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Storage Guide

Red Hat OpenStack Platform 13

Understanding, using, and managing persistent storage in OpenStack

OpenStack Documentation Team

Abstract

This guide details the different procedures for using and managing persistent storage in a Red Hat OpenStack Platform environment. It also includes procedures for configuring and managing the respective OpenStack service of each persistent storage type.

Preface

Red Hat OpenStack Platform (Red Hat OpenStack Platform) provides the foundation to build a private or public Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) cloud on top of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. It offers a massively scalable, fault-tolerant platform for the development of cloud-enabled workloads.

This guide discusses procedures for creating and managing persistent storage. Within OpenStack, this storage is provided by three main services:

  • Block Storage (openstack-cinder)
  • Object Storage (openstack-swift)
  • Shared File System Storage (openstack-manila)

These services provide different types of persistent storage, each with its own set of advantages in different use cases. This guide discusses the suitability of each for general enterprise storage requirements.

You can manage cloud storage using either the OpenStack dashboard or the command-line clients. Most procedures can be carried out using either method; some of the more advanced procedures can only be executed on the command line. This guide provides procedures for the dashboard where possible.

Note

For the complete suite of documentation for Red Hat OpenStack Platform, see Red Hat OpenStack Platform Documentation.

Important

This guide documents the use of crudini to apply some custom service settings. As such, you need to install the crudini package first:

# yum install crudini -y

Chapter 1. Introduction to Persistent Storage in OpenStack

OpenStack recognizes two types of storage: ephemeral and persistent. Ephemeral storage is storage that is associated only to a specific Compute instance. Once that instance is terminated, so is its ephemeral storage. This type of storage is useful for basic runtime requirements, such as storing the instance’s operating system.

Persistent storage, on the other hand, is designed to survive ("persist") independent of any running instance. This storage is used for any data that needs to be reused, either by different instances or beyond the life of a specific instance. OpenStack uses the following types of persistent storage:

Volumes

The OpenStack Block Storage service (openstack-cinder) allows users to access block storage devices through volumes. Users can attach volumes to instances in order to augment their ephemeral storage with general-purpose persistent storage. Volumes can be detached and re-attached to instances at will, and can only be accessed through the instance they are attached to.

Volumes also provide inherent redundancy and disaster recovery through backups and snapshots. In addition, you can also encrypt volumes for added security. For more information about volumes, see Chapter 2, Block Storage and Volumes.

Note

Instances can also be configured to use absolutely no ephemeral storage. In such cases, the Block Storage service can write images to a volume; in turn, the volume can be used as a bootable root volume for an instance.

Containers

The OpenStack Object Storage service (openstack-swift) provides a fully-distributed storage solution used to store any kind of static data or binary object, such as media files, large datasets, and disk images. The Object Storage service organizes these objects through containers.

While a volume’s contents can only be accessed through instances, the objects inside a container can be accessed through the Object Storage REST API. As such, the Object Storage service can be used as a repository by nearly every service within the cloud. For example, the Data Processing service (openstack-sahara) can manage all of its binaries, data input, data output, and templates directly through the Object Storage service.

Shares
The Shared File System Service (openstack-manila) provides the means to easily provision remote, shareable file systems, or shares. Shares allow tenants within the cloud to openly share storage, and can be consumed by multiple instances simultaneously.

Each storage type is designed to address specific storage requirements. Containers are designed for wide access, and as such feature the highest throughput, access, and fault tolerance among all storage types. Container usage is geared more towards services.

On the other hand, volumes are used primarily for instance consumption. They do not enjoy the same level of access and performance as containers, but they do have a larger feature set and have more native security features than containers. Shares are similar to volumes in this regard, except that they can be consumed by multiple instances.

The following sections discuss each storage type’s architecture and feature set in detail, within the context of specific storage criteria.

1.1. Scalability and Back End

In general, a clustered storage solution provides greater back end scalability. For example, when using Red Hat Ceph as a Block Storage back end, you can scale storage capacity and redundancy by adding more Ceph OSD (Object Storage Daemon) nodes. Both Block Storage and Object Storage services support Red Hat Ceph as a back end.

The Block Storage service can use multiple storage solutions as discrete back ends. At the back end level, you can scale capacity by adding more back ends and restarting the service. The Block Storage service also features a large list of supported back end solutions, some of which feature additional scalability features.

By default, the Object Storage service uses the file system on configured storage nodes, and can use as much space as is available. The Object Storage service supports the XFS and ext4 file systems, and both can be scaled up to consume as much available underlying block storage. You can also scale capacity by adding more storage devices to the storage node.

The Shared File System Service provisions shares backed by storage from a separate storage pool. This pool (which is typically managed by a third-party back end service) provides the share with storage at the file system level. The Shared File System Service can use both NetApp and CephFS, which can be configured to use a storage pool of pre-created volumes which provisioned shares can use for storage. In either deployment, scaling involves adding more volumes to the pool.

1.2. Accessibility and Administration

Volumes are consumed only through instances, and can only be attached to and mounted within one instance at a time. Users can create snapshots of volumes, which can be used for cloning or restoring a volume to a previous state (see Section 1.4, “Redundancy and Disaster Recovery”). The Block Storage service also allows you to create volume types, which aggregate volume settings (for example, size and back end) that can be easily invoked by users when creating new volumes. These types can be further associated with Quality-of-Service specifications, which allow you to create different storage tiers for users.

Like volumes, shares are consumed through instances. However, shares can be directly mounted within an instance, and do not need to be attached through the dashboard or CLI. Shares can also be mounted by multiple instances simultaneously. The Shared File System service also supports share snapshots and cloning; you can also create share types to aggregate settings (similar to volume types).

Objects in a container are accessible via API, and can be made accessible to instances and services within the cloud. This makes them ideal as object repositories for services; for example, the Image service (openstack-glance) can store its images in containers managed by the Object Storage service.

1.3. Security

The Block Storage service provides basic data security through volume encryption. With this, you can configure a volume type to be encrypted through a static key; the key will then be used for encrypting all volumes created from the configured volume type. See Section 2.2.5, “Configure Volume Encryption” for more details.

Object and container security, on the other hand, is configured at the service and node level. The Object Storage service provides no native encryption for containers and objects. Rather, the Object Storage service prioritizes accessibility within the cloud, and as such relies solely on the cloud’s network security in order to protect object data.

The Shared File System service can secure shares through access restriction, whether by instance IP, user/group, or TLS certificate. In addition, some Shared File System service deployments can feature a separate share servers to manage the relationship between share networks and shares; some share servers support (or even require) additional network security. For example, a CIFS share server requires the deployment of an LDAP, Active Directory, or Kerberos authentication service.

1.4. Redundancy and Disaster Recovery

The Block Storage service features volume backup and restoration, providing basic disaster recovery for user storage. Backups allow you to protect volume contents. On top of this, the service also supports snapshots; aside from cloning, snapshots are also useful in restoring a volume to a previous state.

In a multi-backend environment, you can also migrate volumes between back ends. This is useful if you need to take a back end offline for maintenance. Backups are typically stored in a storage back end separate from their source volumes to help protect the data. This is not possible, however, with snapshots, as snapshots are dependent on their source volumes.

The Block Storage service also supports the creation of consistency groups, which allow you to group volumes together for simultaneous snapshot creation. This, in turn, allows for a greater level of data consistency across multiple volumes. See Section 2.2.7, “Configure and Use Consistency Groups” for more details.

The Object Storage service provides no built-in backup features. As such, all backups must be performed at the file system or node level. The service, however, features more robust redundancy and fault tolerance; even the most basic deployment of the Object Storage service replicates objects multiple times. You can use failover features like dm-multipath to enhance redundancy.

The Shared File System service provides no built-in backup features for shares, but it does allow you to create snapshots for cloning and restoration.

Chapter 2. Block Storage and Volumes

The Block Storage service (openstack-cinder) manages the administration, security, scheduling, and overall management of all volumes. Volumes are used as the primary form of persistent storage for Compute instances.

2.1. Back Ends

Red Hat OpenStack Platform is deployed using the OpenStack Platform director. Doing so helps ensure the proper configuration of each service, including the Block Storage service (and, by extension, its back end). The director also has several integrated back end configurations.

Red Hat OpenStack Platform supports Red Hat Ceph and NFS as Block Storage back ends. By default, the Block Storage service uses an LVM back end as a repository for volumes. While this back end is suitable for test environments, LVM is not supported in production environments.

For instructions on how to deploy Ceph with OpenStack, see Deploying an Overcloud with Containerized Red Hat Ceph.

For instructions on how to set up NFS storage in the overcloud, see Configuring NFS Storage (from the Advanced Overcloud Customization Guide).

Third-Party Storage Providers

You can also configure the Block Storage service to use supported third-party storage appliances. The director includes the necessary components for easily deploying different backend solutions.

For a complete list of supported back end appliances and drivers, see Component, Plug-In, and Driver Support in RHEL OpenStack Platform. Some back ends have individual guides, which are available on the Red Hat OpenStack Storage documentation site.

2.2. Block Storage Service Administration

The following procedures explain how to configure the Block Storage service to suit your needs. All of these procedures require administrator privileges.

2.2.1. Group Volume Settings with Volume Types

OpenStack allows you to create volume types, which allows you to apply the type’s associated settings. You can apply these settings during volume creation (]) or even afterwards (xref:section-volume-retype[). For example, you can associate:

Settings are associated with volume types using key-value pairs called Extra Specs. When you specify a volume type during volume creation, the Block Storage scheduler applies these key-value pairs as settings. You can associate multiple key-value pairs to the same volume type.

Volume types provide the capability to provide different users with storage tiers. By associating specific performance, resilience, and other settings as key-value pairs to a volume type, you can map tier-specific settings to different volume types. You can then apply tier settings when creating a volume by specifying the corresponding volume type.

2.2.1.1. List a Host Driver’s Capabilities

Available and supported Extra Specs vary per back end driver. Consult the driver’s documentation for a list of valid Extra Specs.

Alternatively, you can query the Block Storage host directly to determine which well-defined standard Extra Specs are supported by its driver. Start by logging in (through the command line) to the node hosting the Block Storage service. Then:

# cinder service-list

This command will return a list containing the host of each Block Storage service (cinder-backup, cinder-scheduler, and cinder-volume). For example:

+------------------+---------------------------+------+---------
|      Binary      |            Host           | Zone |  Status ...
+------------------+---------------------------+------+---------
|  cinder-backup   |   localhost.localdomain   | nova | enabled ...
| cinder-scheduler |   localhost.localdomain   | nova | enabled ...
|  cinder-volume   | localhost.localdomain@lvm | nova | enabled ...
+------------------+---------------------------+------+---------

To display the driver capabilities (and, in turn, determine the supported Extra Specs) of a Block Storage service, run:

# cinder get-capabilities VOLSVCHOST

Where VOLSVCHOST is the complete name of the cinder-volume's host. For example:

# cinder get-capabilities localhost.localdomain@lvm
    +---------------------+-----------------------------------------+
    |     Volume stats    |                        Value            |
    +---------------------+-----------------------------------------+
    |     description     |                         None            |
    |     display_name    |                         None            |
    |    driver_version   |                        3.0.0            |
    |      namespace      | OS::Storage::Capabilities::localhost.loc...
    |      pool_name      |                         None            |
    |   storage_protocol  |                        iSCSI            |
    |     vendor_name     |                     Open Source         |
    |      visibility     |                         None            |
    | volume_backend_name |                         lvm             |
    +---------------------+-----------------------------------------+
    +--------------------+------------------------------------------+
    | Backend properties |                        Value             |
    +--------------------+------------------------------------------+
    |    compression     |      {u'type': u'boolean', u'description'...
    |        qos         |              {u'type': u'boolean', u'des ...
    |    replication     |      {u'type': u'boolean', u'description'...
    | thin_provisioning  | {u'type': u'boolean', u'description': u'S...
    +--------------------+------------------------------------------+

The Backend properties column shows a list of Extra Spec Keys that you can set, while the Value column provides information on valid corresponding values.

2.2.1.2. Create and Configure a Volume Type

  1. As an admin user in the dashboard, select Admin > Volumes > Volume Types.
  2. Click Create Volume Type.
  3. Enter the volume type name in the Name field.
  4. Click Create Volume Type. The new type appears in the Volume Types table.
  5. Select the volume type’s View Extra Specs action.
  6. Click Create and specify the Key and Value. The key-value pair must be valid; otherwise, specifying the volume type during volume creation will result in an error.
  7. Click Create. The associated setting (key-value pair) now appears in the Extra Specs table.

By default, all volume types are accessible to all OpenStack tenants. If you need to create volume types with restricted access, you will need to do so through the CLI. For instructions, see Section 2.2.1.5, “Create and Configure Private Volume Types”.

Note

You can also associate a QoS Spec to the volume type. For details, refer to Section 2.2.4.4, “Associate a QOS Spec with a Volume Type”.

2.2.1.3. Edit a Volume Type

  1. As an admin user in the dashboard, select Admin > Volumes > Volume Types.
  2. In the Volume Types table, select the volume type’s View Extra Specs action.
  3. On the Extra Specs table of this page, you can:

    • Add a new setting to the volume type. To do this, click Create and specify the key/value pair of the new setting you want to associate to the volume type.
    • Edit an existing setting associated with the volume type by selecting the setting’s Edit action.
    • Delete existing settings associated with the volume type by selecting the extra specs' check box and clicking Delete Extra Specs in this and the next dialog screen.

2.2.1.4. Delete a Volume Type

To delete a volume type, select its corresponding check boxes from the Volume Types table and click Delete Volume Types.

2.2.1.5. Create and Configure Private Volume Types

By default, all volume types are available to all tenants. You can create a restricted volume type by marking it private. To do so, set the type’s is-public flag to false.

Private volume types are useful for restricting access to volumes with certain attributes. Typically, these are settings that should only be usable by specific tenants; examples include new back ends or ultra-high performance configurations that are being tested.

To create a private volume type, run:

$ cinder type-create --is-public false  <TYPE-NAME>

By default, private volume types are only accessible to their creators. However, admin users can find and view private volume types using the following command:

$ cinder type-list --all

This command lists both public and private volume types, and it also includes the name and ID of each one. You need the volume type’s ID to provide access to it.

Access to a private volume type is granted at the tenant level. To grant a tenant access to a private volume type, run:

$ cinder  type-access-add --volume-type <TYPE-ID> --project-id <TENANT-ID>

To view which tenants have access to a private volume type, run:

$ cinder  type-access-list --volume-type <TYPE-ID>

To remove a tenant from the access list of a private volume type, run:

$ cinder  type-access-remove --volume-type <TYPE-ID> --project-id <TENANT-ID>
Note

By default, only users with administrative privileges can create, view, or configure access for private volume types.

2.2.2. Create and Configure an Internal Tenant for the Block Storage Service

Some Block Storage features (for example, the Image-Volume cache) require the configuration of an internal tenant. The Block Storage service uses this tenant/project to manage block storage items that do not necessarily need to be exposed to normal users. Examples of such items are images cached for frequent volume cloning or temporary copies of volumes being migrated.

To configure an internal project, first create a generic project and user, both named cinder-internal. To do so, log in to the Controller node and run:

# openstack project create --enable --description "Block Storage Internal Tenant" cinder-internal
    +-------------+----------------------------------+
    |   Property  |              Value               |
    +-------------+----------------------------------+
    | description |  Block Storage Internal Tenant   |
    |   enabled   |               True               |
    |      id     | *cb91e1fe446a45628bb2b139d7dccaef* |
    |     name    |         cinder-internal          |
    +-------------+----------------------------------+
# openstack user create --project cinder-internal cinder-internal
    +----------+----------------------------------+
    | Property |              Value               |
    +----------+----------------------------------+
    |  email   |               None               |
    | enabled  |               True               |
    |    id    | *84e9672c64f041d6bfa7a930f558d946* |
    |   name   |         cinder-internal          |
    |project_id| *cb91e1fe446a45628bb2b139d7dccaef* |
    | username |         cinder-internal          |
    +----------+----------------------------------+

The procedure for adding Extra Config options creates an internal tenant. Refer to Section 2.2.3, “Configure and Enable the Image-Volume Cache”.

2.2.3. Configure and Enable the Image-Volume Cache

The Block Storage service features an optional Image-Volume cache which can be used when creating volumes from images. This cache is designed to improve the speed of volume creation from frequently-used images. For information on how to create volumes from images, see Section 2.3.1, “Create a Volume”.

When enabled, the Image-Volume cache stores a copy of an image the first time a volume is created from it. This stored image is cached locally to the Block Storage back end to help improve performance the next time the image is used to create a volume. The Image-Volume cache’s limit can be set to a size (in GB), number of images, or both.

The Image-Volume cache is supported by several back ends. If you are using a third-party back end, refer to its documentation for information on Image-Volume cache support.

Note

The Image-Volume cache requires that an internal tenant be configured for the Block Storage service. For instructions, see Section 2.2.2, “Create and Configure an Internal Tenant for the Block Storage Service”.

To enable and configure the Image-Volume cache on a back end (BACKEND), add the values to an ExtraConfig section of an environment file on the undercloud. For example:

parameter_defaults:
  ExtraConfig:
    cinder::config::cinder_config:
      DEFAULT/cinder_internal_tenant_project_id:
        value: TENANTID
      DEFAULT/cinder_internal_tenant_user_id:
        value: USERID
      BACKEND/image_volume_cache_enabled: 1
        value: True
      BACKEND/image_volume_cache_max_size_gb:
        value: MAXSIZE 2
      BACKEND/image_volume_cache_max_count:
        value: MAXNUMBER 3
1
Replace BACKEND with the name of the target back end (specifically, its volume_backend_name value).
2
By default, the Image-Volume cache size is only limited by the back end. Change MAXSIZE to a number in GB.
3
You can also set a maximum number of images using MAXNUMBER.

The Block Storage service database uses a time stamp to track when each cached image was last used to create an image. If either or both MAXSIZE and MAXNUMBER are set, the Block Storage service will delete cached images as needed to make way for new ones. Cached images with the oldest time stamp are deleted first whenever the Image-Volume cache limits are met.

After you create the environment file in /home/stack/templates/, log in as the stack user and deploy the configuration by running:

$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
-e /home/stack/templates/<ENV_FILE>.yaml

Where ENV_FILE.yaml is the name of the file with the ExtraConfig settings added earlier.

Important

If you passed any extra environment files when you created the overcloud, pass them again here using the -e option to avoid making undesired changes to the overcloud.

For additional information on the openstack overcloud deploy command, refer to Creating the Overcloud with the CLI Tools section in the Director Installation and Usage Guide.

2.2.4. Use Quality-of-Service Specifications

You can map multiple performance settings to a single Quality-of-Service specification (QOS Specs). Doing so allows you to provide performance tiers for different user types.

Performance settings are mapped as key-value pairs to QOS Specs, similar to the way volume settings are associated to a volume type. However, QOS Specs are different from volume types in the following respects:

  • QOS Specs are used to apply performance settings, which include limiting read/write operations to disks. Available and supported performance settings vary per storage driver.

    To determine which QOS Specs are supported by your back end, consult the documentation of your back end device’s volume driver.

  • Volume types are directly applied to volumes, whereas QOS Specs are not. Rather, QOS Specs are associated to volume types. During volume creation, specifying a volume type also applies the performance settings mapped to the volume type’s associated QOS Specs.

2.2.4.1. Basic volume Quality of Service

You can define performance limits for volumes on a per-volume basis using basic volume QOS values. The Block Storage service supports the following options:

  • read_iops_sec
  • write_iops_sec
  • total_iops_sec
  • read_bytes_sec
  • write_bytes_sec
  • total_bytes_sec
  • read_iops_sec_max
  • write_iops_sec_max
  • total_iops_sec_max
  • read_bytes_sec_max
  • write_bytes_sec_max
  • total_bytes_sec_max
  • size_iops_sec

2.2.4.2. Create and Configure a QOS Spec

As an administrator, you can create and configure a QOS Spec through the QOS Specs table. You can associate more than one key/value pair to the same QOS Spec.

  1. As an admin user in the dashboard, select Admin > Volumes > Volume Types.
  2. On the QOS Specs table, click Create QOS Spec.
  3. Enter a name for the QOS Spec.
  4. In the Consumer field, specify where the QOS policy should be enforced:

    Table 2.1. Consumer Types

    TypeDescription

    back-end

    QOS policy will be applied to the Block Storage back end.

    front-end

    QOS policy will be applied to Compute.

    both

    QOS policy will be applied to both Block Storage and Compute.

  5. Click Create. The new QOS Spec should now appear in the QOS Specs table.
  6. In the QOS Specs table, select the new spec’s Manage Specs action.
  7. Click Create, and specify the Key and Value. The key-value pair must be valid; otherwise, specifying a volume type associated with this QOS Spec during volume creation will fail.

    For example, to set the read IOPS limit to 500, use the following Key/Value pair:

    read_iops_sec=500
  8. Click Create. The associated setting (key-value pair) now appears in the Key-Value Pairs table.

2.2.4.3. Set Capacity-Derived QoS Limits

You can use volume types to implement capacity-derived Quality-of-Service (QoS) limits on volumes. This will allow you to set a deterministic IOPS throughput based on the size of provisioned volumes. Doing this simplifies how storage resources are provided to users — namely, providing a user with pre-determined (and, ultimately, highly predictable) throughput rates based on the volume size they provision.

In particular, the Block Storage service allows you to set how much IOPS to allocate to a volume based on the actual provisioned size. This throughput is set on an IOPS per GB basis through the following QoS keys:

read_iops_sec_per_gb
write_iops_sec_per_gb
total_iops_sec_per_gb

These keys allow you to set read, write, or total IOPS to scale with the size of provisioned volumes. For example, if the volume type uses read_iops_sec_per_gb=500, then a provisioned 3GB volume would automatically have a read IOPS of 1500.

Capacity-derived QoS limits are set per volume type, and configured like any normal QoS spec. In addition, these limits are supported by the underlying Block Storage service directly, and is not dependent on any particular driver.

For more information about volume types, see Section 2.2.1, “Group Volume Settings with Volume Types” and Section 2.2.1.2, “Create and Configure a Volume Type”. For instructions on how to set QoS specs, Section 2.2.4, “Use Quality-of-Service Specifications”.

Warning

When you apply a volume type (or perform a volume re-type) with capacity-derived QoS limits to an attached volume, the limits will not be applied. The limits will only be applied once you detach the volume from its instance.

See Section 2.3.11, “Changing a Volume’s Type (Volume Re-typing)” for information about volume re-typing.

2.2.4.4. Associate a QOS Spec with a Volume Type

As an administrator, you can associate a QOS Spec to an existing volume type using the Volume Types table.

  1. As an administrator in the dashboard, select Admin > Volumes > Volume Types.
  2. In the Volume Types table, select the type’s Manage QOS Spec Association action.
  3. Select a QOS Spec from the QOS Spec to be associated list.
  4. Click Associate. The selected QOS Spec now appears in the Associated QOS Spec column of the edited volume type.

2.2.4.5. Disassociate a QOS Spec from a Volume Type

  1. As an administrator in the dashboard, select Admin > Volumes > Volume Types.
  2. In the Volume Types table, select the type’s Manage QOS Spec Association action.
  3. Select None from the QOS Spec to be associated list.
  4. Click Associate. The selected QOS Spec is no longer in the Associated QOS Spec column of the edited volume type.

2.2.5. Configure Volume Encryption

Volume encryption helps provide basic data protection in case the volume back-end is either compromised or outright stolen. Both Compute and Block Storage services are integrated to allow instances to read access and use encrypted volumes.

Important

At present, volume encryption is not supported on file-based volumes (such as NFS).

Volume encryption is applied through volume type. See Section 2.2.5.1, “Configure Volume Type Encryption Through the Dashboard” for information on encrypted volume types.

2.2.5.1. Configure Volume Type Encryption Through the Dashboard

To create encrypted volumes, you first need an encrypted volume type. Encrypting a volume type involves setting what provider class, cipher, and key size it should use:

  1. As an admin user in the dashboard, select Admin > Volumes > Volume Types.
  2. In the Actions column of the volume to be encrypted, select Create Encryption to launch the Create Volume Type Encryption wizard.
  3. From there, configure the Provider, Control Location, Cipher, and Key Size settings of the volume type’s encryption. The Description column describes each setting.

    Important

    The values listed below are the only supported options for Provider, Cipher, and Key Size.

    1. Enter luks for Provider.
    2. Enter aes-xts-plain64 for Cipher.
    3. Enter 256 for Key Size.
  4. Click Create Volume Type Encryption.

Once you have an encrypted volume type, you can invoke it to automatically create encrypted volumes. For more information on creating a volume type, see Section 2.2.1.2, “Create and Configure a Volume Type”. Specifically, select the encrypted volume type from the Type drop-down list in the Create Volume window (see Section 2.3, “Basic Volume Usage and Configuration”).

To configure an encrypted volume type through the CLI, see Section 2.2.5.2, “Configure Volume Type Encryption Through the CLI”.

You can also re-configure the encryption settings of an encrypted volume type.

  1. Select Update Encryption from the Actions column of the volume type to launch the Update Volume Type Encryption wizard.
  2. In Project > Compute > Volumes, check the Encrypted column in the Volumes table to determine whether the volume is encrypted.
  3. If the volume is encrypted, click Yes in that column to view the encryption settings.

2.2.5.2. Configure Volume Type Encryption Through the CLI

To configure Block Storage volume encryption, do the following:

  1. Create a volume type:

    cinder type-create encrypt-type
  2. Configure the cipher, key size, control location, and provider settings:

    cinder encryption-type-create --cipher aes-xts-plain64 --key-size 256 --control-location front-end encrypt-type luks
  3. Create an encrypted volume:

    cinder --debug create 1 --volume-type encrypt-type --name DemoEncVol

For additional information, refer to Encrypting Cinder Volumes in the Managing Secrets with the OpenStack Key Manager guide.

2.2.6. Configure How Volumes are Allocated to Multiple Back Ends

If the Block Storage service is configured to use multiple back ends, you can use configured volume types to specify where a volume should be created. For details, see Section 2.3.2, “Specify Back End for Volume Creation”.

The Block Storage service will automatically choose a back end if you do not specify one during volume creation. Block Storage sets the first defined back end as a default; this back end will be used until it runs out of space. At that point, Block Storage will set the second defined back end as a default, and so on.

If this is not suitable for your needs, you can use the filter scheduler to control how Block Storage should select back ends. This scheduler can use different filters to triage suitable back ends, such as:

AvailabilityZoneFilter
Filters out all back ends that do not meet the availability zone requirements of the requested volume.
CapacityFilter
Selects only back ends with enough space to accommodate the volume.
CapabilitiesFilter
Selects only back ends that can support any specified settings in the volume.
InstanceLocality
Configures clusters to use volumes local to the same node (when the OpenStack Data Processing service is enabled)

To configure the filter scheduler, add an environment file to your deployment containing:

parameter_defaults:
  ControllerExtraConfig: # 1
    cinder::config::cinder_config:
      DEFAULT/scheduler_default_filters:
        value: 'AvailabilityZoneFilter,CapacityFilter,CapabilitiesFilter,InstanceLocality'
1
You can also add the ControllerExtraConfig: hook and its nested sections to the parameter_defaults: section of an existing environment file.

2.2.7. Configure and Use Consistency Groups

The Block Storage service allows you to set consistency groups, which allow you to group multiple volumes together as a single entity. Consistency groups enable you to perform operations on multiple volumes at once, rather than individually. This release allows you to use consistency groups to create snapshots for multiple volumes simultaneously. By extension, this also allows you to restore or clone those volumes simultaneously.

A volume may be a member of multiple consistency groups. However, you cannot delete, retype, or migrate volumes after you add them to a consistency group.

2.2.7.1. Set Up Consistency Groups

By default, the Block Storage security policy disables consistency group APIs. You must enable it before using the feature.

To enable consistency groups, edit an environment file and add a new entry to the parameter_defaults section. This ensures that the entries are updated in the containers and are retained whenever the environment is re-deployed using the openstack overcloud deploy command.

Add a new section to an environment file using CinderApiPolicies to set the consistency group settings. For example:

parameter_defaults:
  CinderApiPolicies:
    cinder-consistencygroup_create: { key: 'consistencygroup:create', value: 'rule:admin_or_owner' }
    cinder-consistencygroup_delete: { key: 'consistencygroup:delete', value: 'rule:admin_or_owner' }
    cinder-consistencygroup_update: { key: 'consistencygroup:update', value: 'rule:admin_or_owner' }
    cinder-consistencygroup_get: { key: 'consistencygroup:get', value: 'rule:admin_or_owner' }
    cinder-consistencygroup_get_all: { key: 'consistencygroup:get_all', value: 'rule:admin_or_owner' }
    cinder-consistencygroup_create_cgsnapshot: { key: 'consistencygroup:create_cgsnapshot', value: 'rule:admin_or_owner' }
    cinder-consistencygroup_delete_cgsnapshot: { key: 'consistencygroup:delete_cgsnapshot', value: 'rule:admin_or_owner' }
    cinder-consistencygroup_get_cgsnapshot: { key: 'consistencygroup:get_cgsnapshot', value: 'rule:admin_or_owner' }
    cinder-consistencygroup_get_all_cgsnapshots: { key: 'consistencygroup:get_all_cgsnapshots', value: 'rule:admin_or_owner' }

For increased security, make the permissions for both consistency group API and volume type management API identical. The volume type management API is set to "rule:admin_or_owner" by default.

"volume_extension:types_manage": "rule:admin_or_owner",

After creating the environment file in /home/stack/templates/, log in as the stack user and deploy the configuration by running:

$ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
-e /home/stack/templates/<ENV_FILE>.yaml

Where ENV_FILE.yaml is the name of the file to which you added the CinderApiPolicies settings.

Important

If you passed any extra environment files when you created the overcloud, pass them again here using the -e option to avoid making undesired changes to the overcloud.

For additional information on the openstack overcloud deploy command, refer to Creating the Overcloud with the CLI Tools section in the Director Installation and Usage Guide.

2.2.7.2. Create and Manage Consistency Groups

After enabling the consistency groups API, you can then start creating consistency groups. To do so:

  1. As an admin user in the dashboard, select Project > Compute > Volumes > Volume Consistency Groups.
  2. Click Create Consistency Group.
  3. In the Consistency Group Information tab of the wizard, enter a name and description for your consistency group. Then, specify its Availability Zone.
  4. You can also add volume types to your consistency group. When you create volumes within the consistency group, the Block Storage service will apply compatible settings from those volume types. To add a volume type, click its + button from the All available volume types list.
  5. Click Create Consistency Group. It should appear next in the Volume Consistency Groups table.

You can change the name or description of a consistency group by selecting Edit Consistency Group from its Action column.

In addition, you can also add or remove volumes from a consistency group directly. To do so:

  1. As an admin user in the dashboard, select Project > Compute > Volumes > Volume Consistency Groups.
  2. Find the consistency group you want to configure. In the Actions column of that consistency group, select Manage Volumes. Doing so will launch the Add/Remove Consistency Group Volumes wizard.

    1. To add a volume to the consistency group, click its + button from the All available volumes list.
    2. To remove a volume from the consistency group, click its - button from the Selected volumes list.
  3. Click Edit Consistency Group.

2.2.7.3. Create and Manage Consistency Group Snapshots

After adding volumes to a consistency group, you can now create snapshots from it. Before doing so, first log in as admin user from the command line on the node hosting the openstack-cinder-api and run:

# export OS_VOLUME_API_VERSION=2

Doing so will configure the client to use version 2 of openstack-cinder-api.

To list all available consistency groups (along with their respective IDs, which you will need later):

# cinder consisgroup-list

To create snapshots using the consistency group, run:

# cinder cgsnapshot-create --name CGSNAPNAME --description "DESCRIPTION" CGNAMEID

Where:

  • CGSNAPNAME is the name of the snapshot (optional).
  • DESCRIPTION is a description of the snapshot (optional).
  • CGNAMEID is the name or ID of the consistency group.

To display a list of all available consistency group snapshots, run:

# cinder cgsnapshot-list

2.2.7.4. Clone Consistency Groups

Consistency groups can also be used to create a whole batch of pre-configured volumes simultaneously. You can do this by cloning an existing consistency group or restoring a consistency group snapshot. Both processes use the same command.

To clone an existing consistency group:

# cinder consisgroup-create-from-src --source-cg CGNAMEID --name CGNAME --description "DESCRIPTION"

Where: - CGNAMEID is the name or ID of the consistency group you want to clone. - CGNAME is the name of your consistency group (optional). - DESCRIPTION is a description of your consistency group (optional).

To create a consistency group from a consistency group snapshot:

# cinder consisgroup-create-from-src --cgsnapshot CGSNAPNAME --name CGNAME --description "DESCRIPTION"

Replace CGSNAPNAME with the name or ID of the snapshot you are using to create the consistency group.

2.2.8. Backup Administration

The following sections discuss how to customize the Block Storage service’s volume backup settings.

2.2.8.1. View and Modify a Tenant’s Backup Quota

Normally, you can use the dashboard to modify tenant storage quotas, for example, the number of volumes, volume storage, snapshots, or other operational limits that a tenant can have. However, the functionality to modify backup quotas with the dashboard is not yet available.

You must use the command-line interface to modify backup quotas with the cinder quota-update command.

To view the storage quotas of a specific tenant (TENANT_ID), run:

# cinder quota-show TENANT_ID

To update the maximum number of backups (MAXNUM) that can be created in a specific tenant, run:

# cinder quota-update --backups MAXNUM TENANT_ID

To update the maximum total size of all backups (MAXGB) within a specific tenant, run:

# cinder quota-update --backup-gigabytes MAXGB TENANT_ID

To view the storage quota usage of a specific tenant, run:

# cinder quota-usage TENANT_ID

2.2.8.2. Enable Volume Backup Management Through the Dashboard

You can now create, view, delete, and restore volume backups through the dashboard. To perform any of these functions, go to the Project > Compute > Volumes > Volume Backups tab.

However, the Volume Backups tab is not enabled by default. To enable it, configure the dashboard accordingly:

  1. Open /etc/openstack-dashboard/local_settings.
  2. Search for the following setting:

    OPENSTACK_CINDER_FEATURES = {
        'enable_backup': False,
    }

    Change this setting to:

    OPENSTACK_CINDER_FEATURES = {
        'enable_backup': True,
    }
  3. Restart the dashboard by restarting the httpd service:

    # systemctl restart httpd.service
Note

This procedure involves configuring a service outside of the director. As such, you may need to repeat it the next time you re-deploy or update the overcloud.

2.2.8.3. Set an NFS Share as a Backup Repository

By default, the Block Storage service uses the Object Storage service as a repository for backups. You can configure the Block Storage service to use an existing NFS share as a backup repository instead. To do so:

  1. Log in to the node hosting the backup service (openstack-cinder-backup) as a user with administrative privileges.
  2. Configure the Block Storage service to use the NFS backup driver (cinder.backup.drivers.nfs):

    # crudini --set /etc/cinder/cinder.conf DEFAULT backup_driver cinder.backup.drivers.nfs
  3. Set the details of the NFS share that you want to use as a backup repository:

    # crudini --set /etc/cinder/cinder.conf DEFAULT backup_share NFSHOST:PATH

    Where:

    • NFSHOST is the IP address or hostname of the NFS server.
    • PATH is the absolute path of the NFS share on NFSHOST.
  4. If you want to set any optional mount settings for the NFS share, run:

    # crudini --set /etc/cinder/cinder.conf DEFAULT backup_mount_options NFSMOUNTOPTS

    Where NFSMOUNTOPTS is a comma-separated list of NFS mount options (for example, rw,sync). For more information on supported mount options, see the man pages for nfs and mount.

  5. Restart the Block Storage backup service to apply your changes:

    # systemctl restart openstack-cinder-backup.service
Note

This procedure involves configuring a service outside of the director. As such, you may need to repeat it the next time you re-deploy or update the overcloud.

2.2.8.3.1. Set a Different Backup File Size

The backup service limits backup files sizes to a maximum backup file size. If you are backing up a volume that exceeds this size, the resulting backup will be split into multiple chunks. The default backup file size is 1.8GB.

To set a different backup file size, run:

# crudini --set /etc/cinder/cinder.conf DEFAULT backup_file_size SIZE

Replace SIZE with the file size you want, in bytes. Restart the Block Storage backup service to apply your changes:

# systemctl restart openstack-cinder-backup.service
Note

This procedure involves configuring a service outside of the director. As such, you may need to repeat it the next time you re-deploy or update the overcloud.

2.3. Basic Volume Usage and Configuration

The following procedures describe how to perform basic end-user volume management. These procedures do not require administrative privileges.

2.3.1. Create a Volume

  1. In the dashboard, select Project > Compute > Volumes.
  2. Click Create Volume, and edit the following fields:

    FieldDescription

    Volume name

    Name of the volume.

    Description

    Optional, short description of the volume.

    Type

    Optional volume type (see Section 2.2.1, “Group Volume Settings with Volume Types”).

    If you have multiple Block Storage back ends, you can use this to select a specific back end. See Section 2.3.2, “Specify Back End for Volume Creation” for details.

    Size (GB)

    Volume size (in gigabytes).

    Availability Zone

    Availability zones (logical server groups), along with host aggregates, are a common method for segregating resources within OpenStack. Availability zones are defined during installation. For more information on availability zones and host aggregates, see Manage Host Aggregates.

  3. Specify a Volume Source:

    SourceDescription

    No source, empty volume

    The volume will be empty, and will not contain a file system or partition table.

    Snapshot

    Use an existing snapshot as a volume source. If you select this option, a new Use snapshot as a source list appears; you can then choose a snapshot from the list. For more information about volume snapshots, refer to Section 2.3.9, “Create, Use, or Delete Volume Snapshots”.

    Image

    Use an existing image as a volume source. If you select this option, a new Use image as a source lists appears; you can then choose an image from the list.

    Volume

    Use an existing volume as a volume source. If you select this option, a new Use volume as a source list appears; you can then choose a volume from the list.

  4. Click Create Volume. After the volume is created, its name appears in the Volumes table.

You can also change the volume’s type later on. For details, see Section 2.3.11, “Changing a Volume’s Type (Volume Re-typing)”.

2.3.2. Specify Back End for Volume Creation

Whenever multiple Block Storage back ends are configured, you will also need to create a volume type for each back end. You can then use the type to specify which back end should be used for a created volume. For more information about volume types, see Section 2.2.1, “Group Volume Settings with Volume Types”.

To specify a back end when creating a volume, select its corresponding volume type from the Type drop-down list (see Section 2.3.1, “Create a Volume”).

If you do not specify a back end during volume creation, the Block Storage service will automatically choose one for you. By default, the service will choose the back end with the most available free space. You can also configure the Block Storage service to choose randomly among all available back ends instead; for more information, see Section 2.2.6, “Configure How Volumes are Allocated to Multiple Back Ends”.

2.3.3. Edit a Volume’s Name or Description

  1. In the dashboard, select Project > Compute > Volumes.
  2. Select the volume’s Edit Volume button.
  3. Edit the volume name or description as required.
  4. Click Edit Volume to save your changes.
Note

To create an encrypted volume, you must first have a volume type configured specifically for volume encryption. In addition, both Compute and Block Storage services must be configured to use the same static key. For information on how to set up the requirements for volume encryption, refer to Section 2.2.5, “Configure Volume Encryption”.

2.3.4. Resize (Extend) a Volume

Note

The ability to resize a volume depends on back end support. Contact Red Hat Support for more information.

  1. List the volumes to get the volume ID.

    $cinder list
  2. Resize the volume by passing the volume ID and the new size (a value greater than the old one) as parameters:

    $cinder extend <volume ID> <size>

    For example:

    $cinder extend 573e024d-5235-49ce-8332-be1576d323f8 10

2.3.5. Delete a Volume

  1. In the dashboard, select Project > Compute > Volumes.
  2. In the Volumes table, select the volume to delete.
  3. Click Delete Volumes.
Note

A volume cannot be deleted if it has existing snapshots. For instructions on how to delete snapshots, see Section 2.3.9, “Create, Use, or Delete Volume Snapshots”.

2.3.6. Attach and Detach a Volume to an Instance

Instances can use a volume for persistent storage. A volume can only be attached to one instance at a time. For more information on instances, see Manage Instances in the Instances and Images Guide available at Red Hat OpenStack Platform.

2.3.6.1. Attach a Volume to an Instance

  1. In the dashboard, select Project > Compute > Volumes.
  2. Select the volume’s Edit Attachments action. If the volume is not attached to an instance, the Attach To Instance drop-down list is visible.
  3. From the Attach To Instance list, select the instance to which you wish to attach the volume.
  4. Click Attach Volume.

2.3.6.2. Detach a Volume From an Instance

  1. In the dashboard, select Project > Compute > Volumes.
  2. Select the volume’s Manage Attachments action. If the volume is attached to an instance, the instance’s name is displayed in the Attachments table.
  3. Click Detach Volume in this and the next dialog screen.

2.3.7. Read-Only Volumes

A volume can be marked read-only to protect its data from being accidentally overwritten or deleted. To do so, set the volume to read-only using the following command:

# cinder readonly-mode-update <VOLUME-ID> true

To set a read-only volume back to read-write, run:

# cinder readonly-mode-update <VOLUME-ID> false

2.3.8. Change a Volume’s Owner

To change a volume’s owner, you will have to perform a volume transfer. A volume transfer is initiated by the volume’s owner, and the volume’s change in ownership is complete after the transfer is accepted by the volume’s new owner.

2.3.8.1. Transfer a Volume from the Command Line

  1. Log in as the volume’s current owner.
  2. List the available volumes:

    # cinder list
  3. Initiate the volume transfer:

    # cinder transfer-create VOLUME

    Where VOLUME is the name or ID of the volume you wish to transfer. For example,

      +------------+--------------------------------------+
      |  Property  |                Value                 |
      +------------+--------------------------------------+
      |  auth_key  |           f03bf51ce7ead189           |
      | created_at |      2014-12-08T03:46:31.884066      |
      |     id     | 3f5dc551-c675-4205-a13a-d30f88527490 |
      |    name    |                 None                 |
      | volume_id  | bcf7d015-4843-464c-880d-7376851ca728 |
      +------------+--------------------------------------+

    The cinder transfer-create command clears the ownership of the volume and creates an id and auth_key for the transfer. These values can be given to, and used by, another user to accept the transfer and become the new owner of the volume.

  4. The new user can now claim ownership of the volume. To do so, the user should first log in from the command line and run:

    # cinder transfer-accept TRANSFERID TRANSFERKEY

    Where TRANSFERID and TRANSFERKEY are the id and auth_key values returned by the cinder transfer-create command, respectively. For example,

    # cinder transfer-accept 3f5dc551-c675-4205-a13a-d30f88527490 f03bf51ce7ead189
Note

You can view all available volume transfers using:

# cinder transfer-list

2.3.8.2. Transfer a Volume Using the Dashboard

Create a volume transfer from the dashboard

  1. As the volume owner in the dashboard, select Projects > Volumes.
  2. In the Actions column of the volume to transfer, select Create Transfer.
  3. In the Create Transfer dialog box, enter a name for the transfer and click Create Volume Transfer.

    The volume transfer is created, and in the Volume Transfer screen you can capture the transfer ID and the authorization key to send to the recipient project.

    Click the Download transfer credentials button to download a .txt file containing the transfer name, transfer ID, and authorization key.

    Note

    The authorization key is available only in the Volume Transfer screen. If you lose the authorization key, you must cancel the transfer and create another transfer to generate a new authorization key.

  4. Close the Volume Transfer screen to return to the volume list.

    The volume status changes to awaiting-transfer until the recipient project accepts the transfer

Accept a volume transfer from the dashboard

  1. As the recipient project owner in the dashboard, select Projects > Volumes.
  2. Click Accept Transfer.
  3. In the Accept Volume Transfer dialog box, enter the transfer ID and the authorization key that you received from the volume owner and click Accept Volume Transfer.

    The volume now appears in the volume list for the active project.

2.3.9. Create, Use, or Delete Volume Snapshots

You can preserve a volume’s state at a specific point in time by creating a volume snapshot. You can then use the snapshot to clone new volumes.

Note

Volume backups are different from snapshots. Backups preserve the data contained in the volume, whereas snapshots preserve the state of a volume at a specific point in time. In addition, you cannot delete a volume if it has existing snapshots. Volume backups are used to prevent data loss, whereas snapshots are used to facilitate cloning.

For this reason, snapshot back ends are typically co-located with volume back ends in order to minimize latency during cloning. By contrast, a backup repository is usually located in a different location (eg. different node, physical storage, or even geographical location) in a typical enterprise deployment. This is to protect the backup repository from any damage that might occur to the volume back end.

For more information about volume backups, refer to the Block Storage Backup Guide.

To create a volume snapshot:

  1. In the dashboard, select Project > Compute > Volumes.
  2. Select the target volume’s Create Snapshot action.
  3. Provide a Snapshot Name for the snapshot and click Create a Volume Snapshot. The Volume Snapshots tab displays all snapshots.

You can clone new volumes from a snapshot once it appears in the Volume Snapshots table. To do so, select the snapshot’s Create Volume action. For more information about volume creation, see Section 2.3.1, “Create a Volume”.

To delete a snapshot, select its Delete Volume Snapshot action.

If your OpenStack deployment uses a Red Hat Ceph back end, see Section 2.3.9.1, “Protected and Unprotected Snapshots in a Red Hat Ceph Back End” for more information on snapshot security and troubleshooting.

2.3.9.1. Protected and Unprotected Snapshots in a Red Hat Ceph Back End

When using Red Hat Ceph as a back end for your OpenStack deployment, you can set a snapshot to protected in the back end. Attempting to delete protected snapshots through OpenStack (as in, through the dashboard or the cinder snapshot-delete command) will fail.

When this occurs, set the snapshot to unprotected in the Red Hat Ceph back end first. Afterwards, you should be able to delete the snapshot through OpenStack as normal.

For related instructions, see Protecting a Snapshot and Unprotecting a Snapshot.

2.3.10. Upload a Volume to the Image Service

You can upload an existing volume as an image to the Image service directly. To do so:

  1. In the dashboard, select Project > Compute > Volumes.
  2. Select the target volume’s Upload to Image action.
  3. Provide an Image Name for the volume and select a Disk Format from the list.
  4. Click Upload.

To view the uploaded image, select Project > Compute > Images. The new image appears in the Images table. For information on how to use and configure images, see Manage Images in the Instances and Images Guide available at Red Hat OpenStack Platform.

2.3.11. Changing a Volume’s Type (Volume Re-typing)

Volume re-typing is the process of applying a volume type (and, in turn, its settings) to an already existing volume. For more information about volume types, see Section 2.2.1, “Group Volume Settings with Volume Types”.

A volume can be re-typed whether or not it has an existing volume type. In either case, a re-type will only be successful if the Extra Specs of the volume type can be applied to the volume. Volume re-typing is useful for applying pre-defined settings or storage attributes to an existing volume, such as when you want to:

Users with no administrative privileges can only re-type volumes they own. To perform a volume re-type:

  1. In the dashboard, select Project > Compute > Volumes.
  2. In the Actions column of the volume you want to migrate, select Change Volume Type.
  3. In the Change Volume Type dialog, select the target volume type and define the new back end from the Type drop-down list.
  4. If you are migrating the volume to another back end, select On Demand from the Migration Policy drop-down list. See Section 2.4.2.2, “Migrate between Back Ends” for more information.

    Note

    Retyping a volume between two different types of back ends is not supported in this release.

  5. Click Change Volume Type to start the migration.

2.4. Advanced Volume Configuration

The following procedures describe how to perform advanced volume management procedures.

2.4.1. Back Up and Restore a Volume

A volume backup is a persistent copy of a volume’s contents. Volume backups are typically created as object stores, and are managed through the Object Storage service by default. You can, however, set up a different repository for your backups; OpenStack supports Red Hat Ceph and NFS as alternative back ends for backups.

When creating a volume backup, all of the backup’s metadata is stored in the Block Storage service’s database. The cinder utility uses this metadata when restoring a volume from the backup. As such, when recovering from a catastrophic database loss, you must restore the Block Storage service’s database first before restoring any volumes from backups. This also presumes that the Block Storage service database is being restored with all the original volume backup metadata intact.

If you wish to configure only a subset of volume backups to survive a catastrophic database loss, you can also export the backup’s metadata. In doing so, you can then re-import the metadata to the Block Storage database later on, and restore the volume backup as normal.

Note

Volume backups are different from snapshots. Backups preserve the data contained in the volume, whereas snapshots preserve the state of a volume at a specific point in time. In addition, you cannot delete a volume if it has existing snapshots. Volume backups are used to prevent data loss, whereas snapshots are used to facilitate cloning.

For this reason, snapshot back ends are typically co-located with volume back ends in order to minimize latency during cloning. By contrast, a backup repository is usually located in a different location (eg. different node, physical storage, or even geographical location) in a typical enterprise deployment. This is to protect the backup repository from any damage that might occur to the volume back end.

For more information about volume snapshots, refer to Section 2.3.9, “Create, Use, or Delete Volume Snapshots”.

2.4.1.1. Create a Full Volume Backup

To back up a volume, use the cinder backup-create command. By default, this command will create a full backup of the volume. If the volume has existing backups, you can choose to create an incremental backup instead (see Section 2.4.1.2, “Create an Incremental Volume Backup” for details.)

You can create backups of volumes you have access to. This means that users with administrative privileges can back up any volume, regardless of owner. For more information, see Section 2.4.1.1.1, “Create a Volume Backup as an Admin”.

  1. View the ID or Display Name of the volume you wish to back up:

    # cinder list
  2. Back up the volume:

    # cinder backup-create VOLUME

    Replace VOLUME with the ID or Display Name of the volume you want to back up. For example:

      +-----------+--------------------------------------+
      |  Property |                Value                 |
      +-----------+--------------------------------------+
      |     id    | e9d15fc7-eeae-4ca4-aa72-d52536dc551d |
      |    name   |                 None                 |
      | volume_id | 5f75430a-abff-4cc7-b74e-f808234fa6c5 |
      +-----------+--------------------------------------+
    Note

    The volume_id of the resulting backup is identical to the ID of the source volume.

  3. Verify that the volume backup creation is complete:

    # cinder backup-list

    The volume backup creation is complete when the Status of the backup entry is available.

At this point, you can also export and store the volume backup’s metadata. This allows you to restore the volume backup, even if the Block Storage database suffers a catastrophic loss. To do so, run:

# cinder --os-volume-api-version 2 backup-export BACKUPID

Where BACKUPID is the ID or name of the volume backup. For example,

+----------------+------------------------------------------+
|    Property    |                Value                     |
+----------------+------------------------------------------+
| backup_service |     cinder.backup.drivers.swift          |
|   backup_url   | eyJzdGF0dXMiOiAiYXZhaWxhYmxlIiwgIm9iam...|
|                | ...4NS02ZmY4MzBhZWYwNWUiLCAic2l6ZSI6IDF9 |
+----------------+------------------------------------------+

The volume backup metadata consists of the backup_service and backup_url values.

2.4.1.1.1. Create a Volume Backup as an Admin

Users with administrative privileges (such as the default admin account) can back up any volume managed by OpenStack. When an admin backs up a volume owned by a non-admin user, the backup is hidden from the volume owner by default.

As an admin, you can still back up a volume and make the backup available to a specific tenant. To do so, run:

# cinder --os-auth-url KEYSTONEURL --os-tenant-name TENANTNAME --os-username USERNAME --os-password PASSWD backup-create VOLUME

Where:

  • TENANTNAME is the name of the tenant where you want to make the backup available.
  • USERNAME and PASSWD are the username/password credentials of a user within TENANTNAME.
  • VOLUME is the name or ID of the volume you want to back up.
  • KEYSTONEURL is the URL endpoint of the Identity service (typically http://IP:5000/v2, where IP is the IP address of the Identity service host).

When performing this operation, the resulting backup’s size will count against the quota of TENANTNAME rather than the admin’s tenant.

2.4.1.2. Create an Incremental Volume Backup

By default, the cinder backup-create command will create a full backup of a volume. However, if the volume has existing backups, you can choose to create an incremental backup.

An incremental backup captures any changes to the volume since the last backup (full or incremental). Performing numerous, regular, full back ups of a volume can become resource-intensive as the volume’s size increases over time. In this regard, incremental backups allow you to capture periodic changes to volumes while minimizing resource usage.

To create an incremental volume backup, use the --incremental option. As in:

# cinder backup-create VOLUME --incremental

Replace VOLUME with the ID or Display Name of the volume you want to back up. Incremental backups are fully supported on NFS and Object Storage backup repositories.

Note

You cannot delete a full backup if it already has an incremental backup. In addition, if a full backup has multiple incremental backups, you can only delete the latest one.

Warning

When using Red Hat Ceph Storage as a back end for both Block Storage (cinder) volumes and backups, any attempt to perform an incremental backup will result in a full backup instead, without any warning. This is a known issue (BZ#1463058).

2.4.1.3. Restore a Volume After a Block Storage Database Loss

Typically, a Block Storage database loss prevents you from restoring a volume backup. This is because the Block Storage database contains metadata required by the volume backup service (openstack-cinder-backup). This metadata consists of backup_service and backup_url values, which you can export after creating the volume backup (as shown in Section 2.4.1.1, “Create a Full Volume Backup”).

If you exported and stored this metadata, then you can import it to a new Block Storage database (thereby allowing you to restore the volume backup).

  1. As a user with administrative privileges, run:

    # cinder --os-volume-api-version 2 backup-import backup_service backup_url

    Where backup_service and backup_url are from the metadata you exported. For example, using the exported metadata from Section 2.4.1.1, “Create a Full Volume Backup”:

    # cinder --os-volume-api-version 2 backup-import cinder.backup.drivers.swift eyJzdGF0dXMi...c2l6ZSI6IDF9
    +----------+--------------------------------------+
    | Property |                Value                 |
    +----------+--------------------------------------+
    |    id    | 77951e2f-4aff-4365-8c64-f833802eaa43 |
    |   name   |                 None                 |
    +----------+--------------------------------------+
  2. After the metadata is imported into the Block Storage service database, you can restore the volume as normal (see Section 2.4.1.4, “Restore a Volume from a Backup”).

2.4.1.4. Restore a Volume from a Backup

  1. Find the ID of the volume backup you wish to use:

    # cinder backup-list

    The Volume ID should match the ID of the volume you wish to restore.

  2. Restore the volume backup:

    # cinder backup-restore BACKUP_ID

    Where BACKUP_ID is the ID of the volume backup you wish to use.

  3. If you no longer need the backup, delete it:

    # cinder backup-delete BACKUP_ID

2.4.2. Migrate a Volume

The Block Storage service allows you to migrate volumes between hosts or back ends within and across availability zones (AZ). Volume migration has some limitations:

  • In-use volume migration depends upon driver support.
  • The volume cannot have snapshots.
  • The target of the in-use volume migration requires ISCSI or fibre channel (FC) block-backed devices and cannot use non-block devices, such as Ceph RADOS Block Device (RBD).

The speed of any migration depends upon your host setup and configuration. With driver-assisted migration, the data movement takes place at the storage backplane instead of inside of the OpenStack Block Storage service. Optimized driver-assisted copying is available for not-in-use RBD volumes if volume re-typing is not required. Otherwise, data is copied from one host to another through the Block Storage service.

2.4.2.1. Migrate between Hosts

When migrating a volume between hosts, both hosts must reside on the same back end. Use the dashboard to migrate a volume between hosts:

  1. In the dashboard, select Admin > Volumes.
  2. In the Actions column of the volume you want to migrate, select Migrate Volume.
  3. In the Migrate Volume dialog, select the target host from the Destination Host drop-down list.

    Note

    To bypass any driver optimizations for the host migration, select the Force Host Copy checkbox.

  4. Click Migrate to start the migration.

2.4.2.2. Migrate between Back Ends

Migrating a volume between back ends, on the other hand, involves volume re-typing. This means that in order to migrate to a new back end:

  1. The new back end must be specified as an Extra Spec in a separate target volume type.
  2. All other Extra Specs defined in the target volume type must be compatible with the volume’s original volume type.

See ] and xref:section-specify-backend[ for details.

When defining the back end as an Extra Spec, use volume_backend_name as the Key. Its corresponding value will be the back end’s name, as defined in the Block Storage configuration file (/etc/cinder/cinder.conf). In this file, each back end is defined in its own section, and its corresponding name is set in the volume_backend_name parameter.

After you have a back end defined in a target volume type, you can migrate a volume to that back end through re-typing. This involves re-applying the target volume type to a volume, thereby applying the new back end settings. See Section 2.3.11, “Changing a Volume’s Type (Volume Re-typing)” for instructions.

Note

Retyping a volume between two different types of back ends is not supported in this release.

Chapter 3. Object Storage service

OpenStack Object Storage (swift) stores its objects (data) in containers, which are similar to directories in a file system although they cannot be nested. Containers provide an easy way for users to store any kind of unstructured data. For example, objects might include photos, text files, or images. Stored objects are not compressed.

3.1. Object Storage rings

Object Storage uses a data structure called the Ring to distribute partition space across the cluster. This partition space is core to the data durability engine in the Object Storage service. It allows the Object Storage service to quickly and easily synchronize each partition across the cluster.

Rings contain information about Object Storage partitions and how partitions are distributed among the different nodes and disks. When any Object Storage component interacts with data, a quick lookup is performed locally in the ring to determine the possible partitions for each object.

The Object Storage service has three rings to store different types of data: one for account information, another for containers (to facilitate organizing objects under an account), and another for object replicas.

3.1.1. Rebalancing rings

When you change the Object Storage environment by adding or removing storage capacity, nodes, or disks, you must rebalance the rings. You can run openstack overcloud deploy to rebalance the rings, but this method redeploys the entire overcloud. This can be cumbersome, especially if you have a large overcloud. Alternatively, run the following command on the undercloud to rebalance the rings:

source ~/stackrc
ansible-playbook -i /usr/bin/tripleo-ansible-inventory
/usr/share/openstack-tripleo-common/playbooks/swift_ring_rebalance.yaml

3.1.2. Checking cluster health

The Object Storage service runs many processes in the background to ensure long-term data availability, durability, and persistence. For example:

  • Auditors constantly re-read database and object files and compare them using checksums to make sure there is no silent bit-rot. Any database or object file that no longer matches its checksum is quarantined and becomes unreadable on that node. The replicators then copy one of the other replicas to make the local copy available again.
  • Objects and files can disappear when you replace disks or nodes or when objects are quarantined. When this happens, replicators copy missing objects or database files to one of the other nodes.

The Object Storage service includes a tool called swift-recon that collects data from all nodes and checks the overall cluster health.

To use swift-recon, log in to one of the controller nodes and run the following command:

[root@overcloud-controller-2 ~]# sudo docker exec -it -u swift swift_object_server /usr/bin/swift-recon -arqlT --md5

======================================================================--> Starting reconnaissance on 3 hosts (object)
======================================================================[2018-12-14 14:55:47] Checking async pendings
[async_pending] - No hosts returned valid data.
======================================================================[2018-12-14 14:55:47] Checking on replication
[replication_failure] low: 0, high: 0, avg: 0.0, total: 0, Failed: 0.0%, no_result: 0, reported: 3
[replication_success] low: 0, high: 0, avg: 0.0, total: 0, Failed: 0.0%, no_result: 0, reported: 3
[replication_time] low: 0, high: 0, avg: 0.0, total: 0, Failed: 0.0%, no_result: 0, reported: 3
[replication_attempted] low: 0, high: 0, avg: 0.0, total: 0, Failed: 0.0%, no_result: 0, reported: 3
Oldest completion was 2018-12-14 14:55:39 (7 seconds ago) by 172.16.3.186:6000.
Most recent completion was 2018-12-14 14:55:42 (4 seconds ago) by 172.16.3.174:6000.
======================================================================[2018-12-14 14:55:47] Checking load averages
[5m_load_avg] low: 1, high: 2, avg: 2.1, total: 6, Failed: 0.0%, no_result: 0, reported: 3
[15m_load_avg] low: 2, high: 2, avg: 2.6, total: 7, Failed: 0.0%, no_result: 0, reported: 3
[1m_load_avg] low: 0, high: 0, avg: 0.8, total: 2, Failed: 0.0%, no_result: 0, reported: 3
======================================================================[2018-12-14 14:55:47] Checking ring md5sums
3/3 hosts matched, 0 error[s] while checking hosts.
======================================================================[2018-12-14 14:55:47] Checking swift.conf md5sum
3/3 hosts matched, 0 error[s] while checking hosts.
======================================================================[2018-12-14 14:55:47] Checking quarantine
[quarantined_objects] low: 0, high: 0, avg: 0.0, total: 0, Failed: 0.0%, no_result: 0, reported: 3
[quarantined_accounts] low: 0, high: 0, avg: 0.0, total: 0, Failed: 0.0%, no_result: 0, reported: 3
[quarantined_containers] low: 0, high: 0, avg: 0.0, total: 0, Failed: 0.0%, no_result: 0, reported: 3
======================================================================[2018-12-14 14:55:47] Checking time-sync
3/3 hosts matched, 0 error[s] while checking hosts.
======================================================================
Note

As an alternative, use the --all option to return additional output.

This command queries all servers on the ring for the following data:

  • Async pendings: If the cluster load is too high and processes can’t update database files fast enough, some updates will occur asynchronously. These numbers should decrease over time.
  • Replication metrics: Notice the replication timestamps; full replication passes should happen frequently and there should be few errors. An old entry, (for example, an entry with a timestamp from six months ago) indicates that replication on the node has not completed in the last six months.
  • Ring md5sums: This ensures that all ring files are consistent on all nodes.
  • swift.conf md5sums: This ensures that all ring files are consistent on all nodes.
  • Quarantined files: There should be no (or very few) quarantined files for all nodes.
  • Time-sync: All nodes must be synchronized.

3.1.3. Increasing ring partition power

The ring power determines the partition to which a resource (account, container, or object) is mapped. The partition is included in the path under which the resource is stored in a back end filesystem. Therefore, changing the partition power requires relocating resources to new paths in the back end filesystems.

In a heavily populated cluster, a relocation process is time-consuming. To avoid downtime, relocate resources while the cluster is still operating. You must do this without temporarily losing access to data or compromising the performance of processes, such as replication and auditing. For assistance with increasing ring partition power, contact Red Hat support.

3.1.4. Creating custom rings

As technology advances and demands for storage capacity increase, creating custom rings is a way to update existing Object Storage clusters.

When you add new nodes to a cluster, their characteristics may differ from those of the original nodes. Without custom adjustments, the larger capacity of the new nodes may be underutilized. Or, if weights change in the rings, data dispersion can become uneven, which reduces safety.

Automation may not keep pace with future technology trends. For example, some older Object Storage clusters in use today originated before SSDs were available.

The ring builder helps manage Object Storage as clusters grow and technologies evolve. For assistance with creating custom rings, contact Red Hat support.

3.2. Object Storage service administration

The following procedures explain how to customize the Object Storage service.

3.2.1. Setting worker processes

In the Object Storage service, the number of workers defaults to the number of cores for all its services, such as swift-proxy-server, swift-account-server, swift-container-server, and swift-object-server. On a 56-core machine, for example, there are 57 swift-proxy-server processes. Ideally, the number of workers should be capped at half the number of cpu-cores.

To change the number of workers, set the parameter defaults for the following deployment variables according to your configuration:

parameter_defaults:
  SwiftWorkers: 12
  SwiftAccountWorkers: 12
  SwiftContainerWorkers: 12
  SwiftObjectWorkers: 12

3.2.2. Configuring fast-post

By default, the Object Storage service copies an object whole whenever any part of its metadata changes. You can prevent this by using the fast-post feature. The fast-post feature saves time when you change the content types of multiple large objects.

To enable the fast-post feature, disable the object_post_as_copy option on the Object Storage proxy service by doing the following:

  1. Edit swift_params.yaml:

    cat > swift_params.yaml << EOF
    parameter_defaults:
        ExtraConfig:
          swift::proxy::copy::object_post_as_copy: False
    EOF
  2. Include the parameter file when you deploy or update the overcloud:

    openstack overcloud deploy [... previous args ...] -e swift_params.yaml

3.2.3. Enabling at-rest encryption

By default, objects uploaded to Object Storage are kept unencrypted. Because of this, it is possible to access objects directly from the file system. This can present a security risk if disks are not properly erased before they are discarded.

You can use OpenStack Key Manager (barbican) to encrypt at-rest swift objects. For more information, see https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_openstack_platform/13/html-single/manage_secrets_with_openstack_key_manager/#encrypt_at_rest_swift_objects.

3.2.4. Deploying a standalone Object Storage cluster

You can use the composable role concept to deploy a standalone Object Storage (openstack-swift) cluster with the bare minimum of additional services (for example Keystone, HAProxy). The Creating a roles_data File section has information on roles.

3.2.4.1. Creating the roles_data.yaml File

  1. Copy the roles_data.yaml from /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates.
  2. Edit the new file.
  3. Remove unneeded controller roles, for example Aodh*, Ceilometer*, Ceph*, Cinder*, Glance*, Heat*, Ironic*, Manila*, Mistral*, Nova*, Octavia*, Swift*.
  4. Locate the ObjectStorage role within roles_data.yaml.
  5. Copy this role to a new role within that same file and name it ObjectProxy.
  6. Replace SwiftStorage with SwiftProxy in this role.

The example roles_data.yaml file below shows sample roles.

- name: Controller
  description: |
	Controller role that has all the controller services loaded and handles
	Database, Messaging and Network functions.
  CountDefault: 1
  tags:
	- primary
	- controller
  networks:
	- External
	- InternalApi
	- Storage
	- StorageMgmt
	- Tenant
  HostnameFormatDefault: '%stackname%-controller-%index%'
  ServicesDefault:
	- OS::TripleO::Services::AuditD
	- OS::TripleO::Services::CACerts
	- OS::TripleO::Services::CertmongerUser
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Clustercheck
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Docker
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Ec2Api
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Etcd
	- OS::TripleO::Services::HAproxy
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Keepalived
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Kernel
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Keystone
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Memcached
	- OS::TripleO::Services::MySQL
	- OS::TripleO::Services::MySQLClient
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Ntp
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Pacemaker
	- OS::TripleO::Services::RabbitMQ
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Securetty
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Snmp
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Sshd
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Timezone
	- OS::TripleO::Services::TripleoFirewall
	- OS::TripleO::Services::TripleoPackages
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Vpp

- name: ObjectStorage
  CountDefault: 1
  description: |
	Swift Object Storage node role
  networks:
	- InternalApi
	- Storage
	- StorageMgmt
  disable_upgrade_deployment: True
  ServicesDefault:
	- OS::TripleO::Services::AuditD
	- OS::TripleO::Services::CACerts
	- OS::TripleO::Services::CertmongerUser
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Collectd
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Docker
	- OS::TripleO::Services::FluentdClient
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Kernel
	- OS::TripleO::Services::MySQLClient
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Ntp
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Securetty
	- OS::TripleO::Services::SensuClient
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Snmp
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Sshd
	- OS::TripleO::Services::SwiftRingBuilder
	- OS::TripleO::Services::SwiftStorage
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Timezone
	- OS::TripleO::Services::TripleoFirewall
	- OS::TripleO::Services::TripleoPackages

- name: ObjectProxy
  CountDefault: 1
  description: |
	Swift Object proxy node role
  networks:
	- InternalApi
	- Storage
	- StorageMgmt
  disable_upgrade_deployment: True
  ServicesDefault:
	- OS::TripleO::Services::AuditD
	- OS::TripleO::Services::CACerts
	- OS::TripleO::Services::CertmongerUser
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Collectd
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Docker
	- OS::TripleO::Services::FluentdClient
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Kernel
	- OS::TripleO::Services::MySQLClient
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Ntp
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Securetty
	- OS::TripleO::Services::SensuClient
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Snmp
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Sshd
	- OS::TripleO::Services::SwiftRingBuilder
	- OS::TripleO::Services::SwiftProxy
	- OS::TripleO::Services::Timezone
	- OS::TripleO::Services::TripleoFirewall
	- OS::TripleO::Services::TripleoPackages

3.2.4.2. Deploying the New Roles

Deploy the overcloud with your regular openstack deploy command, including the new roles.

openstack overcloud deploy --templates -r roles_data.yaml -e [...]

3.3. Basic container management

To help with organization, pseudo-folders are logical devices that can contain objects (and can be nested). For example, you might create an Images folder in which to store pictures and a Media folder in which to store videos.

You can create one or more containers in each project, and one or more objects or pseudo-folders in each container.

3.3.1. Creating a container

  1. In the dashboard, select Project > Object Store > Containers.
  2. Click Create Container.
  3. Specify the Container Name, and select one of the following in the Container Access field.

    TypeDescription

    Private

    Limits access to a user in the current project.

    Public

    Permits API access to anyone with the public URL. However, in the dashboard, project users cannot see public containers and data from other projects.

  4. Click Create Container.

New containers use the default storage policy. If you have multiple storage policies defined (for example, a default and another that enables erasure coding), you can configure a container to use a non-default storage policy through the command line. To do so, run:

# swift post -H "X-Storage-Policy:POLICY" CONTAINERNAME

Where:

  • POLICY is the name or alias of the policy you want the container to use.
  • CONTAINERNAME is the name of the container.

3.3.2. Creating a pseudo folder for a container

  1. In the dashboard, select Project > Object Store > Containers.
  2. Click the name of the container to which you want to add the pseudo-folder.
  3. Click Create Pseudo-folder.
  4. Specify the name in the Pseudo-folder Name field, and click Create.

3.3.3. Deleting a container

  1. In the dashboard, select Project > Object Store > Containers.
  2. Browse for the container in the Containers section, and ensure all objects have been deleted (see Section 3.3.6, “Deleting an object”).
  3. Select Delete Container in the container’s arrow menu.
  4. Click Delete Container to confirm the container’s removal.

3.3.4. Uploading an object

If you do not upload an actual file, the object is still created (as placeholder) and can later be used to upload the file.

  1. In the dashboard, select Project > Object Store > Containers.
  2. Click the name of the container in which the uploaded object will be placed; if a pseudo-folder already exists in the container, you can click its name.
  3. Browse for your file, and click Upload Object.
  4. Specify a name in the Object Name field:

    • Pseudo-folders can be specified in the name using a / character (for example, Images/myImage.jpg). If the specified folder does not already exist, it is created when the object is uploaded.
    • A name that is not unique to the location (that is, the object already exists) overwrites the object’s contents.
  5. Click Upload Object.

3.3.5. Copying an object

  1. In the dashboard, select Project > Object Store > Containers.
  2. Click the name of the object’s container or folder (to display the object).
  3. Click Upload Object.
  4. Browse for the file to be copied, and select Copy in its arrow menu.
  5. Specify the following:

    FieldDescription

    Destination container

    Target container for the new object.

    Path

    Pseudo-folder in the destination container; if the folder does not already exist, it is created.

    Destination object name

    New object’s name. If you use a name that is not unique to the location (that is, the object already exists), it overwrites the object’s previous contents.

  6. Click Copy Object.

3.3.6. Deleting an object

  1. In the dashboard, select Project > Object Store > Containers.
  2. Browse for the object, and select Delete Object in its arrow menu.
  3. Click Delete Object to confirm the object’s removal.

Chapter 4. Shared File System service

The OpenStack Shared File Systems service (manila) enables users to provision shared file systems that can be consumed by multiple compute instances.

4.1. Back Ends

When cloud administrators use OpenStack director to deploy the Shared File System service, they may choose either of the two supported back ends:

For a complete list of supported back end appliances and drivers, see Component, Plug-In, and Driver Support in RHEL OpenStack Platform.

4.2. Creating and Managing Share Types

When creating a share, share types are used to select an appropriate storage back end. OpenStack director configures the Shared File System service with a default share type named default, but does not itself create the share type.

  1. After deploying the overcloud, as the cloud administrator, create this share type by running the following command:

    # manila type-create default <spec_driver_handles_share_servers>

    The <spec_driver_handles_share_servers> parameter is a boolean value:

    • For CephFS via NFS, the value is false.
    • For NetApp back ends, the value can be true or false; set <spec_driver_handles_share_servers> to match the value of the ManilaNetappDriverHandlesShareServers parameter, as described in the NetApp Back End Guide for the Shared File System Service guide.

      The cloud administrator can add additional specifications to the default share type and create additional share types, if that is useful for multiple configured back ends.

      For example:

  2. Set up the default share type to select a CephFS back end and an additional share type that picks a NetApp driver_handles_share_servers=True back end using the following commands:

    (overcloud) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ manila type-create default false --extras-specs share_backend_name='cephfs'
    (overcloud) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ manila type-create netapp true --extra-specs share_backend_name='tripleo_netapp'
    Note

    By default, share types are public, which means they are visible to and usable by all cloud tenants. It is also possible to create private share types for use within specific projects. To make private share types, or to set additional share-type options, see the Security and Hardening Guide.

4.2.1. Creating a share

Create a share by using a command similar to the following:

$ manila create [--share-type <SHARETYPE>] [--name <SHARENAME>] PROTO GB

Where:

  • SHARETYPE applies settings associated with the specified share type.

    • OPTIONAL: if not supplied, the default share type is used.
  • SHARENAME is the name of the share.

    • OPTIONAL: shares are not required to have a name, nor is the name guaranteed to be unique.
  • PROTO is the share protocol you want to use.

    • For CephFS with NFS, PROTO is nfs.
    • For NetApp, PROTO is nfs or cifs.
  • GB is the size of the share in gigabytes.

For example, in Section 4.2, “Creating and Managing Share Types”, the cloud administrator created a default share type that selects a CephFS back end and another share type named netapp that selects a NetApp back end.

  1. Using these share types, create a 10 GB NFS share named share-01 on the CephFS back end by running the following command:

    (user) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ manila create --name share-01 nfs 10
    
    +---------------------------------------+----------------------------
    | Property                              | Value                                +---------------------------------------+----------------------------
    | status                                | creating
    | share_type_name                       | default                              | description                           | None                                 | availability_zone                     | None                                 | share_network_id                      | None                                 | share_group_id                        | None                                 | revert_to_snapshot_support            | False                                | access_rules_status                   | active                               | snapshot_id                           | None                                 | create_share_from_snapshot_support    | False                                | is_public                             | False                                | task_state                            | None                                 | snapshot_support                      | False                                | id                                    | 8c3bedd8-bc82-4100-a65d-53ec51b5fe81
    
    | size                                  | 10                                   | source_share_group_snapshot_member_id | None                                 | user_id                               | 19f014d7b5fd43519363c5bd75da864c
    
    | name                                  | share-01                             | share_type                            | 89415974-3f82-4a73-8efc-9a4f9970dc00
    
    | has_replicas                          | False                                | replication_type                      | None                                 | created_at                            | 2018-09-17T16:00:07.000000           | share_proto                           | NFS                                  | mount_snapshot_support                | False                                | project_id                            | b0434b7f2c5943e797a24edd958d95e6
    
    | metadata                              | {}                                    |+--------------------------------------+----------------------------
  2. Optionally, create a 20 GB NFS share named share-02 on the NetApp back end by running the following command:

    (user) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ manila create --name share-02 --share-type netapp --share-network mynet nfs 20
    
    +-----------------------------------------+----------------------------
    | Property                                | Value                          +-----------------------------------------+----------------------------
    | status                            	  | creating
    | share_type_name                  	  | netapp
    | description                       	  | None
    | availability_zone                 	  | None
    | share_network_id                  	  | mynet
    | share_group_id                    	  | None
    | revert_to_snapshot_support        	  | True
    | access_rules_status               	  | active
    | snapshot_id                       	  | None
    | create_share_from_snapshot_support	  | True
    | is_public                         	  | False
    | task_state                        	  | None
    | snapshot_support                  	  | False
    | id                                	  | db3bedd8-bc82-4100-a65d-53ec51b5cba3
    
    | size                              	  | 20
    | source_share_group_snapshot_member_id   | None
    | user_id                           	  | 19f014d7b5fd43519363c5bd75da864c
    
    | name                                 	| share-02
    | share_type                           	| abcde974-3f82-4a73-8efc-9a4f9970abab
    
    | has_replicas                      	  | False
    | replication_type                  	  | None
    | created_at                           	| 2018-09-17T16:00:07.000000
    | share_proto                          	| NFS
    | mount_snapshot_support               	| False
    | project_id                           	| b0434b7f2c5943e797a24edd958d95e6
    
    | metadata                            	  | {}  +---------------------------------------+----------------------------

4.2.2. Listing shares and exporting information

To verify that the shares were created successfully, complete the following steps:

  1. Run the following command:

    (user) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ manila list
    
    +--------------------------------------+----------+-----+-----------+           | ID                                   | Name     | ... | Status    ...
    +--------------------------------------+----------+-----+-----------+
    | 8c3bedd8-bc82-4100-a65d-53ec51b5fe81 | share-01 | ... | available ...
    +--------------------------------------+----------+-----+-----------+
  2. Run the manila share-export-location-list command to see the share’s export locations:

    (user) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ manila share-export-location-list share-01
    
     +------------------------------------------------------------------
     | Path
     |  172.17.5.13:/volumes/_nogroup/e840b4ae-6a04-49ee-9d6e-67d4999fbc01
     +------------------------------------------------------------------
    Note

    This information is used to mount the share in Section 4.2.6.2, “Mounting the share”.

4.2.3. Ensuring network connectivity to the share

The Shared File System service serves storage over networks. Therefore, compute instances intended for mounting a file share must have network connectivity to one or more of the export locations for that share.

There are many ways to configure OpenStack networking with the Shared File System service, including using network plugins as described in Networking requirements for manila.

For back ends where driver_handles_share_servers=True, a cloud user can create a share network with the details of a network to which the compute instance attaches and then reference it when creating shares.

  • For back ends where driver_handles_share_servers=False, a cloud administrator sets up the requisite networking in advance rather than dynamically in the Shared File System back end.
  • For the CephFS via NFS back end, a cloud administrator deploys OpenStack director with isolated networks and environment arguments as documented in Installing OpenStack with CephFS via NFS and a custom network_data file to create an isolated StorageNFS network for NFS exports. After deployment, before the overcloud is used, the administrator creates a corresponding Networking service (neutron) StorageNFS shared provider network that maps to the data center’s isolated StorageNFS network.
Note

For a compute instance to connect to this shared provider network, the user must add an additional neutron port.

To ensure network connectivity to the share, complete the following steps:

  1. Create a security group for the StorageNFS port that allows packets to egress the port (which is required to initiate an NFS mount) but that does not allow ingress packets for unestablished connections.

    (user) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ openstack security group create no-ingress -f yaml
    created_at: '2018-09-19T08:19:58Z'
    description: no-ingress
    id: 66f67c24-cd8b-45e2-b60f-9eaedc79e3c5
    name: no-ingress
    project_id: 1e021e8b322a40968484e1af538b8b63
    revision_number: 2
    rules: 'created_at=''2018-09-19T08:19:58Z'', direction=''egress'', ethertype=''IPv4'',
     id=''6c7f643f-3715-4df5-9fef-0850fb6eaaf2'', updated_at=''2018-09-19T08:19:58Z''
    
     created_at=''2018-09-19T08:19:58Z'', direction=''egress'', ethertype=''IPv6'',                                                          id=''a8ca1ac2-fbe5-40e9-ab67-3e55b7a8632a'', updated_at=''2018-09-19T08:19:58Z'''
    updated_at: '2018-09-19T08:19:58Z'
  2. Create a port on the StorageNFS network with security enforced by the no-ingress security group:

    (user) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ openstack port create nfs-port0 --network StorageNFS --security-group no-ingress -f yaml
    
    admin_state_up: UP
    allowed_address_pairs: ''
    binding_host_id: null
    binding_profile: null
    binding_vif_details: null
    binding_vif_type: null
    binding_vnic_type: normal
    created_at: '2018-09-19T08:03:02Z'
    data_plane_status: null
    description: ''
    device_id: ''
    device_owner: ''
    dns_assignment: null
    dns_name: null
    extra_dhcp_opts: ''
    fixed_ips: ip_address='172.17.5.160', subnet_id='7bc188ae-aab3-425b-a894-863e4b664192'
    id: 7a91cbbc-8821-4d20-a24c-99c07178e5f7
    ip_address: null
    mac_address: fa:16:3e:be:41:6f
    name: nfs-port0
    network_id: cb2cbc5f-ea92-4c2d-beb8-d9b10e10efae
    option_name: null
    option_value: null
    port_security_enabled: true
    project_id: 1e021e8b322a40968484e1af538b8b63
    qos_policy_id: null
    revision_number: 6
    security_group_ids: 66f67c24-cd8b-45e2-b60f-9eaedc79e3c5
    status: DOWN
    subnet_id: null
    tags: ''
    trunk_details: null
    updated_at: '2018-09-19T08:03:03Z'
    Note

    StorageNFSSubnet assigned IP address 172.17.5.160 to nfs-port0.

  3. Add nfs-port0 to a compute instance:
(user) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ openstack server add port instance0 nfs-port0
(user) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ openstack server list -f yaml
- Flavor: m1.micro
  ID: 0b878c11-e791-434b-ab63-274ecfc957e8
  Image: manila-test
  Name: demo-instance0
  Networks: demo-network=172.20.0.4, 10.0.0.53; StorageNFS=172.17.5.160
  Status: ACTIVE

In addition to its private and floating addresses, notice that the compute instance is assigned a port with the IP address 172.17.5.160 on the StorageNFS network, which can be used to mount NFS shares when access is granted to that address for the share in question.

Note

Networking configuration on the compute instance may need to be adjusted and the services restarted for the compute instance to activate an interface with this address.

4.2.4. Granting share access

Before you can mount a share on an instance, you must grant the instance access to the share by using a command similar to the following:

# manila access-allow <SHARE> <ACCESSTYPE> --access-level <ACCESSLEVEL>  <CLIENTIDENTIFIER>

Where:

  • SHARE - the share name or ID of the share created in Section 4.2.1, “Creating a share”.
  • ACCESSTYPE - the type of access to be requested on the share. Some types include:

    • user: use to authenticate by user or group name.
    • ip: use to authenticate an instance through its IP address.

      Note

      The type of access depends on the protocol of the share. For NFS shares, only ip access type is allowed. For CIFS, user access type is appropriate.

  • ACCESSLEVEL - optional, default is rw

    • rw: read-write access to shares
    • ro: read-only access to shares
  • CLIENTIDENTIFIER - varies depending on ACCESSTYPE

    • Use an IP address for ip ACCESSTYPE
    • Use CIFS user or group for user ACCESSTYPE

For example:

  1. To grant read-write access to share-01 to a compute instance with a StorageNFS network port with the IP address 172.17.5.160, run the following command:

    (user) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ openstack server list -f yaml
    - Flavor: m1.micro
      ID: 0b878c11-e791-434b-ab63-274ecfc957e8
      Image: manila-test
      Name: demo-instance0
      Networks: demo-network=172.20.0.4, 10.0.0.53; StorageNFS=172.17.5.160
      Status: ACTIVE
    
    (user) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ manila access-allow share-01 ip 172.17.5.160
    +-----------------+---------------------------------------+
    | Property        | Value                                 |
    +-----------------+---------------------------------------+
    | access_key      | None
    | share_id        | db3bedd8-bc82-4100-a65d-53ec51b5cba3
    | created_at      | 2018-09-17T21:57:42.000000
    | updated_at      | None
    | access_type     | ip
    | access_to       | 172.17.5.160
    | access_level    | rw
    | state           | queued_to_apply
    | id              | 875c6251-c17e-4c45-8516-fe0928004fff
    +-----------------+---------------------------------------+
    Note

    Access to the share has its own ID (ACCESSID).

  2. Enter the following command to verify that the access configuration was successful:

    (user) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ manila access-list share-01
    
    +--------------+-------------+--------------+--------------+--------+ ...
    | id           | access_type | access_to    | access_level | state  | ...
    +--------------+-------------+--------------+--------------+--------+
    | 875c6251-... | ip          | 172.17.5.160 | rw       	   | active | ...
    +--------------+------------+--------------+--------------+---------+ ...

4.2.5. Revoking access to a share

Complete the following steps to revoke previously-granted access to a share:

  1. Run the following command:

    # manila access-deny <SHARE> <ACCESSID>
    Note

    In the example command, <SHARE> can be either the share name or the share ID.

    For example:

    (user) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ manila access-list share-01
    +--------------+-------------+--------------+--------------+--------+
    | id           | access_type | access_to    | access_level | state  | ...
    +--------------+-------------+--------------+--------------+--------+ ...
    | 875c6251-... | ip          | 172.17.5.160 | rw       	   | active | ...
    +--------------+-------------+--------------+--------------+--------+
    
    (user) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ manila access-deny share-01 875c6251-c17e-4c45-8516-fe0928004fff
    
    (user) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ manila access-list share-01
    
    +--------------+------------+--------------+--------------+--------+ ...
    | id           | access_type| access_to    | access_level | state  | ...
    +--------------+------------+--------------+--------------+--------+ ...
    +--------------+------------+--------------+--------------+--------+ ...

4.2.6. Mounting a share on an instance

After configuring the share to authenticate an instance, verify the functionality of the environment and then mount the share.

Note

NFS client packages supporting version 4.1 must be installed on the compute instance that mounts the shares.

4.2.6.1. Verifying the environment

To verify the functionality of the environment, complete the following steps:

  1. Run the following command to get the virtual IP (VIP) for the NFS-Ganesha service:

    (user) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ manila share-export-location-list share-01
      172.17.5.13:/volumes/_nogroup/e840b4ae-6a04-49ee-9d6e-67d4999fbc01
  2. From the VM in which you will mount the share, ensure that the VIP is reachable via ping:

    # ping 172.17.5.13
    PING 172.17.5.13 (172.17.5.13) 56(84) bytes of data.
    64 bytes from 172.17.5.13: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.048 ms
    64 bytes from 172.17.5.13: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.061 ms
    ^C
    --- 172.17.5.13 ping statistics ---
    2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 999ms
    rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.048/0.054/0.061/0.009 ms
  3. Verify the VIP is ready to respond to NFS rpcs on the proper port:

    # rpcinfo -T tcp -a 172.17.5.13.8.1 100003 4
    Note

    The IP address is written in universal address format (uaddr), which adds two extra octets (8.1) to represent the NFS service port, 2049.

4.2.6.2. Mounting the share

To mount the share from ] on the instance from xref:shares-access[, complete the following steps:

  1. Log in to the instance and run the following command:

    (user) [stack@undercloud-0 ~]$ openstack server ssh demo-instance0 --login root
    # hostname
    demo-instance0
  2. Mount the share using the export location from Section 4.2.2, “Listing shares and exporting information”:

    # mount.nfs -v  172.17.5.13:/volumes/_nogroup/e840b4ae-6a04-49ee-9d6e-67d4999fbc01 /mnt mount.nfs: timeout set for Wed Sep 19 09:14:46 2018                             mount.nfs: trying text-based options 'vers=4.2,addr=172.17.5.13,clientaddr=172.17.5.160' 172.17.5.13:/volumes/_nogroup/e840b4ae-6a04-49ee-9d6e-67d4999fbc01 on /mnt type nfs
    # mount | grep mnt       172.17.5.13:/volumes/_nogroup/e840b4ae-6a04-49ee-9d6e-67d4999fbc01 on /mnt type nfs4 (rw,relatime,vers=4.2,rsize=1048576,wsize=1048576,namlen=255,hard,proto=tcp,port=0,timeo=600,retrans=2,sec=sys,clientaddr=172.17.5.160,local_lock=none,addr=172.17.5.13)

4.2.7. Deleting a share

To delete a share, complete the following step:

  1. Run the following command:

    # manila delete <SHARE>
    Note

    In the example command, <SHARE> can be either the share name or the share ID.

    For example:

    # manila delete share-01

4.2.8. Quotas in the Shared File System service

To prevent system capacities from being exhausted without notification, you can set up quotas. Quotas are operational limits. To list the quotas for a project or user, use the manila quota-show command. If you include the optional --user parameter, you can view the quotas for this user in the specified project. If you omit this parameter, you get the quotas for the specified project. You can update and delete quotas. You can update the shares, snapshots, gigabytes, snapshot-gigabytes, share-networks, share_groups, share_group_snapshots, and share-type quotas.

To see the usage statements:

# manila --help  quota-show
# manila --help  quota-update
# manila --help  quota-delete

4.2.9. Troubleshooting asynchronous failures

If manila operations such as create share or create share group fail asynchronously, you can use the command line to query for more information about the error.

4.2.9.1. Scenario

In this example, the user wants to create a share to host software libraries on several virtual machines. The example deliberately introduces two share creation failures to illustrate how to use the command line to retrieve user support messages.

  1. To create the share, you can use a share type that specifies some capabilities that you want the share to have. Cloud administrators can create share types. View the available share types:

    clouduser1@client:~$ manila type-list
    +--------------------------------------+-------------+------------+------------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------+-------------+
    | ID                                   | Name        | visibility | is_default | required_extra_specs                 | optional_extra_specs                       | Description |
    +--------------------------------------+-------------+------------+------------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------+-------------+
    | 1cf5d45a-61b3-44d1-8ec7-89a21f51a4d4 | dhss_false  | public     | YES        | driver_handles_share_servers : False | create_share_from_snapshot_support : True  | None        |
    |                                      |             |            |            |                                      | mount_snapshot_support : False             |             |
    |                                      |             |            |            |                                      | revert_to_snapshot_support : False         |             |
    |                                      |             |            |            |                                      | snapshot_support : True                    |             |
    | 277c1089-127f-426e-9b12-711845991ea1 | dhss_true   | public     | -          | driver_handles_share_servers : True  | create_share_from_snapshot_support : True  | None        |
    |                                      |             |            |            |                                      | mount_snapshot_support : False             |             |
    |                                      |             |            |            |                                      | revert_to_snapshot_support : False         |             |
    |                                      |             |            |            |                                      | snapshot_support : True                    |             |
    +--------------------------------------+-------------+------------+------------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------+-------------+

    In this example, two share types are available.

  2. To use a share type that specifies driver_handles_share_servers=True capability, you must create a share network on which to export the share. Create a share network from a private tenant network.

    clouduser1@client:~$ openstack subnet list
    +--------------------------------------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+---------------------+
    | ID                                   | Name                | Network                              | Subnet              |
    +--------------------------------------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+---------------------+
    | 78c6ac57-bba7-4922-ab81-16cde31c2d06 | private-subnet      | 74d5cfb3-5dd0-43f7-b1b2-5b544cb16212 | 10.0.0.0/26         |
    | a344682c-718d-4825-a87a-3622b4d3a771 | ipv6-private-subnet | 74d5cfb3-5dd0-43f7-b1b2-5b544cb16212 | fd36:18fc:a8e9::/64 |
    +--------------------------------------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+---------------------+
    
    clouduser1@client:~$ manila share-network-create --name mynet --neutron-net-id 74d5cfb3-5dd0-43f7-b1b2-5b544cb16212 --neutron-subnet-id 78c6ac57-bba7-4922-ab81-16cde31c2d06
    +-------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Property          | Value                                |
    +-------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | network_type      | None                                 |
    | name              | mynet                                |
    | segmentation_id   | None                                 |
    | created_at        | 2018-10-09T21:32:22.485399           |
    | neutron_subnet_id | 78c6ac57-bba7-4922-ab81-16cde31c2d06 |
    | updated_at        | None                                 |
    | mtu               | None                                 |
    | gateway           | None                                 |
    | neutron_net_id    | 74d5cfb3-5dd0-43f7-b1b2-5b544cb16212 |
    | ip_version        | None                                 |
    | cidr              | None                                 |
    | project_id        | cadd7139bc3148b8973df097c0911016     |
    | id                | 0b0fc320-d4b5-44a1-a1ae-800c56de550c |
    | description       | None                                 |
    +-------------------+--------------------------------------+
    
    clouduser1@client:~$ manila share-network-list
    +--------------------------------------+-------+
    | id                                   | name  |
    +--------------------------------------+-------+
    | 6c7ef9ef-3591-48b6-b18a-71a03059edd5 | mynet |
    +--------------------------------------+-------+
  3. Create the share:

    clouduser1@client:~$ manila create nfs 1 --name software_share --share-network mynet --share-type dhss_true
    +---------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Property                              | Value                                |
    +---------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | status                                | creating                             |
    | share_type_name                       | dhss_true                            |
    | description                           | None                                 |
    | availability_zone                     | None                                 |
    | share_network_id                      | 6c7ef9ef-3591-48b6-b18a-71a03059edd5 |
    | share_server_id                       | None                                 |
    | share_group_id                        | None                                 |
    | host                                  |                                      |
    | revert_to_snapshot_support            | False                                |
    | access_rules_status                   | active                               |
    | snapshot_id                           | None                                 |
    | create_share_from_snapshot_support    | False                                |
    | is_public                             | False                                |
    | task_state                            | None                                 |
    | snapshot_support                      | False                                |
    | id                                    | 243f3a51-0624-4bdd-950e-7ed190b53b67 |
    | size                                  | 1                                    |
    | source_share_group_snapshot_member_id | None                                 |
    | user_id                               | 61aef4895b0b41619e67ae83fba6defe     |
    | name                                  | software_share                       |
    | share_type                            | 277c1089-127f-426e-9b12-711845991ea1 |
    | has_replicas                          | False                                |
    | replication_type                      | None                                 |
    | created_at                            | 2018-10-09T21:12:21.000000           |
    | share_proto                           | NFS                                  |
    | mount_snapshot_support                | False                                |
    | project_id                            | cadd7139bc3148b8973df097c0911016     |
    | metadata                              | {}                                   |
    +---------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+
  4. View the status of the share:

    clouduser1@client:~$ manila list
    +--------------------------------------+----------------+------+-------------+--------+-----------+-----------------+------+-------------------+
    | ID                                   | Name           | Size | Share Proto | Status | Is Public | Share Type Name | Host | Availability Zone |
    +--------------------------------------+----------------+------+-------------+--------+-----------+-----------------+------+-------------------+
    | 243f3a51-0624-4bdd-950e-7ed190b53b67 | software_share | 1    | NFS         | error  | False     | dhss_true       |      | None              |
    +--------------------------------------+----------------+------+-------------+--------+-----------+-----------------+------+-------------------+

    In this example, an error occurred during the share creation.

  5. To view the user support message, use the message-list command. Use the --resource-id to filter to the specific share you want to find out about.

    clouduser1@client:~$ manila message-list
    +--------------------------------------+---------------+--------------------------------------+-----------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------+----------------------------+
    | ID                                   | Resource Type | Resource ID                          | Action ID | User Message                                                                                             | Detail ID | Created At                 |
    +--------------------------------------+---------------+--------------------------------------+-----------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------+----------------------------+
    | 7d411c3c-46d9-433f-9e21-c04ca30b209c | SHARE         | 243f3a51-0624-4bdd-950e-7ed190b53b67 | 001       | allocate host: No storage could be allocated for this share request, Capabilities filter didn't succeed. | 008       | 2018-10-09T21:12:21.000000 |
    +--------------------------------------+---------------+--------------------------------------+-----------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------+----------------------------+

    In the User Message column, you can see that the Shared File System service failed to create the share because of a capabilities mismatch.

  6. To view more message information, use the message-show command, followed by the ID of the message from the message-list command:

    clouduser1@client:~$ manila message-show 7d411c3c-46d9-433f-9e21-c04ca30b209c
    +---------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Property      | Value                                                                                                    |
    +---------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | request_id    | req-0a875292-6c52-458b-87d4-1f945556feac                                                                 |
    | detail_id     | 008                                                                                                      |
    | expires_at    | 2018-11-08T21:12:21.000000                                                                               |
    | resource_id   | 243f3a51-0624-4bdd-950e-7ed190b53b67                                                                     |
    | user_message  | allocate host: No storage could be allocated for this share request, Capabilities filter didn't succeed. |
    | created_at    | 2018-10-09T21:12:21.000000                                                                               |
    | message_level | ERROR                                                                                                    |
    | id            | 7d411c3c-46d9-433f-9e21-c04ca30b209c                                                                     |
    | resource_type | SHARE                                                                                                    |
    | action_id     | 001                                                                                                      |
    +---------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
  7. As the cloud user, you know about capabilities through the share type so you can review the share types available. The difference between the two share types is the value of driver_handles_share_servers:

    clouduser1@client:~$ manila type-list
    +--------------------------------------+-------------+------------+------------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------+-------------+
    | ID                                   | Name        | visibility | is_default | required_extra_specs                 | optional_extra_specs                       | Description |
    +--------------------------------------+-------------+------------+------------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------+-------------+
    | 1cf5d45a-61b3-44d1-8ec7-89a21f51a4d4 | dhss_false  | public     | YES        | driver_handles_share_servers : False | create_share_from_snapshot_support : True  | None        |
    |                                      |             |            |            |                                      | mount_snapshot_support : False             |             |
    |                                      |             |            |            |                                      | revert_to_snapshot_support : False         |             |
    |                                      |             |            |            |                                      | snapshot_support : True                    |             |
    | 277c1089-127f-426e-9b12-711845991ea1 | dhss_true   | public     | -          | driver_handles_share_servers : True  | create_share_from_snapshot_support : True  | None        |
    |                                      |             |            |            |                                      | mount_snapshot_support : False             |             |
    |                                      |             |            |            |                                      | revert_to_snapshot_support : False         |             |
    |                                      |             |            |            |                                      | snapshot_support : True                    |             |
    +--------------------------------------+-------------+------------+------------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------+-------------+
  8. Create a share with the other available share type:

    clouduser1@client:~$ manila create nfs 1 --name software_share --share-network mynet --share-type dhss_false
    +---------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Property                              | Value                                |
    +---------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | status                                | creating                             |
    | share_type_name                       | dhss_false                           |
    | description                           | None                                 |
    | availability_zone                     | None                                 |
    | share_network_id                      | 6c7ef9ef-3591-48b6-b18a-71a03059edd5 |
    | share_group_id                        | None                                 |
    | revert_to_snapshot_support            | False                                |
    | access_rules_status                   | active                               |
    | snapshot_id                           | None                                 |
    | create_share_from_snapshot_support    | True                                 |
    | is_public                             | False                                |
    | task_state                            | None                                 |
    | snapshot_support                      | True                                 |
    | id                                    | 2d03d480-7cba-4122-ac9d-edc59c8df698 |
    | size                                  | 1                                    |
    | source_share_group_snapshot_member_id | None                                 |
    | user_id                               | 5c7bdb6eb0504d54a619acf8375c08ce     |
    | name                                  | software_share                       |
    | share_type                            | 1cf5d45a-61b3-44d1-8ec7-89a21f51a4d4 |
    | has_replicas                          | False                                |
    | replication_type                      | None                                 |
    | created_at                            | 2018-10-09T21:24:40.000000           |
    | share_proto                           | NFS                                  |
    | mount_snapshot_support                | False                                |
    | project_id                            | cadd7139bc3148b8973df097c0911016     |
    | metadata                              | {}                                   |
    +---------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+

    In this example, the second share creation attempt fails.

  9. View the user support message:

    clouduser1@client:~$ manila list
    +--------------------------------------+----------------+------+-------------+--------+-----------+-----------------+------+-------------------+
    | ID                                   | Name           | Size | Share Proto | Status | Is Public | Share Type Name | Host | Availability Zone |
    +--------------------------------------+----------------+------+-------------+--------+-----------+-----------------+------+-------------------+
    | 2d03d480-7cba-4122-ac9d-edc59c8df698 | software_share | 1    | NFS         | error  | False     | dhss_false      |      | nova              |
    | 243f3a51-0624-4bdd-950e-7ed190b53b67 | software_share | 1    | NFS         | error  | False     | dhss_true       |      | None              |
    +--------------------------------------+----------------+------+-------------+--------+-----------+-----------------+------+-------------------+
    
    clouduser1@client:~$ manila message-list
    +--------------------------------------+---------------+--------------------------------------+-----------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------+----------------------------+
    | ID                                   | Resource Type | Resource ID                          | Action ID | User Message                                                                                             | Detail ID | Created At                 |
    +--------------------------------------+---------------+--------------------------------------+-----------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------+----------------------------+
    | ed7e02a2-0cdb-4ff9-b64f-e4d2ec1ef069 | SHARE         | 2d03d480-7cba-4122-ac9d-edc59c8df698 | 002       | create: Driver does not expect share-network to be provided with current configuration.                  | 003       | 2018-10-09T21:24:40.000000 |
    | 7d411c3c-46d9-433f-9e21-c04ca30b209c | SHARE         | 243f3a51-0624-4bdd-950e-7ed190b53b67 | 001       | allocate host: No storage could be allocated for this share request, Capabilities filter didn't succeed. | 008       | 2018-10-09T21:12:21.000000 |
    +--------------------------------------+---------------+--------------------------------------+-----------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------+----------------------------+

    You can see that the service does not expect a share network for the share type used.

  10. Without consulting the administrator, you can discover that the administrator has not made available a storage back end that supports exporting shares directly on to your private neutron network. Create the share without the share-network parameter:

    clouduser1@client:~$ manila create nfs 1 --name software_share --share-type dhss_false
    +---------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Property                              | Value                                |
    +---------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | status                                | creating                             |
    | share_type_name                       | dhss_false                           |
    | description                           | None                                 |
    | availability_zone                     | None                                 |
    | share_network_id                      | None                                 |
    | share_group_id                        | None                                 |
    | revert_to_snapshot_support            | False                                |
    | access_rules_status                   | active                               |
    | snapshot_id                           | None                                 |
    | create_share_from_snapshot_support    | True                                 |
    | is_public                             | False                                |
    | task_state                            | None                                 |
    | snapshot_support                      | True                                 |
    | id                                    | 4d3d7fcf-5fb7-4209-90eb-9e064659f46d |
    | size                                  | 1                                    |
    | source_share_group_snapshot_member_id | None                                 |
    | user_id                               | 5c7bdb6eb0504d54a619acf8375c08ce     |
    | name                                  | software_share                       |
    | share_type                            | 1cf5d45a-61b3-44d1-8ec7-89a21f51a4d4 |
    | has_replicas                          | False                                |
    | replication_type                      | None                                 |
    | created_at                            | 2018-10-09T21:25:40.000000           |
    | share_proto                           | NFS                                  |
    | mount_snapshot_support                | False                                |
    | project_id                            | cadd7139bc3148b8973df097c0911016     |
    | metadata                              | {}                                   |
    +---------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+
  11. To ensure that the share was created successfully, use the manila list command:

    clouduser1@client:~$ manila list
    +--------------------------------------+----------------+------+-------------+-----------+-----------+-----------------+------+-------------------+
    | ID                                   | Name           | Size | Share Proto | Status    | Is Public | Share Type Name | Host | Availability Zone |
    +--------------------------------------+----------------+------+-------------+-----------+-----------+-----------------+------+-------------------+
    | 4d3d7fcf-5fb7-4209-90eb-9e064659f46d | software_share | 1    | NFS         | available | False     | dhss_false      |      | nova              |
    | 2d03d480-7cba-4122-ac9d-edc59c8df698 | software_share | 1    | NFS         | error     | False     | dhss_false      |      | nova              |
    | 243f3a51-0624-4bdd-950e-7ed190b53b67 | software_share | 1    | NFS         | error     | False     | dhss_true       |      | None              |
    +--------------------------------------+----------------+------+-------------+-----------+-----------+-----------------+------+-------------------+
  12. Delete the shares and support messages:

    clouduser1@client:~$ manila message-list
    +--------------------------------------+---------------+--------------------------------------+-----------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------+----------------------------+
    | ID                                   | Resource Type | Resource ID                          | Action ID | User Message                                                                                             | Detail ID | Created At                 |
    +--------------------------------------+---------------+--------------------------------------+-----------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------+----------------------------+
    | ed7e02a2-0cdb-4ff9-b64f-e4d2ec1ef069 | SHARE         | 2d03d480-7cba-4122-ac9d-edc59c8df698 | 002       | create: Driver does not expect share-network to be provided with current configuration.                  | 003       | 2018-10-09T21:24:40.000000 |
    | 7d411c3c-46d9-433f-9e21-c04ca30b209c | SHARE         | 243f3a51-0624-4bdd-950e-7ed190b53b67 | 001       | allocate host: No storage could be allocated for this share request, Capabilities filter didn't succeed. | 008       | 2018-10-09T21:12:21.000000 |
    +--------------------------------------+---------------+--------------------------------------+-----------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------+----------------------------+
    
    clouduser1@client:~$ manila delete 2d03d480-7cba-4122-ac9d-edc59c8df698 243f3a51-0624-4bdd-950e-7ed190b53b67
    clouduser1@client:~$ manila message-delete ed7e02a2-0cdb-4ff9-b64f-e4d2ec1ef069 7d411c3c-46d9-433f-9e21-c04ca30b209c
    
    clouduser1@client:~$ manila message-list
    +----+---------------+-------------+-----------+--------------+-----------+------------+
    | ID | Resource Type | Resource ID | Action ID | User Message | Detail ID | Created At |
    +----+---------------+-------------+-----------+--------------+-----------+------------+
    +----+---------------+-------------+-----------+--------------+-----------+------------+

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