Chapter 3. Preparing for director installation

3.1. Preparing the undercloud

The director installation requires the following:

  • A non-root user to execute commands.
  • Directories to organize images and templates
  • A resolvable hostname
  • A Red Hat subscription
  • The command line tools for image preparation and director installation

This procedure shows how to create these items.

Procedure

  1. Log into your undercloud as the root user.
  2. Create the stack user:

    [root@director ~]# useradd stack
  3. Set a password for the user:

    [root@director ~]# passwd stack
  4. Disable password requirements when using sudo:

    [root@director ~]# echo "stack ALL=(root) NOPASSWD:ALL" | tee -a /etc/sudoers.d/stack
    [root@director ~]# chmod 0440 /etc/sudoers.d/stack
  5. Switch to the new stack user:

    [root@director ~]# su - stack
    [stack@director ~]$
  6. Create directories for system images and Heat templates.

    [stack@director ~]$ mkdir ~/images
    [stack@director ~]$ mkdir ~/templates

    The director uses system images and Heat templates to create the overcloud environment. Red Hat recommends creating these directories to help you organize your local file system.

  7. Check the base and full hostname of the undercloud:

    [stack@director ~]$ hostname
    [stack@director ~]$ hostname -f

    If either of the previous commands do not report the correct fully-qualified hostname or report an error, use hostnamectl to set a hostname:

    [stack@director ~]$ sudo hostnamectl set-hostname manager.example.com
    [stack@director ~]$ sudo hostnamectl set-hostname --transient manager.example.com
  8. Edit the /etc/hosts to include an entry for the system’s hostname. The IP address in /etc/hosts must match the address that you plan to use for your undercloud public API. For example, if the system is named manager.example.com and uses 10.0.0.1 for its IP address, then /etc/hosts requires an entry like:

    10.0.0.1  manager.example.com manager
  9. Register your system either with the Red Hat Content Delivery Network or with a Red Hat Satellite. For example, run the following command to register the system to the Content Delivery Network. Enter your Customer Portal user name and password when prompted:

    [stack@director ~]$ sudo subscription-manager register
  10. Find the entitlement pool ID for Red Hat OpenStack Platform director. For example:

    [stack@director ~]$ sudo subscription-manager list --available --all --matches="Red Hat OpenStack"
    Subscription Name:   Name of SKU
    Provides:            Red Hat Single Sign-On
                         Red Hat Enterprise Linux Workstation
                         Red Hat CloudForms
                         Red Hat OpenStack
                         Red Hat Software Collections (for RHEL Workstation)
                         Red Hat Virtualization
    SKU:                 SKU-Number
    Contract:            Contract-Number
    Pool ID:             Valid-Pool-Number-123456
    Provides Management: Yes
    Available:           1
    Suggested:           1
    Service Level:       Support-level
    Service Type:        Service-Type
    Subscription Type:   Sub-type
    Ends:                End-date
    System Type:         Physical
  11. Locate the Pool ID value and attach the Red Hat OpenStack Platform 15 entitlement:

    [stack@director ~]$ sudo subscription-manager attach --pool=Valid-Pool-Number-123456
  12. Disable all default repositories, and then enable the required Red Hat Enterprise Linux repositories:

    [stack@director ~]$ sudo subscription-manager repos --disable=*
    [stack@director ~]$ sudo subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-8-for-x86_64-baseos-rpms --enable=rhel-8-for-x86_64-appstream-rpms --enable=rhel-8-for-x86_64-highavailability-rpms --enable=ansible-2.8-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms --enable=openstack-beta-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms --enable=fast-datapath-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms

    These repositories contain packages the director installation requires.

  13. Perform an update on your system to ensure you have the latest base system packages:

    [stack@director ~]$ sudo yum update -y
    [stack@director ~]$ sudo reboot
  14. Install the command line tools for director installation and configuration:

    [stack@director ~]$ sudo yum install -y python3-tripleoclient

3.2. Installing ceph-ansible

The following procedure installs the ceph-ansible package if you plan to create an overcloud with Ceph Storage nodes. If you do not plan to create Ceph Storage nodes in your overcloud, you do not need this package.

Procedure

  1. Enable the Ceph Tools repository:

    [stack@director ~]$ sudo subscription-manager repos --enable=rhceph-4-tools-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms
  2. Install the ceph-ansible package:

    [stack@director ~]$ sudo yum install -y ceph-ansible

3.3. Preparing container images

The undercloud configuration requires initial registry configuration to determine where to obtain images and how to store them. Complete the following steps to generate and customize an environment file for preparing your container images.

Procedure

  1. Log in to your undercloud host as the stack user.
  2. Generate the default container image preparation file:

    $ openstack tripleo container image prepare default \
      --local-push-destination \
      --output-env-file containers-prepare-parameter.yaml

    This command includes the following additional options:

    • --local-push-destination sets the registry on the undercloud as the location for container images. This means the director pulls the necessary images from the Red Hat Container Catalog and pushes them to the registry on the undercloud. The director uses this registry as the container image source. To pull directly from the Red Hat Container Catalog, omit this option.
    • --output-env-file is an environment file name. The contents of this file include the parameters for preparing your container images. In this case, the name of the file is containers-prepare-parameter.yaml.

      Note

      You can also use the same containers-prepare-parameter.yaml file to define a container image source for both the undercloud and the overcloud.

  3. Edit the containers-prepare-parameter.yaml and make the modifications to suit your requirements.

3.4. Container image preparation parameters

The default file for preparing your containers (containers-prepare-parameter.yaml) contains the ContainerImagePrepare Heat parameter. This parameter defines a list of strategies for preparing a set of images:

parameter_defaults:
  ContainerImagePrepare:
  - (strategy one)
  - (strategy two)
  - (strategy three)
  ...

Each strategy accepts a set of sub-parameters that define which images to use and what to do with them. The following table contains information about the sub-parameters you can use with each ContainerImagePrepare strategy:

ParameterDescription

excludes

List of image name substrings to exclude from a strategy.

includes

List of image name substrings to include in a strategy. At least one image name must match an existing image. All excludes are ignored if includes is specified.

modify_append_tag

String to append to the tag for the destination image. For example, if you pull an image with the tag 14.0-89 and set the modify_append_tag to -hotfix, the director tags the final image as 14.0-89-hotfix.

modify_only_with_labels

A dictionary of image labels that filter the images to modify. If an image matches the labels defined, the director includes the image in the modification process.

modify_role

String of ansible role names to run during upload but before pushing the image to the destination registry.

modify_vars

Dictionary of variables to pass to modify_role.

push_destination

The namespace of the registry to push images during the upload process. When you specify a namespace for this parameter, all image parameters use this namespace too. If set to true, the push_destination is set to the undercloud registry namespace. It is not recommended to set this parameters to false in production environments.

pull_source

The source registry from where to pull the original container images.

set

A dictionary of key: value definitions that define where to obtain the initial images.

tag_from_label

Defines the label pattern to tag the resulting images. Usually sets to {version}-{release}.

The set parameter accepts a set of key: value definitions. The following table contains information about the keys:

KeyDescription

ceph_image

The name of the Ceph Storage container image.

ceph_namespace

The namespace of the Ceph Storage container image.

ceph_tag

The tag of the Ceph Storage container image.

name_prefix

A prefix for each OpenStack service image.

name_suffix

A suffix for each OpenStack service image.

namespace

The namespace for each OpenStack service image.

neutron_driver

The driver to use to determine which OpenStack Networking (neutron) container to use. Use a null value to set to the standard neutron-server container. Set to ovn to use OVN-based containers. Set to odl to use OpenDaylight-based containers.

tag

The tag that the director uses to identify the images to pull from the source registry. You usually keep this key set to latest.

The ContainerImageRegistryCredentials parameter maps a container registry to a username and password to authenticate to that registry.

If a container registry requires a username and password, you can use ContainerImageRegistryCredentials to include their values with the following syntax:

  ContainerImagePrepare:
  - push_destination: 192.168.24.1:8787
    set:
      namespace: registry.redhat.io/...
      ...
  ContainerImageRegistryCredentials:
    registry.redhat.io:
      my_username: my_password

In the example, replace my_username and my_password with the credentials you use to access content from the Red Hat Content Distribution Network.

3.5. Layering image preparation entries

The value of the ContainerImagePrepare parameter is a YAML list. This means you can specify multiple entries. The following example demonstrates two entries where the director uses the latest version of all images except for the nova-api image, which uses the version tagged with 15.0-44:

ContainerImagePrepare:
- tag_from_label: "{version}-{release}"
  push_destination: true
  excludes:
  - nova-api
  set:
    namespace: registry.access.redhat.com/rhosp15
    name_prefix: openstack-
    name_suffix: ''
    tag: latest
- push_destination: true
  includes:
  - nova-api
  set:
    namespace: registry.access.redhat.com/rhosp15
    tag: 15.0-44

The includes and excludes entries control image filtering for each entry. The images that match the includes strategy take precedence over excludes matches. The image name must include the includes or excludes value to be considered a match.

3.6. Obtaining container images from private registries

Some container image registries might require authentication to access images. In this situation, use the ContainerImageRegistryCredentials parameter in your containers-prepare-parameter.yaml environment file.

parameter_defaults:
  ContainerImagePrepare:
  - (strategy one)
  - (strategy two)
  - (strategy three)
  ContainerImageRegistryCredentials:
    registry.example.com:
      username: "p@55w0rd!"
Important

Private registries require push_destination set to true for their respective strategy in the ContainerImagePrepare.

The ContainerImageRegistryCredentials parameter uses a set of keys based upon the private registry URL. Each private registry URL uses its own key and value pair to define the username (key) and password (value). This provides a method to specify credentials for multiple private registries.

parameter_defaults:
  ...
  ContainerImageRegistryCredentials:
    registry.redhat.io:
      myuser: 'p@55w0rd!'
    registry.internalsite.com:
      myuser2: '0th3rp@55w0rd!'
    '192.0.2.1:8787':
      myuser3: '@n0th3rp@55w0rd!'
Important

The default ContainerImagePrepare parameter pulls Ceph Storage container image from registry.redhat.io, which requires authentication.

3.7. Modifying images during preparation

It is possible to modify images during image preparation, then immediately deploy with modified images. Scenarios for modifying images include:

  • As part of a continuous integration pipeline where images are modified with the changes being tested before deployment.
  • As part of a development workflow where local changes need to be deployed for testing and development.
  • When changes need to be deployed but are not available through an image build pipeline. For example, adding proprietry add-ons or emergency fixes.

To modify an image during preparation, invoke an Ansible role on each image that you want to modify. The role takes a source image, makes the requested changes, and tags the result. The prepare command can push the image to the destination registry and set the Heat parameters to refer to the modified image.

The Ansible role tripleo-modify-image conforms with the required role interface, and provides the behaviour necessary for the modify use-cases. Modification is controlled using modify-specific keys in the ContainerImagePrepare parameter:

  • modify_role specifies the Ansible role to invoke for each image to modify.
  • modify_append_tag appends a string to the end of the source image tag. This makes it obvious that the resulting image has been modified. Use this parameter to skip modification if the push_destination registry already contains the modified image. It is recommended to change modify_append_tag whenever you modify the image.
  • modify_vars is a dictionary of Ansible variables to pass to the role.

To select a use-case that the tripleo-modify-image role handles, set the tasks_from variable to the required file in that role.

While developing and testing the ContainerImagePrepare entries that modify images, it is recommended to run the image prepare command without any additional options to confirm the image is modified as expected:

sudo openstack tripleo container image prepare \
  -e ~/containers-prepare-parameter.yaml

3.8. Updating existing packages on container images

The following example ContainerImagePrepare entry updates in all packages on the images using the undercloud host’s yum repository configuration:

ContainerImagePrepare:
- push_destination: true
  ...
  modify_role: tripleo-modify-image
  modify_append_tag: "-updated"
  modify_vars:
    tasks_from: yum_update.yml
    compare_host_packages: true
    yum_repos_dir_path: /etc/yum.repos.d
  ...

3.9. Installing additional RPM files to container images

You can install a directory of RPM files in your container images. This is useful for installing hotfixes, local package builds, or any package not available through a package repository. For example, the following ContainerImagePrepare entry installs some hotfix packages only on the nova-compute image:

ContainerImagePrepare:
- push_destination: true
  ...
  includes:
  - nova-compute
  modify_role: tripleo-modify-image
  modify_append_tag: "-hotfix"
  modify_vars:
    tasks_from: rpm_install.yml
    rpms_path: /home/stack/nova-hotfix-pkgs
  ...

3.10. Modifying container images with a custom Dockerfile

For maximum flexibility, you can specify a directory containing a Dockerfile to make the required changes. When you invoke the tripleo-modify-image role, the role generates a Dockerfile.modified file that changes the FROM directive and adds extra LABEL directives. The following example runs the custom Dockerfile on the nova-compute image:

ContainerImagePrepare:
- push_destination: true
  ...
  includes:
  - nova-compute
  modify_role: tripleo-modify-image
  modify_append_tag: "-hotfix"
  modify_vars:
    tasks_from: modify_image.yml
    modify_dir_path: /home/stack/nova-custom
  ...

An example /home/stack/nova-custom/Dockerfile follows. After running any USER root directives, you must switch back to the original image default user:

FROM registry.access.redhat.com/rhosp15/openstack-nova-compute:latest

USER "root"

COPY customize.sh /tmp/
RUN /tmp/customize.sh

USER "nova"

3.11. Preparing a Satellite server for container images

Red Hat Satellite 6 offers registry synchronization capabilities. This provides a method to pull multiple images into a Satellite server and manage them as part of an application life cycle. The Satellite also acts as a registry for other container-enabled systems to use. For more details information on managing container images, see "Managing Container Images" in the Red Hat Satellite 6 Content Management Guide.

The examples in this procedure use the hammer command line tool for Red Hat Satellite 6 and an example organization called ACME. Substitute this organization for your own Satellite 6 organization.

Procedure

  1. Create a list of all container images:

    $ sudo podman search --limit 1000 "registry.access.redhat.com/rhosp15" | awk '{ print $2 }' | grep -v beta | sed "s/registry.access.redhat.com\///g" | tail -n+2 > satellite_images
  2. Copy the satellite_images_names file to a system that contains the Satellite 6 hammer tool. Alternatively, use the instructions in the Hammer CLI Guide to install the hammer tool to the undercloud.
  3. Run the following hammer command to create a new product (OSP15 Containers) in your Satellite organization:

    $ hammer product create \
      --organization "ACME" \
      --name "OSP15 Containers"

    This custom product will contain our images.

  4. Add the base container image to the product:

    $ hammer repository create \
      --organization "ACME" \
      --product "OSP15 Containers" \
      --content-type docker \
      --url https://registry.access.redhat.com \
      --docker-upstream-name rhosp15/openstack-base \
      --name base
  5. Add the overcloud container images from the satellite_images file.

    $ while read IMAGE; do \
      IMAGENAME=$(echo $IMAGE | cut -d"/" -f2 | sed "s/openstack-//g" | sed "s/:.*//g") ; \
      hammer repository create \
      --organization "ACME" \
      --product "OSP15 Containers" \
      --content-type docker \
      --url https://registry.access.redhat.com \
      --docker-upstream-name $IMAGE \
      --name $IMAGENAME ; done < satellite_images_names
  6. Add the Ceph Storage 4 container image:

    $ hammer repository create \
      --organization "ACME" \
      --product "OSP15 Containers" \
      --content-type docker \
      --url https://registry.redhat.io \
      --docker-upstream-name rhceph-beta/rhceph-4-rhel8 \
      --name rhceph-4-rhel8
  7. Synchronize the container images:

    $ hammer product synchronize \
      --organization "ACME" \
      --name "OSP15 Containers"

    Wait for the Satellite server to complete synchronization.

    Note

    Depending on your configuration, hammer might ask for your Satellite server username and password. You can configure hammer to automatically login using a configuration file. For more information, see the "Authentication" section in the Hammer CLI Guide.

  8. If your Satellite 6 server uses content views, create a new content view version to incorporate the images and promote it along environments in your application life cycle. This largely depends on how you structure your application lifecycle. For example, if you have an environment called production in your lifecycle and you want the container images available in that environment, create a content view that includes the container images and promote that content view to the production environment. For more information, see "Managing Container Images with Content Views".
  9. Check the available tags for the base image:

    $ hammer docker tag list --repository "base" \
      --organization "ACME" \
      --environment "production" \
      --content-view "myosp15" \
      --product "OSP15 Containers"

    This command displays tags for the OpenStack Platform container images within a content view for an particular environment.

  10. Return to the undercloud and generate a default environment file for preparing images using your Satellite server as a source. Run the following example command to generate the environment file:

    (undercloud) $ openstack tripleo container image prepare default \
      --output-env-file containers-prepare-parameter.yaml
    • --output-env-file is an environment file name. The contents of this file will include the parameters for preparing your container images for the undercloud. In this case, the name of the file is containers-prepare-parameter.yaml.
  11. Edit the containers-prepare-parameter.yaml file and modify the following parameters:

    • namespace - The URL and port of the registry on the Satellite server. The default registry port on Red Hat Satellite is 5000.
    • name_prefix - The prefix is based on a Satellite 6 convention. This differs depending on whether you use content views:

      • If you use content views, the structure is [org]-[environment]-[content view]-[product]-. For example: acme-production-myosp15-osp15_containers-.
      • If you do not use content views, the structure is [org]-[product]-. For example: acme-osp15_containers-.
    • ceph_namespace, ceph_image, ceph_tag - If using Ceph Storage, include the additional parameters to define the Ceph Storage container image location. Note that ceph_image now includes a Satellite-specific prefix. This prefix is the same value as the name_prefix option.

The following example environment file contains Satellite-specific parameters:

parameter_defaults:
  ContainerImagePrepare:
  - push_destination: true
    set:
      ceph_image: acme-production-myosp15-osp15_containers-rhceph-4
      ceph_namespace: satellite.example.com:5000
      ceph_tag: latest
      name_prefix: acme-production-myosp15-osp15_containers-
      name_suffix: ''
      namespace: satellite.example.com:5000
      neutron_driver: null
      tag: latest
      ...
    tag_from_label: '{version}-{release}'

Use this environment file when creating both your undercloud and overcloud.