Chapter 3. Preparing for director installation

3.1. Preparing the undercloud

Before you can install director, you must complete some basic configuration on the host machine:

  • A non-root user to execute commands.
  • Directories to organize images and templates.
  • A resolvable hostname.
  • A Red Hat subscription.
  • The command line tools for image preparation and director installation.

Procedure

  1. Log in to your undercloud as the root user.
  2. Create the stack user:

    [root@director ~]# useradd stack
  3. Set a password for the user:

    [root@director ~]# passwd stack
  4. Disable password requirements when using sudo:

    [root@director ~]# echo "stack ALL=(root) NOPASSWD:ALL" | tee -a /etc/sudoers.d/stack
    [root@director ~]# chmod 0440 /etc/sudoers.d/stack
  5. Switch to the new stack user:

    [root@director ~]# su - stack
    [stack@director ~]$
  6. Create directories for system images and heat templates:

    [stack@director ~]$ mkdir ~/images
    [stack@director ~]$ mkdir ~/templates

    Director uses system images and heat templates to create the overcloud environment. Red Hat recommends creating these directories to help you organize your local file system.

  7. Check the base and full hostname of the undercloud:

    [stack@director ~]$ hostname
    [stack@director ~]$ hostname -f

    If either of the previous commands do not report the correct fully-qualified hostname or report an error, use hostnamectl to set a hostname:

    [stack@director ~]$ sudo hostnamectl set-hostname manager.example.com
    [stack@director ~]$ sudo hostnamectl set-hostname --transient manager.example.com
  8. Edit the /etc/hosts and include an entry for the system hostname. The IP address in /etc/hosts must match the address that you plan to use for your undercloud public API. For example, if the system is named manager.example.com and uses 10.0.0.1 for its IP address, add the following line to the /etc/hosts file:

    10.0.0.1  manager.example.com manager
  9. Register your system either with the Red Hat Content Delivery Network or with a Red Hat Satellite. For example, run the following command to register the system to the Content Delivery Network. Enter your Customer Portal user name and password when prompted:

    [stack@director ~]$ sudo subscription-manager register
  10. Find the entitlement pool ID for Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) director:

    [stack@director ~]$ sudo subscription-manager list --available --all --matches="Red Hat OpenStack"
    Subscription Name:   Name of SKU
    Provides:            Red Hat Single Sign-On
                         Red Hat Enterprise Linux Workstation
                         Red Hat CloudForms
                         Red Hat OpenStack
                         Red Hat Software Collections (for RHEL Workstation)
                         Red Hat Virtualization
    SKU:                 SKU-Number
    Contract:            Contract-Number
    Pool ID:             Valid-Pool-Number-123456
    Provides Management: Yes
    Available:           1
    Suggested:           1
    Service Level:       Support-level
    Service Type:        Service-Type
    Subscription Type:   Sub-type
    Ends:                End-date
    System Type:         Physical
  11. Locate the Pool ID value and attach the Red Hat OpenStack Platform 16.0 entitlement:

    [stack@director ~]$ sudo subscription-manager attach --pool=Valid-Pool-Number-123456
  12. Lock the undercloud to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.1:

    $ sudo subscription-manager release --set=8.1
  13. Disable all default repositories, and then enable the required Red Hat Enterprise Linux repositories:

    [stack@director ~]$ sudo subscription-manager repos --disable=*
    [stack@director ~]$ sudo subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-8-for-x86_64-baseos-eus-rpms --enable=rhel-8-for-x86_64-appstream-eus-rpms --enable=rhel-8-for-x86_64-highavailability-eus-rpms --enable=ansible-2.8-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms --enable=openstack-16-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms --enable=fast-datapath-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms

    These repositories contain packages that the director installation requires.

  14. Perform an update on your system to ensure that you have the latest base system packages:

    [stack@director ~]$ sudo dnf update -y
    [stack@director ~]$ sudo reboot
  15. Install the command line tools for director installation and configuration:

    [stack@director ~]$ sudo dnf install -y python3-tripleoclient

3.2. Configuring an undercloud proxy

If your environment uses a proxy, you can pre-configure the undercloud to use the proxy details. This procedure is optional and only applies to users requiring proxy configuration.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the undercloud host as the root user.
  2. Edit the /etc/environment file:

    # vi /etc/environment
  3. Add the following parameters to the /etc/environment file:

    http_proxy
    The proxy to use for standard HTTP requests.
    https_proxy
    The proxy to use for HTTPs requests.
    no_proxy

    A comma-separated list of IP addresses and domains excluded from proxy communications. Include all IP addresses and domains relevant to the undercloud.

    For example, use the following syntax to define the http_proxy, https_proxy, and no_proxy parameters:

    http_proxy=https://10.0.0.1:8080/
    https_proxy=https://10.0.0.1:8080/
    no_proxy=127.0.0.1,172.16.0.0/16,172.17.0.0/16,172.18.0.0/16,192.168.0.0/16,HOSTNAME.ctlplane.localdomain
  4. Restart your shell session. For example, logout and re-login to the undercloud.

3.3. Installing ceph-ansible

The ceph-ansible package is required when you use Ceph Storage with Red Hat OpenStack Platform.

If you use Red Hat Ceph Storage, or if your deployment uses an external Ceph Storage cluster, install the ceph-ansible package. For more information about integrating with an existing Ceph Storage cluster, see Integrating an Overcloud with an Existing Red Hat Ceph Cluster.

Procedure

  1. Enable the Ceph Tools repository:

    [stack@director ~]$ sudo subscription-manager repos --enable=rhceph-4-tools-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms
  2. Install the ceph-ansible package:

    [stack@director ~]$ sudo dnf install -y ceph-ansible

3.4. Preparing container images

The undercloud configuration requires initial registry configuration to determine where to obtain images and how to store them. Complete the following steps to generate and customize an environment file that you can use to prepare your container images.

Procedure

  1. Log in to your undercloud host as the stack user.
  2. Generate the default container image preparation file:

    $ openstack tripleo container image prepare default \
      --local-push-destination \
      --output-env-file containers-prepare-parameter.yaml

    This command includes the following additional options:

    • --local-push-destination sets the registry on the undercloud as the location for container images. This means the director pulls the necessary images from the Red Hat Container Catalog and pushes them to the registry on the undercloud. The director uses this registry as the container image source. To pull directly from the Red Hat Container Catalog, omit this option.
    • --output-env-file is an environment file name. The contents of this file include the parameters for preparing your container images. In this case, the name of the file is containers-prepare-parameter.yaml.

      Note

      You can use the same containers-prepare-parameter.yaml file to define a container image source for both the undercloud and the overcloud.

  3. Modify the containers-prepare-parameter.yaml to suit your requirements.

3.5. Container image preparation parameters

The default file for preparing your containers (containers-prepare-parameter.yaml) contains the ContainerImagePrepare heat parameter. This parameter defines a list of strategies for preparing a set of images:

parameter_defaults:
  ContainerImagePrepare:
  - (strategy one)
  - (strategy two)
  - (strategy three)
  ...

Each strategy accepts a set of sub-parameters that defines which images to use and what to do with the images. The following table contains information about the sub-parameters you can use with each ContainerImagePrepare strategy:

ParameterDescription

excludes

List of image name substrings to exclude from a strategy.

includes

List of image name substrings to include in a strategy. At least one image name must match an existing image. All excludes are ignored if includes is specified.

modify_append_tag

String to append to the tag for the destination image. For example, if you pull an image with the tag 14.0-89 and set the modify_append_tag to -hotfix, the director tags the final image as 14.0-89-hotfix.

modify_only_with_labels

A dictionary of image labels that filter the images that you want to modify. If an image matches the labels defined, the director includes the image in the modification process.

modify_role

String of ansible role names to run during upload but before pushing the image to the destination registry.

modify_vars

Dictionary of variables to pass to modify_role.

push_destination

Defines the namespace of the registry that you want to push images to during the upload process.

  • If set to true, the push_destination is set to the undercloud registry namespace using the hostname, which is the recommended method.
  • If set to false, the push to a local registry does not occur and nodes pull images directly from the source.
  • If set to a custom value, director pushes images to an external local registry.

If you choose to pull container images directly from the Red Hat Container Catalog, do not set this parameter to false in production environments or else all overcloud nodes will simultaneously pull the images from the Red Hat Container Catalog over your external connection, which can cause bandwidth issues. If the push_destination parameter is set to false or is not defined and the remote registry requires authentication, set the ContainerImageRegistryLogin parameter to true and include the credentials with the ContainerImageRegistryCredentials parameter.

pull_source

The source registry from where to pull the original container images.

set

A dictionary of key: value definitions that define where to obtain the initial images.

tag_from_label

Defines the label pattern to tag the resulting images. Usually sets to {version}-{release}.

The set parameter accepts a set of key: value definitions:

KeyDescription

ceph_image

The name of the Ceph Storage container image.

ceph_namespace

The namespace of the Ceph Storage container image.

ceph_tag

The tag of the Ceph Storage container image.

name_prefix

A prefix for each OpenStack service image.

name_suffix

A suffix for each OpenStack service image.

namespace

The namespace for each OpenStack service image.

neutron_driver

The driver to use to determine which OpenStack Networking (neutron) container to use. Use a null value to set to the standard neutron-server container. Set to ovn to use OVN-based containers.

tag

The tag that the director uses to identify the images to pull from the source registry. You usually keep this key set to the default value, which is the Red Hat OpenStack Platform version number.

Note

The container images use multi-stream tags based on Red Hat OpenStack Platform version. This means there is no longer a latest tag.

The ContainerImageRegistryCredentials parameter maps a container registry to a username and password to authenticate to that registry.

If a container registry requires a username and password, you can use ContainerImageRegistryCredentials to include credentials with the following syntax:

  ContainerImagePrepare:
  - push_destination: true
    set:
      namespace: registry.redhat.io/...
      ...
  ContainerImageRegistryCredentials:
    registry.redhat.io:
      my_username: my_password

In the example, replace my_username and my_password with your authentication credentials. Instead of using your individual user credentials, Red Hat recommends creating a registry service account and using those credentials to access registry.redhat.io content. For more information, see "Red Hat Container Registry Authentication".

The ContainerImageRegistryLogin parameter is used to control the registry login on the systems being deployed. This must be set to true if push_destination is set to false or not used.

  ContainerImagePrepare:
  - set:
      namespace: registry.redhat.io/...
      ...
  ContainerImageRegistryCredentials:
    registry.redhat.io:
      my_username: my_password
  ContainerImageRegistryLogin: true

3.6. Layering image preparation entries

The value of the ContainerImagePrepare parameter is a YAML list. This means that you can specify multiple entries. The following example demonstrates two entries where director uses the latest version of all images except for the nova-api image, which uses the version tagged with 16.0-44:

ContainerImagePrepare:
- tag_from_label: "{version}-{release}"
  push_destination: true
  excludes:
  - nova-api
  set:
    namespace: registry.redhat.io/rhosp-rhel8
    name_prefix: openstack-
    name_suffix: ''
    tag: 16.0
- push_destination: true
  includes:
  - nova-api
  set:
    namespace: registry.redhat.io/rhosp-rhel8
    tag: 16.0-44

The includes and excludes entries control image filtering for each entry. The images that match the includes strategy take precedence over excludes matches. The image name must contain the includes or excludes value to be considered a match.

3.7. Obtaining container images from private registries

Some container image registries require authentication to access images. In this situation, use the ContainerImageRegistryCredentials parameter in your containers-prepare-parameter.yaml environment file.

parameter_defaults:
  ContainerImagePrepare:
  - (strategy one)
  - (strategy two)
  - (strategy three)
  ContainerImageRegistryCredentials:
    registry.example.com:
      username: "p@55w0rd!"
Important

Private registries require push_destination set to true for their respective strategy in the ContainerImagePrepare.

The ContainerImageRegistryCredentials parameter uses a set of keys based on the private registry URL. Each private registry URL uses its own key and value pair to define the username (key) and password (value). This provides a method to specify credentials for multiple private registries.

parameter_defaults:
  ...
  ContainerImageRegistryCredentials:
    registry.redhat.io:
      myuser: 'p@55w0rd!'
    registry.internalsite.com:
      myuser2: '0th3rp@55w0rd!'
    '192.0.2.1:8787':
      myuser3: '@n0th3rp@55w0rd!'
Important

The default ContainerImagePrepare parameter pulls container images from registry.redhat.io, which requires authentication.

The ContainerImageRegistryLogin parameter is used to control whether the system needs to log in to the remote registry to fetch the containers.

parameter_defaults:
  ...
  ContainerImageRegistryLogin: true
Important

You must set this value to true if push_destination is not configured for a given strategy. If push_destination is configured in a ContainerImagePrepare strategy and the ContainerImageRegistryCredentials parameter is configured, the system logs in to fetch the containers and pushes them to the remote system.

3.8. Modifying images during preparation

It is possible to modify images during image preparation, and then immediately deploy with modified images. Scenarios for modifying images include:

  • As part of a continuous integration pipeline where images are modified with the changes being tested before deployment.
  • As part of a development workflow where local changes must be deployed for testing and development.
  • When changes must be deployed but are not available through an image build pipeline. For example, adding proprietary add-ons or emergency fixes.

To modify an image during preparation, invoke an Ansible role on each image that you want to modify. The role takes a source image, makes the requested changes, and tags the result. The prepare command can push the image to the destination registry and set the heat parameters to refer to the modified image.

The Ansible role tripleo-modify-image conforms with the required role interface and provides the behaviour necessary for the modify use cases. Control the modification with the modify-specific keys in the ContainerImagePrepare parameter:

  • modify_role specifies the Ansible role to invoke for each image to modify.
  • modify_append_tag appends a string to the end of the source image tag. This makes it obvious that the resulting image has been modified. Use this parameter to skip modification if the push_destination registry already contains the modified image. Change modify_append_tag whenever you modify the image.
  • modify_vars is a dictionary of Ansible variables to pass to the role.

To select a use case that the tripleo-modify-image role handles, set the tasks_from variable to the required file in that role.

While developing and testing the ContainerImagePrepare entries that modify images, run the image prepare command without any additional options to confirm that the image is modified as you expect:

sudo openstack tripleo container image prepare \
  -e ~/containers-prepare-parameter.yaml

3.9. Updating existing packages on container images

The following example ContainerImagePrepare entry updates all packages on the images using the dnf repository configuration on the undercloud host:

ContainerImagePrepare:
- push_destination: true
  ...
  modify_role: tripleo-modify-image
  modify_append_tag: "-updated"
  modify_vars:
    tasks_from: yum_update.yml
    compare_host_packages: true
    yum_repos_dir_path: /etc/yum.repos.d
  ...

3.10. Installing additional RPM files to container images

You can install a directory of RPM files in your container images. This is useful for installing hotfixes, local package builds, or any package that is not available through a package repository. For example, the following ContainerImagePrepare entry installs some hotfix packages only on the nova-compute image:

ContainerImagePrepare:
- push_destination: true
  ...
  includes:
  - nova-compute
  modify_role: tripleo-modify-image
  modify_append_tag: "-hotfix"
  modify_vars:
    tasks_from: rpm_install.yml
    rpms_path: /home/stack/nova-hotfix-pkgs
  ...

3.11. Modifying container images with a custom Dockerfile

For maximum flexibility, you can specify a directory containing a Dockerfile to make the required changes. When you invoke the tripleo-modify-image role, the role generates a Dockerfile.modified file that changes the FROM directive and adds extra LABEL directives. The following example runs the custom Dockerfile on the nova-compute image:

ContainerImagePrepare:
- push_destination: true
  ...
  includes:
  - nova-compute
  modify_role: tripleo-modify-image
  modify_append_tag: "-hotfix"
  modify_vars:
    tasks_from: modify_image.yml
    modify_dir_path: /home/stack/nova-custom
  ...

The following example shows the /home/stack/nova-custom/Dockerfile file. After you run any USER root directives, you must switch back to the original image default user:

FROM registry.redhat.io/rhosp-rhel8/openstack-nova-compute:latest

USER "root"

COPY customize.sh /tmp/
RUN /tmp/customize.sh

USER "nova"

3.12. Preparing a Satellite server for container images

Red Hat Satellite 6 offers registry synchronization capabilities that you can use to pull multiple images into a Satellite server and manage them as part of an application life cycle. The Satellite also acts as a registry for other container-enabled systems to use. For more information about managing container images, see "Managing Container Images" in the Red Hat Satellite 6 Content Management Guide.

The examples in this procedure use the hammer command line tool for Red Hat Satellite 6 and an example organization called ACME. Substitute this organization for your own Satellite 6 organization.

Note

This procedure requires authentication credentials to access container images from registry.redhat.io. Instead of using your individual user credentials, Red Hat recommends creating a registry service account and using those credentials to access registry.redhat.io content. For more information, see "Red Hat Container Registry Authentication".

Procedure

  1. Create a list of all container images:

    $ sudo podman search --limit 1000 "registry.redhat.io/rhosp" | grep rhosp-rhel8 | awk '{ print $2 }' | grep -v beta | sed "s/registry.redhat.io\///g" | tail -n+2 > satellite_images
  2. Copy the satellite_images file to a system that contains the Satellite 6 hammer tool. Alternatively, use the instructions in the Hammer CLI Guide to install the hammer tool to the undercloud.
  3. Run the following hammer command to create a new product (OSP16 Containers) in your Satellite organization:

    $ hammer product create \
      --organization "ACME" \
      --name "OSP16 Containers"

    This custom product will contain your images.

  4. Add the base container image to the product:

    $ hammer repository create \
      --organization "ACME" \
      --product "OSP16 Containers" \
      --content-type docker \
      --url https://registry.redhat.io \
      --docker-upstream-name rhosp-rhel8/openstack-base \
      --upstream-username USERNAME \
      --upstream-password PASSWORD \
      --name base
  5. Add the overcloud container images from the satellite_images file:

    $ while read IMAGE; do \
      IMAGENAME=$(echo $IMAGE | cut -d"/" -f2 | sed "s/openstack-//g" | sed "s/:.*//g") ; \
      hammer repository create \
      --organization "ACME" \
      --product "OSP16 Containers" \
      --content-type docker \
      --url https://registry.redhat.io \
      --docker-upstream-name $IMAGE \
      --upstream-username USERNAME \
      --upstream-password PASSWORD \
      --name $IMAGENAME ; done < satellite_images
  6. Add the Ceph Storage 4 container image:

    $ hammer repository create \
      --organization "ACME" \
      --product "OSP16 Containers" \
      --content-type docker \
      --url https://registry.redhat.io \
      --docker-upstream-name rhceph-beta/rhceph-4-rhel8 \
      --upstream-username USERNAME \
      --upstream-password PASSWORD \
      --name rhceph-4-rhel8
  7. Synchronize the container images:

    $ hammer product synchronize \
      --organization "ACME" \
      --name "OSP16 Containers"

    Wait for the Satellite server to complete synchronization.

    Note

    Depending on your configuration, hammer might prompt you for your Satellite server username and password. You can configure hammer to log in automatically using a configuration file. For more information, see the "Authentication" section in the Hammer CLI Guide.

  8. If your Satellite 6 server uses content views, create a new content view version to incorporate the images and promote it along environments in your application life cycle. This largely depends on how you structure your application lifecycle. For example, if you have an environment called production in your lifecycle and you want the container images to be available in that environment, create a content view that includes the container images and promote that content view to the production environment. For more information, see "Managing Content Views".
  9. Check the available tags for the base image:

    $ hammer docker tag list --repository "base" \
      --organization "ACME" \
      --lifecycle-environment "production" \
      --content-view "myosp16" \
      --product "OSP16 Containers"

    This command displays tags for the OpenStack Platform container images within a content view for a particular environment.

  10. Return to the undercloud and generate a default environment file that prepares images using your Satellite server as a source. Run the following example command to generate the environment file:

    $ openstack tripleo container image prepare default \
      --output-env-file containers-prepare-parameter.yaml
    • --output-env-file is an environment file name. The contents of this file include the parameters for preparing your container images for the undercloud. In this case, the name of the file is containers-prepare-parameter.yaml.
  11. Edit the containers-prepare-parameter.yaml file and modify the following parameters:

    • push_destination - Set this to true or false depending on your chosen container image management strategy. If you set this parameter to false, the overcloud nodes pull images directly from the Satellite. If you set this parameter to true, the director pulls the images from the Satellite to the undercloud registry and the overcloud pulls the images from the undercloud registry.
    • namespace - The URL and port of the registry on the Satellite server. The default registry port on Red Hat Satellite is 5000.
    • name_prefix - The prefix is based on a Satellite 6 convention. This differs depending on whether you use content views:

      • If you use content views, the structure is [org]-[environment]-[content view]-[product]-. For example: acme-production-myosp16-osp16_containers-.
      • If you do not use content views, the structure is [org]-[product]-. For example: acme-osp16_containers-.
    • ceph_namespace, ceph_image, ceph_tag - If you use Ceph Storage, include these additional parameters to define the Ceph Storage container image location. Note that ceph_image now includes a Satellite-specific prefix. This prefix is the same value as the name_prefix option.

The following example environment file contains Satellite-specific parameters:

parameter_defaults:
  ContainerImagePrepare:
  - push_destination: false
    set:
      ceph_image: acme-production-myosp16-osp16_containers-rhceph-4
      ceph_namespace: satellite.example.com:5000
      ceph_tag: latest
      name_prefix: acme-production-myosp16-osp16_containers-
      name_suffix: ''
      namespace: satellite.example.com:5000
      neutron_driver: null
      tag: 16.0
      ...
    tag_from_label: '{version}-{release}'

You must define the containers-prepare-parameter.yaml environment file in the undercloud.conf configuration file, otherwise the undercloud uses the default values:

container_images_file = /home/stack/containers-prepare-parameter.yaml