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Using Octavia for Load Balancing-as-a-Service

Red Hat OpenStack Platform 16.1

Octavia administration and how to use octavia to load balance network traffic across the data plane.

OpenStack Documentation Team

Abstract

Install, configure, operate, troubleshoot, and upgrade the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Load-balancing service (octavia).

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Chapter 1. Introduction to the Load-balancing service

The Load-balancing service (octavia) provides a Load Balancing-as-a-Service (LBaaS) API version 2 implementation for Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) deployments. The Load-balancing service manages multiple virtual machines, containers, or bare metal servers—​collectively known as amphorae—​which it launches on demand. The ability to provide on-demand, horizontal scaling makes the Load-balancing service a fully-featured load balancer that is appropriate for large RHOSP enterprise deployments.

Note

Red Hat does not support a migration path from Neutron-LBaaS to the Load-balancing service. You can use some unsupported open source tools. For example, search nlbaas2octavia-lb-replicator on GitHub.

1.1. Load-balancing service components

The Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Load-balancing service (octavia) uses a set of VM instances referred to as amphorae that reside on the Compute nodes. The Load-balancing service controllers communicate with the amphorae over a load-balancing management network (lb-mgmt-net).

When using octavia, you can create load-balancer virtual IPs (VIPs) that do not require floating IPs (FIPs). Not using FIPs has the advantage of improving performance through the load balancer.

Figure 1.1. Load-balancing service components

Load-balancing service components

Figure 1.1 shows the components of the Load-balancing service are hosted on the same nodes as the Networking API server, which by default, is on the Controller nodes. The Load-balancing service consists of the following components:

Octavia API (octavia_api container)
Provides the REST API for users to interact with octavia.
Controller Worker (octavia_worker container)
Sends configuration and configuration updates to amphorae over the load-balancing management network.
Health Manager (octavia_health_manager container)
Monitors the health of individual amphorae and handles failover events if an amphora encounter a failure.
Housekeeping Manager (octavia_housekeeping container)
Cleans up deleted database records, and manages amphora certificate rotation.
Driver agent (octavia_driver_agent container)
Supports other provider drivers, such as OVN.
Amphora
Performs the load balancing. Amphorae are typically instances that run on Compute nodes that you configure with load balancing parameters according to the listener, pool, health monitor, L7 policies, and members' configuration. Amphorae send a periodic heartbeat to the Health Manager.

1.2. Load-balancing service object model

The Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Load-balancing service (octavia) uses a typical load-balancing object model.

Figure 1.2. Load-balancing service object model diagram

Load-balancing service object model diagram
Load balancer
The top API object that represents the load-balancing entity. The VIP address is allocated when you create the load balancer. When you use the amphora provider to create the load balancer one or more amphora instances launch on one or more Compute nodes.
Listener
The port on which the load balancer listens, for example, TCP port 80 for HTTP.
Health Monitor
A process that performs periodic health checks on each back-end member server to pre-emptively detect failed servers and temporarily remove them from the pool.
Pool
A group of members that handle client requests from the load balancer. You can associate pools with more than one listener by using the API. You can share pools with L7 policies.
Member
Describes how to connect to the back-end instances or services. This description consists of the IP address and network port on which the back end member is available.
L7 Rule
Defines the layer 7 (L7) conditions that determine whether an L7 policy applies to the connection.
L7 Policy
A collection of L7 rules associated with a listener, and which might also have an association to a back-end pool. Policies describe actions that the load balancer takes if all of the rules in the policy are true.

1.3. Uses of load balancing in Red Hat OpenStack Platform

Load balancing is essential for enabling simple or automatic delivery scaling and availability for cloud deployments. The Load-balancing service (octavia) depends on other Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) services:

  • Compute service (nova) - For managing the Load-balancing service VM instance (amphora) lifecycle, and creating compute resources on demand.
  • Networking service (neutron) - For network connectivity between amphorae, tenant environments, and external networks.
  • Key Manager service (barbican) - For managing TLS certificates and credentials, when TLS session termination is configured on a listener.
  • Identity service (keystone) - For authentication requests to the octavia API, and for the Load-balancing service to authenticate with other RHOSP services.
  • Image service (glance) - For storing the amphora virtual machine image.
  • Common Libraries (oslo) - For communication between Load-balancing service controller components, making Load-balancing service work within the standard OpenStack framework and review system, and project code structure.
  • Taskflow - Is part of Common Libraries; the Load-balancing service uses this job flow system when it orchestrates back-end service configuration and management.

The Load-balancing service interacts with the other RHOSP services through a driver interface. The driver interface avoids major restructuring of the Load-balancing service if an external component requires replacement with a functionally-equivalent service.

Chapter 2. Considerations for implementing the Load-balancing service

You must make several decisions when you plan to deploy the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Load-balancing service (octavia) such as choosing which provider to use or whether to implement a highly available environment:

2.1. Load-balancing service provider drivers

The Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Load-balancing service (octavia) supports enabling multiple provider drivers by using the Octavia v2 API. You can choose to use one provider driver, or multiple provider drivers simultaneously.

RHOSP provides two load-balancing providers, amphora and Open Virtual Network (OVN).

Amphora, the default, is a highly available load balancer with a feature set that scales with your compute environment. Because of this, amphora is suited for large-scale deployments.

The OVN load-balancing provider is a lightweight load balancer with a basic feature set. OVN is typical for east-west, layer 4 network traffic. OVN provisions quickly and consumes fewer resources than a full-featured load-balancing provider such as amphora.

On RHOSP deployments that use the neutron Modular Layer 2 plug-in with the OVN mechanism driver (ML2/OVN), RHOSP director automatically enables the OVN provider driver in the Load-balancing service without the need for additional installation or configuration.

Important

The information in this section apply only to the amphora load-balancing provider, unless indicated otherwise.

2.2. Load-balancing service (octavia) feature support matrix

The Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Load-balancing service (octavia) provides two load-balancing providers, amphora and Open Virtual Network (OVN).

Amphora is a full-featured load-balancing provider that requires a separate haproxy VM and an extra latency hop.

OVN runs on every node and does not require a separate VM nor an extra hop. However, OVN has far fewer load-balancing features than amphora.

The following table lists features in the Load-balancing service that Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) 16.1 supports and in which maintenance release support for the feature began.

Note

If the feature is not listed, then RHOSP 16.1 does not support the feature.

Table 2.1. Load-balancing service (octavia) feature support matrix

Feature

Support level in RHOSP 16.1

Amphora Provider

OVN Provider

ML2/OVS L3 HA

Full support

No support

ML2/OVS DVR

Full support

No support

ML2/OVS L3 HA + composable network node [1]

Full support

No support

ML2/OVS DVR + composable network node [1]

Full support

No support

ML2/OVN L3 HA

Full support

Full support

ML2/OVN DVR

Full support

Full support

Health monitors

Full support

No support

Amphora active-standby

Full support—​16.1 and later

No support

Terminated HTTPS load balancers (with barbican)

Full support—​16.0.1 and later

No support

Amphora spare pool

Technology Preview only

No support

UDP

Full support—​16.1 and later

Full support

Backup members

Technology Preview only

No support

Provider framework

Technology Preview only

No support

TLS client authentication

Technology Preview only

No support

TLS back end encryption

Technology Preview only

No support

Octavia flavors

Full support

No support

Object tags - API only

Full support—​16.1 and later

No support

Listener API timeouts

Full support

No support

Log offloading

Full support—​16.1.2 and later

No support

VIP access control list

Full support

No support

Volume-based amphora

No support

No support

[1] Network node with OVS, metadata, DHCP, L3, and Octavia (worker, health monitor, and housekeeping).

2.3. Load-balancing service software requirements

The Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Load-balancing service (octavia) requires that you configure the following core OpenStack components:

  • Compute (nova)
  • OpenStack Networking (neutron)
  • Image (glance)
  • Identity (keystone)
  • RabbitMQ
  • MySQL

2.4. Load-balancing service prerequisites for the undercloud

The Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Load-balancing service (octavia) has the following requirements for the RHOSP undercloud:

  • A successful undercloud installation.
  • The Load-balancing service present on the undercloud.
  • A container-based overcloud deployment plan.
  • Load-balancing service components configured on your Controller nodes.
Important

If you want to enable the Load-balancing service on an existing overcloud deployment, you must prepare the undercloud. Failure to do so results in the overcloud installation being reported as successful yet without the Load-balancing service running. To prepare the undercloud, see the Transitioning to Containerized Services guide.

2.5. Basics of active-standby topology for Load-balancing service instances

When you deploy the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Load-balancing service (octavia), you can decide whether, by default, load balancers are highly available when users create them. If you want to give users a choice, then after RHOSP deployment, create a Load-balancing service flavor for creating highly available load balancers and a flavor for creating standalone load balancers.

By default, the amphora provider driver is configured for a single Load-balancing service (amphora) instance topology with limited support for high availability (HA). However, you can make Load-balancing service instances highly available when you implement an active-standby topology.

In this topology, the Load-balancing service boots an active and standby instance for each load balancer, and maintains session persistence between each. If the active instance becomes unhealthy, the instance automatically fails over to the standby instance, making it active. The Load-balancing service health manager automatically rebuilds an instance that fails.

2.6. Post-deployment steps for the Load-balancing service

Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) provides a workflow task to simplify the post-deployment steps for the Load-balancing service (octavia). This workflow runs a set of Ansible playbooks to provide the following post-deployment steps as the last phase of the overcloud deployment:

  • Configure certificates and keys.
  • Configure the load-balancing management network between the amphorae and the Load-balancing service Controller worker and health manager.

Amphora image

On pre-provisioned servers, you must install the amphora image on the undercloud before you deploy the Load-balancing service:

$ sudo dnf install octavia-amphora-image-x86_64.noarch

On servers that are not pre-provisioned, RHOSP director automatically downloads the default amphora image, uploads it to the overcloud Image service (glance), and then configures the Load-balancing service to use this amphora image. During a stack update or upgrade, director updates this image to the latest amphora image.

Note

Custom amphora images are not supported.

Chapter 3. Securing the Load-balancing service

To secure communication between the various components of the Red Hat OpenStack Load-balancing service (octavia) uses TLS encryption protocol and public key cryptography.

3.1. Two-way TLS authentication in the Load-balancing service

The controller processes of the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Load-balancing service (octavia) communicate with Load-balancing service instances (amphorae) over a TLS connection. The Load-balancing service validates that both sides are trusted by using two-way TLS authentication.

Note

This is a simplification of the full TLS handshake process. For more information about the TLS handshake process, see TLS 1.3 RFC 8446.

There are two phases involved in two-way TLS authentication. In Phase one a Controller process, such as the Load-balancing service worker process, connects to a Load-balancing service instance, and the instance presents its server certificate to the Controller. The Controller then validates the server certificate against the server Certificate Authority (CA) certificate stored on the Controller. If the presented certificate is validated against the server CA certificate, the connection proceeds to phase two.

In Phase two the Controller presents its client certificate to the Load-balancing service instance. The instance then validates the certificate against the client CA certificate stored inside the instance. If this certificate is successfully validated, the rest of the TLS handshake continues to establish the secure communication channel between the Controller and the Load-balancing service instance.

3.2. Certificate lifecycles for the Load-balancing service

The Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Load-balancing service (octavia) controller uses the server certificate authority certificates and keys to uniquely generate a certificate for each Load-balancing service instance (amphora).

The Load-balancing service housekeeping controller process automatically rotates these server certificates as they near their expiration date.

The Load-balancing service controller processes use the client certificates. The human operator who manages these TLS certificates usually grants a long expiration period because the certificates are used on the cloud control plane.

3.3. Configuring Load-balancing service certificates and keys

You can configure Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) director to generate certificates and keys, or you can supply your own. Configure director to automatically create the required private certificate authorities and issue the necessary certificates. These certificates are for internal Load-balancing service (octavia) communication only and are not exposed to users.

Important

RHOSP director generates certificates and keys and automatically renews them before they expire. If you use your own certificates, you must remember to renew them.

Note

Switching from manually generated certificates to automatically generated certificates is not supported by RHOSP director. But you can enforce the re-creation of the certificates by deleting the existing certificates on the Controller nodes in the /var/lib/config-data/puppet-generated/octavia/etc/octavia/certs directory and updating the overcloud.

If you must use your own certificates and keys, then complete the following steps:

Prerequisites

  • Read and understand, "Changing Load-balancing service default settings." (See link in "Additional resources.")

Procedure

  1. Log in to the undercloud host as the stack user.
  2. Source the undercloud credentials file:

    $ source ~/stackrc
  3. Create a YAML custom environment file.

    Example

    $ vi /home/stack/templates/my-octavia-environment.yaml

  4. In the YAML environment file, add the following parameters with values appropriate for your site:

    • OctaviaCaCert:

      The certificate for the CA that Octavia uses to generate certificates.

    • OctaviaCaKey:

      The private CA key used to sign the generated certificates.

    • OctaviaCaKeyPassphrase:

      The passphrase used with the private CA key above.

    • OctaviaClientCert:

      The client certificate and un-encrypted key issued by the Octavia CA for the controllers.

    • OctaviaGenerateCerts:

      The Boolean that instructs director to enable (true) or disable (false) automatic certificate and key generation.

      Important

      You must set OctaviaGenerateCerts to false.

      Example

      parameter_defaults:
          OctaviaCaCert: |
            -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
            MIIDgzCCAmugAwIBAgIJAKk46qw6ncJaMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAMFgxCzAJBgNV
            [snip]
            sFW3S2roS4X0Af/kSSD8mlBBTFTCMBAj6rtLBKLaQbIxEpIzrgvp
            -----END CERTIFICATE-----
      
          OctaviaCaKey: |
            -----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
            Proc-Type: 4,ENCRYPTED
            [snip]
            -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----[
      
          OctaviaClientCert: |
            -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
            MIIDmjCCAoKgAwIBAgIBATANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFADBcMQswCQYDVQQGEwJVUzEP
            [snip]
            270l5ILSnfejLxDH+vI=
            -----END CERTIFICATE-----
            -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
            MIIEvgIBADANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAASCBKgwggSkAgEAAoIBAQDU771O8MTQV8RY
            [snip]
            KfrjE3UqTF+ZaaIQaz3yayXW
            -----END PRIVATE KEY-----
      
          OctaviaCaKeyPassphrase:
            b28c519a-5880-4e5e-89bf-c042fc75225d
      
          OctaviaGenerateCerts: false
          [rest of file snipped]

  5. Run the openstack overcloud deploy command and include the core heat templates, environment files, and this new custom environment file.

    Important

    The order of the environment files is important as the parameters and resources defined in subsequent environment files take precedence.

    Example

    $ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
    -e <your_environment_files> \
    -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/services/octavia.yaml \
    -e /home/stack/templates/my-octavia-environment.yaml

Additional resources

Chapter 4. Installing and configuring the Load-balancing service

When you deploy the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Load-balancing service (octavia) using RHOSP director, you can decide to make its VM instances (amphorae) highly available. You also use director when you want to make configuration changes to the Load-balancing service.

4.1. Deploying the Load-balancing service

You use Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) director to deploy the Load-balancing service (octavia). Director uses Orchestration service (heat) templates that are a set of plans for your environment. The undercloud imports these plans and follows their instructions to create the Load-balancing service and your RHOSP environment.

Prerequisites

  • Ensure that your environment has access to the octavia image.

Procedure

  • Run the deployment command and include the core heat templates, environment files, and the octavia.yaml heat template.

    Example

    $ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
    -e <your_environment_files> \
    -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/services/octavia.yaml

    Note

    Director updates the amphorae to the latest amphora image during a stack update or upgrade.

Additional resources

4.2. Enabling active-standby topology for Load-balancing service instances

You can make Load-balancing service instances (amphorae) highly available when you implement an active-standby topology using Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) director. Director uses Orchestration service (heat) templates that are a set of plans for your environment. The undercloud imports these plans and follows their instructions to create the Load-balancing service and your RHOSP environment.

Prerequisites

  • Ensure that anti-affinity is enabled for the Compute service. This is the default.
  • A minimum of three Compute node hosts:

    • Two Compute node hosts to place the amphorae on different hosts (Compute anti-affinity).
    • A third host to successfully fail over an active-standby load balancer, when a problem arises.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the undercloud host as the stack user.
  2. Source the undercloud credentials file:

    $ source ~/stackrc
  3. Create a custom YAML environment file.

    Example

    $ vi /home/stack/templates/my-octavia-environment.yaml

  4. In the custom environment file, add the following parameter:

    parameter_defaults:
        OctaviaLoadBalancerTopology: "ACTIVE_STANDBY"
  5. Run the deployment command and include the core heat templates, environment files, and this new custom environment file.

    Important

    The order of the environment files is important as the parameters and resources defined in subsequent environment files take precedence.

    Example

    $ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
    -e <your_environment_files> \
    -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/services/octavia.yaml \
    -e /home/stack/templates/my-octavia-environment.yaml

Verification

  • After the deployment is complete and you have created a load balancer, run the following commands:

    $ source overcloudrc
    $ openstack loadbalancer amphora list

    If your Load-balancing service instance highly available configuration is successful, you see output for two instances (amphorae), and no occurrence of role equaling SINGLE.

Additional resources

4.3. Changing Load-balancing service default settings

You make configuration changes to the Load-balancing service (octavia) using Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) director. Director uses Orchestration service (heat) templates that are a set of plans for your environment. The undercloud imports these plans and follows their instructions to create the Load-balancing service and your RHOSP environment.

Prerequisites

  • Determine which RHOSP Orchestration service (heat) parameters that director already uses to deploy the Load-balancing service by consulting the following file on the undercloud:
/usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/deployment/octavia/octavia-deployment-config.j2.yaml
  • Decide which parameters that you want to modify.

    Here are a few examples:

    • OctaviaControlNetwork

      The name for the neutron network used for the load balancer management network.

    • OctaviaControlSubnetCidr

      The subnet for amphora control subnet in CIDR form.

    • OctaviaMgmtPortDevName

      The name of the octavia management network interface used for communication between octavia worker/health-manager with the amphora machine.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the undercloud host as the stack user.
  2. Source the undercloud credentials file:

    $ source ~/stackrc
  3. Create a custom YAML environment file.

    Example

    $ vi /home/stack/templates/my-octavia-environment.yaml

  4. Your environment file must contain the keywords parameter_defaults. Put your parameter value pairs after the parameter_defaults keyword.

    Example

    parameter_defaults:
        OctaviaMgmtPortDevName: "o-hm0"
        OctaviaControlNetwork: 'lb-mgmt-net'
        OctaviaControlSubnet: 'lb-mgmt-subnet'
        OctaviaControlSecurityGroup: 'lb-mgmt-sec-group'
        OctaviaControlSubnetCidr: '172.24.0.0/16'
        OctaviaControlSubnetGateway: '172.24.0.1'
        OctaviaControlSubnetPoolStart: '172.24.0.2'
        OctaviaControlSubnetPoolEnd: '172.24.255.254'

  5. Run the deployment command and include the core heat templates, environment files, and this new custom environment file.

    Important

    The order of the environment files is important as the parameters and resources defined in subsequent environment files take precedence.

    Example

    $ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
    -e <your_environment_files> \
    -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/services/octavia.yaml \
    -e /home/stack/templates/my-octavia-environment.yaml

Additional resources

Chapter 5. Managing Load-balancing service instance logs

You can enable tenant flow logging or suppress logging to the amphora local file system. You can also forward administrative or tenant flow logs to syslog receivers at a set of containers or to other syslog receivers at endpoints of your choosing.

In addition, you can control a range of other logging features such as, setting the syslog facility value, changing the tenant flow log format, and widening the scope of administrative logging to include logs from sources like the kernel and from cron.

5.1. Basics of offloading Load-balancing service instance (amphora) logs

By default, Load-balancing service instances (amphorae) store logs on the local machine in the systemd journal. However, you can specify that amphorae offload logs to syslog receivers to aggregate both administrative and tenant traffic flow logs. Log offloading enables administrators to go to one location for logs, and retain logs when amphorae are rotated.

5.2. Enabling Load-balancing service instance administrative log offloading

By default, Load-balancing service instances (amphorae) store logs on the local machine in the systemd journal. However, you can specify that the amphorae offload logs to syslog receivers to aggregate administrative logs. Log offloading enables administrators to go to one location for logs, and retain logs when the amphorae are rotated.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the undercloud host as the stack user.
  2. Source the undercloud credentials file:

    $ source ~/stackrc
  3. Create a custom YAML environment file.

    Example

    $ vi /home/stack/templates/my-octavia-environment.yaml

  4. In the YAML environment file under parameter_defaults, set OctaviaLogOffload to true.

    parameter_defaults:
        OctaviaLogOffload: true
        ...
    Note

    The amphorae offload administrative logs use the syslog facility value of local1, by default, unless you specify another value with the OctaviaAdminLogFacility parameter.

    Example

    parameter_defaults:
        OctaviaLogOffload: true
        OctaviaAdminLogFacility: 2
        ...

  5. The amphorae forward only load balancer-related administrative logs, such as the haproxy admin logs, keepalived, and amphora agent logs. If you want to configure the amphorae to send all of the administrative logs from the amphorae, such as the kernel, system, and security logs, set OctaviaForwardAllLogs to true.

    Example

    parameter_defaults:
        OctaviaLogOffload: true
        OctaviaForwardAllLogs: true
        ...

  6. The amphorae use a set of default containers defined by the Orchestration service (heat) that contain syslog receivers listening for log messages. If you want to use a different set of endpoints, you can specify those with the OctaviaAdminLogTargets parameter:

    OctaviaAdminLogTargets: <ip_address>:<port>[, <ip_address>:<port>]

    Example

    parameter_defaults:
        OctaviaLogOffload: true
        OctaviaAdminLogTargets: 192.0.2.1:10514, 2001:db8:1::10:10514
        ...

  7. By default, when you enable log offloading, tenant flow logs are also offloaded.

    If you want to disable tenant flow log offloading, set the OctaviaConnectionLogging to false.

    Example

    parameter_defaults:
        OctaviaLogOffload: true
        OctaviaConnectionLogging: false
        ...

  8. Run the deployment command and include the core heat templates, environment files, and this new custom environment file.

    Important

    The order of the environment files is important as the parameters and resources defined in subsequent environment files take precedence.

    Example

    $ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
    -e [your-environment-files] \
    -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/services/octavia.yaml \
    -e /home/stack/templates/my-octavia-environment.yaml

Verification

  • Unless you specified specific endpoints with the OctaviaAdminLogTargets or OctaviaTenantLogTargets, the amphorae offload logs to the RHOSP Controller in the same location as the other RHOSP logs (/var/log/containers/octavia/).
  • Check the appropriate location for the presence of the following log files:

    • octavia-amphora.log-- Log file for the administrative log.
    • (if enabled) octavia-tenant-traffic.log-- Log file for the tenant traffic flow log.

Additional resources

5.3. Enabling tenant flow log offloading for Load-balancing service instances

By default, Load-balancing service instances (amphorae) store logs on the local machine in the systemd journal. You can specify that the amphorae offload logs to syslog receivers on endpoints that contain disk space sufficient for tenant flow logs that can grow in size depending on the number of tenant connections.

Tenant flow log offloading for Load-balancing service instances is automatically enabled when administrative log offloading is enabled. The only case when administrative log offloading is on and tenant flow log offloading is off, is when the OctaviaConnectionLogging parameter is set to false.

Important

Tenant flow logging can produce a large number of syslog messages depending on how many connections the load balancers are receiving. Tenant flow logging produces one log entry for each connection to the load balancer. Monitor log volume and configure your syslog receivers appropriately based on the expected number of connections that your load balancers manage.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the undercloud host as the stack user.
  2. Source the undercloud credentials file:

    $ source ~/stackrc
  3. Locate the environment file in which the OctaviaConnectionLogging parameter is set:

    $ grep -rl OctaviaConnectionLogging /home/stack/templates/
  4. If you do not find the file, create an environment file:

    $ vi /home/stack/templates/my-octavia-environment.yaml
  5. Add the OctaviaLogOffload and OctaviaConnectionLogging parameters to the parameter_defaults section of the environment file and set the values to true:

    parameter_defaults:
        OctaviaLogOffload: true
        OctaviaConnectionLogging: true
        ...
    Note

    The amphorae use the syslog facility default value of local0 to offload tenant flow logs unless you use the OctaviaTenantLogFacility parameter to specify another value.

  6. Optional: The amphorae use a set of default containers that contain syslog receivers that listen for log messages. You can change the admin and tenant log endpoints using the parameters OctaviaAdminLogTargets and OctaviaTenantLogTargets.

    OctaviaAdminLogTargets: <ip-address>:<port>[, <ip-address>:<port>]
    OctaviaTenantLogTargets: <ip-address>:<port>[, <ip-address>:<port>]
  7. Run the deployment command and include the core heat templates, environment files, and the custom environment file you modified.

    Important

    The order of the environment files is important because the parameters and resources defined in subsequent environment files take precedence.

    $ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
    -e <your_environment_files> \
    -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/services/octavia.yaml \
    -e /home/stack/templates/my-octavia-environment.yaml

Verification

  • Unless you specified specific endpoints with the OctaviaAdminLogTargets or OctaviaTenantLogTargets, the amphorae offload logs to the RHOSP Controller in the same location as the other RHOSP logs (/var/log/containers/octavia/).
  • Check the appropriate location for the presence of the following log files:

    • octavia-amphora.log-- Log file for the administrative log.
    • octavia-tenant-traffic.log-- Log file for the tenant traffic flow log.

5.4. Disabling Load-balancing service instance tenant flow logging

Tenant flow log offloading for Load-balancing service instances (amphorae) is automatically enabled when you enable administrative log offloading.

To keep administrative log offloading enabled and to disable tenant flow logging, you must set the OctaviaConnectionLogging parameter to false.

When the OctaviaConnectionLogging parameter is false, the amphorae do not write tenant flow logs to the disk inside the amphorae, nor offload any logs to syslog receivers listening elsewhere.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the undercloud host as the stack user.
  2. Source the undercloud credentials file:

    $ source ~/stackrc
  3. Locate the YAML custom environment file in which amphora logging is configured.

    Example

    $ grep -rl OctaviaLogOffload /home/stack/templates/

  4. In the custom environment file, under parameter_defaults, set OctaviaConnectionLogging to false.

    Example

    parameter_defaults:
        OctaviaLogOffload: true
        OctaviaConnectionLogging: false
        ...

  5. Run the deployment command and include the core heat templates, environment files, and the custom environment file in which you set OctaviaConnectionLogging to true.

    Important

    The order of the environment files is important as the parameters and resources defined in subsequent environment files take precedence.

    Example

    $ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
    -e [your-environment-files] \
    -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/services/octavia.yaml \
    -e /home/stack/templates/my-octavia-environment.yaml

Verification

  • Unless you specified specific endpoints with the OctaviaAdminLogTargets or OctaviaTenantLogTargets, the amphorae offload logs to the RHOSP Controller in the same location as the other RHOSP logs (/var/log/containers/octavia/).
  • Check the appropriate location for the absence of octavia-tenant-traffic.log.

Additional resources

5.5. Disabling Load-balancing service instance local log storage

Even when you configure Load-balancing service instances (amphorae) to offload administrative and tenant flow logs, the amphorae continue to write these logs to the disk inside the amphorae. To improve the performance of the load balancer, you can stop logging locally.

Important

If you disable logging locally, you also disable all log storage in the amphora, including kernel, system, and security logging.

Note

If you disable local log storage and the OctaviaLogOffload parameter is set to false, ensure that you set OctaviaConnectionLogging to false for improved load balancing performance.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the undercloud host as the stack user.
  2. Source the undercloud credentials file:

    $ source ~/stackrc
  3. Create a custom YAML environment file.

    Example

    $ vi /home/stack/templates/my-octavia-environment.yaml

  4. In the environment file under parameter_defaults, set OctaviaDisableLocalLogStorage to true.

    parameter_defaults:
        OctaviaDisableLocalLogStorage: true
        ...
  5. Run the deployment command and include the core heat templates, environment files, and this new custom environment file.

    Important

    The order of the environment files is important as the parameters and resources defined in subsequent environment files take precedence.

    Example

    $ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
    -e <your_environment_files> \
    -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/services/octavia.yaml \
    -e /home/stack/templates/my-octavia-environment.yaml

Verification

  • On the amphora instance, check the location where log files are written, and verify that no new log files are being written.

Additional resources

5.6. Heat parameters for Load-balancing service instance logging

When you want to configure Load-balancing service instance (amphora) logging, you set values for one or more Orchestration service (heat) parameters that control logging and run the openstack overcloud deploy command.

These heat parameters for amphora logging enable you to control features such as turning on log offloading, defining custom endpoints to offload logs to, setting the syslog facility value for logs, and so on.

Table 5.1. Heat parameters for all logs

ParameterDefaultDescription

OctaviaLogOffload

false

When true, instances offload their logs. If no endpoints are specified, then, by default, the instance offloads its log to the same location as the other RHOSP logs (/var/log/containers/octavia/).

OctaviaDisableLocalLogStorage

false

When true, instances do not store logs on the instance host filesystem. This includes all kernel, system, and security logs.

OctaviaForwardAllLogs

false

When true, instances forward all log messages to the administrative log endpoints, including non-load balancing related logs such as the cron and kernel logs.

For instances to recognize OctaviaForwardAllLogs, you must also enable OctaviaLogOffload.

Table 5.2. Heat parameters for admin logging

ParameterDefaultDescription

OctaviaAdminLogTargets

No value.

A comma-delimited list of syslog endpoints (<host>:<port>) to receive administrative log messages.

These endpoints can be a container, VM, or physical host that is running a process that is listening for the log messages on the specified port.

When OctaviaAdminLogTargets is not present, the instance offloads its log to the same location as the other RHOSP logs (/var/log/containers/octavia/) on a set of containers that is defined by RHOSP director.

OctaviaAdminLogFacility

1

A number between 0 and 7 that is the syslog "LOG_LOCAL" facility to use for the administrative log messages.

Table 5.3. Heat parameters for tenant flow logging

ParameterDefaultDescription

OctaviaConnectionLogging

true

When true, tenant connection flows are logged.

When OctaviaConnectionLogging is false, the amphorae stop logging tenant connections regardless of the OctaviaLogOffload setting. OctaviaConnectionLogging disables local tenant flow log storage and, if log offloading is enabled, it does not forward tenant flow logs.

OctaviaTenantLogTargets

No value.

A comma-delimited list of syslog endpoints (<host>:<port>) to receive tenant traffic flow log messages.

These endpoints can be a container, VM, or physical host that is running a process that is listening for the log messages on the specified port.

When OctaviaTenantLogTargets is not present, the instance offloads its log to the same location as the other RHOSP logs (/var/log/containers/octavia/) on a set of containers that is defined by RHOSP director.

OctaviaTenantLogFacility

0

A number between 0 and 7 that is the syslog "LOG_LOCAL" facility to use for the tenant traffic flow log messages.

OctaviaUserLogFormat

"{{ '{{' }} project_id {{ '}}' }} {{ '{{' }} lb_id {{ '}}' }} %f %ci %cp %t %{+Q}r %ST %B %U %[ssl_c_verify] %{+Q}[ssl_c_s_dn] %b %s %Tt %tsc"

The format for the tenant traffic flow log.

The alphanumerics represent specific octavia fields, and the curly braces ({}) are substitution variables.

Additional resources

5.7. Load-balancing service instance tenant flow log format

The log format that the tenant flow logs for Load-balancing service instances (amphorae) follows is the HAProxy log format. The two exceptions are the project_id and lb_id variables whose values are provided by the amphora provider driver.

Sample

Here is a sample log entry with rsyslog as the syslog receiver:

Jun 12 00:44:13 amphora-3e0239c3-5496-4215-b76c-6abbe18de573 haproxy[1644]: 5408b89aa45b48c69a53dca1aaec58db fd8f23df-960b-4b12-ba62-2b1dff661ee7 261ecfc2-9e8e-4bba-9ec2-3c903459a895 172.24.4.1 41152 12/Jun/2019:00:44:13.030 "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 76 73 - "" e37e0e04-68a3-435b-876c-cffe4f2138a4 6f2720b3-27dc-4496-9039-1aafe2fee105 4 --

Notes

  • A hyphen (-) indicates any field that is unknown or not applicable to the connection.
  • The prefix in the earlier sample log entry originates from the rsyslog receiver, and is not part of the syslog message from the amphora:

    Jun 12 00:44:13 amphora-3e0239c3-5496-4215-b76c-6abbe18de573 haproxy[1644]:”

Default

The default amphora tenant flow log format is:

`"{{ '{{' }} project_id {{ '}}' }} {{ '{{' }} lb_id {{ '}}' }} %f %ci %cp %t %{+Q}r %ST %B %U %[ssl_c_verify] %{+Q}[ssl_c_s_dn] %b %s %Tt %tsc"`

Refer to the table that follows for a description of the format.

Table 5.4. Data variables for tenant flow logs format variable definitions.

VariableTypeField name

{{project_id}}

UUID

Project ID (substitution variable from the amphora provider driver)

{{lb_id}}

UUID

Load balancer ID (substitution variable from the amphora provider driver)

%f

string

frontend_name

%ci

IP address

client_ip

%cp

numeric

client_port

%t

date

date_time

%ST

numeric

status_code

%B

numeric

bytes_read

%U

numeric

bytes_uploaded

%ssl_c_verify

Boolean

client_certificate_verify (0 or 1)

%ssl_c_s_dn

string

client_certificate_distinguised_name

%b

string

pool_id

%s

string

member_id

%Tt

numeric

processing_time (milliseconds)

%tsc

string

termination_state (with cookie status)

Additional resources

Chapter 6. Configuring Load-balancing service flavors

Load-balancing service (octavia) flavors are sets of provider configuration options that you create. When users request load balancers, they can specify that the load balancer be built using one of the defined flavors. You define a flavor for each load-balancing provider driver, which exposes the unique capabilities of the respective provider.

To create a new Load-balancing service flavor:

  1. Decide which capabilities of the load-balancing provider you want to configure in the flavor.
  2. Create the flavor profile with the flavor capabilities you have chosen.
  3. Create the flavor.

6.1. Listing Load-balancing service provider capabilities

You can review the list of capabilities that each Load-balancing service (octavia) provider driver exposes.

Prerequisites

  • You must have OpenStack administrator privileges.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the undercloud host as the stack user.
  2. Source the undercloud credentials file:

    $ source ~/stackrc
  3. List the capabilities for each driver:

    $ openstack loadbalancer provider capability list <provider>

    Replace <provider> with the name or UUID of the provider.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer provider capability list amphora

    The command output lists all of the capabilities that the provider supports.

    Sample output

    +-----------------------+---------------------------------------------------+
    | name                  | description                                       |
    +-----------------------+---------------------------------------------------+
    | loadbalancer_topology | The load balancer topology. One of: SINGLE - One  |
    |                       | amphora per load balancer. ACTIVE_STANDBY - Two   |
    |                       | amphora per load balancer.                        |
    | ...                   | ...                                               |
    +-----------------------+---------------------------------------------------+

  4. Note the names of the capabilities that you want to include in the flavor that you are creating.

Additional resources

6.2. Defining flavor profiles

Load-balancing service (octavia) flavor profiles contain the provider driver name and a list of capabilities. You use flavor profiles to create flavors that users specify to create a load balancer.

Prerequisites

  • You must have OpenStack administrator privileges.
  • You must know which load-balancing provider and which of its capabilities you want to include in the flavor profile.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the undercloud host as the stack user.
  2. Source the undercloud credentials file:

    $ source ~/stackrc
  3. Create a flavor profile:

    $ openstack loadbalancer flavorprofile create --name <profile_name> --provider <provider_name> --flavor-data '{"<capability>": "<value>"}'

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer flavorprofile create --name amphora-single-profile --provider amphora --flavor-data '{"loadbalancer_topology": "SINGLE"}'

    Sample output

    +---------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field         | Value                                |
    +---------------+--------------------------------------+
    | id            | 72b53ac2-b191-48eb-8f73-ed012caca23a |
    | name          | amphora-single-profile               |
    | provider_name | amphora                              |
    | flavor_data   | {"loadbalancer_topology": "SINGLE"}  |
    +---------------+--------------------------------------+

    In this example, a flavor profile is created for the amphora provider. When this profile is specified in a flavor, the load balancer that users create by using the flavor is a single amphora load balancer.

Verification

  • When you create a flavor profile, the Load-balancing service validates the flavor values with the provider to ensure that the provider can support the capabilities that you have specified.

Additional resources

6.3. Creating Load-balancing service flavors

You create a user-facing flavor for the Load-balancing service (octavia) by using a flavor profile. The name that you assign to the flavor is the value that users specify when they create a load balancer.

Prerequisites

  • You must have OpenStack administrator privileges.
  • You must have created a flavor profile.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the undercloud host as the stack user.
  2. Source the undercloud credentials file:

    $ source ~/stackrc
  3. Create a flavor:

    $ openstack loadbalancer flavor create --name <flavor_name> \
    --flavorprofile <flavor-profile> --description "<string>"
    Tip

    Provide a detailed description so that users can understand the capabilities of the flavor that you are providing.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer flavor create --name standalone-lb --flavorprofile amphora-single-profile --description "A non-high availability load balancer for testing."

    Sample output

    +-------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field             | Value                                |
    +-------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | id                | 25cda2d8-f735-4744-b936-d30405c05359 |
    | name              | standalone-lb                        |
    | flavor_profile_id | 72b53ac2-b191-48eb-8f73-ed012caca23a |
    | enabled           | True                                 |
    | description       | A non-high availability load         |
    |                   | balancer for testing.                |
    +-------------------+--------------------------------------+

    In this example, a flavor has been defined. When users specify this flavor, they create a load balancer that uses one Load-balancing service instance (amphora) and is not highly available.

Note

Disabled flavors are still visible to users, but users cannot use the disabled flavor to create a load balancer.

Additional resources

Chapter 7. Monitoring the Load-balancing service

To keep load balancing operational, you can use the load-balancer management network and create, modify, and delete load-balancing health monitors.

7.1. Load-balancing management network

The Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Load-balancing service (octavia) monitors load balancers through a project network referred to as the load-balancer management network. Hosts that run the Load-balancing service must have interfaces to connect to the load balancer management network. The supported interface configuration works with the neutron Modular Layer 2 plug-in with the Open Virtual Network mechanism driver (ML2/OVN) or the Open vSwitch mechanism driver (ML2/OVS). Use of the interfaces with other mechanism drivers has not been tested.

The default interfaces created at deployment are internal Open vSwitch (OVS) ports on the default integration bridge br-int. You must associate these interfaces with actual Networking service (neutron) ports allocated on the load-balancer management network.

The default interfaces are by default named, o-hm0. They are defined through standard interface configuration files on the Load-balancing service hosts. RHOSP director automatically configures a Networking service port and an interface for each Load-balancing service host during deployment. Port information and a template is used to create the interface configuration file, including:

  • IP network address information including the IP and netmask
  • MTU configuration
  • the MAC address
  • the Networking service port ID

In the default OVS case, the Networking service port ID is used to register extra data with the OVS port. The Networking service recognizes this interface as belonging to the port and configures OVS so it can communicate on the load-balancer management network.

By default, RHOSP configures security groups and firewall rules that allow the Load-balancing service controllers to communicate with its VM instances (amphorae) on TCP port 9443, and allows the heartbeat messages from the amphorae to arrive on the controllers on UDP port 5555. Different mechanism drivers might require additional or alternate requirements to allow communication between load-balancing services and the load balancers.

7.2. Load-balancing service instance monitoring

The Load-balancing service (octavia) monitors the load balancing instances (amphorae) and initiates failovers and replacements if the amphorae malfunction. Any time a failover occurs, the Load-balancing service logs the failover in the corresponding health manager log on the controller in /var/log/containers/octavia.

Use log analytics to monitor failover trends to address problems early. Problems such as Networking service (neutron) connectivity issues, Denial of Service attacks, and Compute service (nova) malfunctions often lead to higher failover rates for load balancers.

7.3. Load-balancing service pool member monitoring

The Load-balancing service (octavia) uses the health information from the underlying load balancing subsystems to determine the health of members of the load-balancing pool. Health information is streamed to the Load-balancing service database, and made available by the status tree or other API methods. For critical applications, you must poll for health information in regular intervals.

7.4. Load balancer provisioning status monitoring

You can monitor the provisioning status of a load balancer and send alerts if the provisioning status is ERROR. Do not configure an alert to trigger when an application is making regular changes to the pool and enters several PENDING stages.

The provisioning status of load balancer objects reflect the ability of the control plane to contact and successfully provision a create, update, and delete request. The operating status of a load balancer object reports on the current functionality of the load balancer.

For example, a load balancer might have a provisioning status of ERROR, but an operating status of ONLINE. This might be caused by a Networking (neutron) failure that blocked that last requested update to the load balancer configuration from successfully completing. In this case, the load balancer continues to process traffic through the load balancer, but might not have applied the latest configuration updates yet.

7.5. Load balancer functionality monitoring

You can monitor the operational status of your load balancer and its child objects.

You can also use an external monitoring service that connects to your load balancer listeners and monitors them from outside of the cloud. An external monitoring service indicates if there is a failure outside of the Load-balancing service (octavia) that might impact the functionality of your load balancer, such as router failures, network connectivity issues, and so on.

7.6. About Load-balancing service health monitors

A Load-balancing service (octavia) health monitor is a process that does periodic health checks on each back end member server to pre-emptively detect failed servers and temporarily pull them out of the pool.

If the health monitor detects a failed server, it removes the server from the pool and marks the member in ERROR. After you have corrected the server and it is functional again, the health monitor automatically changes the status of the member from ERROR to ONLINE, and resumes passing traffic to it.

Always use health monitors in production load balancers. If you do not have a health monitor, failed servers are not removed from the pool. This can lead to service disruption for web clients.

There are several types of health monitors, as briefly described here:

HTTP
by default, probes the / path on the application server.
HTTPS

operates exactly like HTTP health monitors, but with TLS back end servers.

If the servers perform client certificate validation, HAProxy does not have a valid certificate. In these cases, TLS-HELLO health monitoring is an alternative.

TLS-HELLO

ensures that the back end server responds to SSLv3-client hello messages.

A TLS-HELLO health monitor does not check any other health metrics, like status code or body contents.

PING

sends periodic ICMP ping requests to the back end servers.

You must configure back end servers to allow PINGs so that these health checks pass.

Important

A PING health monitor checks only if the member is reachable and responds to ICMP echo requests. PING health monitors do not detect if the application that runs on an instance is healthy. Use PING health monitors only in cases where an ICMP echo request is a valid health check.

TCP

opens a TCP connection to the back end server protocol port.

The TCP application opens a TCP connection and, after the TCP handshake, closes the connection without sending any data.

UDP-CONNECT

performs a basic UDP port connect.

A UDP-CONNECT health monitor might not work correctly if Destination Unreachable (ICMP type 3) is not enabled on the member server, or if it is blocked by a security rule. In these cases, a member server might be marked as having an operating status of ONLINE when it is actually down.

7.7. Creating Load-balancing service health monitors

Use Load-balancing service (octavia) health monitors to avoid service disruptions for your users. The health monitors run periodic health checks on each back end server to pre-emptively detect failed servers and temporarily pull the servers out of the pool.

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. Run the openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor create command, using argument values that are appropriate for your site.

    • All health monitor types require the following configurable arguments:

      <pool>
      Name or ID of the pool of back-end member servers to be monitored.
      --type
      The type of health monitor. One of HTTP, HTTPS, PING, SCTP, TCP, TLS-HELLO, or UDP-CONNECT.
      --delay
      Number of seconds to wait between health checks.
      --timeout
      Number of seconds to wait for any given health check to complete. timeout must always be smaller than delay.
      --max-retries
      Number of health checks a back-end server must fail before it is considered down. Also, the number of health checks that a failed back-end server must pass to be considered up again.
    • In addition, HTTP health monitor types also require the following arguments, which are set by default:

      --url-path
      Path part of the URL that should be retrieved from the back-end server. By default this is /.
      --http-method
      HTTP method that is used to retrieve the url_path. By default this is GET.
      --expected-codes

      List of HTTP status codes that indicate an OK health check. By default this is 200.

      Example

      $ openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor create --name my-health-monitor --delay 10 --max-retries 4 --timeout 5 --type TCP lb-pool-1

Verification

  • Run the openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor list command and verify that your health monitor is running.

Additional resources

7.8. Modifying Load-balancing service health monitors

You can modify the configuration for Load-balancing service (octavia) health monitors when you want to change the interval for sending probes to members, the connection timeout interval, the HTTP method for requests, and so on.

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. Modify your health monitor (my-health-monitor).

    In this example, a user is changing the time in seconds, that the health monitor waits between sending probes to members.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor set my_health_monitor --delay 600

Verification

  • Run the openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor show command to confirm your configuration changes.

    $ openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor show my_health_monitor

Additional resources

7.9. Deleting Load-balancing service health monitors

You can remove a Load-balancing service (octavia) health monitor.

Tip

An alternative to deleting a health monitor is to disable it by using the openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor set --disable command.

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. Delete the health monitor (my-health-monitor).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor delete my-health-monitor

Verification

  • Run the openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor list command to verify that the health monitor you deleted no longer exists.

Additional resources

7.10. Best practices for Load-balancing service HTTP health monitors

When you write the code that generates the health check in your web application, use the following best practices:

  • The health monitor url-path does not require authentication to load.
  • By default, the health monitor url-path returns an HTTP 200 OK status code to indicate a healthy server unless you specify alternate expected-codes.
  • The health check does enough internal checks to ensure that the application is healthy and no more. Ensure that the following conditions are met for the application:

    • Any required database or other external storage connections are up and running.
    • The load is acceptable for the server on which the application runs.
    • Your site is not in maintenance mode.
    • Tests specific to your application are operational.
  • The page generated by the health check should be small in size:

    • It returns in a sub-second interval.
    • It does not induce significant load on the application server.
  • The page generated by the health check is never cached, although the code that runs the health check might reference cached data.

    For example, you might find it useful to run a more extensive health check using cron and store the results to disk. The code that generates the page at the health monitor url-path incorporates the results of this cron job in the tests it performs.

  • Because the Load-balancing service only processes the HTTP status code returned, and because health checks are run so frequently, you can use the HEAD or OPTIONS HTTP methods to skip processing the entire page.

Chapter 8. Creating non-secure HTTP load balancers

You can create the following load balancers for non-secure HTTP network traffic:

8.1. Creating an HTTP load balancer with a health monitor

For networks that are not compatible with Red Hat OpenStack Platform Networking service (neutron) floating IPs, create a load balancer to manage network traffic for non-secure HTTP applications. Create a health monitor to ensure that your back-end members remain available.

Prerequisites

  • A private subnet that contains back-end servers that host non-secure HTTP applications on TCP port 80.
  • The back-end servers on the private subnet are configured with a health check at the URL path /.
  • A shared external (public) subnet that you can reach from the internet.

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. Create a load balancer (lb1) on a public subnet (public_subnet).

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer create --name lb1 --vip-subnet-id public_subnet

  3. Verify the state of the load balancer.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

  4. Before going to the next step, ensure that the provisioning_status is ACTIVE.
  5. Create a listener (listener1) on a port (80).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer listener create --name listener1 --protocol HTTP --protocol-port 80 lb1

  6. Verify the state of the listener.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer listener show listener1

    Before going to the next step, ensure that the status is ACTIVE.

  7. Create the listener default pool (pool1).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer pool create --name pool1 --lb-algorithm ROUND_ROBIN --listener listener1 --protocol HTTP

  8. Create a health monitor on the pool (pool1) that connects to the back-end servers and tests the path (/).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor create --delay 15 --max-retries 4 --timeout 10 --type HTTP --url-path / pool1

  9. Add load balancer members (192.0.2.10 and 192.0.2.11) on the private subnet (private_subnet) to the default pool.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.10 --protocol-port 80 pool1
    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.11 --protocol-port 80 pool1

Verification

  1. View and verify the load balancer (lb1) settings:

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-01-15T11:11:09                  |
    | description         |                                      |
    | flavor              |                                      |
    | id                  | 788fe121-3dec-4e1b-8360-4020642238b0 |
    | listeners           | 09f28053-fde8-4c78-88b9-0f191d84120e |
    | name                | lb1                                  |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | pools               | 627842b3-eed8-4f5f-9f4a-01a738e64d6a |
    | project_id          | dda678ca5b1241e7ad7bf7eb211a2fd7     |
    | provider            | amphora                              |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | updated_at          | 2022-01-15T11:12:13                  |
    | vip_address         | 198.51.100.12                        |
    | vip_network_id      | 9bca13be-f18d-49a5-a83d-9d487827fd16 |
    | vip_port_id         | 69a85edd-5b1c-458f-96f2-b4552b15b8e6 |
    | vip_qos_policy_id   | None                                 |
    | vip_subnet_id       | 5bd7334b-49b3-4849-b3a2-b0b83852dba1 |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

  2. When a health monitor is present and functioning properly, you can check the status of each member.

    A working member (b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2) has an ONLINE value for its operating_status.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member show pool1 b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | address             | 192.0.2.10                           |
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-01-15T11:16:23                  |
    | id                  | b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2 |
    | name                |                                      |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | project_id          | dda678ca5b1241e7ad7bf7eb211a2fd7     |
    | protocol_port       | 80                                   |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | subnet_id           | 5bd7334b-49b3-4849-b3a2-b0b83852dba1 |
    | updated_at          | 2022-01-15T11:20:45                  |
    | weight              | 1                                    |
    | monitor_port        | None                                 |
    | monitor_address     | None                                 |
    | backup              | False                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

Additional resources

8.2. Creating an HTTP load balancer that uses a floating IP

To manage network traffic for non-secure HTTP applications, create a load balancer with a virtual IP (VIP) that depends on a floating IP. The advantage of using a floating IP is that you retain control of the assigned IP, which is necessary if you need to move, destroy, or recreate your load balancer. It is a best practice to also create a health monitor to ensure that your back-end members remain available.

Note

Floating IPs do not work with IPv6 networks.

Prerequisites

  • A private subnet that contains back-end servers that host non-secure HTTP applications on TCP port 80.
  • The back-end servers are configured with a health check at the URL path /.
  • A floating IP to use with a load balancer VIP.
  • A Red Hat OpenStack Platform Networking service (neutron) shared external (public) subnet that you can reach from the internet to use for the floating IP.

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. Create a load balancer (lb1) on a private subnet (private_subnet).

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer create --name lb1 --vip-subnet-id private_subnet

  3. Note the value of load_balancer_vip_port_id, because you must provide it in a later step.
  4. Verify the state of the load balancer.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

  5. Before going to the next step, ensure that the provisioning_status is ACTIVE.
  6. Create a listener (listener1) on a port (80).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer listener create --name listener1 --protocol HTTP --protocol-port 80 lb1

  7. Create the listener default pool (pool1).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer pool create --name pool1 --lb-algorithm ROUND_ROBIN --listener listener1 --protocol HTTP

  8. Create a health monitor on the pool (pool1) that connects to the back-end servers and tests the path (/).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor create --delay 15 --max-retries 4 --timeout 10 --type HTTP --url-path / pool1

  9. Add load balancer members (192.0.2.10 and 192.0.2.11) on the private subnet to the default pool.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.10 --protocol-port 80 pool1
    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.11 --protocol-port 80 pool1

  10. Create a floating IP address on the shared external subnet (public).

    Example

    $ openstack floating ip create public

  11. Note the value of floating_ip_address, because you must provide it in a later step.
  12. Associate this floating IP (203.0.113.0) with the load balancer vip_port_id (69a85edd-5b1c-458f-96f2-b4552b15b8e6).

    Example

    $ openstack floating ip set --port 69a85edd-5b1c-458f-96f2-b4552b15b8e6 203.0.113.0

Verification

  1. Verify HTTP traffic flows across the load balancer by using the floating IP (203.0.113.0).

    Example

    $ curl -v http://203.0.113.0 --insecure

    Sample output

    * About to connect() to 203.0.113.0 port 80 (#0)
    *   Trying 203.0.113.0...
    * Connected to 203.0.113.0 (203.0.113.0) port 80 (#0)
    > GET / HTTP/1.1
    > User-Agent: curl/7.29.0
    > Host: 203.0.113.0
    > Accept: */*
    >
    < HTTP/1.1 200 OK
    < Content-Length: 30
    <
    * Connection #0 to host 203.0.113.0 left intact

  2. When a health monitor is present and functioning properly, you can check the status of each member.

    A working member (b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2) has an ONLINE value for its operating_status.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member show pool1 b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | address             | 192.0.02.10                          |
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-01-15T11:11:23                  |
    | id                  | b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2 |
    | name                |                                      |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | project_id          | dda678ca5b1241e7ad7bf7eb211a2fd7     |
    | protocol_port       | 80                                   |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | subnet_id           | 5bd7334b-49b3-4849-b3a2-b0b83852dba1 |
    | updated_at          | 2022-01-15T11:28:42                  |
    | weight              | 1                                    |
    | monitor_port        | None                                 |
    | monitor_address     | None                                 |
    | backup              | False                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

Additional resources

  • loadbalancer in the Command Line Interface Reference
  • floating in the Command Line Interface Reference

8.3. Creating an HTTP load balancer with session persistence

To manage network traffic for non-secure HTTP applications, you can create load balancers that track session persistence. Doing so ensures that when a request comes in, the load balancer directs subsequent requests from the same client to the same back-end server. Session persistence optimizes load balancing by saving time and memory.

Prerequisites

  • A private subnet that contains back-end servers that host non-secure HTTP applications on TCP port 80.
  • The back-end servers are configured with a health check at the URL path /.
  • A shared external (public) subnet that you can reach from the internet.
  • The non-secure web applications whose network traffic you are load balancing have cookies enabled.

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. Create a load balancer (lb1) on a public subnet (public_subnet).

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer create --name lb1 --vip-subnet-id public_subnet

  3. Verify the state of the load balancer.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

  4. Before going to the next step, ensure that the provisioning_status is ACTIVE.
  5. Create a listener (listener1) on a port (80).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer listener create --name listener1 --protocol HTTP --protocol-port 80 lb1

  6. Create the listener default pool (pool1) that defines session persistence on a cookie (PHPSESSIONID).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer pool create --name pool1 --lb-algorithm ROUND_ROBIN --listener listener1 --protocol HTTP --session-persistence type=APP_COOKIE,cookie_name=PHPSESSIONID

  7. Create a health monitor on the pool (pool1) that connects to the back-end servers and tests the path (/).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor create --delay 15 --max-retries 4 --timeout 10 --type HTTP --url-path / pool1

  8. Add load balancer members (192.0.2.10 and 192.0.2.11) on the private subnet (private_subnet) to the default pool.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.10 --protocol-port 80 pool1
    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.11 --protocol-port 80 pool1

Verification

  1. View and verify the load balancer (lb1) settings:

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-01-15T11:11:58                  |
    | description         |                                      |
    | flavor              |                                      |
    | id                  | 788fe121-3dec-4e1b-8360-4020642238b0 |
    | listeners           | 09f28053-fde8-4c78-88b9-0f191d84120e |
    | name                | lb1                                  |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | pools               | 627842b3-eed8-4f5f-9f4a-01a738e64d6a |
    | project_id          | dda678ca5b1241e7ad7bf7eb211a2fd7     |
    | provider            | amphora                              |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | updated_at          | 2022-01-15T11:28:42                  |
    | vip_address         | 198.51.100.22                        |
    | vip_network_id      | 9bca13be-f18d-49a5-a83d-9d487827fd16 |
    | vip_port_id         | 69a85edd-5b1c-458f-96f2-b4552b15b8e6 |
    | vip_qos_policy_id   | None                                 |
    | vip_subnet_id       | 5bd7334b-49b3-4849-b3a2-b0b83852dba1 |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

  2. When a health monitor is present and functioning properly, you can check the status of each member.

    A working member (b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2) has an ONLINE value for its operating_status.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member show pool1 b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | address             | 192.0.02.10                          |
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-01-15T11:11:23                  |
    | id                  | b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2 |
    | name                |                                      |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | project_id          | dda678ca5b1241e7ad7bf7eb211a2fd7     |
    | protocol_port       | 80                                   |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | subnet_id           | 5bd7334b-49b3-4849-b3a2-b0b83852dba1 |
    | updated_at          | 2022-01-15T11:28:42                  |
    | weight              | 1                                    |
    | monitor_port        | None                                 |
    | monitor_address     | None                                 |
    | backup              | False                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

Additional resources

Chapter 9. Creating secure HTTP load balancers

You can create various types of load balancers to manage secure HTTP (HTTPS) network traffic.

9.1. About non-terminated HTTPS load balancers

A non-terminated HTTPS load balancer acts effectively like a generic TCP load balancer: the load balancer forwards the raw TCP traffic from the web client to the back-end servers where the HTTPS connection is terminated with the web clients. While non-terminated HTTPS load balancers do not support advanced load balancer features like Layer 7 functionality, they do lower load balancer resource utilization by managing the certificates and keys themselves.

9.2. Creating a non-terminated HTTPS load balancer

If your application requires HTTPS traffic to terminate on the back-end member servers, typically called HTTPS pass through, you can use the HTTPS protocol for your load balancer listeners.

Prerequisites

  • A private subnet that contains back-end servers that host HTTPS applications that are configured with a TLS-encrypted web application on TCP port 443.
  • The back-end servers are configured with a health check at the URL path /.
  • A shared external (public) subnet that you can reach from the internet.

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. Create a load balancer (lb1) on a public subnet (public_subnet):

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer create --name lb1 --vip-subnet-id public_subnet

  3. Monitor the state of the load balancer.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

  4. Before going to the next step, ensure that the provisioning_status is ACTIVE.
  5. Create a listener (listener1) on a port (443).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer listener create --name listener1 --protocol HTTPS --protocol-port 443 lb1

  6. Create the listener default pool (pool1).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer pool create --name pool1 --lb-algorithm ROUND_ROBIN --listener listener1 --protocol HTTPS

  7. Create a health monitor on the pool (pool1) that connects to the back-end servers and tests the path (/).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor create --delay 15 --max-retries 4 --timeout 10 --type TLS-HELLO --url-path / pool1

  8. Add load balancer members (192.0.2.10 and 192.0.2.11) on the private subnet (private_subnet) to the default pool.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.10 --protocol-port 443 pool1
    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.11 --protocol-port 443 pool1

Verification

  1. View and verify the load balancer (lb1) settings.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-01-15T11:11:09                  |
    | description         |                                      |
    | flavor              |                                      |
    | id                  | 788fe121-3dec-4e1b-8360-4020642238b0 |
    | listeners           | 09f28053-fde8-4c78-88b9-0f191d84120e |
    | name                | lb1                                  |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | pools               | 627842b3-eed8-4f5f-9f4a-01a738e64d6a |
    | project_id          | dda678ca5b1241e7ad7bf7eb211a2fd7     |
    | provider            | amphora                              |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | updated_at          | 2022-01-15T11:12:42                  |
    | vip_address         | 198.51.100.11                        |
    | vip_network_id      | 9bca13be-f18d-49a5-a83d-9d487827fd16 |
    | vip_port_id         | 69a85edd-5b1c-458f-96f2-b4552b15b8e6 |
    | vip_qos_policy_id   | None                                 |
    | vip_subnet_id       | 5bd7334b-49b3-4849-b3a2-b0b83852dba1 |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

  2. When a health monitor is present and functioning properly, you can check the status of each member.

    A working member (b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2) has an ONLINE value for its operating_status.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member show pool1 b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | address             | 192.0.2.10                           |
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-01-15T11:11:09                  |
    | id                  | b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2 |
    | name                |                                      |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | project_id          | dda678ca5b1241e7ad7bf7eb211a2fd7     |
    | protocol_port       | 443                                  |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | subnet_id           | 5bd7334b-49b3-4849-b3a2-b0b83852dba1 |
    | updated_at          | 2022-01-15T11:12:42                  |
    | weight              | 1                                    |
    | monitor_port        | None                                 |
    | monitor_address     | None                                 |
    | backup              | False                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

Additional resources

9.3. About TLS-terminated HTTPS load balancers

When a TLS-terminated HTTPS load balancer is implemented, web clients communicate with the load balancer over Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols. The load balancer terminates the TLS session and forwards the decrypted requests to the back-end servers. When you terminate the TLS session on the load balancer, you offload the CPU-intensive encryption operations to the load balancer, and allow the load balancer to use advanced features such as Layer 7 inspection.

9.4. Creating a TLS-terminated HTTPS load balancer

When you use TLS-terminated HTTPS load balancers, you offload the CPU-intensive encryption operations to the load balancer, and allow the load balancer to use advanced features such as Layer 7 inspection. It is a best practice to also create a health monitor to ensure that your back-end members remain available.

Prerequisites

  • A private subnet that contains back-end servers that host non-secure HTTP applications on TCP port 80.
  • The back-end servers are configured with a health check at the URL path /.
  • A shared external (public) subnet that you can reach from the internet.
  • TLS public-key cryptography is configured with the following characteristics:

    • A TLS certificate, key, and intermediate certificate chain is obtained from an external certificate authority (CA) for the DNS name that is assigned to the load balancer VIP address, for example, www.example.com.
    • The certificate, key, and intermediate certificate chain reside in separate files in the current directory.
    • The key and certificate are PEM-encoded.
    • The key is not encrypted with a passphrase.
    • The intermediate certificate chain contains multiple certificates that are PEM-encoded and concatenated together.
  • You must configure the Load-balancing service (octavia) to use the Key Manager service (barbican). For more information, see the Manage Secrets with OpenStack Key Manager guide.

Procedure

  1. Combine the key (server.key), certificate (server.crt), and intermediate certificate chain (ca-chain.crt) into a single PKCS12 file (server.p12).

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    Example

    $ openssl pkcs12 -export -inkey server.key -in server.crt -certfile ca-chain.crt -passout pass: -out server.p12

    Note

    The following procedure does not work if you password protect the PKCS12 file.

  2. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  3. Use the Key Manager service to create a secret resource (tls_secret1) for the PKCS12 file.

    Example

    $ openstack secret store --name='tls_secret1' -t 'application/octet-stream' -e 'base64' --payload="$(base64 < server.p12)"

  4. Create a load balancer (lb1) on the public subnet (public_subnet).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer create --name lb1 --vip-subnet-id public_subnet

  5. Monitor the state of the load balancer.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

  6. Before going to the next step, ensure that the provisioning_status is ACTIVE.
  7. Create a TERMINATED_HTTPS listener (listener1), and reference the secret resource as the default TLS container for the listener.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer listener create --protocol-port 443 --protocol TERMINATED_HTTPS --name listener1 --default-tls-container=$(openstack secret list | awk '/ tls_secret1 / {print $2}') lb1

  8. Create a pool (pool1) and make it the default pool for the listener.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer pool create --name pool1 --lb-algorithm ROUND_ROBIN --listener listener1 --protocol HTTP

  9. Create a health monitor on the pool (pool1) that connects to the back-end servers and tests the path (/).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor create --delay 15 --max-retries 4 --timeout 10 --type HTTP --url-path / pool1

  10. Add the non-secure HTTP back-end servers (192.0.2.10 and 192.0.2.11) on the private subnet (private_subnet) to the pool.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.10 --protocol-port 80 pool1
    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.11 --protocol-port 80 pool1

Verification

  1. View and verify the load balancer (lb1) settings.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-01-15T11:11:09                  |
    | description         |                                      |
    | flavor              |                                      |
    | id                  | 788fe121-3dec-4e1b-8360-4020642238b0 |
    | listeners           | 09f28053-fde8-4c78-88b9-0f191d84120e |
    | name                | lb1                                  |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | pools               | 627842b3-eed8-4f5f-9f4a-01a738e64d6a |
    | project_id          | dda678ca5b1241e7ad7bf7eb211a2fd7     |
    | provider            | amphora                              |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | updated_at          | 2022-01-15T11:12:42                  |
    | vip_address         | 198.51.100.11                        |
    | vip_network_id      | 9bca13be-f18d-49a5-a83d-9d487827fd16 |
    | vip_port_id         | 69a85edd-5b1c-458f-96f2-b4552b15b8e6 |
    | vip_qos_policy_id   | None                                 |
    | vip_subnet_id       | 5bd7334b-49b3-4849-b3a2-b0b83852dba1 |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

  2. When a health monitor is present and functioning properly, you can check the status of each member.

    A working member (b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2) has an ONLINE value for its operating_status.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member show pool1 b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | address             | 192.0.2.10                           |
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-01-15T11:11:09                  |
    | id                  | b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2 |
    | name                |                                      |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | project_id          | dda678ca5b1241e7ad7bf7eb211a2fd7     |
    | protocol_port       | 80                                   |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | subnet_id           | 5bd7334b-49b3-4849-b3a2-b0b83852dba1 |
    | updated_at          | 2022-01-15T11:12:42                  |
    | weight              | 1                                    |
    | monitor_port        | None                                 |
    | monitor_address     | None                                 |
    | backup              | False                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

Additional resources

9.5. Creating a TLS-terminated HTTPS load balancer with SNI

For TLS-terminated HTTPS load balancers that employ Server Name Indication (SNI) technology, a single listener can contain multiple TLS certificates and enable the load balancer to know which certificate to present when it uses a shared IP. It is a best practice to also create a health monitor to ensure that your back-end members remain available.

Prerequisites

  • A private subnet that contains back-end servers that host non-secure HTTP applications on TCP port 80.
  • The back-end servers are configured with a health check at the URL path /.
  • A shared external (public) subnet that you can reach from the internet.
  • TLS public-key cryptography is configured with the following characteristics:

    • Multiple TLS certificates, keys, and intermediate certificate chains have been obtained from an external certificate authority (CA) for the DNS names assigned to the load balancer VIP address, for example, www.example.com and www2.example.com.
    • The keys and certificates are PEM-encoded.
    • The keys are not encrypted with passphrases.
  • You must configure the Load-balancing service (octavia) to use the Key Manager service (barbican). For more information, see the Manage Secrets with OpenStack Key Manager guide.

Procedure

  1. For each of the TLS certificates in the SNI list, combine the key (server.key), certificate (server.crt), and intermediate certificate chain (ca-chain.crt) into a single PKCS12 file (server.p12).

    In this example, you create two PKCS12 files (server.p12 and server2.p12) one for each certificate (www.example.com and www2.example.com).

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    $ openssl pkcs12 -export -inkey server.key -in server.crt -certfile ca-chain.crt -passout pass: -out server.p12
    
    $ openssl pkcs12 -export -inkey server2.key -in server2.crt -certfile ca-chain2.crt -passout pass: -out server2.p12
  2. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  3. Use the Key Manager service to create secret resources (tls_secret1 and tls_secret2) for the PKCS12 file.

    $ openstack secret store --name='tls_secret1' -t 'application/octet-stream' -e 'base64' --payload="$(base64 < server.p12)"
    $ openstack secret store --name='tls_secret2' -t 'application/octet-stream' -e 'base64' --payload="$(base64 < server2.p12)"
  4. Create a load balancer (lb1) on the public subnet (public_subnet).

    $ openstack loadbalancer create --name lb1 --vip-subnet-id public_subnet
  5. Monitor the state of the load balancer.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

  6. Before going to the next step, ensure that the provisioning_status is ACTIVE.
  7. Create a TERMINATED_HTTPS listener (listener1), and use SNI to reference both the secret resources.

    (Reference tls_secret1 as the default TLS container for the listener.)

    $ openstack loadbalancer listener create --protocol-port 443 \
    --protocol TERMINATED_HTTPS --name listener1 \
    --default-tls-container=$(openstack secret list | awk '/ tls_secret1 / {print $2}') \
    --sni-container-refs $(openstack secret list | awk '/ tls_secret1 / {print $2}') \
    $(openstack secret list | awk '/ tls_secret2 / {print $2}') -- lb1
  8. Create a pool (pool1) and make it the default pool for the listener.

    $ openstack loadbalancer pool create --name pool1 --lb-algorithm ROUND_ROBIN --listener listener1 --protocol HTTP
  9. Create a health monitor on the pool (pool1) that connects to the back-end servers and tests the path (/).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor create --delay 15 --max-retries 4 --timeout 10 --type HTTP --url-path / pool1

  10. Add the non-secure HTTP back-end servers (192.0.2.10 and 192.0.2.11) on the private subnet (private_subnet) to the pool.

    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.10 --protocol-port 80 pool1
    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.11 --protocol-port 80 pool1

Verification

  1. View and verify the load balancer (lb1) settings.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-01-15T11:11:09                  |
    | description         |                                      |
    | flavor              |                                      |
    | id                  | 788fe121-3dec-4e1b-8360-4020642238b0 |
    | listeners           | 09f28053-fde8-4c78-88b9-0f191d84120e |
    | name                | lb1                                  |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | pools               | 627842b3-eed8-4f5f-9f4a-01a738e64d6a |
    | project_id          | dda678ca5b1241e7ad7bf7eb211a2fd7     |
    | provider            | amphora                              |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | updated_at          | 2022-01-15T11:12:42                  |
    | vip_address         | 198.51.100.11                        |
    | vip_network_id      | 9bca13be-f18d-49a5-a83d-9d487827fd16 |
    | vip_port_id         | 69a85edd-5b1c-458f-96f2-b4552b15b8e6 |
    | vip_qos_policy_id   | None                                 |
    | vip_subnet_id       | 5bd7334b-49b3-4849-b3a2-b0b83852dba1 |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

  2. When a health monitor is present and functioning properly, you can check the status of each member.

    A working member (b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2) has an ONLINE value for its operating_status.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member show pool1 b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | address             | 192.0.2.10                           |
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-01-15T11:11:09                  |
    | id                  | b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2 |
    | name                |                                      |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | project_id          | dda678ca5b1241e7ad7bf7eb211a2fd7     |
    | protocol_port       | 80                                   |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | subnet_id           | 5bd7334b-49b3-4849-b3a2-b0b83852dba1 |
    | updated_at          | 2022-01-15T11:12:42                  |
    | weight              | 1                                    |
    | monitor_port        | None                                 |
    | monitor_address     | None                                 |
    | backup              | False                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

Additional resources

9.6. Creating HTTP and TLS-terminated HTTPS load balancing on the same IP and back-end

You can configure a non-secure listener and a TLS-terminated HTTPS listener on the same load balancer and the same IP address when you want to respond to web clients with the exact same content, regardless if the client is connected with a secure or non-secure HTTP protocol. It is a best practice to also create a health monitor to ensure that your back-end members remain available.

Prerequisites

  • A private subnet that contains back-end servers that host non-secure HTTP applications on TCP port 80.
  • The back-end servers are configured with a health check at the URL path /.
  • A shared external (public) subnet that you can reach from the internet.
  • TLS public-key cryptography is configured with the following characteristics:

    • A TLS certificate, key, and optional intermediate certificate chain have been obtained from an external certificate authority (CA) for the DNS name assigned to the load balancer VIP address (for example, www.example.com).
    • The certificate, key, and intermediate certificate chain reside in separate files in the current directory.
    • The key and certificate are PEM-encoded.
    • The key is not encrypted with a passphrase.
    • The intermediate certificate chain contains multiple certificates that are PEM-encoded and concatenated together.
  • You have configured the Load-balancing service (octavia) to use the Key Manager service (barbican). For more information, see the Manage Secrets with OpenStack Key Manager guide.
  • The non-secure HTTP listener is configured with the same pool as the HTTPS TLS-terminated load balancer.

Procedure

  1. Combine the key (server.key), certificate (server.crt), and intermediate certificate chain (ca-chain.crt) into a single PKCS12 file (server.p12).

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    $ openssl pkcs12 -export -inkey server.key -in server.crt -certfile ca-chain.crt -passout pass: -out server.p12
  2. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  3. Use the Key Manager service to create a secret resource (tls_secret1) for the PKCS12 file.

    $ openstack secret store --name='tls_secret1' -t 'application/octet-stream' -e 'base64' --payload="$(base64 < server.p12)"
  4. Create a load balancer (lb1) on the public subnet (public_subnet).

    $ openstack loadbalancer create --name lb1 --vip-subnet-id public_subnet
  5. Monitor the state of the load balancer.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

  6. Before going to the next step, ensure that the provisioning_status is ACTIVE.
  7. Create a TERMINATED_HTTPS listener (listener1), and reference the secret resource as the default TLS container for the listener.

    $ openstack loadbalancer listener create --protocol-port 443 --protocol TERMINATED_HTTPS --name listener1 --default-tls-container=$(openstack secret list | awk '/ tls_secret1 / {print $2}') lb1
  8. Create a pool (pool1) and make it the default pool for the listener.

    $ openstack loadbalancer pool create --name pool1 --lb-algorithm ROUND_ROBIN --listener listener1 --protocol HTTP
  9. Create a health monitor on the pool (pool1) that connects to the back-end servers and tests the path (/):

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor create --delay 15 --max-retries 4 --timeout 10 --type HTTP --url-path / pool1

  10. Add the non-secure HTTP back-end servers (192.0.2.10 and 192.0.2.11) on the private subnet (private_subnet) to the pool.

    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.10 --protocol-port 80 pool1
    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.11 --protocol-port 80 pool1
  11. Create a non-secure, HTTP listener (listener2), and make its default pool, the same as the secure listener.

    $ openstack loadbalancer listener create --protocol-port 80 --protocol HTTP --name listener2 --default-pool pool1 lb1

Verification

  1. View and verify the load balancer (lb1) settings.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-01-15T11:11:09                  |
    | description         |                                      |
    | flavor              |                                      |
    | id                  | 788fe121-3dec-4e1b-8360-4020642238b0 |
    | listeners           | 09f28053-fde8-4c78-88b9-0f191d84120e |
    | name                | lb1                                  |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | pools               | 627842b3-eed8-4f5f-9f4a-01a738e64d6a |
    | project_id          | dda678ca5b1241e7ad7bf7eb211a2fd7     |
    | provider            | amphora                              |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | updated_at          | 2022-01-15T11:12:42                  |
    | vip_address         | 198.51.100.11                        |
    | vip_network_id      | 9bca13be-f18d-49a5-a83d-9d487827fd16 |
    | vip_port_id         | 69a85edd-5b1c-458f-96f2-b4552b15b8e6 |
    | vip_qos_policy_id   | None                                 |
    | vip_subnet_id       | 5bd7334b-49b3-4849-b3a2-b0b83852dba1 |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

  2. When a health monitor is present and functioning properly, you can check the status of each member.

    A working member (b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2) has an ONLINE value for its operating_status.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member show pool1 b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | address             | 192.0.2.10                           |
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-01-15T11:11:09                  |
    | id                  | b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2 |
    | name                |                                      |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | project_id          | dda678ca5b1241e7ad7bf7eb211a2fd7     |
    | protocol_port       | 80                                   |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | subnet_id           | 5bd7334b-49b3-4849-b3a2-b0b83852dba1 |
    | updated_at          | 2022-01-15T11:12:42                  |
    | weight              | 1                                    |
    | monitor_port        | None                                 |
    | monitor_address     | None                                 |
    | backup              | False                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

Additional resources

Chapter 10. Creating other kinds of load balancers

You use the Load-balancing service (octavia) to create the type of load balancer that matches the type of non-HTTP network traffic that you want to manage.

10.1. Creating a TCP load balancer

You can create a load balancer when you need to manage network traffic for non-HTTP, TCP-based services and applications. It is a best practice to also create a health monitor to ensure that your back-end members remain available.

Prerequisites

  • A private subnet that contains back-end servers that host a custom application on a specific TCP port.
  • The back-end servers are configured with a health check at the URL path /.
  • A shared external (public) subnet that you can reach from the internet.

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. Create a load balancer (lb1) on the public subnet (public_subnet).

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer create --name lb1 --vip-subnet-id public_subnet

  3. Verify the state of the load balancer.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

  4. Before going to the next step, ensure that the provisioning_status is ACTIVE.
  5. Create a TCP listener (listener1) on the specified port (23456) for which the custom application is configured.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer listener create --name listener1 --protocol TCP --protocol-port 23456 lb1

  6. Create a pool (pool1) and make it the default pool for the listener.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer pool create --name pool1 --lb-algorithm ROUND_ROBIN --listener listener1 --protocol TCP

  7. Create a health monitor on the pool (pool1) that connects to the back-end servers and probes the TCP service port.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor create --delay 15 --max-retries 4 --timeout 10 --type TCP pool1

  8. Add the back-end servers (192.0.2.10 and 192.0.2.11) on the private subnet (private_subnet) to the pool.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.10 --protocol-port 80 pool1
    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.11 --protocol-port 80 pool1

Verification

  1. View and verify the load balancer (lb1) settings.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-01-15T11:11:09                  |
    | description         |                                      |
    | flavor              |                                      |
    | id                  | 788fe121-3dec-4e1b-8360-4020642238b0 |
    | listeners           | 09f28053-fde8-4c78-88b9-0f191d84120e |
    | name                | lb1                                  |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | pools               | 627842b3-eed8-4f5f-9f4a-01a738e64d6a |
    | project_id          | dda678ca5b1241e7ad7bf7eb211a2fd7     |
    | provider            | amphora                              |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | updated_at          | 2022-01-15T11:12:42                  |
    | vip_address         | 198.51.100.11                         |
    | vip_network_id      | 9bca13be-f18d-49a5-a83d-9d487827fd16 |
    | vip_port_id         | 69a85edd-5b1c-458f-96f2-b4552b15b8e6 |
    | vip_qos_policy_id   | None                                 |
    | vip_subnet_id       | 5bd7334b-49b3-4849-b3a2-b0b83852dba1 |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

  2. When a health monitor is present and functioning properly, you can check the status of each member. Use the following command to obtain a member ID:

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member list pool1

    A working member (b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2) has an ONLINE value for its operating_status.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member show pool1 b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | address             | 192.0.2.10                           |
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-01-15T11:11:09                  |
    | id                  | b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2 |
    | name                |                                      |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | project_id          | dda678ca5b1241e7ad7bf7eb211a2fd7     |
    | protocol_port       | 80                                   |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | subnet_id           | 5bd7334b-49b3-4849-b3a2-b0b83852dba1 |
    | updated_at          | 2022-01-15T11:12:42                  |
    | weight              | 1                                    |
    | monitor_port        | None                                 |
    | monitor_address     | None                                 |
    | backup              | False                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

Additional resources

10.2. Creating a UDP load balancer with a health monitor

You can create a load balancer when you need to manage network traffic on UDP ports. It is a best practice to also create a health monitor to ensure that your back-end members remain available.

Prerequisites

  • A private subnet that contains back-end servers that host one or more applications configured to use UDP ports.
  • A shared external (public) subnet that you can reach from the internet.
  • The back-end servers are configured with a UDP health check.
  • No security rules that block ICMP Destination Unreachable messages (ICMP type 3).

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. Create a load balancer (lb1) on a private subnet (private_subnet).

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer create --name lb1 --vip-subnet-id private_subnet

  3. Verify the state of the load balancer.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

  4. Before going to the next step, ensure that the provisioning_status is ACTIVE.
  5. Create a listener (listener1) on a port (1234).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer listener create --name listener1 --protocol UDP --protocol-port 1234 lb1

  6. Create the listener default pool (pool1).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer pool create --name pool1 --lb-algorithm ROUND_ROBIN --listener listener1 --protocol UDP

  7. Create a health monitor on the pool (pool1) that connects to the back-end servers by using UDP (UDP-CONNECT).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor create --delay 5 --max-retries 2 --timeout 3 --type UDP-CONNECT pool1

  8. Add load balancer members (192.0.2.10 and 192.0.2.11) on the private subnet (private_subnet) to the default pool.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.10 --protocol-port 1234 pool1
    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.11 --protocol-port 1234 pool1

Verification

  1. View and verify the load balancer (lb1) settings.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-01-15T11:11:09                  |
    | description         |                                      |
    | flavor              |                                      |
    | id                  | 788fe121-3dec-4e1b-8360-4020642238b0 |
    | listeners           | 09f28053-fde8-4c78-88b9-0f191d84120e |
    | name                | lb1                                  |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | pools               | 627842b3-eed8-4f5f-9f4a-01a738e64d6a |
    | project_id          | dda678ca5b1241e7ad7bf7eb211a2fd7     |
    | provider            | amphora                              |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | updated_at          | 2022-01-15T11:12:42                  |
    | vip_address         | 198.51.100.11                        |
    | vip_network_id      | 9bca13be-f18d-49a5-a83d-9d487827fd16 |
    | vip_port_id         | 69a85edd-5b1c-458f-96f2-b4552b15b8e6 |
    | vip_qos_policy_id   | None                                 |
    | vip_subnet_id       | 5bd7334b-49b3-4849-b3a2-b0b83852dba1 |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

  2. When a health monitor is present and functioning properly, you can check the status of each member. Use the following command to obtain a member ID:

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member list pool1

    A working member (b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2) has an ONLINE value for its operating_status.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member show pool1 b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | address             | 192.0.2.10                           |
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-01-15T11:11:09                  |
    | id                  | b85c807e-4d7c-4cbd-b725-5e8afddf80d2 |
    | name                |                                      |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | project_id          | dda678ca5b1241e7ad7bf7eb211a2fd7     |
    | protocol_port       | 1234                                 |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | subnet_id           | 5bd7334b-49b3-4849-b3a2-b0b83852dba1 |
    | updated_at          | 2022-01-15T11:12:42                  |
    | weight              | 1                                    |
    | monitor_port        | None                                 |
    | monitor_address     | None                                 |
    | backup              | False                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

Additional resources

10.3. Creating a QoS-ruled load balancer

You can apply a Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Networking service (neutron) Quality of Service (QoS) policy to virtual IP addresses (VIPs) that use load balancers. In this way, you can use a QoS policy to limit incoming or outgoing network traffic that the load balancer can manage. It is a best practice to also create a health monitor to ensure that your back-end members remain available.

Prerequisites

  • A private subnet that contains back-end servers that have been configured with an HTTP application on TCP port 80.
  • The back-end servers are configured with a health check at the URL path /.
  • A shared external (public) subnet that you can reach from the internet.
  • A QoS policy that contains bandwidth limit rules created for the RHOSP Networking service.

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. Create a network bandwidth QoS policy (qos_policy_bandwidth) with a maximum 1024 kbps and a maximum burst rate of 1024 kb.

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    Example

    $ openstack network qos policy create qos_policy_bandwidth
    $ openstack network qos rule create --type bandwidth-limit --max-kbps 1024 --max-burst-kbits 1024 qos-policy-bandwidth

  3. Create a load balancer (lb1) on the public subnet (public_subnet) by using a QoS policy (qos-policy-bandwidth).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer create --name lb1 --vip-subnet-id public_subnet --vip-qos-policy-id qos-policy-bandwidth

  4. Verify the state of the load balancer.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

  5. Before going to the next step, ensure that the provisioning_status is ACTIVE.
  6. Create a listener (listener1) on a port (80).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer listener create --name listener1 --protocol HTTP --protocol-port 80 lb1

  7. Create the listener default pool (pool1).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer pool create --name pool1 --lb-algorithm ROUND_ROBIN --listener listener1 --protocol HTTP

  8. Create a health monitor on the pool that connects to the back-end servers and tests the path (/).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor create --delay 15 --max-retries 4 --timeout 10 --type HTTP --url-path / pool1

  9. Add load balancer members (192.0.2.10 and 192.0.2.11) on the private subnet (private_subnet) to the default pool.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.10 --protocol-port 80 pool1
    
    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.11 --protocol-port 80 pool1

Verification

  1. View and verify the verify the listener (listener1) settings.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer list

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-01-15T11:11:09                  |
    | description         |                                      |
    | flavor              |                                      |
    | id                  | 788fe121-3dec-4e1b-8360-4020642238b0 |
    | listeners           | 09f28053-fde8-4c78-88b9-0f191d84120e |
    | name                | lb1                                  |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | pools               | 627842b3-eed8-4f5f-9f4a-01a738e64d6a |
    | project_id          | dda678ca5b1241e7ad7bf7eb211a2fd7     |
    | provider            | amphora                              |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | updated_at          | 2022-01-15T11:12:42                  |
    | vip_address         | 198.51.100.11                        |
    | vip_network_id      | 9bca13be-f18d-49a5-a83d-9d487827fd16 |
    | vip_port_id         | 69a85edd-5b1c-458f-96f2-b4552b15b8e6 |
    | vip_qos_policy_id   | cdfc3398-997b-46eb-9db1-ebbd88f7de05 |
    | vip_subnet_id       | 5bd7334b-49b3-4849-b3a2-b0b83852dba1 |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

    In this example the parameter, vip_qos_policy_id, contains a policy ID.

Additional resources

10.4. Creating a load balancer with an access control list

You can create an access control list (ACL) to limit incoming traffic to a listener to a set of allowed source IP addresses. Any other incoming traffic is rejected. It is a best practice to also create a health monitor to ensure that your back-end members remain available.

Prerequisites

  • A private subnet that contains back-end servers that are configured with a custom application on TCP port 80.
  • The back-end servers are configured with a health check at the URL path /.
  • A shared external (public) subnet that you can reach from the internet.

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. Create a load balancer (lb1) on the public subnet (public_subnet).

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer create --name lb1 --vip-subnet-id public_subnet

  3. Verify the state of the load balancer.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

  4. Before going to the next step, ensure that the provisioning_status is ACTIVE.
  5. Create a listener (listener1) with the allowed CIDRs (192.0.2.0/24 and 198.51.100.0/24).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer listener create --name listener1 --protocol TCP --protocol-port 80 --allowed-cidr 192.0.2.0/24 --allowed-cidr 198.51.100.0/24 lb1

  6. Create the listener default pool (pool1).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer pool create --name pool1 --lb-algorithm ROUND_ROBIN --listener listener1 --protocol TCP

  7. Create a health monitor on the pool that connects to the back-end servers and tests the path (/).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer healthmonitor create --delay 15 --max-retries 4 --timeout 10 --type HTTP --url-path / pool1

  8. Add load balancer members (192.0.2.10 and 192.0.2.11) on the private subnet (private_subnet) to the default pool.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.10 --protocol-port 80 pool1
    
    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.11 --protocol-port 80 pool1

Verification

  1. View and verify the listener (listener1) settings.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer listener show listener1

    Sample output

    +-----------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field                       | Value                                |
    +-----------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | admin_state_up              | True                                 |
    | connection_limit            | -1                                   |
    | created_at                  | 2022-01-15T11:11:09                  |
    | default_pool_id             | None                                 |
    | default_tls_container_ref   | None                                 |
    | description                 |                                      |
    | id                          | d26ba156-03c3-4051-86e8-f8997a202d8e |
    | insert_headers              | None                                 |
    | l7policies                  |                                      |
    | loadbalancers               | 2281487a-54b9-4c2a-8d95-37262ec679d6 |
    | name                        | listener1                            |
    | operating_status            | ONLINE                               |
    | project_id                  | 308ca9f600064f2a8b3be2d57227ef8f     |
    | protocol                    | TCP                                  |
    | protocol_port               | 80                                   |
    | provisioning_status         | ACTIVE                               |
    | sni_container_refs          | []                                   |
    | timeout_client_data         | 50000                                |
    | timeout_member_connect      | 5000                                 |
    | timeout_member_data         | 50000                                |
    | timeout_tcp_inspect         | 0                                    |
    | updated_at                  | 2022-01-15T11:12:42                  |
    | client_ca_tls_container_ref | None                                 |
    | client_authentication       | NONE                                 |
    | client_crl_container_ref    | None                                 |
    | allowed_cidrs               | 192.0.2.0/24                         |
    |                             | 198.51.100.0/24                      |
    +-----------------------------+--------------------------------------+

    In this example the parameter, allowed_cidrs, is set to allow traffic only from 192.0.2.0/24 and 198.51.100.0/24.

  2. To verify that the load balancer is secure, ensure that a request to the listener from a client whose CIDR is not in the allowed_cidrs list; the request does not succeed.

    Sample output

    curl: (7) Failed to connect to 203.0.113.226 port 80: Connection timed out
    curl: (7) Failed to connect to 203.0.113.226 port 80: Connection timed out
    curl: (7) Failed to connect to 203.0.113.226 port 80: Connection timed out
    curl: (7) Failed to connect to 203.0.113.226 port 80: Connection timed out

Additional resources

10.5. Creating an OVN load balancer

You can use the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) client to create a load balancer that manages network traffic in your RHOSP deployment. The RHOSP Load-Balancing service supports the neutron Modular Layer 2 plug-in with the Open Virtual Network mechanism driver (ML2/OVN).

Prerequisites

  • The ML2/OVN provider driver must be deployed.

    Important

    The OVN provider only supports Layer 4 TCP and UDP network traffic and the SOURCE_IP_PORT load balancer algorithm. The OVN provider does not support health monitoring.

  • A private subnet that contains back-end servers that host a custom application on a specific TCP port.
  • A shared external (public) subnet that you can reach from the internet.

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. Create a load balancer (lb1) on the private subnet (private_subnet) using the --provider ovn argument.

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer create --name lb1 --provider ovn --vip-subnet-id private_subnet

  3. Verify the state of the load balancer.

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1
  4. Before going to the next step, ensure that the provisioning_status is ACTIVE.
  5. Create a listener (listener1) that uses the protocol (tcp) on the specified port (80) for which the custom application is configured.

    Note

    The OVN provider only supports Layer 4 TCP and UDP network traffic.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer listener create --name listener1 --protocol tcp --protocol-port 80 lb1

  6. Create the listener default pool (pool1).

    Note

    The only supported load-balancing algorithm for OVN is SOURCE_IP_PORT.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer pool create --name pool1 --lb-algorithm SOURCE_IP_PORT --listener listener1 --protocol tcp

    Important

    OVN does not support the health monitor feature for load-balancing.

  7. Add the back-end servers (192.0.2.10 and 192.0.2.11) on the private subnet (private_subnet) to the pool.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.10 --protocol-port 80 pool1
    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.11 --protocol-port 80 pool1

Verification

  1. View and verify the load balancer (lb1) settings.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-01-15T11:11:09                  |
    | description         |                                      |
    | flavor              |                                      |
    | id                  | 788fe121-3dec-4e1b-8360-4020642238b0 |
    | listeners           | 09f28053-fde8-4c78-88b9-0f191d84120e |
    | name                | lb1                                  |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | pools               | 627842b3-eed8-4f5f-9f4a-01a738e64d6a |
    | project_id          | dda678ca5b1241e7ad7bf7eb211a2fd7     |
    | provider            | ovn                                  |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | updated_at          | 2022-01-15T11:12:42                  |
    | vip_address         | 198.51.100.11                        |
    | vip_network_id      | 9bca13be-f18d-49a5-a83d-9d487827fd16 |
    | vip_port_id         | 69a85edd-5b1c-458f-96f2-b4552b15b8e6 |
    | vip_qos_policy_id   | None                                 |
    | vip_subnet_id       | 5bd7334b-49b3-4849-b3a2-b0b83852dba1 |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

  2. Run the openstack loadbalancer listener show command to view the listener details.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer listener show listener1

    Sample output

    +-----------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field                       | Value                                |
    +-----------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | admin_state_up              | True                                 |
    | connection_limit            | -1                                   |
    | created_at                  | 2022-01-15T11:13:52                  |
    | default_pool_id             | a5034e7a-7ddf-416f-9c42-866863def1f2 |
    | default_tls_container_ref   | None                                 |
    | description                 |                                      |
    | id                          | a101caba-5573-4153-ade9-4ea63153b164 |
    | insert_headers              | None                                 |
    | l7policies                  |                                      |
    | loadbalancers               | 653b8d79-e8a4-4ddc-81b4-e3e6b42a2fe3 |
    | name                        | listener1                            |
    | operating_status            | ONLINE                               |
    | project_id                  | 7982a874623944d2a1b54fac9fe46f0b     |
    | protocol                    | TCP                                  |
    | protocol_port               | 64015                                |
    | provisioning_status         | ACTIVE                               |
    | sni_container_refs          | []                                   |
    | timeout_client_data         | 50000                                |
    | timeout_member_connect      | 5000                                 |
    | timeout_member_data         | 50000                                |
    | timeout_tcp_inspect         | 0                                    |
    | updated_at                  | 2022-01-15T11:15:17                  |
    | client_ca_tls_container_ref | None                                 |
    | client_authentication       | NONE                                 |
    | client_crl_container_ref    | None                                 |
    | allowed_cidrs               | None                                 |
    +-----------------------------+--------------------------------------+

  3. Run the openstack loadbalancer pool show command to view the pool (pool1) and load-balancer members.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer pool show pool1

    Sample output

    +----------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field                | Value                                |
    +----------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | admin_state_up       | True                                 |
    | created_at           | 2022-01-15T11:17:34                  |
    | description          |                                      |
    | healthmonitor_id     |                                      |
    | id                   | a5034e7a-7ddf-416f-9c42-866863def1f2 |
    | lb_algorithm         | SOURCE_IP_PORT                       |
    | listeners            | a101caba-5573-4153-ade9-4ea63153b164 |
    | loadbalancers        | 653b8d79-e8a4-4ddc-81b4-e3e6b42a2fe3 |
    | members              | 90d69170-2f73-4bfd-ad31-896191088f59 |
    | name                 | pool1                                |
    | operating_status     | ONLINE                               |
    | project_id           | 7982a874623944d2a1b54fac9fe46f0b     |
    | protocol             | TCP                                  |
    | provisioning_status  | ACTIVE                               |
    | session_persistence  | None                                 |
    | updated_at           | 2022-01-15T11:18:59                  |
    | tls_container_ref    | None                                 |
    | ca_tls_container_ref | None                                 |
    | crl_container_ref    | None                                 |
    | tls_enabled          | False                                |
    +----------------------+--------------------------------------+

Additional resources

Chapter 11. Implementing layer 7 load balancing

You can use the Red Hat OpenStack Platform Load-balancing service (octavia) with layer 7 policies to redirect HTTP requests to particular application server pools by using several criteria to meet your business needs.

11.1. About layer 7 load balancing

Layer 7 (L7) load balancing takes its name from the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, indicating that the load balancer distributes requests to back end application server pools based on layer 7 (application) data. The following are different terms that all mean L7 load balancing: request switching, application load balancing, and content-based- routing, switching, or balancing. The Red Hat OpenStack Platform Load-balancing service (octavia) provides robust support for L7 load balancing.

Note

You cannot create L7 policies and rules with UDP load balancers.

An L7 load balancer consists of a listener that accepts requests on behalf of a number of back end pools and distributes those requests based on policies that use application data to determine which pools service any given request. This allows for the application infrastructure to be specifically tuned and optimized to serve specific types of content. For example, you can tune one group of back end servers (a pool) to serve only images; another for execution of server-side scripting languages like PHP and ASP; and another for static content such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

Unlike lower-level load balancing, L7 load balancing does not require that all pools behind the load balancing service have the same content. L7 load balancers can direct requests based on URI, host, HTTP headers, and other data in the application message.

11.2. Layer 7 load balancing in the Load-balancing service

Although you can implement layer 7 (L7) load balancing for any well-defined L7 application interface, L7 functionality for the Red Hat OpenStack Platform Load-balancing service (octavia) refers only to the HTTP and TERMINATED_HTTPS protocols and its semantics.

Neutron LBaaS and the Load-balancing service use L7 rules and policies for the logic of L7 load balancing. An L7 rule is a single, simple logical test that evaluates to true or false. An L7 policy is a collection of L7 rules and a defined action to take if all the rules associated with the policy match.

11.3. Layer 7 load-balancing rules

For the Red Hat OpenStack Platform Load-balancing service (octavia), a layer 7 (L7) load-balancing rule is a single, simple logical test that returns either true or false. It consists of a rule type, a comparison type, a value, and an optional key that is used depending on the rule type. An L7 rule must always be associated with an L7 policy.

Note

You cannot create L7 policies and rules with UDP load balancers.

11.4. Layer 7 load-balancing rule types

The Red Hat OpenStack Platform Load-balancing service (octavia) has the following types of layer 7 load-balancing rules:

  • HOST_NAME: The rule compares the HTTP/1.1 hostname in the request against the value parameter in the rule.
  • PATH: The rule compares the path portion of the HTTP URI against the value parameter in the rule.
  • FILE_TYPE: The rule compares the last portion of the URI against the value parameter in the rule, for example, txt, jpg, and so on.
  • HEADER: The rule looks for a header defined in the key parameter and compares it against the value parameter in the rule.
  • COOKIE: The rule looks for a cookie named by the key parameter and compares it against the value parameter in the rule.
  • SSL_CONN_HAS_CERT: The rule matches if the client has presented a certificate for TLS client authentication. This does not imply that the certificate is valid.
  • SSL_VERIFY_RESULT: This rule matches the TLS client authentication certificate validation result. A value of zero (0) means the certificate was successfully validated. A value greater than zero means the certificate failed validation. This value follows the openssl-verify result codes.
  • SSL_DN_FIELD: The rule looks for a Distinguished Name field defined in the key parameter and compares it against the value parameter in the rule.

11.5. Layer 7 load-balancing rule comparison types

For the Red Hat OpenStack Platform Load-balancing service (octavia), layer 7 load-balancing rules of a given type always perform comparisons. The Load-balancing service supports the following types of comparisons. Not all rule types support all comparison types:

  • REGEX: Perl type regular expression matching
  • STARTS_WITH: String starts with
  • ENDS_WITH: String ends with
  • CONTAINS: String contains
  • EQUAL_TO: String is equal to

11.6. Layer 7 load-balancing rule result inversion

To more fully express the logic that some policies require and the Red Hat OpenStack Platform Load-balancing service (octavia) uses, layer 7 load-balancing rules can have their result inverted. If the invert parameter of a given rule is true, the result of its comparison is inverted.

For example, an inverted equal to rule effectively becomes a not equal to rule. An inverted regex rule returns true only if the given regular expression does not match.

11.7. Layer 7 load-balancing policies

For the Red Hat OpenStack Platform Load-balancing service (octavia), a layer 7 (L7) load-balancing policy is a collection of L7 rules associated with a listener, and which might also have an association to a back end pool. Policies are actions that the load balancer takes if all of the rules in the policy are true.

Note

You cannot create L7 policies and rules with UDP load balancers.

11.8. Layer 7 load-balancing policy logic

The Red Hat OpenStack Platform Load-balancing service (octavia), layer 7 load-balancing policy uses the following logic: all the rules associated with a given policy are logically AND-ed together. A request must match all of the policy rules to match the policy.

If you need to express a logical OR operation between rules, create multiple policies with the same action or, make a more elaborate regular expression).

11.9. Layer 7 load-balancing policy actions

If the layer 7 load-balancing policy matches a given request, then that policy action is executed. The following are the actions an L7 policy might take:

  • REJECT: The request is denied with an appropriate response code, and not forwarded on to any back end pool.
  • REDIRECT_TO_URL: The request is sent an HTTP redirect to the URL defined in the redirect_url parameter.
  • REDIRECT_PREFIX: Requests matching this policy are redirected to this prefix URL.
  • REDIRECT_TO_POOL: The request is forwarded to the back-end pool associated with the L7 policy.

11.10. Layer 7 load-balancing policy position

For the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Load-balancing service (octavia), when multiple layer 7 (L7) load-balancing policies are associated with a listener, then the value of the policy position parameter becomes important. The position parameter is used when determining the order that L7 policies are evaluated. The policy position affects listener behavior in the following ways:

  • In the reference implementation of the Load-balancing service (haproxy amphorae), HAProxy enforces the following ordering regarding policy actions:

    • REJECT policies take precedence over all other policies.
    • REDIRECT_TO_URL policies take precedence over REDIRECT_TO_POOL policies.
    • REDIRECT_TO_POOL policies are evaluated only after all of the above, and in the order that the position of the policy specifies.
  • L7 policies are evaluated in a specific order, as defined by the position attribute, and the first policy that matches a given request is the one whose action is followed.
  • If no policy matches a given request, then the request is routed to the listener’s default pool, if it exists. If the listener has no default pool, then an error 503 is returned.
  • Policy position numbering starts with one (1).
  • If a new policy is created with a position that matches that of an existing policy, then the new policy is inserted at the given position.
  • If a new policy is created without specifying a position, or specifying a position that is greater than the number of policies already in the list, the new policy is appended to the list.
  • When policies are inserted, deleted, or appended to the list, the policy position values are re-ordered from one (1) without skipping numbers. For example, if policy A, B, and C have position values of 1, 2 and 3 respectively, if you delete policy B from the list, the position for policy C becomes 2.

11.11. Redirecting unsecure HTTP requests to secure HTTP

You can use the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Load-balancing service (octavia) with layer 7 (L7) policies to redirect HTTP requests that are received on a non-secure TCP port to a secure TCP port.

In this example, any HTTP requests that arrive on the unsecure TCP port, 80, are redirected to the secure TCP port, 443.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. Create an HTTP listener (http_listener) on a load balancer (lb1) port (80).

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer listener create --name http_listener --protocol HTTP --protocol-port 80 lb1

  3. Create an L7 policy (policy1) on the listener (http_listener). The policy must contain the action (REDIRECT_TO_URL) and point to the URL (https://www.example.com/).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer l7policy create --action REDIRECT_PREFIX --redirect-prefix https://www.example.com/ --name policy1 http_listener

  4. Add an L7 rule that matches all requests to a policy (policy1).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer l7rule create --compare-type STARTS_WITH --type PATH --value / policy1

Verification

  1. Run the openstack loadbalancer l7policy list command and verify that the policy, policy1, exists.
  2. Run the openstack loadbalancer l7rule list <l7policy> command and verify that a rule with a compare_type of STARTS_WITH exists.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer l7rule list policy1

Additional resources

11.12. Redirecting requests based on the starting path to a pool

You can use the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Load-balancing service (octavia) to redirect HTTP requests to an alternate pool of servers. You can define a layer 7 (L7) policy to match one or more starting paths in the URL of the request.

In this example, any requests that contain URLs that begin with /js or /images are redirected to an alternate pool of static content servers.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. Create a second pool (static_pool) on a load balancer (lb1).

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer pool create --lb-algorithm ROUND_ROBIN --loadbalancer lb1 --name static_pool --protocol HTTP

  3. Add load balancer members (192.0.2.10 and 192.0.2.11) on the private subnet (private_subnet) to the pool (static_pool):

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.10 --protocol-port 80 static_pool
    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.11 --protocol-port 80 static_pool

  4. Create an L7 policy (policy1) on the listener (listener1). The policy must contain the action (REDIRECT_TO_POOL) and point to the pool (static_pool).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer l7policy create --action REDIRECT_TO_POOL --redirect-pool static_pool --name policy1 listener1

  5. Add an L7 rule that looks for /js at the start of the request path to the policy.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer l7rule create --compare-type STARTS_WITH --type PATH --value /js policy1

  6. Create an L7 policy (policy2) with an action (REDIRECT_TO_POOL) and add the listener (listener1) pointed at the pool.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer l7policy create --action REDIRECT_TO_POOL --redirect-pool static_pool --name policy2 listener1

  7. Add an L7 rule that looks for /images at the start of the request path to the policy.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer l7rule create --compare-type STARTS_WITH --type PATH --value /images policy2

Verification

  1. Run the openstack loadbalancer l7policy list command and verify that the policies, policy1 and policy2, exist.
  2. Run the openstack loadbalancer l7rule list <l7policy> command and verify that a rule with a compare_type of STARTS_WITH exists for each respective policy.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer l7rule list policy1
    $ openstack loadbalancer l7rule list policy2

Additional resources

11.13. Sending subdomain requests to a specific pool

You can use the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Load-balancing service (octavia) with layer 7 (L7) policies to redirect requests containing a specific HTTP/1.1 hostname to a different pool of application servers.

In this example, any requests that contain the HTTP/1.1 hostname, www2.example.com, are redirected to an alternate pool application servers, pool2.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. Create a second pool (pool2) on the load balancer (lb1).

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer pool create --lb-algorithm ROUND_ROBIN --loadbalancer lb1 --name pool2 --protocol HTTP

  3. Create an L7 policy (policy1) on the listener (listener1). The policy must contain the action (REDIRECT_TO_POOL) and point to the pool (pool2).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer l7policy create --action REDIRECT_TO_POOL --redirect-pool pool2 --name policy1 listener1

  4. Add an L7 rule to the policy that sends any requests using the HTTP/1.1 hostname, www2.example.com, to the second pool (pool2).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer l7rule create --compare-type EQUAL_TO --type HOST_NAME --value www2.example.com policy1

Verification

  1. Run the openstack loadbalancer l7policy list command and verify that the policy, policy1, exists.
  2. Run the openstack loadbalancer l7rule list <l7policy> command and verify that a rule with a compare_type of EQUAL_TO exists for the policy.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer l7rule list policy1

Additional resources

11.14. Sending requests based on the host name ending to a specific pool

You can use the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Load-balancing service (octavia) with layer 7 (L7) policies to redirect requests containing an HTTP/1.1 hostname that ends in a specific string to a different pool of application servers.

In this example, any requests that contain an HTTP/1.1 hostname that ends with, .example.com, are redirected to an alternate pool application server, pool2.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. Create a second pool (pool2) on the load balancer (lb1).

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer pool create --lb-algorithm ROUND_ROBIN --loadbalancer lb1 --name pool2 --protocol HTTP

  3. Create an L7 policy (policy1) on the listener (listener1). The policy must contain the action (REDIRECT_TO_POOL) and point to the pool (pool2).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer l7policy create --action REDIRECT_TO_POOL --redirect-pool pool2 --name policy1 listener1

  4. Add an L7 rule to the policy that sends any requests that use an HTTP/1.1 hostname (www2.example.com) to the second pool (pool2).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer l7rule create --compare-type ENDS_WITH --type HOST_NAME --value .example.com policy1

Verification

  1. Run the openstack loadbalancer l7policy list command and verify that the policy, policy1, exists.
  2. Run the openstack loadbalancer l7rule list <l7policy> command and verify that a rule with a compare_type of EQUAL_TO exists for the policy.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer l7rule list policy1

Additional resources

11.17. Sending requests to a pool whose name matches the hostname and path

You can use the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Load-balancing service (octavia) to redirect web client requests that match certain criteria to an alternate pool of application servers. The business logic criteria is performed through a layer 7 (L7) policy that attempts to match a predefined hostname and request path.

In this example, any web client requests that either match the hostname api.example.com, and have /api at the start of the request path are redirected to an alternate pool, api_pool.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. Create a second pool (api_pool) on the load balancer (lb1).

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer pool create --lb-algorithm ROUND_ROBIN --loadbalancer lb1 --name api_pool --protocol HTTP

  3. Add load balancer members (192.0.2.10 and 192.0.2.11) on the private subnet (private_subnet) to the pool (static_pool):

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.10 --protocol-port 80 static_pool
    $ openstack loadbalancer member create --subnet-id private_subnet --address 192.0.2.11 --protocol-port 80 static_pool

  4. Create an L7 policy (policy1) on the listener (listener1). The policy must contain the action (REDIRECT_TO_POOL) and point to the pool (api_pool).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer l7policy create --action REDIRECT_TO_POOL --redirect-pool api_pool --name policy1 listener1

  5. Add an L7 rule to the policy that matches the hostname api.example.com.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer l7rule create --compare-type EQUAL_TO --type HOST_NAME --value api.example.com policy1

  6. Add a second L7 rule to the policy that matches /api at the start of the request path.

    This rule is logically ANDed with the first rule.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer l7rule create --compare-type STARTS_WITH --type PATH --value /api policy1

Verification

  1. Run the openstack loadbalancer l7policy list command and verify that the policy, policy1, exists.
  2. Run the openstack loadbalancer l7rule list <l7policy> command and verify that rules with a compare_type of EQUAL_TO and STARTS_WITH, respectively, both exist for policy1.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer l7rule list policy1
    $ openstack loadbalancer l7rule list policy2

Additional resources

Chapter 12. Updating and upgrading the Load-balancing service

Perform regular updates and upgrades so that you can use the latest Red Hat OpenStack Platform Load-balancing service features, and avoid possible lengthy and problematic issues caused by infrequent updates and upgrades.

12.1. Updating and upgrading the Load-balancing service

The Load-balancing service (octavia) is a part of a Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) update or upgrade.

Prerequisites

  • Schedule a maintenance window to perform the upgrade, because during the upgrade the Load-balancing service control plane is not fully functional.

Procedure

  1. Perform the RHOSP update as described in the Keeping Red Hat OpenStack Platform Updated guide.
  2. After the maintenance release is applied, if you need to use new features, then rotate running amphorae to update them to the latest amphora image.

12.2. Updating running Load-balancing service instances

Periodically, you can update a running Load-balancing service instance (amphora) with a newer image. For example, you might want to update an amphora instance during the following events:

  • An update or upgrade of Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP).
  • A security update to your system.
  • A change to a different flavor for the underlying virtual machine.

During an RHOSP update or upgrade, director automatically downloads the default amphora image, uploads it to the overcloud Image service (glance), and then configures the Load-balancing service (octavia) to use the new image. When you fail over a load balancer, you force the Load-balancing service to start an instance (amphora) that uses the new amphora image.

Prerequisites

  • New images for amphora. These are available during an RHOSP update or upgrade.

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. List the IDs for all of the load balancers that you want to update:

    $ openstack loadbalancer list -c id -f value
  3. Fail over each load balancer:

    $ openstack loadbalancer failover <loadbalancer_id>
    Note

    When you start failing over the load balancers, monitor system utilization, and as needed, adjust the rate at which you perform failovers. A load balancer failover creates new virtual machines and ports, which might temporarily increase the load on OpenStack Networking.

  4. Monitor the state of the failed over load balancer:

    $ openstack loadbalancer show <loadbalancer_id>

    The update is complete when the load balancer status is ACTIVE.

Additional resources

Chapter 13. Troubleshooting and maintaining the Load-balancing service

Basic troubleshooting and maintenance for the Load-balancing service (octavia) starts with being familiar with the OpenStack client commands for showing status and migrating instances, and knowing how to access logs. If you need to troubleshoot more in depth, you can SSH into one or more Load-balancing service instances (amphorae).

13.1. Verifying the load balancer

You can troubleshoot the Load-balancing service (octavia) and its various components by viewing the output of the load balancer show and list commands.

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. Verify the load balancer (lb1) settings.

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer show lb1

    Sample output

    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | admin_state_up      | True                                 |
    | created_at          | 2022-02-17T15:59:18                  |
    | description         |                                      |
    | flavor_id           | None                                 |
    | id                  | 265d0b71-c073-40f4-9718-8a182c6d53ca |
    | listeners           | 5aaa67da-350d-4125-9022-238e0f7b7f6f |
    | name                | lb1                                  |
    | operating_status    | ONLINE                               |
    | pools               | 48f6664c-b192-4763-846a-da568354da4a |
    | project_id          | 52376c9c5c2e434283266ae7cacd3a9c     |
    | provider            | amphora                              |
    | provisioning_status | ACTIVE                               |
    | updated_at          | 2022-02-17T16:01:21                  |
    | vip_address         | 192.0.2.177                          |
    | vip_network_id      | afeaf55e-7128-4dff-80e2-98f8d1f2f44c |
    | vip_port_id         | 94a12275-1505-4cdc-80c9-4432767a980f |
    | vip_qos_policy_id   | None                                 |
    | vip_subnet_id       | 06ffa90e-2b86-4fe3-9731-c7839b0be6de |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------+

  3. Using the loadbalancer ID (265d0b71-c073-40f4-9718-8a182c6d53ca) from the previous step, obtain the ID of the amphora associated with the load balancer (lb1).

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer amphora list | grep 265d0b71-c073-40f4-9718-8a182c6d53ca

    Sample output

    | 1afabefd-ba09-49e1-8c39-41770aa25070 | 265d0b71-c073-40f4-9718-8a182c6d53ca | ALLOCATED | STANDALONE | 198.51.100.7  | 192.0.2.177   |

  4. Using the amphora ID (1afabefd-ba09-49e1-8c39-41770aa25070) from the previous step, view amphora information.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer amphora show 1afabefd-ba09-49e1-8c39-41770aa25070

    Sample output

    +-----------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field           | Value                                |
    +-----------------+--------------------------------------+
    | id              | 1afabefd-ba09-49e1-8c39-41770aa25070 |
    | loadbalancer_id | 265d0b71-c073-40f4-9718-8a182c6d53ca |
    | compute_id      | ba9fc1c4-8aee-47ad-b47f-98f12ea7b200 |
    | lb_network_ip   | 198.51.100.7                         |
    | vrrp_ip         | 192.0.2.36                           |
    | ha_ip           | 192.0.2.177                          |
    | vrrp_port_id    | 07dcd894-487a-48dc-b0ec-7324fe5d2082 |
    | ha_port_id      | 94a12275-1505-4cdc-80c9-4432767a980f |
    | cert_expiration | 2022-03-19T15:59:23                  |
    | cert_busy       | False                                |
    | role            | STANDALONE                           |
    | status          | ALLOCATED                            |
    | vrrp_interface  | None                                 |
    | vrrp_id         | 1                                    |
    | vrrp_priority   | None                                 |
    | cached_zone     | nova                                 |
    | created_at      | 2022-02-17T15:59:22                  |
    | updated_at      | 2022-02-17T16:00:50                  |
    | image_id        | 53001253-5005-4891-bb61-8784ae85e962 |
    | compute_flavor  | 65                                   |
    +-----------------+--------------------------------------+

  5. View the listener (listener1) details.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer listener show listener1

    Sample output

    +-----------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field                       | Value                                |
    +-----------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | admin_state_up              | True                                 |
    | connection_limit            | -1                                   |
    | created_at                  | 2022-02-17T16:00:59                  |
    | default_pool_id             | 48f6664c-b192-4763-846a-da568354da4a |
    | default_tls_container_ref   | None                                 |
    | description                 |                                      |
    | id                          | 5aaa67da-350d-4125-9022-238e0f7b7f6f |
    | insert_headers              | None                                 |
    | l7policies                  |                                      |
    | loadbalancers               | 265d0b71-c073-40f4-9718-8a182c6d53ca |
    | name                        | listener1                            |
    | operating_status            | ONLINE                               |
    | project_id                  | 52376c9c5c2e434283266ae7cacd3a9c     |
    | protocol                    | HTTP                                 |
    | protocol_port               | 80                                   |
    | provisioning_status         | ACTIVE                               |
    | sni_container_refs          | []                                   |
    | timeout_client_data         | 50000                                |
    | timeout_member_connect      | 5000                                 |
    | timeout_member_data         | 50000                                |
    | timeout_tcp_inspect         | 0                                    |
    | updated_at                  | 2022-02-17T16:01:21                  |
    | client_ca_tls_container_ref | None                                 |
    | client_authentication       | NONE                                 |
    | client_crl_container_ref    | None                                 |
    | allowed_cidrs               | None                                 |
    +-----------------------------+--------------------------------------+

  6. View the pool (pool1) and load-balancer members.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer pool show pool1

    Sample output

    +----------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Field                | Value                                |
    +----------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | admin_state_up       | True                                 |
    | created_at           | 2022-02-17T16:01:08                  |
    | description          |                                      |
    | healthmonitor_id     | 4b24180f-74c7-47d2-b0a2-4783ada9a4f0 |
    | id                   | 48f6664c-b192-4763-846a-da568354da4a |
    | lb_algorithm         | ROUND_ROBIN                          |
    | listeners            | 5aaa67da-350d-4125-9022-238e0f7b7f6f |
    | loadbalancers        | 265d0b71-c073-40f4-9718-8a182c6d53ca |
    | members              | b92694bd-3407-461a-92f2-90fb2c4aedd1 |
    |                      | 4ccdd1cf-736d-4b31-b67c-81d5f49e528d |
    | name                 | pool1                                |
    | operating_status     | ONLINE                               |
    | project_id           | 52376c9c5c2e434283266ae7cacd3a9c     |
    | protocol             | HTTP                                 |
    | provisioning_status  | ACTIVE                               |
    | session_persistence  | None                                 |
    | updated_at           | 2022-02-17T16:01:21                  |
    | tls_container_ref    | None                                 |
    | ca_tls_container_ref | None                                 |
    | crl_container_ref    | None                                 |
    | tls_enabled          | False                                |
    +----------------------+--------------------------------------+

  7. Verify HTTPS traffic flows across a load balancer whose listener is configured for HTTPS or TERMINATED_HTTPS protocols by connecting to the VIP address (192.0.2.177) of the load balancer.

    Tip

    Obtain the load-balancer VIP address by using the command, openstack loadbalancer show <load_balancer_name>.

    Note

    Security groups implemented for the load balancer VIP only allow data traffic for the required protocols and ports. For this reason you cannot ping load balancer VIPs, because ICMP traffic is blocked.

    Example

    $ curl -v https://192.0.2.177 --insecure

    Sample output

    * About to connect() to 192.0.2.177 port 443 (#0)
    *   Trying 192.0.2.177...
    * Connected to 192.0.2.177 (192.0.2.177) port 443 (#0)
    * Initializing NSS with certpath: sql:/etc/pki/nssdb
    * skipping SSL peer certificate verification
    * SSL connection using TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
    * Server certificate:
    * 	subject: CN=www.example.com,O=Dis,L=Springfield,ST=Denial,C=US
    * 	start date: Jan 15 09:21:45 2021 GMT
    * 	expire date: Jan 15 09:21:45 2021 GMT
    * 	common name: www.example.com
    * 	issuer: CN=www.example.com,O=Dis,L=Springfield,ST=Denial,C=US
    > GET / HTTP/1.1
    > User-Agent: curl/7.29.0
    > Host: 192.0.2.177
    > Accept: */*
    >
    < HTTP/1.1 200 OK
    < Content-Length: 30
    <
    * Connection #0 to host 192.0.2.177 left intact

Additional resources

13.2. Load-balancing service instance administrative logs

The administrative log offloading feature of the Load-balancing service instance (amphora) covers all of the system logging inside the amphora except for the tenant flow logs. You can send tenant flow logs to the same syslog receiver where the administrative logs are sent. You can send tenant flow logs to the same syslog receiver that processes the administrative logs, but you must configure the tenant flow logs separately.

The amphora sends all administrative log messages by using the native log format for the application sending the message. The amphorae log to the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Controller node in the same location as the other RHOSP logs (/var/log/containers/octavia/).

13.3. Migrating a specific Load-balancing service instance

In some cases you must migrate a Load-balancing service instance (amphora). For example, if the host is being shut down for maintenance

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. Locate the ID of the amphora that you want to migrate. You need to provide the ID in a later step.

    $ openstack loadbalancer amphora list
  3. To prevent the Compute scheduler service from scheduling any new amphorae to the Compute node being evacuated, disable the Compute node (compute-host-1).

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    Example

    $ openstack compute service set compute-host-1 nova-compute --disable

  4. Fail over the amphora by using the amphora ID (ea17210a-1076-48ff-8a1f-ced49ccb5e53) that you obtained.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer amphora failover ea17210a-1076-48ff-8a1f-ced49ccb5e53

Additional resources

13.4. Using SSH to connect to load-balancing instances

Use SSH to log in to Load-balancing service instances (amphorae) when troubleshooting service problems.

It can be helpful to use Secure Shell (SSH) to log into running Load-balancing service instances (amphorae) when troubleshooting service problems.

Prerequisites

  • You must have the Load-balancing service (octavia) SSH private key.
  • You must have SSH enabled in the Load-balancing service configuration before you create the load balancer.

Procedure

  1. On the director node, start ssh-agent and add your user identity key to the agent:

    $ eval $(ssh-agent -s)
    $ ssh-add
  2. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  3. Determine the IP address on the load-balancing management network (lb_network_ip) for the amphora that you want to connect to:

    $ openstack loadbalancer amphora list
  4. Use SSH to connect to the amphora:

    $ ssh -A -t heat-admin@<controller_node_IP_address> ssh cloud-user@<lb_network_ip>
  5. When you are finished, close your connection to the amphora and stop the SSH agent:

    $ exit

Additional resources

13.5. Showing listener statistics

Using the OpenStack Client, you can obtain statistics about the listener for a particular Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) loadbalancer:

  • current active connections (active_connections).
  • total bytes received (bytes_in).
  • total bytes sent (bytes_out).
  • total requests that were unable to be fulfilled (request_errors).
  • total connections handled (total_connections).

Procedure

  1. Source your credentials file.

    Example

    $ source ~/overcloudrc

  2. View the stats for the listener (listener1).

    Note

    Values inside parentheses are sample values that are used in the example commands in this procedure. Substitute these sample values with ones that are appropriate for your site.

    Example

    $ openstack loadbalancer listener stats show listener1

    Tip

    If you do not know the name of the listener, enter the command loadbalancer listener list.

    Sample output

    +--------------------+-------+
    | Field              | Value |
    +--------------------+-------+
    | active_connections | 0     |
    | bytes_in           | 0     |
    | bytes_out          | 0     |
    | request_errors     | 0     |
    | total_connections  | 0     |
    +--------------------+-------+

Additional resources

13.6. Interpreting listener request errors

You can obtain statistics about the listener for a particular Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) loadbalancer. For more information, see Section 13.5, “Showing listener statistics”.

One of the statistics tracked by the RHOSP loadbalancer, request_errors, is only counting errors that occurred in the request from the end user connecting to the load balancer. The request_errors variable is not measuring errors reported by the member server.

For example, if a tenant connects through the RHOSP Load-balancing service (octavia) to a web server that returns an HTTP status code of 400 (Bad Request), this error is not collected by the Load-balancing service. Loadbalancers do not inspect the content of data traffic. In this example, the loadbalancer interprets this flow as successful because it transported information between the user and the web server correctly.

The following conditions can cause the request_errors variable to increment:

  • early termination from the client, before the request has been sent.
  • read error from the client.
  • client timeout.
  • client closed the connection.
  • various bad requests from the client.

Additional resources

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