How frequently to retry connecting with RabbitMQ.

rabbit_transient_queues_ttl = 1800

integer value

Positive integer representing duration in seconds for queue TTL (x-expires). Queues which are unused for the duration of the TTL are automatically deleted. The parameter affects only reply and fanout queues.

ssl = False

boolean value

Connect over SSL.

`ssl_ca_file = `

string value

SSL certification authority file (valid only if SSL enabled).

`ssl_cert_file = `

string value

SSL cert file (valid only if SSL enabled).

`ssl_key_file = `

string value

SSL key file (valid only if SSL enabled).

`ssl_version = `

string value

SSL version to use (valid only if SSL enabled). Valid values are TLSv1 and SSLv23. SSLv2, SSLv3, TLSv1_1, and TLSv1_2 may be available on some distributions.

7.1.28. oslo_middleware

The following table outlines the options available under the [oslo_middleware] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.27. oslo_middleware

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

enable_proxy_headers_parsing = False

boolean value

Whether the application is behind a proxy or not. This determines if the middleware should parse the headers or not.

max_request_body_size = 114688

integer value

The maximum body size for each request, in bytes.

secure_proxy_ssl_header = X-Forwarded-Proto

string value

(DEPRECATED FOR REMOVAL) The HTTP Header that will be used to determine what the original request protocol scheme was, even if it was hidden by a SSL termination proxy.

7.1.29. oslo_policy

The following table outlines the options available under the [oslo_policy] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.28. oslo_policy

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

enforce_scope = False

boolean value

This option controls whether or not to enforce scope when evaluating policies. If True, the scope of the token used in the request is compared to the scope_types of the policy being enforced. If the scopes do not match, an InvalidScope exception will be raised. If False, a message will be logged informing operators that policies are being invoked with mismatching scope.

policy_default_rule = default

string value

Default rule. Enforced when a requested rule is not found.

policy_dirs = ['policy.d']

multi valued

Directories where policy configuration files are stored. They can be relative to any directory in the search path defined by the config_dir option, or absolute paths. The file defined by policy_file must exist for these directories to be searched. Missing or empty directories are ignored.

policy_file = policy.json

string value

The relative or absolute path of a file that maps roles to permissions for a given service. Relative paths must be specified in relation to the configuration file setting this option.

remote_content_type = application/x-www-form-urlencoded

string value

Content Type to send and receive data for REST based policy check

remote_ssl_ca_crt_file = None

string value

Absolute path to ca cert file for REST based policy check

remote_ssl_client_crt_file = None

string value

Absolute path to client cert for REST based policy check

remote_ssl_client_key_file = None

string value

Absolute path client key file REST based policy check

remote_ssl_verify_server_crt = False

boolean value

server identity verification for REST based policy check

7.1.30. policy

The following table outlines the options available under the [policy] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.29. policy

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

driver = sql

string value

Entry point for the policy backend driver in the keystone.policy namespace. Supplied drivers are rules (which does not support any CRUD operations for the v3 policy API) and sql. Typically, there is no reason to set this option unless you are providing a custom entry point.

list_limit = None

integer value

Maximum number of entities that will be returned in a policy collection.

7.1.31. profiler

The following table outlines the options available under the [profiler] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.30. profiler

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

connection_string = messaging://

string value

Connection string for a notifier backend.

Default value is messaging:// which sets the notifier to oslo_messaging.

Examples of possible values:

  • messaging:// - use oslo_messaging driver for sending spans.
  • redis://127.0.0.1:6379 - use redis driver for sending spans.
  • mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017 - use mongodb driver for sending spans.
  • elasticsearch://127.0.0.1:9200 - use elasticsearch driver for sending spans.
  • jaeger://127.0.0.1:6831 - use jaeger tracing as driver for sending spans.

enabled = False

boolean value

Enable the profiling for all services on this node.

Default value is False (fully disable the profiling feature).

Possible values:

  • True: Enables the feature
  • False: Disables the feature. The profiling cannot be started via this project operations. If the profiling is triggered by another project, this project part will be empty.

es_doc_type = notification

string value

Document type for notification indexing in elasticsearch.

es_scroll_size = 10000

integer value

Elasticsearch splits large requests in batches. This parameter defines maximum size of each batch (for example: es_scroll_size=10000).

es_scroll_time = 2m

string value

This parameter is a time value parameter (for example: es_scroll_time=2m), indicating for how long the nodes that participate in the search will maintain relevant resources in order to continue and support it.

filter_error_trace = False

boolean value

Enable filter traces that contain error/exception to a separated place.

Default value is set to False.

Possible values:

  • True: Enable filter traces that contain error/exception.
  • False: Disable the filter.

hmac_keys = SECRET_KEY

string value

Secret key(s) to use for encrypting context data for performance profiling.

This string value should have the following format: <key1>[,<key2>,…​<keyn>], where each key is some random string. A user who triggers the profiling via the REST API has to set one of these keys in the headers of the REST API call to include profiling results of this node for this particular project.

Both "enabled" flag and "hmac_keys" config options should be set to enable profiling. Also, to generate correct profiling information across all services at least one key needs to be consistent between OpenStack projects. This ensures it can be used from client side to generate the trace, containing information from all possible resources.

sentinel_service_name = mymaster

string value

Redissentinel uses a service name to identify a master redis service. This parameter defines the name (for example: sentinal_service_name=mymaster).

socket_timeout = 0.1

floating point value

Redissentinel provides a timeout option on the connections. This parameter defines that timeout (for example: socket_timeout=0.1).

trace_sqlalchemy = False

boolean value

Enable SQL requests profiling in services.

Default value is False (SQL requests won’t be traced).

Possible values:

  • True: Enables SQL requests profiling. Each SQL query will be part of the trace and can the be analyzed by how much time was spent for that.
  • False: Disables SQL requests profiling. The spent time is only shown on a higher level of operations. Single SQL queries cannot be analyzed this way.

7.1.32. receipt

The following table outlines the options available under the [receipt] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.31. receipt

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

cache_on_issue = True

boolean value

Enable storing issued receipt data to receipt validation cache so that first receipt validation doesn’t actually cause full validation cycle. This option has no effect unless global caching and receipt caching are enabled.

cache_time = 300

integer value

The number of seconds to cache receipt creation and validation data. This has no effect unless both global and [receipt] caching are enabled.

caching = True

boolean value

Toggle for caching receipt creation and validation data. This has no effect unless global caching is enabled, or if cache_on_issue is disabled as we only cache receipts on issue.

expiration = 300

integer value

The amount of time that a receipt should remain valid (in seconds). This value should always be very short, as it represents how long a user has to reattempt auth with the missing auth methods.

provider = fernet

string value

Entry point for the receipt provider in the keystone.receipt.provider namespace. The receipt provider controls the receipt construction and validation operations. Keystone includes just the fernet receipt provider for now. fernet receipts do not need to be persisted at all, but require that you run keystone-manage fernet_setup (also see the keystone-manage fernet_rotate command).

7.1.33. resource

The following table outlines the options available under the [resource] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.32. resource

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

admin_project_domain_name = None

string value

Name of the domain that owns the admin_project_name. If left unset, then there is no admin project. [resource] admin_project_name must also be set to use this option.

admin_project_name = None

string value

This is a special project which represents cloud-level administrator privileges across services. Tokens scoped to this project will contain a true is_admin_project attribute to indicate to policy systems that the role assignments on that specific project should apply equally across every project. If left unset, then there is no admin project, and thus no explicit means of cross-project role assignments. [resource] admin_project_domain_name must also be set to use this option.

cache_time = None

integer value

Time to cache resource data in seconds. This has no effect unless global caching is enabled.

caching = True

boolean value

Toggle for resource caching. This has no effect unless global caching is enabled.

domain_name_url_safe = off

string value

This controls whether the names of domains are restricted from containing URL-reserved characters. If set to new, attempts to create or update a domain with a URL-unsafe name will fail. If set to strict, attempts to scope a token with a URL-unsafe domain name will fail, thereby forcing all domain names to be updated to be URL-safe.

driver = sql

string value

(DEPRECATED FOR REMOVAL) Entry point for the resource driver in the keystone.resource namespace. Only a sql driver is supplied by keystone. Unless you are writing proprietary drivers for keystone, you do not need to set this option.

list_limit = None

integer value

Maximum number of entities that will be returned in a resource collection.

project_name_url_safe = off

string value

This controls whether the names of projects are restricted from containing URL-reserved characters. If set to new, attempts to create or update a project with a URL-unsafe name will fail. If set to strict, attempts to scope a token with a URL-unsafe project name will fail, thereby forcing all project names to be updated to be URL-safe.

7.1.34. revoke

The following table outlines the options available under the [revoke] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.33. revoke

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

cache_time = 3600

integer value

Time to cache the revocation list and the revocation events (in seconds). This has no effect unless global and [revoke] caching are both enabled.

caching = True

boolean value

Toggle for revocation event caching. This has no effect unless global caching is enabled.

driver = sql

string value

Entry point for the token revocation backend driver in the keystone.revoke namespace. Keystone only provides a sql driver, so there is no reason to set this option unless you are providing a custom entry point.

expiration_buffer = 1800

integer value

The number of seconds after a token has expired before a corresponding revocation event may be purged from the backend.

7.1.35. role

The following table outlines the options available under the [role] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.34. role

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

cache_time = None

integer value

Time to cache role data, in seconds. This has no effect unless both global caching and [role] caching are enabled.

caching = True

boolean value

Toggle for role caching. This has no effect unless global caching is enabled. In a typical deployment, there is no reason to disable this.

driver = None

string value

Entry point for the role backend driver in the keystone.role namespace. Keystone only provides a sql driver, so there’s no reason to change this unless you are providing a custom entry point.

list_limit = None

integer value

Maximum number of entities that will be returned in a role collection. This may be useful to tune if you have a large number of discrete roles in your deployment.

7.1.36. saml

The following table outlines the options available under the [saml] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.35. saml

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

assertion_expiration_time = 3600

integer value

Determines the lifetime for any SAML assertions generated by keystone, using NotOnOrAfter attributes.

certfile = /etc/keystone/ssl/certs/signing_cert.pem

string value

Absolute path to the public certificate file to use for SAML signing. The value cannot contain a comma (,).

idp_contact_company = Example, Inc.

string value

This is the company name of the identity provider’s contact person.

idp_contact_email = support@example.com

string value

This is the email address of the identity provider’s contact person.

idp_contact_name = SAML Identity Provider Support

string value

This is the given name of the identity provider’s contact person.

idp_contact_surname = Support

string value

This is the surname of the identity provider’s contact person.

idp_contact_telephone = +1 800 555 0100

string value

This is the telephone number of the identity provider’s contact person.

idp_contact_type = other

string value

This is the type of contact that best describes the identity provider’s contact person.

idp_entity_id = None

uri value

This is the unique entity identifier of the identity provider (keystone) to use when generating SAML assertions. This value is required to generate identity provider metadata and must be a URI (a URL is recommended). For example: https://keystone.example.com/v3/OS-FEDERATION/saml2/idp.

idp_lang = en

string value

This is the language used by the identity provider’s organization.

idp_metadata_path = /etc/keystone/saml2_idp_metadata.xml

string value

Absolute path to the identity provider metadata file. This file should be generated with the keystone-manage saml_idp_metadata command. There is typically no reason to change this value.

idp_organization_display_name = OpenStack SAML Identity Provider

string value

This is the name of the identity provider’s organization to be displayed.

idp_organization_name = SAML Identity Provider

string value

This is the name of the identity provider’s organization.

idp_organization_url = https://example.com/

uri value

This is the URL of the identity provider’s organization. The URL referenced here should be useful to humans.

idp_sso_endpoint = None

uri value

This is the single sign-on (SSO) service location of the identity provider which accepts HTTP POST requests. A value is required to generate identity provider metadata. For example: https://keystone.example.com/v3/OS-FEDERATION/saml2/sso.

keyfile = /etc/keystone/ssl/private/signing_key.pem

string value

Absolute path to the private key file to use for SAML signing. The value cannot contain a comma (,).

relay_state_prefix = ss:mem:

string value

The prefix of the RelayState SAML attribute to use when generating enhanced client and proxy (ECP) assertions. In a typical deployment, there is no reason to change this value.

xmlsec1_binary = xmlsec1

string value

Name of, or absolute path to, the binary to be used for XML signing. Although only the XML Security Library (xmlsec1) is supported, it may have a non-standard name or path on your system. If keystone cannot find the binary itself, you may need to install the appropriate package, use this option to specify an absolute path, or adjust keystone’s PATH environment variable.

7.1.37. security_compliance

The following table outlines the options available under the [security_compliance] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.36. security_compliance

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

change_password_upon_first_use = False

boolean value

Enabling this option requires users to change their password when the user is created, or upon administrative reset. Before accessing any services, affected users will have to change their password. To ignore this requirement for specific users, such as service users, set the options attribute ignore_change_password_upon_first_use to True for the desired user via the update user API. This feature is disabled by default. This feature is only applicable with the sql backend for the [identity] driver.

disable_user_account_days_inactive = None

integer value

The maximum number of days a user can go without authenticating before being considered "inactive" and automatically disabled (locked). This feature is disabled by default; set any value to enable it. This feature depends on the sql backend for the [identity] driver. When a user exceeds this threshold and is considered "inactive", the user’s enabled attribute in the HTTP API may not match the value of the user’s enabled column in the user table.

lockout_duration = 1800

integer value

The number of seconds a user account will be locked when the maximum number of failed authentication attempts (as specified by [security_compliance] lockout_failure_attempts) is exceeded. Setting this option will have no effect unless you also set [security_compliance] lockout_failure_attempts to a non-zero value. This feature depends on the sql backend for the [identity] driver.

lockout_failure_attempts = None

integer value

The maximum number of times that a user can fail to authenticate before the user account is locked for the number of seconds specified by [security_compliance] lockout_duration. This feature is disabled by default. If this feature is enabled and [security_compliance] lockout_duration is not set, then users may be locked out indefinitely until the user is explicitly enabled via the API. This feature depends on the sql backend for the [identity] driver.

minimum_password_age = 0

integer value

The number of days that a password must be used before the user can change it. This prevents users from changing their passwords immediately in order to wipe out their password history and reuse an old password. This feature does not prevent administrators from manually resetting passwords. It is disabled by default and allows for immediate password changes. This feature depends on the sql backend for the [identity] driver. Note: If [security_compliance] password_expires_days is set, then the value for this option should be less than the password_expires_days.

password_expires_days = None

integer value

The number of days for which a password will be considered valid before requiring it to be changed. This feature is disabled by default. If enabled, new password changes will have an expiration date, however existing passwords would not be impacted. This feature depends on the sql backend for the [identity] driver.

password_regex = None

string value

The regular expression used to validate password strength requirements. By default, the regular expression will match any password. The following is an example of a pattern which requires at least 1 letter, 1 digit, and have a minimum length of 7 characters: ^(?=.\d)(?=.[a-zA-Z]).{7,}$ This feature depends on the sql backend for the [identity] driver.

password_regex_description = None

string value

Describe your password regular expression here in language for humans. If a password fails to match the regular expression, the contents of this configuration variable will be returned to users to explain why their requested password was insufficient.

unique_last_password_count = 0

integer value

This controls the number of previous user password iterations to keep in history, in order to enforce that newly created passwords are unique. The total number which includes the new password should not be greater or equal to this value. Setting the value to zero (the default) disables this feature. Thus, to enable this feature, values must be greater than 0. This feature depends on the sql backend for the [identity] driver.

7.1.38. shadow_users

The following table outlines the options available under the [shadow_users] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.37. shadow_users

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

driver = sql

string value

Entry point for the shadow users backend driver in the keystone.identity.shadow_users namespace. This driver is used for persisting local user references to externally-managed identities (via federation, LDAP, etc). Keystone only provides a sql driver, so there is no reason to change this option unless you are providing a custom entry point.

7.1.39. token

The following table outlines the options available under the [token] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.38. token

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

allow_expired_window = 172800

integer value

This controls the number of seconds that a token can be retrieved for beyond the built-in expiry time. This allows long running operations to succeed. Defaults to two days.

allow_rescope_scoped_token = True

boolean value

This toggles whether scoped tokens may be re-scoped to a new project or domain, thereby preventing users from exchanging a scoped token (including those with a default project scope) for any other token. This forces users to either authenticate for unscoped tokens (and later exchange that unscoped token for tokens with a more specific scope) or to provide their credentials in every request for a scoped token to avoid re-scoping altogether.

cache_on_issue = True

boolean value

(DEPRECATED FOR REMOVAL) Enable storing issued token data to token validation cache so that first token validation doesn’t actually cause full validation cycle. This option has no effect unless global caching is enabled and will still cache tokens even if [token] caching = False.

cache_time = None

integer value

The number of seconds to cache token creation and validation data. This has no effect unless both global and [token] caching are enabled.

caching = True

boolean value

Toggle for caching token creation and validation data. This has no effect unless global caching is enabled.

expiration = 3600

integer value

The amount of time that a token should remain valid (in seconds). Drastically reducing this value may break "long-running" operations that involve multiple services to coordinate together, and will force users to authenticate with keystone more frequently. Drastically increasing this value will increase the number of tokens that will be simultaneously valid. Keystone tokens are also bearer tokens, so a shorter duration will also reduce the potential security impact of a compromised token.

provider = fernet

string value

Entry point for the token provider in the keystone.token.provider namespace. The token provider controls the token construction, validation, and revocation operations. Supported upstream providers are fernet and jws. Neither fernet or jws tokens require persistence and both require additional setup. If using fernet, you’re required to run keystone-manage fernet_setup, which creates symmetric keys used to encrypt tokens. If using jws, you’re required to generate an ECDSA keypair using a SHA-256 hash algorithm for signing and validating token, which can be done with keystone-manage create_jws_keypair. Note that fernet tokens are encrypted and jws tokens are only signed. Please be sure to consider this if your deployment has security requirements regarding payload contents used to generate token IDs.

revoke_by_id = True

boolean value

This toggles support for revoking individual tokens by the token identifier and thus various token enumeration operations (such as listing all tokens issued to a specific user). These operations are used to determine the list of tokens to consider revoked. Do not disable this option if you’re using the kvs [revoke] driver.

7.1.40. tokenless_auth

The following table outlines the options available under the [tokenless_auth] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.39. tokenless_auth

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

issuer_attribute = SSL_CLIENT_I_DN

string value

The name of the WSGI environment variable used to pass the issuer of the client certificate to keystone. This attribute is used as an identity provider ID for the X.509 tokenless authorization along with the protocol to look up its corresponding mapping. In a typical deployment, there is no reason to change this value.

protocol = x509

string value

The federated protocol ID used to represent X.509 tokenless authorization. This is used in combination with the value of [tokenless_auth] issuer_attribute to find a corresponding federated mapping. In a typical deployment, there is no reason to change this value.

trusted_issuer = []

multi valued

The list of distinguished names which identify trusted issuers of client certificates allowed to use X.509 tokenless authorization. If the option is absent then no certificates will be allowed. The format for the values of a distinguished name (DN) must be separated by a comma and contain no spaces. Furthermore, because an individual DN may contain commas, this configuration option may be repeated multiple times to represent multiple values. For example, keystone.conf would include two consecutive lines in order to trust two different DNs, such as trusted_issuer = CN=john,OU=keystone,O=openstack and trusted_issuer = CN=mary,OU=eng,O=abc.

7.1.41. totp

The following table outlines the options available under the [totp] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.40. totp

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

included_previous_windows = 1

integer value

The number of previous windows to check when processing TOTP passcodes.

7.1.42. trust

The following table outlines the options available under the [trust] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.41. trust

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

allow_redelegation = False

boolean value

Allows authorization to be redelegated from one user to another, effectively chaining trusts together. When disabled, the remaining_uses attribute of a trust is constrained to be zero.

driver = sql

string value

Entry point for the trust backend driver in the keystone.trust namespace. Keystone only provides a sql driver, so there is no reason to change this unless you are providing a custom entry point.

max_redelegation_count = 3

integer value

Maximum number of times that authorization can be redelegated from one user to another in a chain of trusts. This number may be reduced further for a specific trust.

7.1.43. unified_limit

The following table outlines the options available under the [unified_limit] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.42. unified_limit

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

cache_time = None

integer value

Time to cache unified limit data, in seconds. This has no effect unless both global caching and [unified_limit] caching are enabled.

caching = True

boolean value

Toggle for unified limit caching. This has no effect unless global caching is enabled. In a typical deployment, there is no reason to disable this.

driver = sql

string value

Entry point for the unified limit backend driver in the keystone.unified_limit namespace. Keystone only provides a sql driver, so there’s no reason to change this unless you are providing a custom entry point.

enforcement_model = flat

string value

The enforcement model to use when validating limits associated to projects. Enforcement models will behave differently depending on the existing limits, which may result in backwards incompatible changes if a model is switched in a running deployment.

list_limit = None

integer value

Maximum number of entities that will be returned in a role collection. This may be useful to tune if you have a large number of unified limits in your deployment.

7.1.44. wsgi

The following table outlines the options available under the [wsgi] group in the /etc/keystone/keystone.conf file.

Table 7.43. wsgi

Configuration option = Default valueTypeDescription

debug_middleware = False

boolean value

If set to true, this enables the oslo debug middleware in Keystone. This Middleware prints a lot of information about the request and the response. It is useful for getting information about the data on the wire (decoded) and passed to the WSGI application pipeline. This middleware has no effect on the "debug" setting in the [DEFAULT] section of the config file or setting Keystone’s log-level to "DEBUG"; it is specific to debugging the WSGI data as it enters and leaves Keystone (specific request-related data). This option is used for introspection on the request and response data between the web server (apache, nginx, etc) and Keystone. This middleware is inserted as the first element in the middleware chain and will show the data closest to the wire. WARNING: NOT INTENDED FOR USE IN PRODUCTION. THIS MIDDLEWARE CAN AND WILL EMIT SENSITIVE/PRIVILEGED DATA.