Deploying an overcloud with containerized Red Hat Ceph

Red Hat OpenStack Platform 15

Configuring the director to deploy and use a containerized Red Hat Ceph cluster

OpenStack Documentation Team

Abstract

This guide provides information about using the Red Hat OpenStack Platform director to create an overcloud with a containerized Red Hat Ceph Storage cluster. This includes instructions for customizing your Ceph cluster through the director.

Chapter 1. Introduction

Red Hat OpenStack Platform director creates a cloud environment called the overcloud. The director provides the ability to configure extra features for an overcloud, including integration with Red Hat Ceph Storage (both Ceph Storage clusters created with the director or existing Ceph Storage clusters).

This guide contains instructions for deploying a containerized Red Hat Ceph Storage cluster with your overcloud. Director uses Ansible playbooks provided through the ceph-ansible package to deploy a containerized Ceph cluster. The director also manages the configuration and scaling operations of the cluster.

For more information about containerized services in OpenStack, see Configuring a Basic overcloud with the CLI Tools in the Director Installation and Usage Guide.

1.1. Introduction to Ceph Storage

Red Hat Ceph Storage is a distributed data object store designed to provide excellent performance, reliability, and scalability. Distributed object stores are the future of storage, because they accommodate unstructured data, and because clients can use modern object interfaces and legacy interfaces simultaneously. At the heart of every Ceph deployment is the Ceph Storage Cluster, which consists of two types of daemons:

Ceph OSD (Object Storage Daemon)
Ceph OSDs store data on behalf of Ceph clients. Additionally, Ceph OSDs utilize the CPU and memory of Ceph nodes to perform data replication, rebalancing, recovery, monitoring and reporting functions.
Ceph Monitor
A Ceph monitor maintains a master copy of the Ceph storage cluster map with the current state of the storage cluster.

For more information about Red Hat Ceph Storage, see the Red Hat Ceph Storage Architecture Guide.

Important

This guide contains integration information for Ceph Block storage and the Ceph Object Gateway (RGW). It does not include information about Ceph File (CephFS) storage.

1.2. Requirements

This guide contains information supplementary to the Director Installation and Usage guide. The Requirements section from that guide also applies to this guide. Implement these requirements as necessary.

Before you deploy a containerized Ceph Storage cluster with your overcloud, your environment must contain the following configuration:

Important

The Ceph Monitor service installs on the overcloud Controller nodes, so you must provide adequate resources to avoid performance issues. Ensure that the Controller nodes in your environment use at least 16 GB of RAM for memory and solid-state drive (SSD) storage for the Ceph monitor data. For a medium to large Ceph installation, provide at least 500 GB of Ceph monitor data. This space is necessary to avoid levelDB growth if the cluster becomes unstable.

If you use the Red Hat OpenStack Platform director to create Ceph Storage nodes, note the following requirements.

1.2.1. Ceph Storage node requirements

Ceph Storage nodes are responsible for providing object storage in a Red Hat OpenStack Platform environment.

Placement Groups
Ceph uses Placement Groups to facilitate dynamic and efficient object tracking at scale. In the case of OSD failure or cluster rebalancing, Ceph can move or replicate a placement group and its contents, which means a Ceph cluster can re-balance and recover efficiently. The default Placement Group count that director creates is not always optimal so it is important to calculate the correct Placement Group count according to your requirements. You can use the Placement Group calculator to calculate the correct count: Placement Groups (PGs) per Pool Calculator
Processor
64-bit x86 processor with support for the Intel 64 or AMD64 CPU extensions.
Memory
Red Hat typically recommends a baseline of 16 GB of RAM per OSD host, with an additional 2 GB of RAM per OSD daemon.
Disk Layout

Sizing is dependent on your storage requirements. Red Hat recommends that your Ceph Storage node configuration includes three or more disks in a layout similar to the following example:

  • /dev/sda - The root disk. The director copies the main overcloud image to the disk. Ensure that the disk has a minimum of 40 GB of available disk space.
  • /dev/sdb - The journal disk. This disk divides into partitions for Ceph OSD journals. For example, /dev/sdb1, /dev/sdb2, and /dev/sdb3. The journal disk is usually a solid state drive (SSD) to aid with system performance.
  • /dev/sdc and onward - The OSD disks. Use as many disks as necessary for your storage requirements.

    Note

    Red Hat OpenStack Platform director uses ceph-ansible, which does not support installing the OSD on the root disk of Ceph Storage nodes. This means you need at least two disks for a supported Ceph Storage node.

Network Interface Cards
A minimum of one 1 Gbps Network Interface Cards, although Red Hat recommends that you use at least two NICs in a production environment. Use additional network interface cards for bonded interfaces or to delegate tagged VLAN traffic. Red Hat recommends that you use a 10 Gbps interface for storage node, especially if you want to create an OpenStack Platform environment that serves a high volume of traffic.
Power Management
Each Controller node requires a supported power management interface, such as Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) functionality on the motherboard of the server.

1.3. Additional resources

The /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ceph-ansible/ceph-ansible.yaml environment file instructs the director to use playbooks derived from the ceph-ansible project. These playbooks are installed in /usr/share/ceph-ansible/ of the undercloud. In particular, the following file contains all the default settings that the playbooks apply:

  • /usr/share/ceph-ansible/group_vars/all.yml.sample
Warning

While ceph-ansible uses playbooks to deploy containerized Ceph Storage, do not edit these files to customize your deployment. Instead, use heat environment files to override the defaults set by these playbooks. If you edit the ceph-ansible playbooks directly, your deployment will fail.

For more information about the playbook collection, see the documentation for this project (http://docs.ceph.com/ceph-ansible/master/) to learn more about the playbook collection.

Alternatively, for information about the default settings applied by director for containerized Ceph Storage, see the heat templates in /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/deployment/ceph-ansible.

Note

Reading these templates requires a deeper understanding of how environment files and heat templates work in director. See Understanding Heat Templates and Environment Files for reference.

Lastly, for more information about containerized services in OpenStack, see "Configuring a Basic Overcloud with the CLI Tools" in the Director Installation and Usage Guide.

Chapter 2. Preparing overcloud nodes

All nodes in this scenario are bare metal systems using IPMI for power management. These nodes do not require an operating system because the director copies a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 image to each node. Additionally, the Ceph Storage services on these nodes are containerized. The director communicates to each node through the Provisioning network during the introspection and provisioning processes. All nodes connect to this network through the native VLAN.

2.1. Cleaning Ceph Storage node disks

The Ceph Storage OSDs and journal partitions require GPT disk labels. This means the additional disks on Ceph Storage require conversion to GPT before installing the Ceph OSD services. You must delete all metadata from the disks to allow the director to set GPT labels on them.

You can configure the director to delete all disk metadata by default by adding the following setting to your /home/stack/undercloud.conf file:

clean_nodes=true

With this option, the Bare Metal Provisioning service runs an additional step to boot the nodes and clean the disks each time the node is set to available. This process adds an additional power cycle after the first introspection and before each deployment. The Bare Metal Provisioning service uses the wipefs --force --all command to perform the clean.

After setting this option, run the openstack undercloud install command to execute this configuration change.

Warning

The wipefs --force --all command deletes all data and metadata on the disk, but does not perform a secure erase. A secure erase takes much longer.

2.2. Registering nodes

Import a node inventory file (instackenv.json) in JSON format to the director so that the director can communicate with the nodes. This inventory file contains hardware and power management details that the director can use to register nodes:

{
    "nodes":[
        {
            "mac":[
                "b1:b1:b1:b1:b1:b1"
            ],
            "cpu":"4",
            "memory":"6144",
            "disk":"40",
            "arch":"x86_64",
            "pm_type":"ipmi",
            "pm_user":"admin",
            "pm_password":"p@55w0rd!",
            "pm_addr":"192.0.2.205"
        },
        {
            "mac":[
                "b2:b2:b2:b2:b2:b2"
            ],
            "cpu":"4",
            "memory":"6144",
            "disk":"40",
            "arch":"x86_64",
            "pm_type":"ipmi",
            "pm_user":"admin",
            "pm_password":"p@55w0rd!",
            "pm_addr":"192.0.2.206"
        },
        {
            "mac":[
                "b3:b3:b3:b3:b3:b3"
            ],
            "cpu":"4",
            "memory":"6144",
            "disk":"40",
            "arch":"x86_64",
            "pm_type":"ipmi",
            "pm_user":"admin",
            "pm_password":"p@55w0rd!",
            "pm_addr":"192.0.2.207"
        },
        {
            "mac":[
                "c1:c1:c1:c1:c1:c1"
            ],
            "cpu":"4",
            "memory":"6144",
            "disk":"40",
            "arch":"x86_64",
            "pm_type":"ipmi",
            "pm_user":"admin",
            "pm_password":"p@55w0rd!",
            "pm_addr":"192.0.2.208"
        },
        {
            "mac":[
                "c2:c2:c2:c2:c2:c2"
            ],
            "cpu":"4",
            "memory":"6144",
            "disk":"40",
            "arch":"x86_64",
            "pm_type":"ipmi",
            "pm_user":"admin",
            "pm_password":"p@55w0rd!",
            "pm_addr":"192.0.2.209"
        },
        {
            "mac":[
                "c3:c3:c3:c3:c3:c3"
            ],
            "cpu":"4",
            "memory":"6144",
            "disk":"40",
            "arch":"x86_64",
            "pm_type":"ipmi",
            "pm_user":"admin",
            "pm_password":"p@55w0rd!",
            "pm_addr":"192.0.2.210"
        },
        {
            "mac":[
                "d1:d1:d1:d1:d1:d1"
            ],
            "cpu":"4",
            "memory":"6144",
            "disk":"40",
            "arch":"x86_64",
            "pm_type":"ipmi",
            "pm_user":"admin",
            "pm_password":"p@55w0rd!",
            "pm_addr":"192.0.2.211"
        },
        {
            "mac":[
                "d2:d2:d2:d2:d2:d2"
            ],
            "cpu":"4",
            "memory":"6144",
            "disk":"40",
            "arch":"x86_64",
            "pm_type":"ipmi",
            "pm_user":"admin",
            "pm_password":"p@55w0rd!",
            "pm_addr":"192.0.2.212"
        },
        {
            "mac":[
                "d3:d3:d3:d3:d3:d3"
            ],
            "cpu":"4",
            "memory":"6144",
            "disk":"40",
            "arch":"x86_64",
            "pm_type":"ipmi",
            "pm_user":"admin",
            "pm_password":"p@55w0rd!",
            "pm_addr":"192.0.2.213"
        }
    ]
}

Procedure

  1. After you create the inventory file, save the file to the home directory of the stack user (/home/stack/instackenv.json).
  2. Initialize the stack user, then import the instackenv.json inventory file into the director:

    $ source ~/stackrc
    $ openstack overcloud node import ~/instackenv.json

    The openstack overcloud node import command imports the inventory file and registers each node with the director.

  3. Assign the kernel and ramdisk images to each node:
$ openstack overcloud node configure <node>

The nodes are now registered and configured in the director.

2.3. Manually tagging nodes into profiles

After you register each node, you must inspect the hardware and tag the node into a specific profile. Use profile tags to match your nodes to flavors, and then assign flavors to deployment roles.

To inspect and tag new nodes, complete the following steps:

  1. Trigger hardware introspection to retrieve the hardware attributes of each node:

    $ openstack overcloud node introspect --all-manageable --provide
    • The --all-manageable option introspects only the nodes that are in a managed state. In this example, all nodes are in a managed state.
    • The --provide option resets all nodes to an active state after introspection.

      Important

      Ensure that this process completes successfully. This process usually takes 15 minutes for bare metal nodes.

  2. Retrieve a list of your nodes to identify their UUIDs:

    $ openstack baremetal node list
  3. Add a profile option to the properties/capabilities parameter for each node to manually tag a node to a specific profile. The addition of the profile option tags the nodes into each respective profile.

    Note

    As an alternative to manual tagging, use the Automated Health Check (AHC) Tools to automatically tag larger numbers of nodes based on benchmarking data.

    For example, a typical deployment contains three profiles: control, compute, and ceph-storage. Run the following commands to tag three nodes for each profile:

    $ ironic node-update 1a4e30da-b6dc-499d-ba87-0bd8a3819bc0 add properties/capabilities='profile:control,boot_option:local'
    $ ironic node-update 6faba1a9-e2d8-4b7c-95a2-c7fbdc12129a add properties/capabilities='profile:control,boot_option:local'
    $ ironic node-update 5e3b2f50-fcd9-4404-b0a2-59d79924b38e add properties/capabilities='profile:control,boot_option:local'
    $ ironic node-update 484587b2-b3b3-40d5-925b-a26a2fa3036f add properties/capabilities='profile:compute,boot_option:local'
    $ ironic node-update d010460b-38f2-4800-9cc4-d69f0d067efe add properties/capabilities='profile:compute,boot_option:local'
    $ ironic node-update d930e613-3e14-44b9-8240-4f3559801ea6 add properties/capabilities='profile:compute,boot_option:local'
    $ ironic node-update da0cc61b-4882-45e0-9f43-fab65cf4e52b add properties/capabilities='profile:ceph-storage,boot_option:local'
    $ ironic node-update b9f70722-e124-4650-a9b1-aade8121b5ed add properties/capabilities='profile:ceph-storage,boot_option:local'
    $ ironic node-update 68bf8f29-7731-4148-ba16-efb31ab8d34f add properties/capabilities='profile:ceph-storage,boot_option:local'
    Tip

    You can also configure a new custom profile that you can use to tag a node for the Ceph MON and Ceph MDS services. See Chapter 3, Deploying Ceph services on dedicated nodes for details.

2.4. Defining the root disk for multi-disk clusters

Director must identify the root disk during provisioning in the case of nodes with multiple disks. For example, most Ceph Storage nodes use multiple disks. By default, the director writes the overcloud image to the root disk during the provisioning process

There are several properties that you can define to help the director identify the root disk:

  • model (String): Device identifier.
  • vendor (String): Device vendor.
  • serial (String): Disk serial number.
  • hctl (String): Host:Channel:Target:Lun for SCSI.
  • size (Integer): Size of the device in GB.
  • wwn (String): Unique storage identifier.
  • wwn_with_extension (String): Unique storage identifier with the vendor extension appended.
  • wwn_vendor_extension (String): Unique vendor storage identifier.
  • rotational (Boolean): True for a rotational device (HDD), otherwise false (SSD).
  • name (String): The name of the device, for example: /dev/sdb1.
Important

Use the name property only for devices with persistent names. Do not use name to set the root disk for any other devices because this value can change when the node boots.

Complete the following steps to specify the root device using its serial number.

Procedure

  1. Check the disk information from the hardware introspection of each node. Run the following command to display the disk information of a node:

    (undercloud) $ openstack baremetal introspection data save 1a4e30da-b6dc-499d-ba87-0bd8a3819bc0 | jq ".inventory.disks"

    For example, the data for one node might show three disks:

    [
      {
        "size": 299439751168,
        "rotational": true,
        "vendor": "DELL",
        "name": "/dev/sda",
        "wwn_vendor_extension": "0x1ea4dcc412a9632b",
        "wwn_with_extension": "0x61866da04f3807001ea4dcc412a9632b",
        "model": "PERC H330 Mini",
        "wwn": "0x61866da04f380700",
        "serial": "61866da04f3807001ea4dcc412a9632b"
      }
      {
        "size": 299439751168,
        "rotational": true,
        "vendor": "DELL",
        "name": "/dev/sdb",
        "wwn_vendor_extension": "0x1ea4e13c12e36ad6",
        "wwn_with_extension": "0x61866da04f380d001ea4e13c12e36ad6",
        "model": "PERC H330 Mini",
        "wwn": "0x61866da04f380d00",
        "serial": "61866da04f380d001ea4e13c12e36ad6"
      }
      {
        "size": 299439751168,
        "rotational": true,
        "vendor": "DELL",
        "name": "/dev/sdc",
        "wwn_vendor_extension": "0x1ea4e31e121cfb45",
        "wwn_with_extension": "0x61866da04f37fc001ea4e31e121cfb45",
        "model": "PERC H330 Mini",
        "wwn": "0x61866da04f37fc00",
        "serial": "61866da04f37fc001ea4e31e121cfb45"
      }
    ]
  2. Run the openstack baremetal node set --property root_device= command to set the root disk for a node. Include the most appropriate hardware attribute value to define the root disk.

    (undercloud) $ openstack baremetal node set --property root_device=’{“serial”:”<serial_number>”} <node-uuid>

    For example, to set the root device to disk 2, which has the serial number 61866da04f380d001ea4e13c12e36ad6 run the following command:

(undercloud) $ openstack baremetal node set --property root_device='{"serial": "61866da04f380d001ea4e13c12e36ad6"}' 1a4e30da-b6dc-499d-ba87-0bd8a3819bc0

+

Note

Ensure that you configure the BIOS of each node to include booting from the root disk that you choose. Configure the boot order to boot from the network first, then to boot from the root disk.

The director identifies the specific disk to use as the root disk. When you run the openstack overcloud deploy command, the director provisions and writes the overcloud image to the root disk.

2.5. Using the overcloud-minimal image to avoid using a Red Hat subscription entitlement

By default, the director writes the QCOW2 overcloud-full image to the root disk during the provisioning process. The overcloud-full image uses a valid Red Hat subscription. However, you can also use the overcloud-minimal image if you do not require any other OpenStack services on your node and you do not want to consume one of your Red Hat OpenStack Platform subscription entitlements. Use the overcloud-minimal image option to avoid reaching the limit of your paid Red Hat subscriptions.

Procedure

  1. To configure director to use the overcloud-minimal image, create an environment file that contains the following image definition:

    parameter_defaults:
      <roleName>Image: overcloud-minimal
  2. Replace <roleName> with the name of the role and append Image to the name of the role. The following example shows an overcloud-minimal image for Ceph storage nodes:

    parameter_defaults:
      CephStorageImage: overcloud-minimal
  3. Pass the environment file to the openstack overcloud deploy command.
Note

The overcloud-minimal image supports only standard Linux bridges and not OVS because OVS is an OpenStack service that requires an OpenStack subscription entitlement.

Chapter 3. Deploying Ceph services on dedicated nodes

By default, the director deploys the Ceph MON and Ceph MDS services on the Controller nodes. This is suitable for small deployments. However, with larger deployments Red Hat recommends that you deploy the Ceph MON and Ceph MDS services on dedicated nodes to improve the performance of your Ceph cluster. Create a custom role for services that you want to isolate on dedicated nodes.

Note

For more information about custom roles, see Creating a New Role in the Advanced Overcloud Customization guide.

The director uses the following file as a default reference for all overcloud roles:

  • /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/roles_data.yaml

3.1. Creating a custom roles file

To create a custom role file, complete the following steps:

Procedure

  1. Make a copy of the roles_data.yaml file in /home/stack/templates/ so that you can add custom roles:

    $ cp /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/roles_data.yaml /home/stack/templates/roles_data_custom.yaml
  2. Include the new custom role file in the openstack overcloud deploy command.

3.2. Creating a custom role and flavor for the Ceph MON service

Complete the following steps to create a custom role CephMon and flavor ceph-mon for the Ceph MON role. You must already have a copy of the default roles data file as described in Chapter 3, Deploying Ceph services on dedicated nodes.

Procedure

  1. Open the /home/stack/templates/roles_data_custom.yaml file.
  2. Remove the service entry for the Ceph MON service (namely, OS::TripleO::Services::CephMon) from the Controller role.
  3. Add the OS::TripleO::Services::CephClient service to the Controller role:

    [...]
    - name: Controller # the 'primary' role goes first
      CountDefault: 1
      ServicesDefault:
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CACerts
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CephMds
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CephClient
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CephExternal
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CephRbdMirror
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CephRgw
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CinderApi
    [...]
  4. At the end of the roles_data_custom.yaml file, add a custom CephMon role that contains the Ceph MON service and all the other required node services:

    - name: CephMon
      ServicesDefault:
        # Common Services
        - OS::TripleO::Services::AuditD
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CACerts
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CertmongerUser
        - OS::TripleO::Services::Collectd
        - OS::TripleO::Services::Docker
        - OS::TripleO::Services::FluentdClient
        - OS::TripleO::Services::Kernel
        - OS::TripleO::Services::Ntp
        - OS::TripleO::Services::ContainersLogrotateCrond
        - OS::TripleO::Services::SensuClient
        - OS::TripleO::Services::Snmp
        - OS::TripleO::Services::Timezone
        - OS::TripleO::Services::TripleoFirewall
        - OS::TripleO::Services::TripleoPackages
        - OS::TripleO::Services::Tuned
        # Role-Specific Services
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CephMon
  5. Run the openstack flavor create command to define a new flavor named ceph-mon for the CephMon role:

    $ openstack flavor create --id auto --ram 6144 --disk 40 --vcpus 4 ceph-mon
    Note

    For details about this command, run openstack flavor create --help.

  6. Map this flavor to a new profile, also named ceph-mon:

    $ openstack flavor set --property "cpu_arch"="x86_64" --property "capabilities:boot_option"="local" --property "capabilities:profile"="ceph-mon" ceph-mon
    Note

    For details about this command, run openstack flavor set --help.

  7. Tag nodes into the new ceph-mon profile:
$ ironic node-update UUID add properties/capabilities='profile:ceph-mon,boot_option:local'

For more information about tagging nodes, see Section 2.3, “Manually tagging nodes into profiles”. For more information about custom role profiles, see Tagging Nodes Into Profiles.

3.3. Creating a custom role and flavor for the Ceph MDS service

Complete the following steps to create a custom role CephMDS and flavor ceph-mds for the Ceph MDS role. You must already have a copy of the default roles data file as described in Chapter 3, Deploying Ceph services on dedicated nodes.

Procedure

  1. Open the /home/stack/templates/roles_data_custom.yaml file.
  2. Remove the service entry for the Ceph MDS service (namely, OS::TripleO::Services::CephMds) from the Controller role:

    [...]
    - name: Controller # the 'primary' role goes first
      CountDefault: 1
      ServicesDefault:
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CACerts
        # - OS::TripleO::Services::CephMds 1
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CephMon
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CephExternal
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CephRbdMirror
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CephRgw
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CinderApi
    [...]
    1
    Comment out this line. In the next step, you add this service to the new custom role.
  3. At the end of the roles_data_custom.yaml file, add a custom CephMDS role containing the Ceph MDS service and all the other required node services:

    - name: CephMDS
      ServicesDefault:
        # Common Services
        - OS::TripleO::Services::AuditD
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CACerts
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CertmongerUser
        - OS::TripleO::Services::Collectd
        - OS::TripleO::Services::Docker
        - OS::TripleO::Services::FluentdClient
        - OS::TripleO::Services::Kernel
        - OS::TripleO::Services::Ntp
        - OS::TripleO::Services::ContainersLogrotateCrond
        - OS::TripleO::Services::SensuClient
        - OS::TripleO::Services::Snmp
        - OS::TripleO::Services::Timezone
        - OS::TripleO::Services::TripleoFirewall
        - OS::TripleO::Services::TripleoPackages
        - OS::TripleO::Services::Tuned
        # Role-Specific Services
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CephMds
        - OS::TripleO::Services::CephClient 1
    1
    The Ceph MDS service requires the admin keyring, which you can set with either the Ceph MON or Ceph Client service. If you deploy Ceph MDS on a dedicated node without the Ceph MON service, you must also include the Ceph Client service in the new CephMDS role.
  4. Run the openstack flavor create command to define a new flavor named ceph-mds for this role:

    $ openstack flavor create --id auto --ram 6144 --disk 40 --vcpus 4 ceph-mds
    Note

    For details about this command, run openstack flavor create --help.

  5. Map the new ceph-mds flavor to a new profile, also named ceph-mds:

    $ openstack flavor set --property "cpu_arch"="x86_64" --property "capabilities:boot_option"="local" --property "capabilities:profile"="ceph-mds" ceph-mds
    Note

    For details about this command, run openstack flavor set --help.

  6. Tag nodes into the new ceph-mds profile:
$ ironic node-update UUID add properties/capabilities='profile:ceph-mds,boot_option:local'

For more information about tagging nodes, see Section 2.3, “Manually tagging nodes into profiles”. For more information about custom role profiles, see Tagging Nodes Into Profiles.

Chapter 4. Customizing the Storage service

The heat template collection provided by the director already contains the necessary templates and environment files to enable a basic Ceph Storage configuration.

The director uses the /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ceph-ansible/ceph-ansible.yaml environment file to create a Ceph cluster and integrate it with your overcloud during deployment. This cluster features containerized Ceph Storage nodes. For more information about containerized services in OpenStack, see "Configuring a Basic Overcloud with the CLI Tools" in the Director Installation and Usage Guide.

The Red Hat OpenStack director also applies basic, default settings to the deployed Ceph cluster. You must also define any additional configuration in a custom environment file:

Procedure

  1. Create the file storage-config.yaml in /home/stack/templates/. In this example, the ~/templates/storage-config.yaml file contains most of the overcloud-related custom settings for your environment. Parameters that you include in the custom environment file override the corresponding default settings from the /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ceph-ansible/ceph-ansible.yaml file.
  2. Add a parameter_defaults section to ~/templates/storage-config.yaml. This section contains custom settings for your overcloud. For example, to set vxlan as the network type of the networking service (neutron), add the following snippet to your custom environment file:

    parameter_defaults:
      NeutronNetworkType: vxlan
  3. If necessary, set the following options under parameter_defaults according to your requirements:

    OptionDescriptionDefault value

    CinderEnableIscsiBackend

    Enables the iSCSI backend

    false

    CinderEnableRbdBackend

    Enables the Ceph Storage back end

    true

    CinderBackupBackend

    Sets ceph or swift as the back end for volume backups. For more information, see Section 4.3, “Configuring the Backup Service to use Ceph”.

    ceph

    NovaEnableRbdBackend

    Enables Ceph Storage for Nova ephemeral storage

    true

    GlanceBackend

    Defines which back end the Image service should use: rbd (Ceph), swift, or file

    rbd

    GnocchiBackend

    Defines which back end the Telemetry service should use: rbd (Ceph), swift, or file

    rbd

    Note

    You can omit an option from ~/templates/storage-config.yaml if you intend to use the default setting.

The contents of your custom environment file change depending on the settings that you apply in the following sections. See Appendix A, Sample environment file: creating a Ceph Storage cluster for a completed example.

The following subsections contain information about overriding the common default storage service settings that the director applies.

4.1. Enabling the Ceph Metadata Server

The Ceph Metadata Server (MDS) runs the ceph-mds daemon, which manages metadata related to files stored on CephFS. CephFS can be consumed through NFS. For more information about using CephFS through NFS, see Ceph File System Guide and CephFS via NFS Back End Guide for the Shared File System Service.

Note

Red Hat supports deploying Ceph MDS only with the CephFS through NFS back end for the Shared File System service.

Procedure

To enable the Ceph Metadata Server, invoke the following environment file when you create your overcloud:

  • /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ceph-ansible/ceph-mds.yaml

For more information, see Section 7.2, “Initiating overcloud deployment”. For more information about the Ceph Metadata Server, see Configuring Metadata Server Daemons.

Note

By default, the Ceph Metadata Server will be deployed on the Controller node. You can deploy the Ceph Metadata Server on its own dedicated node. For more information, see Section 3.3, “Creating a custom role and flavor for the Ceph MDS service”.

4.2. Enabling the Ceph Object Gateway

The Ceph Object Gateway provides applications with an interface to object storage capabilities within a Ceph Storage cluster. After you deploy the Ceph Object Gateway, you can replace the default Object Storage service (swift) with Ceph. For more information, see Object Gateway Guide for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

Procedure

To enable a Ceph Object Gateway in your deployment, invoke the following environment file when you create your overcloud:

  • /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ceph-ansible/ceph-rgw.yaml

See Section 7.2, “Initiating overcloud deployment” for details.

The Ceph Object Gateway is a direct replacement for the default Object Storage service. As such, all other services that normally use swift can seamlessly start using the Ceph Object Gateway instead without further configuration. For more information, see the Block Storage Backup Guide.

4.3. Configuring the Backup Service to use Ceph

The Block Storage Backup service (cinder-backup) is disabled by default. To enable the Block Storage Backup service, complete the following steps:

Procedure

Invoke the following environment file when you create your overcloud:

  • /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/cinder-backup.yaml

For more information, see the Block Storage Backup Guide.

4.4. Configuring multiple bonded interfaces for Ceph nodes

Use a bonded interface to combine multiple NICs and add redundancy to a network connection. If you have enough NICs on your Ceph nodes, you can create multiple bonded interfaces on each node to expand redundancy capability.

You can then use a bonded interface for each network connection that the node requires. This provides both redundancy and a dedicated connection for each network.

The simplest implementation of bonded interfaces involves the use of two bonds, one for each storage network used by the Ceph nodes. These networks are the following:

Front-end storage network (StorageNet)
The Ceph client uses this network to interact with the corresponding Ceph cluster.
Back-end storage network (StorageMgmtNet)
The Ceph cluster uses this network to balance data in accordance with the placement group policy of the cluster. For more information, see Placement Groups (PG) in the in the Red Hat Ceph Architecture Guide.

To configure multiple bonded interfaces, you must create a new network interface template, as the director does not provide any sample templates that you can use to deploy multiple bonded NICs. However, the director does provide a template that deploys a single bonded interface. This template is /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/config/bond-with-vlans/ceph-storage.yaml. You can define an additional bonded interface for your additional NICs in this template.

Note

For more information about creating custom interface templates, see Creating Custom Interface Templates in the Advanced Overcloud Customization guide.

The following snippet contains the default definition for the single bonded interface defined in the /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/config/bond-with-vlans/ceph-storage.yaml file:

  type: ovs_bridge // 1
  name: br-bond
  members:
    -
      type: ovs_bond // 2
      name: bond1 // 3
      ovs_options: {get_param: BondInterfaceOvsOptions} 4
      members: // 5
        -
          type: interface
          name: nic2
          primary: true
        -
          type: interface
          name: nic3
    -
      type: vlan // 6
      device: bond1 // 7
      vlan_id: {get_param: StorageNetworkVlanID}
      addresses:
        -
          ip_netmask: {get_param: StorageIpSubnet}
    -
      type: vlan
      device: bond1
      vlan_id: {get_param: StorageMgmtNetworkVlanID}
      addresses:
        -
          ip_netmask: {get_param: StorageMgmtIpSubnet}
1
A single bridge named br-bond holds the bond defined in this template. This line defines the bridge type, namely OVS.
2
The first member of the br-bond bridge is the bonded interface itself, named bond1. This line defines the bond type of bond1, which is also OVS.
3
The default bond is named bond1.
4
The ovs_options entry instructs director to use a specific set of bonding module directives. Those directives are passed through the BondInterfaceOvsOptions, which you can also configure in this file. For more information about configuring bonding module directives, see Section 4.4.1, “Configuring bonding module directives”.
5
The members section of the bond defines which network interfaces are bonded by bond1. In this example, the bonded interface uses nic2 (set as the primary interface) and nic3.
6
The br-bond bridge has two other members: a VLAN for both front-end (StorageNetwork) and back-end (StorageMgmtNetwork) storage networks.
7
The device parameter defines which device a VLAN should use. In this example, both VLANs use the bonded interface, bond1.

With at least two more NICs, you can define an additional bridge and bonded interface. Then, you can move one of the VLANs to the new bonded interface, which increases throughput and reliability for both storage network connections.

When you customize the /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/config/bond-with-vlans/ceph-storage.yaml file for this purpose, Red Hat recommends that you use Linux bonds (type: linux_bond ) instead of the default OVS (type: ovs_bond). This bond type is more suitable for enterprise production deployments.

The following edited snippet defines an additional OVS bridge (br-bond2) which houses a new Linux bond named bond2. The bond2 interface uses two additional NICs, nic4 and nic5, and is used solely for back-end storage network traffic:

  type: ovs_bridge
  name: br-bond
  members:
    -
      type: linux_bond
      name: bond1
      bonding_options: {get_param: BondInterfaceOvsOptions} // 1
      members:
        -
          type: interface
          name: nic2
          primary: true
        -
          type: interface
          name: nic3
    -
      type: vlan
      device: bond1
      vlan_id: {get_param: StorageNetworkVlanID}
      addresses:
        -
          ip_netmask: {get_param: StorageIpSubnet}
-
  type: ovs_bridge
  name: br-bond2
  members:
    -
      type: linux_bond
      name: bond2
      bonding_options: {get_param: BondInterfaceOvsOptions}
      members:
        -
          type: interface
          name: nic4
          primary: true
        -
          type: interface
          name: nic5
    -
      type: vlan
      device: bond1
      vlan_id: {get_param: StorageMgmtNetworkVlanID}
      addresses:
        -
          ip_netmask: {get_param: StorageMgmtIpSubnet}
1
As bond1 and bond2 are both Linux bonds (instead of OVS), they use bonding_options instead of ovs_options to set bonding directives. For more information, see Section 4.4.1, “Configuring bonding module directives”.

For the full contents of this customized template, see Appendix B, Sample custom interface template: multiple bonded interfaces.

4.4.1. Configuring bonding module directives

After you add and configure the bonded interfaces, use the BondInterfaceOvsOptions parameter to set the directives that you want each bonded interface to use. You can find this information in the parameters: section of the /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/config/bond-with-vlans/ceph-storage.yaml file. The following snippet shows the default definition of this parameter (namely, empty):

BondInterfaceOvsOptions:
    default: ''
    description: The ovs_options string for the bond interface. Set
                 things like lacp=active and/or bond_mode=balance-slb
                 using this option.
    type: string

Define the options you need in the default: line. For example, to use 802.3ad (mode 4) and a LACP rate of 1 (fast), use 'mode=4 lacp_rate=1':

BondInterfaceOvsOptions:
    default: 'mode=4 lacp_rate=1'
    description: The bonding_options string for the bond interface. Set
                 things like lacp=active and/or bond_mode=balance-slb
                 using this option.
    type: string

For more information about other supported bonding options, see Appendix C. Open vSwitch Bonding Options in the Advanced Overcloud Optimization guide. For the full contents of the customized /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/config/bond-with-vlans/ceph-storage.yaml template, see Appendix B, Sample custom interface template: multiple bonded interfaces.

Chapter 5. Customizing the Ceph Storage cluster

To deploy containerized Ceph Storage you must include the /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ceph-ansible/ceph-ansible.yaml file during overcloud deployment. This environment file also defines the following resources:

CephAnsibleDisksConfig
This resource maps the Ceph Storage node disk layout. For more information, see Section 5.2, “Mapping the Ceph Storage node disk layout”.
CephConfigOverrides
This resource applies all other custom settings to your Ceph cluster.

Use these resources to override any defaults that the director sets for containerized Ceph Storage.

The /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ceph-ansible/ceph-ansible.yaml environment file uses playbooks provided by the ceph-ansible package. As such, you must install this package on your undercloud first:

$ sudo yum install ceph-ansible

To customize your Ceph cluster, define your custom parameters in a new environment file, for example, /home/stack/templates/ceph-config.yaml. You can arbitrarily apply global Ceph cluster settings using the following syntax in the parameter_defaults section of your environment file:

parameter_defaults:
  CephConfigOverrides:
    KEY:VALUE

Replace KEY and VALUE with the Ceph cluster settings that you want to apply. For example, consider the following snippet:

parameter_defaults:
  CephConfigOverrides:
    max_open_files: 131072

This configuration results in the following settings defined in the configuration file of your Ceph cluster:

[global]
max_open_files: 131072

For more information about supported parameters, see the Red Hat Ceph Storage Configuration Guide.

Note

The CephConfigOverrides parameter applies only to the [global] section of the ceph.conf file. You cannot make changes to other sections, for example the [osd] section, with the CephConfigOverrides parameter.

The ceph-ansible tool has a group_vars directory that you can use to set many different Ceph parameters. For more information, see 3.2. Installing a Red Hat Ceph Storage Cluster in the Installation Guide for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

To change the variable defaults in director, you can use the CephAnsibleExtraConfig parameter to pass the new values in heat environment files. For example, to set the ceph-ansible group variable journal_size to 40960, create an environment file with the following journal_size definition:

parameter_defaults:
  CephAnsibleExtraConfig:
    journal_size: 40960
Important

Change ceph-ansible group variables with the override parameters; do not edit group variables directly in the /usr/share/ceph-ansible directory on the undercloud.

5.1. Ceph containers for Red Hat OpenStack Platform with Ceph Storage

A Ceph container is required to configure OpenStack Platform to use Ceph, even with an external Ceph cluster. To be compatible with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, OpenStack Platform 15 requires Red Hat Ceph Storage 4. The Ceph Storage 4 container is hosted at registry.redhat.io, a registry which requires authentication.

You can use the heat environment parameter ContainerImageRegistryCredentials to authenticate at registry.redhat.io, as described in Container image preparation parameters.

Note

At this time, Red Hat Ceph Storage 4 is available only in the beta release of OpenStack Platform 15. The appropriate container to use is listed in the Red Hat Container Catalog.

5.2. Mapping the Ceph Storage node disk layout

When you deploy containerized Ceph Storage, you must map the disk layout and specify dedicated block devices for the Ceph OSD service. You can perform this mapping in the environment file that you created earlier to define your custom Ceph parameters: /home/stack/templates/ceph-config.yaml.

Use the CephAnsibleDisksConfig resource in parameter_defaults to map your disk layout. This resource uses the following variables:

VariableRequired?Default value (if unset)Description

osd_scenario

Yes

lvm

The lvm setting allows ceph-ansible to use ceph-volume to configure OSDs and BlueStore WAL devices.

devices

Yes

NONE. Variable must be set.

A list of block devices that you want to use for OSDs on the node.

dmcrypt

No

false

Sets whether data stored on OSDs is encrypted (true) or unencrypted (false).

osd_objectstore

No

bluestore

Sets the storage back end used by Ceph.

5.2.1. Using BlueStore

To specify the block devices that you want to use as Ceph OSDs, use a variation of the following snippet:

parameter_defaults:
  CephAnsibleDisksConfig:
    devices:
      - /dev/sdb
      - /dev/sdc
      - /dev/sdd
      - /dev/nvme0n1
    osd_scenario: lvm
    osd_objectstore: bluestore

Because /dev/nvme0n1 is in a higher performing device class, the example parameter defaults produce three OSDs that run on /dev/sdb, /dev/sdc, and /dev/sdd. The three OSDs use /dev/nvme0n1 as a BlueStore WAL device. The ceph-volume tool does this by using the batch subcommand. The same setup is duplicated for each Ceph storage node and assumes uniform hardware. If the BlueStore WAL data resides on the same disks as the OSDs, then change the parameter defaults:

parameter_defaults:
  CephAnsibleDisksConfig:
    devices:
      - /dev/sdb
      - /dev/sdc
      - /dev/sdd
    osd_scenario: lvm
    osd_objectstore: bluestore

5.2.2. Referring to devices with persistent names

In some nodes, disk paths, such as /dev/sdb and /dev/sdc, may not point to the same block device during reboots. If this is the case with your CephStorage nodes, specify each disk with the /dev/disk/by-path/ symlink to ensure that the block device mapping is consistent throughout deployments:

parameter_defaults:
  CephAnsibleDisksConfig:
    devices:

      - /dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:0:10:0
      - /dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:0:11:0

Because you must set the list of OSD devices prior to overcloud deployment, it may not be possible to identify and set the PCI path of disk devices. In this case, gather the /dev/disk/by-path/symlink data for block devices during introspection.

In the following example, run the first command to download the introspection data from the undercloud Object Storage service (swift) for the server b08-h03-r620-hci and saves the data in a file called b08-h03-r620-hci.json. Run the second command to grep for “by-path”. The output of this command contains the unique /dev/disk/by-path values that you can use to identify disks.

(undercloud) [stack@b08-h02-r620 ironic]$ openstack baremetal introspection data save b08-h03-r620-hci | jq . > b08-h03-r620-hci.json
(undercloud) [stack@b08-h02-r620 ironic]$ grep by-path b08-h03-r620-hci.json
        "by_path": "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:02:00.0-scsi-0:2:0:0",
        "by_path": "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:02:00.0-scsi-0:2:1:0",
        "by_path": "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:02:00.0-scsi-0:2:3:0",
        "by_path": "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:02:00.0-scsi-0:2:4:0",
        "by_path": "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:02:00.0-scsi-0:2:5:0",
        "by_path": "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:02:00.0-scsi-0:2:6:0",
        "by_path": "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:02:00.0-scsi-0:2:7:0",
        "by_path": "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:02:00.0-scsi-0:2:0:0",

For more information about naming conventions for storage devices, see Persistent Naming.

For details about each journaling scenario and disk mapping for containerized Ceph Storage, see the OSD Scenarios section of the project documentation for ceph-ansible.

5.3. Assigning custom attributes to different Ceph pools

By default, Ceph pools created through the director have the same placement group (pg_num and pgp_num) and sizes. You can use either method in Chapter 5, Customizing the Ceph Storage cluster to override these settings globally; that is, doing so will apply the same values for all pools.

You can also apply different attributes to each Ceph pool. To do so, use the CephPools parameter, as in:

parameter_defaults:
  CephPools:
    - name: POOL
      pg_num: 128
      application: rbd

Replace POOL with the name of the pool you want to configure along with the pg_num setting to indicate number of placement groups. This overrides the default pg_num for the specified pool.

If you use the CephPools parameter, you must also specify the application type. The application type for Compute, Block Storage, and Image Storage should be rbd, as shown in the examples, but depending on what the pool will be used for, you may need to specify a different application type. For example, the application type for the gnocchi metrics pool is openstack_gnocchi. See Enable Application in the Storage Strategies Guide for more information.

If you do not use the CephPools parameter, director sets the appropriate application type automatically, but only for the default pool list.

You can also create new custom pools through the CephPools parameter. For example, to add a pool called custompool:

parameter_defaults:
  CephPools:
    - name: custompool
      pg_num: 128
      application: rbd

This creates a new custom pool in addition to the default pools.

Tip

For typical pool configurations of common Ceph use cases, see the Ceph Placement Groups (PGs) per Pool Calculator. This calculator is normally used to generate the commands for manually configuring your Ceph pools. In this deployment, the director will configure the pools based on your specifications.

Warning

Red Hat Ceph Storage 3 (Luminous) introduces a hard limit on the maximum number of PGs an OSD can have, which is 200 by default. Do not override this parameter beyond 200. If there is a problem because the Ceph PG number exceeds the maximum, adjust the pg_num per pool to address the problem, not the mon_max_pg_per_osd.

5.4. Mapping the disk layout to non-homogeneous Ceph Storage nodes

By default, all nodes of a role that host Ceph OSDs (indicated by the OS::TripleO::Services::CephOSD service in roles_data.yaml), for example CephStorage or ComputeHCI nodes, use the global devices list set in Section 5.2, “Mapping the Ceph Storage node disk layout”. This assumes that all of these servers have homogeneous hardware. If a subset of these servers do not have homogeneous hardware, then director needs to be aware that each of these servers has a different devices list. This is known as a node-specific disk configuration.

To pass director a node-specific disk configuration, a heat environment file, such as node-spec-overrides.yaml, must be passed to the openstack overcloud deploy command and the file content must identify each server by a machine unique UUID and a list of local variables that override the global variables.

The machine unique UUID may be extracted for each individual server or from the Ironic database.

To locate the UUID for an individual server, log in to the server and run:

dmidecode -s system-uuid

To extract the UUID from the Ironic database, run the following command on the undercloud:

openstack baremetal introspection data save NODE-ID | jq .extra.system.product.uuid
Warning

If the undercloud.conf does not have inspection_extras = true prior to undercloud installation or upgrade and introspection, then the machine unique UUID will not be in the Ironic database.

Important

The machine unique UUID is not the Ironic UUID.

A valid node-spec-overrides.yaml file may look like the following:

parameter_defaults:
  NodeDataLookup: {"32E87B4C-C4A7-418E-865B-191684A6883B": {"devices": ["/dev/sdc"]}}

All lines after the first two lines must be valid JSON. An easy way to verify that the JSON is valid is to use the jq command. For example:

  1. Remove the first two lines (parameter_defaults: and NodeDataLookup:) from the file temporarily.
  2. Run cat node-spec-overrides.yaml | jq .

As the node-spec-overrides.yaml file grows, you can also use jq to ensure that the embedded JSON is valid. For example, use the following to verify that JSON defines the correct length of the devices list before starting the deployment.

(undercloud) [stack@b08-h02-r620 tht]$ cat node-spec-c05-h17-h21-h25-6048r.yaml | jq '.[] | .devices | length'
33
30
33
(undercloud) [stack@b08-h02-r620 tht]$

In the above example, the node-spec-c05-h17-h21-h25-6048r.yaml has three servers in rack c05 in which slots h17, h21, and h25 are missing disks. A more complicated example is included at the end of this section.

After the JSON has been validated, add back the two lines which makes it a valid environment YAML file (parameter_defaults: and NodeDataLookup:) and include it with a -e in the deployment.

In the example below, the updated heat environment file uses NodeDataLookup for Ceph deployment. All of the servers had a devices list with 35 disks except one of them had a disk missing. This environment file overrides the default devices list for only that single node and gives it the list of 34 disks it should use instead of the global list.

parameter_defaults:
  # c05-h01-6048r is missing scsi-0:2:35:0 (00000000-0000-0000-0000-0CC47A6EFD0C)
  NodeDataLookup: {
    "00000000-0000-0000-0000-0CC47A6EFD0C": {
      "devices": [
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:1:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:32:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:2:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:3:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:4:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:5:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:6:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:33:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:7:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:8:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:34:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:9:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:10:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:11:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:12:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:13:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:14:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:15:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:16:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:17:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:18:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:19:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:20:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:21:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:22:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:23:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:24:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:25:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:26:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:27:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:28:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:29:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:30:0",
    "/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:2:31:0"
        ]
      }
    }

5.5. Enabling Red Hat Ceph Storage v4 beta

In Red Hat OpenStack Platform 15, director can only deploy Red Hat Ceph Storage v4. At this time, Ceph Storage v4 is still in its beta version. OpenStack Platform 15 will not support director-deployed Ceph until Ceph Storage v4 is generally available.

For testing purposes, you can deploy the overcloud with Ceph Storage v4 beta.

Procedure

  1. Create an environment file called ceph_beta.yaml that contains the following content:

    parameter_defaults:
      EnableRhcs4Beta: true
  2. Append the openstack overcloud deploy command with -e ceph_beta.yaml and run the command.

    openstack overcloud deploy -e ceph_beta.yaml

5.6. Increasing the restart delay for large Ceph clusters

During deployment, Ceph services such as OSDs and Monitors, are restarted and the deployment does not continue until the service is running again. Ansible waits 15 seconds (the delay) and checks 5 times for the service to start (the retries). If the service does not restart, the deployment stops so the operator can intervene.

Depending on the size of the Ceph cluster, you may need to increase the retry or delay values. The exact names of these parameters and their defaults are as follows:

 health_mon_check_retries: 5
 health_mon_check_delay: 15
 health_osd_check_retries: 5
 health_osd_check_delay: 15

Procedure

  1. Update the CephAnsibleExtraConfig parameter to change the default delay and retry values:

    parameter_defaults:
      CephAnsibleExtraConfig:
        health_osd_check_delay: 40
        health_osd_check_retries: 30
        health_mon_check_delay: 20
        health_mon_check_retries: 10

    This example makes the cluster check 30 times and wait 40 seconds between each check for the Ceph OSDs, and check 20 times and wait 10 seconds between each check for the Ceph MONs.

  2. To incorporate the changes, pass the updated yaml file with -e using openstack overcloud deploy.

Chapter 6. Deploying second-tier Ceph storage on OpenStack

Using OpenStack director, you can deploy different Red Hat Ceph Storage performance tiers by adding new Ceph nodes dedicated to a specific tier in a Ceph cluster.

For example, you can add new object storage daemon (OSD) nodes with SSD drives to an existing Ceph cluster to create a Block Storage (cinder) backend exclusively for storing data on these nodes. A user creating a new Block Storage volume can then choose the desired performance tier: either HDDs or the new SSDs.

This type of deployment requires Red Hat OpenStack Platform director to pass a customized CRUSH map to ceph-ansible. The CRUSH map allows you to split OSD nodes based on disk performance, but you can also use this feature for mapping physical infrastructure layout.

The following sections demonstrate how to deploy four nodes where two of the nodes use SSDs and the other two use HDDs. The example is kept simple to communicate a repeatable pattern. However, a production deployment should use more nodes and more OSDs to be supported as per the Red Hat Ceph Storage hardware selection guide.

6.1. Create a CRUSH map

The CRUSH map allows you to put OSD nodes into a CRUSH root. By default, a “default” root is created and all OSD nodes are included in it.

Inside a given root, you define the physical topology, rack, rooms, and so forth, and then place the OSD nodes in the desired hierarchy (or bucket). By default, no physical topology is defined; a flat design is assumed as if all nodes are in the same rack.

two tier crush map

See Crush Administration in the Storage Strategies Guide for details about creating a custom CRUSH map.

6.2. Mapping the OSDs

Complete the following step to map the OSDs.

Procedure

  1. Declare the OSDs/journal mapping:

    parameter_defaults:
      CephAnsibleDisksConfig:
       devices:
       - /dev/sda
       - /dev/sdb
       dedicated_devices:
       - /dev/sdc
       - /dev/sdc
       osd_scenario: non-collocated
       journal_size: 8192

6.3. Setting the replication factor

Complete the following step to set the replication factor.

Note

This is normally supported only for full SSD deployment. See Red Hat Ceph Storage: Supported configurations.

Procedure

  1. Set the default replication factor to two. This example splits four nodes into two different roots.

    parameter_defaults:
      CephPoolDefaultSize: 2
Note

If you upgrade a deployment that uses gnocchi as the backend, you might encounter deployment timeout. To prevent this timeout, use the following CephPool definition to customize the gnocchi pool:

parameter_defaults
    CephPools:  {"name": metrics, "pg_num": 128, "pgp_num": 128, "size": 1}

6.4. Defining the CRUSH hierarchy

Director provides the data for the CRUSH hierarchy, but ceph-ansible actually passes that data by getting the CRUSH mapping through the Ansible inventory file. Unless you keep the default root, you must specify the location of the root for each node.

For example if node lab-ceph01 (provisioning IP 172.16.0.26) is placed in rack1 inside the fast_root, the Ansible inventory should resemble the following:

172.16.0.26:
osd_crush_location: {host: lab-ceph01, rack: rack1, root: fast_root}

When you use director to deploy Ceph, you don’t actually write the Ansible inventory; it is generated for you. Therefore, you must use NodeDataLookup to append the data.

NodeDataLookup works by specifying the system product UUID stored on the motherboard of the systems. The Bare Metal service (ironic) also stores this information after the introspection phase.

To create a CRUSH map that supports second-tier storage, complete the following steps:

Procedure

  1. Run the following commands to retrieve the UUIDs of the four nodes:

    for ((x=1; x<=4; x++)); \
    { echo "Node overcloud-ceph0${x}"; \
    openstack baremetal introspection data save overcloud-ceph0${x} | jq .extra.system.product.uuid; }
    Node overcloud-ceph01
    "32C2BC31-F6BB-49AA-971A-377EFDFDB111"
    Node overcloud-ceph02
    "76B4C69C-6915-4D30-AFFD-D16DB74F64ED"
    Node overcloud-ceph03
    "FECF7B20-5984-469F-872C-732E3FEF99BF"
    Node overcloud-ceph04
    "5FFEFA5F-69E4-4A88-B9EA-62811C61C8B3"
    Note

    In the example, overcloud-ceph0[1-4] are the Ironic nodes names; they will be deployed as lab-ceph0[1–4] (via HostnameMap.yaml).

  2. Specify the node placement as follows:

    RootRackNode

    standard_root

    rack1_std

    overcloud-ceph01 (lab-ceph01)

    rack2_std

    overcloud-ceph02 (lab-ceph02)

    fast_root

    rack1_fast

    overcloud-ceph03 (lab-ceph03)

    rack2_fast

    overcloud-ceph04 (lab-ceph04)

    Note

    You cannot have two buckets with the same name. Even if lab-ceph01 and lab-ceph03 are in the same physical rack, you cannot have two buckets called rack1. Therefore, we named them rack1_std and rack1_fast.

    Note

    This example demonstrates how to create a specific route called “standard_root” to illustrate multiple custom roots. However, you could have kept the HDDs OSD nodes in the default root.

  3. Use the following NodeDataLookup syntax:

    NodeDataLookup: {"SYSTEM_UUID": {"osd_crush_location": {"root": "$MY_ROOT", "rack": "$MY_RACK", "host": "$OVERCLOUD_NODE_HOSTNAME"}}}
    Note

    You must specify the system UUID and then the CRUSH hierarchy from top to bottom. Also, the host parameter must point to the node’s overcloud host name, not the Bare Metal service (ironic) node name. To match the example configuration, enter the following:

    parameter_defaults:
      NodeDataLookup: {"32C2BC31-F6BB-49AA-971A-377EFDFDB111": {"osd_crush_location": {"root": "standard_root", "rack": "rack1_std", "host": "lab-ceph01"}},
         "76B4C69C-6915-4D30-AFFD-D16DB74F64ED": {"osd_crush_location": {"root": "standard_root", "rack": "rack2_std", "host": "lab-ceph02"}},
         "FECF7B20-5984-469F-872C-732E3FEF99BF": {"osd_crush_location": {"root": "fast_root", "rack": "rack1_fast", "host": "lab-ceph03"}},
         "5FFEFA5F-69E4-4A88-B9EA-62811C61C8B3": {"osd_crush_location": {"root": "fast_root", "rack": "rack2_fast", "host": "lab-ceph04"}}}
  4. Enable CRUSH map management at the ceph-ansible level:

    parameter_defaults:
      CephAnsibleExtraConfig:
        create_crush_tree: true
  5. Use scheduler hints to ensure the Bare Metal service node UUIDs correctly map to the hostnames:

    parameter_defaults:
      CephStorageCount: 4
      OvercloudCephStorageFlavor: ceph-storage
      CephStorageSchedulerHints:
        'capabilities:node': 'ceph-%index%'
  6. Tag the Bare Metal service nodes with the corresponding hint:

    openstack baremetal node set --property capabilities='profile:ceph-storage,node:ceph-0,boot_option:local' overcloud-ceph01
    
    openstack baremetal node set --property capabilities=profile:ceph-storage,'node:ceph-1,boot_option:local' overcloud-ceph02
    
    openstack baremetal node set --property capabilities='profile:ceph-storage,node:ceph-2,boot_option:local' overcloud-ceph03
    
    openstack baremetal node set --property capabilities='profile:ceph-storage,node:ceph-3,boot_option:local' overcloud-ceph04
    Note

    For more information about predictive placement, see Assigning Specific Node IDs in the Advanced Overcloud Customization guide.

6.5. Defining CRUSH map rules

Rules define how the data is written on a cluster. After the CRUSH map node placement is complete, define the CRUSH rules.

Procedure

  1. Use the following syntax to define the CRUSH rules:

    parameter_defaults:
      CephAnsibleExtraConfig:
        crush_rules:
          - name: $RULE_NAME
            root: $ROOT_NAME
            type: $REPLICAT_DOMAIN
            default: true/false
    Note

    Setting the default parameter to true means that this rule will be used when you create a new pool without specifying any rule. There may only be one default rule.

    In the following example, rule standard points to the OSD nodes hosted on the standard_root with one replicate per rack. Rule fast points to the OSD nodes hosted on the standard_root with one replicate per rack:

    parameter_defaults:
      CephAnsibleExtraConfig:
        crush_rule_config: true
        crush_rules:
          - name: standard
            root: standard_root
            type: rack
            default: true
          - name: fast
            root: fast_root
            type: rack
            default: false
    Note

    You must set crush_rule_config to true.

6.6. Configuring OSP pools

Ceph pools are configured with a CRUSH rules that define how to store data. This example features all built-in OSP pools using the standard_root (the standard rule) and a new pool using fast_root (the fast rule).

Procedure

  1. Use the following syntax to define or change a pool property:

    - name: $POOL_NAME
         pg_num: $PG_COUNT
         rule_name: $RULE_NAME
         application: rbd
  2. List all OSP pools and set the appropriate rule (standard, in this case), and create a new pool called tier2 that uses the fast rule. This pool will be used by Block Storage (cinder).

    parameter_defaults:
      CephPools:
        - name: tier2
          pg_num: 64
          rule_name: fast
          application: rbd
    
        - name: volumes
          pg_num: 64
          rule_name: standard
          application: rbd
    
        - name: vms
          pg_num: 64
          rule_name: standard
          application: rbd
    
        - name: backups
          pg_num: 64
          rule_name: standard
          application: rbd
    
        - name: images
          pg_num: 64
          rule_name: standard
          application: rbd
    
        - name: metrics
          pg_num: 64
          rule_name: standard
          application: openstack_gnocchi

6.7. Configuring Block Storage to use the new pool

Add the Ceph pool to the cinder.conf file to enable Block Storage (cinder) to consume it:

Procedure

  1. Update cinder.conf as follows:

    parameter_defaults:
      CinderRbdExtraPools:
        - tier2

6.8. Verifying customized CRUSH map

After the openstack overcloud deploy command creates or updates the overcloud, complete the following step to verify that the customized CRUSH map was correctly applied.

Note

Be careful if you move a host from one route to another.

Procedure

  1. Connect to a Ceph monitor node and run the following command:

    # ceph osd tree
    ID WEIGHT  TYPE NAME               UP/DOWN REWEIGHT PRIMARY-AFFINITY
    -7 0.39996 root standard_root
    -6 0.19998     rack rack1_std
    -5 0.19998         host lab-ceph02
     1 0.09999             osd.1            up  1.00000          1.00000
     4 0.09999             osd.4            up  1.00000          1.00000
    -9 0.19998     rack rack2_std
    -8 0.19998         host lab-ceph03
     0 0.09999             osd.0            up  1.00000          1.00000
     3 0.09999             osd.3            up  1.00000          1.00000
    -4 0.19998 root fast_root
    -3 0.19998     rack rack1_fast
    -2 0.19998         host lab-ceph01
     2 0.09999             osd.2            up  1.00000          1.00000
     5 0.09999             osd.5            up  1.00000          1.00000

Chapter 7. Creating the overcloud

Once your custom environment files are ready, you can specify which flavors and nodes each role should use and then execute the deployment. The following subsections explain both steps in greater detail.

7.1. Assigning nodes and flavors to roles

Planning an overcloud deployment involves specifying how many nodes and which flavors to assign to each role. Like all Heat template parameters, these role specifications are declared in the parameter_defaults section of your environment file (in this case, ~/templates/storage-config.yaml).

For this purpose, use the following parameters:

Table 7.1. Roles and Flavors for Overcloud Nodes

Heat Template ParameterDescription

ControllerCount

The number of Controller nodes to scale out

OvercloudControlFlavor

The flavor to use for Controller nodes (control)

ComputeCount

The number of Compute nodes to scale out

OvercloudComputeFlavor

The flavor to use for Compute nodes (compute)

CephStorageCount

The number of Ceph storage (OSD) nodes to scale out

OvercloudCephStorageFlavor

The flavor to use for Ceph Storage (OSD) nodes (ceph-storage)

CephMonCount

The number of dedicated Ceph MON nodes to scale out

OvercloudCephMonFlavor

The flavor to use for dedicated Ceph MON nodes (ceph-mon)

CephMdsCount

The number of dedicated Ceph MDS nodes to scale out

OvercloudCephMdsFlavor

The flavor to use for dedicated Ceph MDS nodes (ceph-mds)

Important

The CephMonCount, CephMdsCount, OvercloudCephMonFlavor, and OvercloudCephMdsFlavor parameters (along with the ceph-mon and ceph-mds flavors) will only be valid if you created a custom CephMON and CephMds role, as described in Chapter 3, Deploying Ceph services on dedicated nodes.

For example, to configure the overcloud to deploy three nodes for each role (Controller, Compute, Ceph-Storage, and CephMon), add the following to your parameter_defaults:

parameter_defaults:
  ControllerCount: 3
  OvercloudControlFlavor: control
  ComputeCount: 3
  OvercloudComputeFlavor: compute
  CephStorageCount: 3
  OvercloudCephStorageFlavor: ceph-storage
  CephMonCount: 3
  OvercloudCephMonFlavor: ceph-mon
  CephMdsCount: 3
  OvercloudCephMdsFlavor: ceph-mds
Note

See Creating the Overcloud with the CLI Tools from the Director Installation and Usage guide for a more complete list of Heat template parameters.

7.2. Initiating overcloud deployment

Note

During undercloud installation, set generate_service_certificate=false in the undercloud.conf file. Otherwise, you must inject a trust anchor when you deploy the overcloud, as described in Enabling SSL/TLS on Overcloud Public Endpoints in the Advanced Overcloud Customization guide.

The creation of the overcloud requires additional arguments for the openstack overcloud deploy command. For example:

$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates -r /home/stack/templates/roles_data_custom.yaml \
  -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ceph-ansible/ceph-ansible.yaml \
  -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ceph-ansible/ceph-rgw.yaml \
  -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ceph-ansible/ceph-mds.yaml
  -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/cinder-backup.yaml \
  -e /home/stack/templates/storage-config.yaml \
  -e /home/stack/templates/ceph-config.yaml \
  --ntp-server pool.ntp.org

The above command uses the following options:

  • --templates - Creates the Overcloud from the default Heat template collection (namely, /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/).
  • -r /home/stack/templates/roles_data_custom.yaml - Specifies the customized roles definition file from Chapter 3, Deploying Ceph services on dedicated nodes, which adds custom roles for either Ceph MON or Ceph MDS services. These roles allow either service to be installed on dedicated nodes.
  • -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ceph-ansible/ceph-ansible.yaml - Sets the director to create a Ceph cluster. In particular, this environment file will deploy a Ceph cluster with containerized Ceph Storage nodes.
  • -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ceph-ansible/ceph-rgw.yaml - Enables the Ceph Object Gateway, as described in Section 4.2, “Enabling the Ceph Object Gateway”.
  • -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ceph-ansible/ceph-mds.yaml - Enables the Ceph Metadata Server, as described in Section 4.1, “Enabling the Ceph Metadata Server”.
  • -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/cinder-backup.yaml - Enables the Block Storage Backup service (cinder-backup), as described in Section 4.3, “Configuring the Backup Service to use Ceph”.
  • -e /home/stack/templates/storage-config.yaml - Adds the environment file containing your custom Ceph Storage configuration.
  • -e /home/stack/templates/ceph-config.yaml - Adds the environment file containing your custom Ceph cluster settings, as described in Chapter 5, Customizing the Ceph Storage cluster.
  • --ntp-server pool.ntp.org - Sets our NTP server.
Tip

You can also use an answers file to invoke all your templates and environment files. For example, you can use the following command to deploy an identical overcloud:

$ openstack overcloud deploy -r /home/stack/templates/roles_data_custom.yaml \
  --answers-file /home/stack/templates/answers.yaml --ntp-server pool.ntp.org

In this case, the answers file /home/stack/templates/answers.yaml contains:

templates: /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/
environments:
  - /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ceph-ansible/ceph-ansible.yaml
  - /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ceph-rgw.yaml
  - /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/ceph-mds.yaml
  - /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/cinder-backup.yaml
  - /home/stack/templates/storage-config.yaml
  - /home/stack/templates/ceph-config.yaml

See Including Environment Files in Overcloud Creation for more details.

For a full list of options, run:

$ openstack help overcloud deploy

For more information, see Creating the Overcloud with the CLI Tools in the Director Installation and Usage guide.

The Overcloud creation process begins and the director provisions your nodes. This process takes some time to complete. To view the status of the Overcloud creation, open a separate terminal as the stack user and run:

$ source ~/stackrc
$ openstack stack list --nested

Chapter 8. Post-deployment

The following subsections describe several post-deployment operations for managing the Ceph cluster.

8.1. Accessing the overcloud

The director generates a script to configure and help authenticate interactions with your overcloud from the director host. The director saves this file (overcloudrc) in your stack user’s home directory. Run the following command to use this file:

$ source ~/overcloudrc

This loads the necessary environment variables to interact with your overcloud from the director host’s CLI. To return to interacting with the director’s host, run the following command:

$ source ~/stackrc

8.2. Monitoring Ceph Storage nodes

After you create the overcloud, check the status of the Ceph Storage Cluster to ensure that it works correctly.

Procedure

  1. Log in to a Controller node as the heat-admin user:

    $ nova list
    $ ssh heat-admin@192.168.0.25
  2. Check the health of the cluster:

    $ sudo podman exec ceph-mon-$HOSTNAME ceph health

    If the cluster has no issues, the command reports back HEALTH_OK. This means the cluster is safe to use.

  3. Log in to an overcloud node that runs the Ceph monitor service and check the status of all OSDs in the cluster:

    $ sudo podman exec ceph-mon-$HOSTNAME ceph osd tree
  4. Check the status of the Ceph Monitor quorum:

    $ sudo ceph quorum_status

    This shows the monitors participating in the quorum and which one is the leader.

  5. Verify that all Ceph OSDs are running:

    $ ceph osd stat

For more information on monitoring Ceph Storage clusters, see Monitoring in the Red Hat Ceph Storage Administration Guide.

Chapter 9. Rebooting the environment

A situation might occur where you need to reboot the environment. For example, when you might need to modify the physical servers, or you might need to recover from a power outage. In this situation, it is important to make sure your Ceph Storage nodes boot correctly.

Make sure to boot the nodes in the following order:

  • Boot all Ceph Monitor nodes first - This ensures the Ceph Monitor service is active in your high availability cluster. By default, the Ceph Monitor service is installed on the Controller node. If the Ceph Monitor is separate from the Controller in a custom role, make sure this custom Ceph Monitor role is active.
  • Boot all Ceph Storage nodes - This ensures the Ceph OSD cluster can connect to the active Ceph Monitor cluster on the Controller nodes.

9.1. Rebooting a Ceph Storage (OSD) cluster

Complete the following steps to reboot a cluster of Ceph Storage (OSD) nodes.

Procedure

  1. Log into a Ceph MON or Controller node and disable Ceph Storage cluster rebalancing temporarily:

    $ sudo podman exec -it ceph-mon-controller-0 ceph osd set noout
    $ sudo podman exec -it ceph-mon-controller-0 ceph osd set norebalance
  2. Select the first Ceph Storage node to reboot and log into the node.
  3. Reboot the node:

    $ sudo reboot
  4. Wait until the node boots.
  5. Log into the node and check the cluster status:

    $ sudo podman exec -it ceph-mon-controller-0 ceph status

    Check the pgmap reports all pgs as normal (active+clean).

  6. Log out of the node, reboot the next node, and check its status. Repeat this process until you have rebooted all Ceph storage nodes.
  7. When complete, log into a Ceph MON or Controller node and enable cluster rebalancing again:

    $ sudo podman exec -it ceph-mon-controller-0 ceph osd unset noout
    $ sudo podman exec -it ceph-mon-controller-0 ceph osd unset norebalance
  8. Perform a final status check to verify the cluster reports HEALTH_OK:

    $ sudo podman exec -it ceph-mon-controller-0 ceph status

If a situation occurs where all overcloud nodes boot at the same time, the Ceph OSD services might not start correctly on the Ceph Storage nodes. In this situation, reboot the Ceph Storage OSDs so they can connect to the Ceph Monitor service.

Verify a HEALTH_OK status of the Ceph Storage node cluster with the following command:

$ sudo ceph status

Chapter 10. Scaling the Ceph Storage cluster

10.1. Scaling up the Ceph Storage cluster

You can scale up the number of Ceph Storage nodes in your overcloud by re-running the deployment with the number of Ceph Storage nodes you need.

Before doing so, ensure that you have enough nodes for the updated deployment. These nodes must be registered with the director and tagged accordingly.

Registering New Ceph Storage Nodes

To register new Ceph storage nodes with the director, follow these steps:

  1. Log into the director host as the stack user and initialize your director configuration:

    $ source ~/stackrc
  2. Define the hardware and power management details for the new nodes in a new node definition template; for example, instackenv-scale.json.
  3. Import this file to the OpenStack director:

    $ openstack overcloud node import ~/instackenv-scale.json

    Importing the node definition template registers each node defined there to the director.

  4. Assign the kernel and ramdisk images to all nodes:

    $ openstack overcloud node configure
Note

For more information about registering new nodes, see Section 2.2, “Registering nodes”.

Manually Tagging New Nodes

After you register each node, you must inspect the hardware and tag the node into a specific profile. Use profile tags to match your nodes to flavors, and then assign flavors to deployment roles.

To inspect and tag new nodes, complete the following steps:

  1. Trigger hardware introspection to retrieve the hardware attributes of each node:

    $ openstack overcloud node introspect --all-manageable --provide
    • The --all-manageable option introspects only the nodes that are in a managed state. In this example, all nodes are in a managed state.
    • The --provide option resets all nodes to an active state after introspection.

      Important

      Ensure that this process completes successfully. This process usually takes 15 minutes for bare metal nodes.

  2. Retrieve a list of your nodes to identify their UUIDs:

    $ openstack baremetal node list
  3. Add a profile option to the properties/capabilities parameter for each node to manually tag a node to a specific profile. The addition of the profile option tags the nodes into each respective profile.

    Note

    As an alternative to manual tagging, use the Automated Health Check (AHC) Tools to automatically tag larger numbers of nodes based on benchmarking data.

    For example, the following commands tag three additional nodes with the ceph-storage profile:

    $ ironic node-update 551d81f5-4df2-4e0f-93da-6c5de0b868f7 add properties/capabilities='profile:ceph-storage,boot_option:local'
    $ ironic node-update 5e735154-bd6b-42dd-9cc2-b6195c4196d7 add properties/capabilities='profile:ceph-storage,boot_option:local'
    $ ironic node-update 1a2b090c-299d-4c20-a25d-57dd21a7085b add properties/capabilities='profile:ceph-storage,boot_option:local'
Tip

If the nodes you just tagged and registered use multiple disks, you can set the director to use a specific root disk on each node. See Section 2.4, “Defining the root disk for multi-disk clusters” for instructions on how to do so.

Re-deploying the Overcloud with Additional Ceph Storage Nodes

After registering and tagging the new nodes, you can now scale up the number of Ceph Storage nodes by re-deploying the overcloud. When you do, set the CephStorageCount parameter in the parameter_defaults of your environment file (in this case, ~/templates/storage-config.yaml). In Section 7.1, “Assigning nodes and flavors to roles”, the overcloud is configured to deploy with 3 Ceph Storage nodes. To scale it up to 6 nodes instead, use:

parameter_defaults:
  ControllerCount: 3
  OvercloudControlFlavor: control
  ComputeCount: 3
  OvercloudComputeFlavor: compute
  CephStorageCount: 6
  OvercloudCephStorageFlavor: ceph-storage
  CephMonCount: 3
  OvercloudCephMonFlavor: ceph-mon

Upon re-deployment with this setting, the overcloud should now have 6 Ceph Storage nodes instead of 3.

10.2. Scaling down and replacing Ceph Storage nodes

In some cases, you may need to scale down your Ceph cluster, or even replace a Ceph Storage node (for example, if a Ceph Storage node is faulty). In either situation, you need to disable and rebalance any Ceph Storage node you are removing from the Overcloud to ensure no data loss. This procedure explains the process for replacing a Ceph Storage node.

Note

This procedure uses steps from the Red Hat Ceph Storage Administration Guide to manually remove Ceph Storage nodes. For more in-depth information about manual removal of Ceph Storage nodes, see Administering Ceph clusters that run in Containers and Removing a Ceph OSD using the command-line interface.

  1. Log in to a Controller node as the heat-admin user. The director’s stack user has an SSH key to access the heat-admin user.
  2. List the OSD tree and find the OSDs for your node. For example, the node you want to remove might contain the following OSDs:

    -2 0.09998     host overcloud-cephstorage-0
    0 0.04999         osd.0                         up  1.00000          1.00000
    1 0.04999         osd.1                         up  1.00000          1.00000
  3. Disable the OSDs on the Ceph Storage node. In this case, the OSD IDs are 0 and 1.

    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo docker exec ceph-mon-$HOSTNAME ceph osd out 0
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo docker exec ceph-mon-$HOSTNAME ceph osd out 1
  4. The Ceph Storage cluster begins rebalancing. Wait for this process to complete. Follow the status using the following command:

    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo docker exec ceph-mon-$HOSTNAME ceph -w
  5. After the Ceph cluster completes rebalancing, log in to the Ceph Storage node you are removing (in this case, overcloud-cephstorage-0) as the heat-admin user and stop the node.

    [heat-admin@overcloud-cephstorage-0 ~]$ sudo docker exec ceph-mon-$HOSTNAME systemctl disable ceph-osd@0
    [heat-admin@overcloud-cephstorage-0 ~]$ sudo docker exec ceph-mon-$HOSTNAME systemctl disable ceph-osd@1
  6. Stop the OSDs.

    [heat-admin@overcloud-cephstorage-0 ~]$ sudo systemctl stop ceph-osd@0
    [heat-admin@overcloud-cephstorage-0 ~]$ sudo systemctl stop ceph-osd@1
  7. While logged in to the Controller node, remove the OSDs from the CRUSH map so that they no longer receive data.

    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo docker exec ceph-mon-$HOSTNAME ceph osd crush remove osd.0
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo docker exec ceph-mon-$HOSTNAME ceph osd crush remove osd.1
  8. Remove the OSD authentication key.

    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo docker exec ceph-mon-$HOSTNAME ceph auth del osd.0
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo docker exec ceph-mon-$HOSTNAME ceph auth del osd.1
  9. Remove the OSD from the cluster.

    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo docker exec ceph-mon-$HOSTNAME ceph osd rm 0
    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo docker exec ceph-mon-$HOSTNAME ceph osd rm 1
  10. Leave the node and return to the director host as the stack user.

    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ exit
    [stack@director ~]$
  11. Disable the Ceph Storage node so the director does not reprovision it.

    [stack@director ~]$ openstack baremetal node list
    [stack@director ~]$ openstack baremetal node maintenance set UUID
  12. Removing a Ceph Storage node requires an update to the overcloud stack in the director using the local template files. First identify the UUID of the Overcloud stack:

    $ openstack stack list
  13. Identify the UUIDs of the Ceph Storage node you want to delete:

    $ openstack server list
  14. Run the following command to delete the node from the stack and update the plan accordingly:

    $ openstack overcloud node delete --stack overcloud NODE_UUID
    Important

    If you passed any extra environment files when you created the overcloud, pass them again here using the -e option to avoid making undesired changes to the overcloud. For more information, see Modifying the Overcloud Environment in the Director Installation and Usage guide.

  15. Wait until the stack completes its update. Monitor the stack update using the heat stack-list --show-nested command.
  16. Add new nodes to the director’s node pool and deploy them as Ceph Storage nodes. Use the CephStorageCount parameter in the parameter_defaults of your environment file (in this case, ~/templates/storage-config.yaml) to define the total number of Ceph Storage nodes in the Overcloud. For example:

    parameter_defaults:
      ControllerCount: 3
      OvercloudControlFlavor: control
      ComputeCount: 3
      OvercloudComputeFlavor: compute
      CephStorageCount: 3
      OvercloudCephStorageFlavor: ceph-storage
      CephMonCount: 3
      OvercloudCephMonFlavor: ceph-mon
    Note

    See Section 7.1, “Assigning nodes and flavors to roles” for details on how to define the number of nodes per role.

  17. After you update your environment file, re-deploy the overcloud as normal:

    $ openstack overcloud deploy --templates -e ENVIRONMENT_FILES

    The director provisions the new node and updates the entire stack with the new node’s details.

  18. Log in to a Controller node as the heat-admin user and check the status of the Ceph Storage node. For example:

    [heat-admin@overcloud-controller-0 ~]$ sudo ceph status
  19. Confirm that the value in the osdmap section matches the number of desired nodes in your cluster. The Ceph Storage node you removed has now been replaced with a new node.

10.3. Adding an OSD to a Ceph Storage node

This procedure demonstrates how to add an OSD to a node.

Procedure

  1. Notice the following heat template deploys Ceph Storage with three OSD devices:

    parameter_defaults:
      CephAnsibleDisksConfig:
        devices:
          - /dev/sdb
          - /dev/sdc
          - /dev/sdd
        osd_scenario: lvm
        osd_objectstore: bluestore
  2. To add an OSD, update the node disk layout as described in Section 5.2, “Mapping the Ceph Storage node disk layout”. In this example, add /dev/sde to the template:

    parameter_defaults:
      CephAnsibleDisksConfig:
        devices:
          - /dev/sdb
          - /dev/sdc
          - /dev/sdd
          - /dev/sde
        osd_scenario: lvm
        osd_objectstore: bluestore
  3. Run openstack overcloud deploy to update the overcloud.
Note

This example assumes that all hosts with OSDs have a new device called /dev/sde. If you do not want all nodes to have the new device, update the heat template as shown and see Section 5.4, “Mapping the disk layout to non-homogeneous Ceph Storage nodes” for information about how to define hosts with a differing devices list.

10.4. Removing an OSD from a Ceph Storage node

This procedure demonstrates how to remove an OSD from a node. It assumes the following about the environment:

  • A server (ceph-storage0) has an OSD (ceph-osd@4) running on /dev/sde.
  • The Ceph monitor service (ceph-mon) is running on controller0.
  • There are enough available OSDs to ensure the storage cluster is not at its near-full ratio.

Procedure

  1. SSH into ceph-storage0 and log in as root.
  2. Disable and stop the OSD service:

    [root@ceph-storage0 ~]# systemctl disable ceph-osd@4
    [root@ceph-stoarge0 ~]# systemctl stop ceph-osd@4
  3. Disconnect from ceph-storage0.
  4. SSH into controller0 and log in as root.
  5. Identify the name of the Ceph monitor container:

    [root@controller0 ~]# podman ps | grep ceph-mon
    ceph-mon-controller0
    [root@controller0 ~]#
  6. Enable the Ceph monitor container to mark the undesired OSD as out:

    [root@controller0 ~]# podman exec ceph-mon-controller0 ceph osd out 4
    Note

    This command causes Ceph to rebalance the storage cluster and copy data to other OSDs in the cluster. The cluster temporarily leaves the active+clean state until rebalancing is complete.

  7. Run the following command and wait for the storage cluster state to become active+clean:

    [root@controller0 ~]# podman exec ceph-mon-controller0 ceph -w
  8. Remove the OSD from the CRUSH map so that it no longer receives data:

    [root@controller0 ~]# podman exec ceph-mon-controller0 ceph osd crush remove osd.4
  9. Remove the OSD authentication key:

    [root@controller0 ~]# podman exec ceph-mon-controller0 ceph auth del osd.4
  10. Remove the OSD:

    [root@controller0 ~]# podman exec ceph-mon-controller0 ceph osd rm 4
  11. Disconnect from controller0.
  12. SSH into the undercloud as the stack user and locate the heat environment file in which you defined the CephAnsibleDisksConfig parameter.
  13. Notice the heat template contains four OSDs:

    parameter_defaults:
      CephAnsibleDisksConfig:
        devices:
          - /dev/sdb
          - /dev/sdc
          - /dev/sdd
          - /dev/sde
        osd_scenario: lvm
        osd_objectstore: bluestore
  14. Modify the template to remove /dev/sde.

    parameter_defaults:
      CephAnsibleDisksConfig:
        devices:
          - /dev/sdb
          - /dev/sdc
          - /dev/sdd
        osd_scenario: lvm
        osd_objectstore: bluestore
  15. Run openstack overcloud deploy to update the overcloud.

    Note

    This example assumes that you removed the /dev/sde device from all hosts with OSDs. If you do not remove the same device from all nodes, update the heat template as shown and see Section 5.4, “Mapping the disk layout to non-homogeneous Ceph Storage nodes” for information about how to define hosts with a differing devices list.

10.5. Handling disk failure

If a disk fails, see Handling a Disk Failure in the Red Hat Ceph Storage Operations Guide.

Appendix A. Sample environment file: creating a Ceph Storage cluster

The following custom environment file uses many of the options described throughout Chapter 2, Preparing overcloud nodes. This sample does not include any commented-out options. For an overview on environment files, see Environment Files (from the Advanced Overcloud Customization guide).

/home/stack/templates/storage-config.yaml

parameter_defaults: 1
  CinderBackupBackend: ceph 2
  CephAnsibleDisksConfig: 3
    osd_scenario: lvm
    osd_objectstore: bluestore
    dmcrypt: true
    devices:
      - /dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:0:10:0
      - /dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:03:00.0-scsi-0:0:11:0
      - /dev/nvme0n1
  ControllerCount: 3 4
  OvercloudControlFlavor: control
  ComputeCount: 3
  OvercloudComputeFlavor: compute
  CephStorageCount: 3
  OvercloudCephStorageFlavor: ceph-storage
  CephMonCount: 3
  OvercloudCephMonFlavor: ceph-mon
  CephMdsCount: 3
  OvercloudCephMdsFlavor: ceph-mds
  NeutronNetworkType: vxlan 5

1
The parameter_defaults section modifies the default values for parameters in all templates. Most of the entries listed here are described in Chapter 4, Customizing the Storage service.
2
If you are deploying the Ceph Object Gateway, you can use Ceph Object Storage (ceph-rgw) as a backup target. To configure this, set CinderBackupBackend to swift. See Section 4.2, “Enabling the Ceph Object Gateway” for details.
3
The CephAnsibleDisksConfig section defines a custom disk layout for deployments using BlueStore and Ceph 3.2 or later. For deployments using FileStore and Ceph 3.1 or earlier, modify CephAnsibleDisksConfig using the examples in described in Section 5.2, “Mapping the Ceph Storage node disk layout”.
Warning

osd_scenario: lvm is used in the example to default new deployments to bluestore as configured by ceph-volume; this is only available with ceph-ansible 3.2 or later and Ceph Luminous or later. The parameters to support filestore with ceph-ansible 3.2 are backwards compatible. Therefore, in existing FileStore deployments, do not simply change the osd_objectstore or osd_scenario parameters without first taking steps to maintain both back ends.

4
For each role, the *Count parameters assign a number of nodes while the Overcloud*Flavor parameters assign a flavor. For example, ControllerCount: 3 assigns 3 nodes to the Controller role, and OvercloudControlFlavor: control sets each of those roles to use the control flavor. See Section 7.1, “Assigning nodes and flavors to roles” for details.
Note

The CephMonCount, CephMdsCount, OvercloudCephMonFlavor, and OvercloudCephMdsFlavor parameters (along with the ceph-mon and ceph-mds flavors) will only be valid if you created a custom CephMON and CephMds role, as described in Chapter 3, Deploying Ceph services on dedicated nodes.

5
NeutronNetworkType: sets the network type that the neutron service should use (in this case, vxlan).

Appendix B. Sample custom interface template: multiple bonded interfaces

The following template is a customized version of /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/config/bond-with-vlans/ceph-storage.yaml. It features multiple bonded interfaces to isolate back-end and front-end storage network traffic, along with redundancy for both connections (as described in ]). It also uses custom bonding options (namely, 'mode=4 lacp_rate=1', as described in xref:multibonded-nics-ovs-opts[).

/usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/network/config/bond-with-vlans/ceph-storage.yaml (custom)

heat_template_version: 2015-04-30

description: >
  Software Config to drive os-net-config with 2 bonded nics on a bridge
  with VLANs attached for the ceph storage role.

parameters:
  ControlPlaneIp:
    default: ''
    description: IP address/subnet on the ctlplane network
    type: string
  ExternalIpSubnet:
    default: ''
    description: IP address/subnet on the external network
    type: string
  InternalApiIpSubnet:
    default: ''
    description: IP address/subnet on the internal API network
    type: string
  StorageIpSubnet:
    default: ''
    description: IP address/subnet on the storage network
    type: string
  StorageMgmtIpSubnet:
    default: ''
    description: IP address/subnet on the storage mgmt network
    type: string
  TenantIpSubnet:
    default: ''
    description: IP address/subnet on the tenant network
    type: string
  ManagementIpSubnet: # Only populated when including environments/network-management.yaml
    default: ''
    description: IP address/subnet on the management network
    type: string
  BondInterfaceOvsOptions:
    default: 'mode=4 lacp_rate=1'
    description: The bonding_options string for the bond interface. Set
                 things like lacp=active and/or bond_mode=balance-slb
                 using this option.
    type: string
    constraints:
      - allowed_pattern: "^((?!balance.tcp).)*$"
        description: |
          The balance-tcp bond mode is known to cause packet loss and
          should not be used in BondInterfaceOvsOptions.
  ExternalNetworkVlanID:
    default: 10
    description: Vlan ID for the external network traffic.
    type: number
  InternalApiNetworkVlanID:
    default: 20
    description: Vlan ID for the internal_api network traffic.
    type: number
  StorageNetworkVlanID:
    default: 30
    description: Vlan ID for the storage network traffic.
    type: number
  StorageMgmtNetworkVlanID:
    default: 40
    description: Vlan ID for the storage mgmt network traffic.
    type: number
  TenantNetworkVlanID:
    default: 50
    description: Vlan ID for the tenant network traffic.
    type: number
  ManagementNetworkVlanID:
    default: 60
    description: Vlan ID for the management network traffic.
    type: number
  ControlPlaneSubnetCidr: # Override this via parameter_defaults
    default: '24'
    description: The subnet CIDR of the control plane network.
    type: string
  ControlPlaneDefaultRoute: # Override this via parameter_defaults
    description: The default route of the control plane network.
    type: string
  ExternalInterfaceDefaultRoute: # Not used by default in this template
    default: '10.0.0.1'
    description: The default route of the external network.
    type: string
  ManagementInterfaceDefaultRoute: # Commented out by default in this template
    default: unset
    description: The default route of the management network.
    type: string
  DnsServers: # Override this via parameter_defaults
    default: []
    description: A list of DNS servers (2 max for some implementations) that will be added to resolv.conf.
    type: comma_delimited_list
  EC2MetadataIp: # Override this via parameter_defaults
    description: The IP address of the EC2 metadata server.
    type: string

resources:
  OsNetConfigImpl:
    type: OS::Heat::StructuredConfig
    properties:
      group: os-apply-config
      config:
        os_net_config:
          network_config:
            -
              type: interface
              name: nic1
              use_dhcp: false
              dns_servers: {get_param: DnsServers}
              addresses:
                -
                  ip_netmask:
                    list_join:
                      - '/'
                      - - {get_param: ControlPlaneIp}
                        - {get_param: ControlPlaneSubnetCidr}
              routes:
                -
                  ip_netmask: 169.254.169.254/32
                  next_hop: {get_param: EC2MetadataIp}
                -
                  default: true
                  next_hop: {get_param: ControlPlaneDefaultRoute}
            -
              type: ovs_bridge
              name: br-bond
              members:
                -
                  type: linux_bond
                  name: bond1
                  bonding_options: {get_param: BondInterfaceOvsOptions}
                  members:
                    -
                      type: interface
                      name: nic2
                      primary: true
                    -
                      type: interface
                      name: nic3
                -
                  type: vlan
                  device: bond1
                  vlan_id: {get_param: StorageNetworkVlanID}
                  addresses:
                    -
                      ip_netmask: {get_param: StorageIpSubnet}
            -
              type: ovs_bridge
              name: br-bond2
              members:
                -
                  type: linux_bond
                  name: bond2
                  bonding_options: {get_param: BondInterfaceOvsOptions}
                  members:
                    -
                      type: interface
                      name: nic4
                      primary: true
                    -
                      type: interface
                      name: nic5
                -
                  type: vlan
                  device: bond1
                  vlan_id: {get_param: StorageMgmtNetworkVlanID}
                  addresses:
                    -
                      ip_netmask: {get_param: StorageMgmtIpSubnet}
outputs:
  OS::stack_id:
    description: The OsNetConfigImpl resource.
    value: {get_resource: OsNetConfigImpl}

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