Back Up and Restore the Director Undercloud

Red Hat OpenStack Platform 15

Back up and restore the director undercloud

OpenStack Documentation Team


A guide to backing up and restoring the undercloud in Red Hat OpenStack Platform director.

Chapter 1. Back Up the Undercloud

This guide describes how to back up the undercloud used in the Red Hat OpenStack Platform director. The undercloud is usually a single physical node (although high availability options exist using a two-node pacemaker cluster that runs director in a VM) that is used to deploy and manage your OpenStack environment.

1.1. Backup Considerations

Formulate a robust back up and recovery policy in order to minimize data loss and system downtime. When determining your back up strategy, you will need to answer the following questions:

  • How quickly will you need to recover from data loss? If you cannot have data loss at all, you should include high availability in your deployment strategy, in addition to using backups. You’ll need to consider how long it will take to obtain the physical backup media (including from an offsite location, if used), and how many tape drives are available for restore operations.
  • How many backups should you keep? You will need to consider legal and regulatory requirements that affect how long you are expected to store data.
  • Should your backups be kept off-site? Storing your backup media offsite will help mitigate the risk of catastrophe befalling your physical location.
  • How often should backups be tested? A robust back up strategy will include regular restoration tests of backed up data. This can help validate that the correct data is still being backed up, and that no corruption is being introduced during the back up or restoration processes. These drills should assume that they are being performed under actual disaster recovery conditions.
  • What will be backed up? The following sections describe database and file-system backups for components, as well as information on recovering backups.

1.2. High Availability of the Undercloud node

You are free to consider your preferred high availability (HA) options for the Undercloud node; Red Hat does not prescribe any particular requirements for this. For example, you might consider running your Undercloud node as a highly available virtual machine within Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization (RHEV). You might also consider using physical nodes with Pacemaker providing HA for the required services.

When approaching high availability for your Undercloud node, you should consult the documentation and good practices of the solution you decide works best for your environment.

1.3. Backing up a containerized undercloud

A full undercloud backup includes the following databases and files:

  • All MariaDB databases on the undercloud node
  • MariaDB configuration file on the undercloud (so that you can accurately restore databases)
  • The configuration data: /etc
  • Log data: /var/log
  • Image data: /var/lib/glance
  • Certificate generation data if using SSL: /var/lib/certmonger
  • Any container image data: /var/lib/containers and /var/lib/image-serve
  • All swift data: /srv/node
  • All data in the stack user home directory: /home/stack

Confirm that you have sufficient disk space available on the undercloud before performing the backup process. Expect the archive file to be at least 3.5 GB, if not larger.


  1. Log into the undercloud as the root user.
  2. Install the mariadb client tools if they are not installed already:

    # dnf install mariadb
  3. Copy the root configuration for the database:

    # cp /var/lib/config-data/puppet-generated/mysql/root/.my.cnf .
  4. Create a backup directory, and change the user ownership of the directory to the stack user:

    [root@director ~]# mkdir /backup
    [root@director ~]# chown stack: /backup
  5. Back up the database to the root directory:

    [root@director ~]# mysqldump --opt --all-databases > /root/undercloud-all-databases.sql
  6. Archive the database backup and the configuration files:

    [root@director ~]# cd /backup
    [root@director ~]# tar --xattrs --xattrs-include='*.*' --ignore-failed-read -cf \
        undercloud-backup-`date +%F`.tar \
        /root/undercloud-all-databases.sql \
        /etc \
        /var/log \
        /var/lib/glance \
        /var/lib/certmonger \
        /var/lib/docker \
        /var/lib/registry \
        /srv/node \
        /root \
    • The --ignore-failed-read option skips any directory that does not apply to your undercloud.
    • The --xattrs option includes extended attributed, which are required to store metadata for Object Storage (swift).

    This creates a file named undercloud-backup-<date>.tar.gz, where <date> is the system date. Copy this tar file to a secure location.

1.4. Validate the Completed Backup

You can validate the success of the completed back up process by running and validating the restore process. See the next section for further details on restoring from backup.

Part I. Restore the Undercloud

This section describes how to restore the undercloud used in the Red Hat OpenStack Platform Director.


This process contains steps to restore the data from the OpenStack Platform director backup to a fresh undercloud installation. As a result, the restored undercloud uses the latest packages.

Chapter 2. Restoring a containerized undercloud

The following restore procedure assumes your undercloud node has failed and is in an unrecoverable state. This procedure involves restoring the database and critical filesystems on a fresh installation. It assumes the following:

  • You have re-installed the latest version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.
  • The hardware layout is the same.
  • The hostname and undercloud settings of the machine are the same.
  • The backup archive has been copied to the root directory.


  1. Log into your undercloud as the root user.
  2. Register your system with the Content Delivery Network, entering your Customer Portal user name and password when prompted:

    [root@director ~]# subscription-manager register
  3. Attach the Red Hat OpenStack Platform entitlement:

    [root@director ~]# subscription-manager attach --pool=Valid-Pool-Number-123456
  4. Disable all default repositories, and then enable the required Red Hat Enterprise Linux repositories:

    [root@director ~]# subscription-manager repos --disable=*
    [root@director ~]# subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-8-for-x86_64-baseos-rpms --enable=rhel-8-for-x86_64-appstream-rpms --enable=rhel-8-for-x86_64-highavailability-rpms --enable=ansible-2.8-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms --enable=openstack-15-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms --enable=fast-datapath-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms
  5. Perform an update on your system to make sure you have the latest base system packages:

    [root@director ~]# dnf update -y
    [root@director ~]# reboot
  6. Ensure the time on your undercloud is synchronized. For example:

    [root@director ~]# dnf install -y chrony
    [root@director ~]# systemctl start chronyd
    [root@director ~]# systemctl enable chronyd
  7. Copy the undercloud backup archive to the undercloud’s root directory. The following steps use undercloud-backup-$TIMESTAMP.tar as the filename, where $TIMESTAMP is a Bash variable for the timestamp on the archive.
  8. Install the database server and client tools:

    [root@director ~]# dnf install -y mariadb mariadb-server
  9. Start the database:

    [root@director ~]# systemctl start mariadb
  10. Increase the allowed packets to accommodate the size of our database backup:

    [root@director ~]# mysql -uroot -e"set global max_allowed_packet = 1073741824;"
  11. Extract the database and database configuration from the archive:

    [root@director ~]# tar -xvC / -f undercloud-backup-$TIMESTAMP.tar var/lib/config-data/mysql/etc/my.cnf.d/galera.cnf
    [root@director ~]# tar -xvC / -f undercloud-backup-$TIMESTAMP.tar root/undercloud-all-databases.sql
  12. Restore the database backup:

    [root@director ~]# mysql -u root < /root/undercloud-all-databases.sql
  13. Extract a temporary version of the root configuration file:

    [root@director ~]# tar -xvf undercloud-backup-$TIMESTAMP.tar root/.my.cnf
  14. Get the old root database password:

    [root@director ~]# OLDPASSWORD=$(sudo cat root/.my.cnf | grep -m1 password | cut -d'=' -f2 | tr -d "'")
  15. Reset the root database password:

    [root@director ~]# mysqladmin -u root password "$OLDPASSWORD"
  16. Copy the root configuration file from the temporary location:

    [root@director ~]# mv root/.my.cnf .
    [root@director ~]# rmdir root
  17. Get a list of old user permissions:

    [root@director ~]# mysql -e 'select host, user, password from mysql.user;'
  18. Remove the old user permissions for each host listed. For example:

    [root@director ~]# HOST=""
    [root@director ~]# USERS=$(mysql -Nse "select user from mysql.user WHERE user != \"root\" and host = \"$HOST\";" | uniq | xargs)
    [root@director ~]# for USER in $USERS ; do mysql -e "drop user \"$USER\"@\"$HOST\"" || true ;done
    [root@director ~]# mysql -e 'flush privileges'

    Perform this for all users accessing through the host IP and any host ("%").


The IP address in the HOST parameter is the undercloud’s IP address in the control plane.

  1. Stop the database:

    [root@director ~]# systemctl stop mariadb
  2. Create the stack user:

    [root@director ~]# useradd stack
  3. Set a password for the user:

    [root@director ~]# passwd stack
  4. Disable password requirements when using sudo:

    [root@director ~]# echo "stack ALL=(root) NOPASSWD:ALL" | tee -a /etc/sudoers.d/stack
    [root@director ~]# chmod 0440 /etc/sudoers.d/stack
  5. Restore the stack user home directory:

    # tar -xvC / -f undercloud-backup-$TIMESTAMP.tar home/stack
  6. Install the python3-policycoreutils package:

    [root@director ~]# dnf -y install python3-policycoreutils
  7. Restore the glance data:

    [root@director ~]# tar --xattrs -xvC / -f undercloud-backup-$TIMESTAMP.tar var/lib/glance
  8. Restore the swift data:

    [root@director ~]# tar --xattrs -xvC / -f undercloud-backup-$TIMESTAMP.tar srv/node
  9. If using SSL in the undercloud, refresh the CA certificates:

    [root@director ~]# tar -xvC / -f undercloud-backup-$TIMESTAMP.tar etc/pki/instack-certs/undercloud.pem
    [root@director ~]# tar -xvC / -f undercloud-backup-$TIMESTAMP.tar etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/*
    [root@director ~]# restorecon -R /etc/pki
    [root@director ~]# semanage fcontext -a -t etc_t "/etc/pki/instack-certs(/.*)?"
    [root@director ~]# restorecon -R /etc/pki/instack-certs
    [root@director ~]# update-ca-trust extract
  10. Switch to the stack user:

    [root@director ~]# su - stack
    [stack@director ~]$
  11. Install the python3-tripleoclient package:

    $ sudo dnf install -y python3-tripleoclient
  12. Run the undercloud installation command. Ensure to run it in the stack user’s home directory:

    [stack@director ~]$ openstack undercloud install
  13. Wait until the install completes. The undercloud automatically restores its connection to the overcloud. The nodes will continue to poll OpenStack Orchestration (heat) for pending tasks.

Chapter 3. Restoring images for overcloud nodes

The director requires the latest disk images for provisioning new overcloud nodes. Follow this procedure to restore these images.


  1. Source the stackrc file to enable the director’s command line tools:

    [stack@director ~]$ source ~/stackrc
  2. Install the rhosp-director-images and rhosp-director-images-ipa packages:

    (undercloud) [stack@director ~]$ sudo dnf install rhosp-director-images rhosp-director-images-ipa
  3. Extract the images archives to the images directory in the stack user’s home (/home/stack/images):

    (undercloud) [stack@director ~]$ cd ~/images
    (undercloud) [stack@director images]$ for i in /usr/share/rhosp-director-images/overcloud-full-latest-15.0.tar /usr/share/rhosp-director-images/ironic-python-agent-latest-15.0.tar; do tar -xvf $i; done
  4. Import these images into the director:

    (undercloud) [stack@director images]$ cd ~/images
    (undercloud) [stack@director images]$ openstack overcloud image upload --image-path /home/stack/images/
  5. Configure nodes in your environment to use the new images:

    (undercloud) [stack@director images]$ for NODE in $(openstack baremetal node list -c UUID -f value) ; do openstack overcloud node configure $NODE ; done

Chapter 4. Validate the Completed Restore

Use the following commands to perform a healthcheck of your newly restored environment:

4.1. Check Identity Service (Keystone) Operation

This step validates Identity Service operations by querying for a list of users.

# source stackrc
# openstack user list

When run from the controller, the output of this command should include a list of users created in your environment. This action demonstrates that keystone is running and successfully authenticating user requests. For example:

# openstack user list
|                id                |    name    | enabled |        email         |
| 9e47bb53bb40453094e32eccce996828 |   admin    |   True  |    root@localhost    |
| 9fe2466f88cc4fa0ba69e59b47898829 | ceilometer |   True  | ceilometer@localhost |
| 7a40d944e55d422fa4e85daf47e47c42 |   cinder   |   True  |   cinder@localhost   |
| 3d2ed97538064f258f67c98d1912132e |    demo    |   True  |                      |
| 756e73a5115d4e9a947d8aadc6f5ac22 |   glance   |   True  |   glance@localhost   |
| f0d1fcee8f9b4da39556b78b72fdafb1 |  neutron   |   True  |  neutron@localhost   |
| e9025f3faeee4d6bb7a057523576ea19 |    nova    |   True  |    nova@localhost    |
| 65c60b1278a0498980b2dc46c7dcf4b7 |   swift    |   True  |   swift@localhost    |

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