Reference Guide

Red Hat Network 5.0.0

Red Hat Network

Red Hat Inc.

Abstract

Welcome to the Red Hat Network 5.0.0 Reference Guide. The RHN Reference Guide guides you through registering systems with Red Hat Network and using its many features.

Introduction to the Guide

Welcome to the Red Hat Network 5.0.0 Reference Guide. The RHN Reference Guide guides you through registering systems with Red Hat Network and using its many features.
Since Red Hat Network offers a variety of service levels, from the most basic Update module to the most advanced Monitoring package, some content of this guide may be inapplicable to you. This is particularly true of the RHN website, which displays selected categories, pages, and tabs depending on the entitlement level of the account used to log in. Refer to Chapter 6, Red Hat Network Website to determine what is available to you.
Depending on the version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux installed and the addition of new features, the Red Hat Network Registration Client and the Red Hat Update Agent may differ from the descriptions in this manual. Use Red Hat Network to update these applications before referring to the latest version of this manual.
All versions of this manual are available in HTML and PDF formats at http://access.redhat.com.
This version of the manual covers version 4.4.5 of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 and 4 Red Hat Update Agent and versions 2.9.14 and 2.9.12 of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 Red Hat Update Agent and Red Hat Network Registration Client, respectively.

Warning

Systems running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 must use the Red Hat Network Registration Client before starting the Red Hat Update Agent. Refer to Chapter 5, Red Hat Network Registration Client for instructions. Systems running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 and later register with the Red Hat Update Agent. Refer to Chapter 2, Red Hat Update Agent for instructions.
For an overview of Red Hat Network offerings, please review the descriptions available at http://www.redhat.com/software/rhn/.

1. More to Come

The Red Hat Network Reference Guide is constantly expanding as new Red Hat Network features and service plans are launched. HTML and PDF versions of this and other manuals are available within the Help section of the RHN website and at http://access.redhat.com.

Note

Although this manual reflects the most current information possible, read the RHN Release Notes for information that may not have been available prior to the finalization of the documentation. The notes can be found on the RHN website and at http://access.redhat.com.
The following RHN documentation has been translated for the RHN 4.0 release: RHN 3.7 Reference Guide, RHN 3.7 Satellite Guide, RHN 3.7 Release Notes, and the RHN 4.0 Release Notes. Translations of the remaining RHN 4.0 documentation will be available after the initial release. Translated documentation is available at http://rhn.redhat.com/help/

1.1. Send in Your Feedback

If you would like to make suggestions about the Red Hat Network Reference Guide, please submit a report in Bugzilla: http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/
Be sure to select the Red Hat Network product and the Documentation component. To easily associate the problem with this guide, mention its identifier:
Red Hat Network Reference Guide"

Chapter 1. Red Hat Network Overview

Have you ever read about a new version of a software package and wanted to install it but could not find it?
Have you ever tried to find an RPM through an Internet search engine or an RPM repository and been linked to an unknown site?
Have you ever tried to find an RPM but instead found only source files that you had to compile yourself?
Have you ever spent hours or even days visiting different websites to see if you have the latest packages installed on your system, only to have to do it again in a few months?
Those days are over with Red Hat Network (RHN). RHN provides the solution to all your system software management needs.
Red Hat Network is an Internet solution for managing a single Red Hat Enterprise Linux system or a network of Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems. All Security Alerts, Bug Fix Alerts, and Enhancement Alerts (collectively known as Errata Alerts) can be downloaded directly from Red Hat or your own custom collection. You can even schedule updates for delivery to your system immediately after release.
The main components of Red Hat Network are as follows:
  • the Red Hat Update Agent
  • the Red Hat Network website, whether this is hosted by the central RHN Servers, an RHN Satellite Server, or fed through an RHN Proxy Server
  • Red Hat Network Daemon
  • the Red Hat Network Registration Client - for systems running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 only.
The Red Hat Update Agent (up2date) provides your initial connection to Red Hat Network. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 and newer systems use the Red Hat Update Agent to register with RHN. Registration involves creating a unique RHN username and password, probing the hardware on your system to create a Hardware Profile, and probing the software packages installed on your system to create a Package Profile. This information is sent to RHN and RHN returns a unique System ID to your system. Once registered, the Red Hat Update Agent enables channel subscription, package installs, and management of System Profiles. See Chapter 2, Red Hat Update Agent for further information.
The Red Hat Update Agent, as the base component of RHN, is designed to manage a single system. It allows the system's superuser to view and apply Errata to the system. The RHN web interface facilitates the management, monitoring, and provisioning of a large deployment of systems, including the configuration of the Red Hat Update Agent for each system.
The Red Hat Network Daemon (rhnsd) runs in the background as a service and probes the Red Hat Network for notifications and updates at set time intervals (see Chapter 3, Red Hat Network Daemon for further information). This daemon is necessary in order to schedule updates or other actions through the website.
The Red Hat Network Registration Client allows you to register your Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 systems with RHN. (Newer versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux have registration functionality built into the Red Hat Update Agent.) See Chapter 5, Red Hat Network Registration Client for more information.
Many Red Hat Network terms are used throughout this manual. As you read the Red Hat Network Reference Guide, refer to the Glossary as necessary for an explanation of common terms.

Note

For a comparison chart of RHN service levels, refer to http://www.redhat.com/software/rhn/table/.

1.1. Update

The RHN Update service is ideal for a user with one Red Hat Enterprise Linux system or a small number of Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems. Updated Subscription to Update can be purchased at https://www.redhat.com/apps/commerce/rhn/.
With each Update subscription, you receive the following services:
  • Download Software — For customers who have purchased subscriptions to Red Hat Network, ISO images are available for immediate download.
  • Priority Access during periods of high load — When Red Hat releases a large erratum, users with Priority Access can be guaranteed that they will be able to access the updated packages immediately.
  • RHN Support Access — All paying customers of Red Hat Network receive web based support for their RHN questions.
  • Errata Notification, Multiple Systems — Subscriptions for multiple systems means Errata notification for Errata to all of those systems. Note that only one email is distributed per each Erratum, regardless of the number of systems affected.
  • Errata Updates, Multiple Systems — Get quick updates for multiple systems with an easy button click for each system.

1.2. Management

In addition to the features offered in the RHN Update subscription level, the RHN Management subscription service allows you to manage your network of Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems, users, and system groups through its System Set Manager interface.
RHN Management is based upon the concept of an organization. Each Management-level Red Hat customer has the ability to establish users who have administration privileges to system groups. An Organization Administrator has overall control over each Red Hat Network organization with the ability to add and remove systems and users. When users other than the Organization Administrator log into the Red Hat Network website, they see only the systems they have permission to administer.
To create an account that can be used to entitle systems to RHN Management, go to https://rhn.redhat.com/ and click on the Create Login link under the Sign In fields. On the Create a Red Hat Login page, click Create a new Business Login. After creating a business account, you may add users within your organization to it.
The Red Hat Network features available to you depend on the subscription level for each Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. With each Management subscription, you receive the functionality provided to Update users, plus:
  • Package Profile Comparison — Compare the package set on a system with the package sets of similar systems with one click.
  • Search Systems — Search through systems based on a number of criteria: packages, networking information, even hardware asset tags.
  • System Grouping — Web servers, database servers, workstations and other workload-focused systems may be grouped so that each set can be administered in common ways.
  • Multiple Administrators — Administrators may be given rights to particular system groups, easing the burden of system management over very large organizations.
  • System Set Manager — You may now apply actions to sets of systems instead of single systems, work with members of a predefined system group, or work with an ad-hoc collection of systems. Install a single software package to each, subscribe the systems to a new channel, or apply all Errata to them with a single action.
  • Batch Processing — Compiling a list of outdated packages for a thousand systems would take days for a dedicated sysadmin. Red Hat Network Management service can do it for you in seconds.

1.3. Provisioning

As the highest management service level, RHN Provisioning encompasses all of the features offered in the RHN Update and Management subscription levels. It is designed to allow you to deploy and manage your network of Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems, users, and system groups.
Like Management, Provisioning is based upon an organization. It takes this concept a step further by enabling customers with Provisioning entitlements to kickstart, reconfigure, track, and revert systems on the fly.
In addition to all of the features mentioned in lower service levels, Provisioning provides:
  • Kickstarting — Systems with Provisioning entitlements may be re-installed through RHN with a whole host of options established in kickstart profiles. Options include everything from the type of bootloader and time zone to packages included/excluded and IP address ranges allowed. Even GPG and SSL keys can be pre-configured.
  • Client Configuration — RHN Satellite Server Customers may use RHN to manage the configuration files on Provisioning-entitled systems. Users can upload files to custom configurations channels on the Satellite, verify local configuration files against those stored on the Satellite, and deploy files from the Satellite.
  • Snapshot Rollbacks — Provisioning-level users have the ability to revert the package profile and RHN settings of systems. RHN Satellite Server customers can also roll back local configurations files. This is possible because snapshots are captured whenever an action takes place on a system. These snapshots identify groups, channels, packages, and configuration files.
  • Custom System Information — Provisioning customers may identify any type of information they choose about their registered systems. This differs from System Profile information, which is generated automatically, and the Notes, which are unrestricted, in that the Custom System Information allows you to develop specific keys of your choosing and assign searchable values for that key to each Provisioning-entitled system. For instance, this feature allows you to identify the cubicle in which each system is located and search through all registered systems according to their cubicle.

1.4. Monitoring

Monitoring entitlements are available to RHN Satellite Server customers with Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems.
Monitoring allows an organization to install probes that can immediately detect failures and identify performance degradation before it becomes critical. Used properly, the Monitoring entitlement can provide insight into the applications, services, and devices on each system.
Specifically, Monitoring provides:
  • Probes — Dozens of probes can be run against each system. These range from simple ping checks to custom remote programs designed to return valuable data.
  • Notification — Alerts can be sent to email and pager addresses with contact methods identified by you when a probe changes state. Each probe notification can be sent to a different method, or address.
  • Central Status — The results of all probes are summarized in a single Probe Status page, with the systems affected broken down by state.
  • Reporting — By selecting a probe and identifying the particular metric and a range of time, you can generate graphs and event logs depicting precisely how the probe has performed. This can be instrumental in predicting and preventing costly system failures.
  • Probe Suites — Groups of probes may be assigned to a system or set of systems at once rather than individually. This allows Administrators to be certain that similar systems are monitored in the same way and saves time configuring individual probes.
  • Notification Filters — Probe notifications may be redirected to another recipient, halted, or sent to an additional recipient for a specified time based on probe criteria, notification method, scout or organization.

1.5. Errata Notifications and Scheduled Package Installations

You can configure Red Hat Network to send you email notifications of new and updated software packages as soon as the packages are available through RHN. You receive one email per Erratum, regardless of the number of affected systems. You can also schedule package installs or package updates. The benefits include:
  • Reduced time and effort required by system administrators to stay on top of the Red Hat Errata list
  • Minimized security vulnerabilities in your network through the application of updates as soon as Red Hat releases them
  • Filtered list of package updates (packages not relevant to your network are not included)
  • Reliable method of managing multiple systems with similar configurations

1.6. Security, Quality Assurance, and Red Hat Network

Red Hat Network provides significant benefits to your network, including security and quality assurance. All transactions made between your systems and Red Hat Network are encrypted and all RPM packages are signed with Red Hat's GNU Privacy Guard (GPG) signature to ensure authenticity.
Red Hat Network incorporates the following security measures:
  1. Your System Profile, available at http://rhn.redhat.com, is accessible only with an RHN-verified username and password.
  2. A Digital Certificate is written to the client system after registration and is used to authenticate the system during each transaction between the client and Red Hat Network. The file is only readable by the root user on the client system.
  3. Red Hat signs all communications with an electronic signature using GPG. RPM can be used to verify the authenticity of the package before it is installed.
  4. Red Hat encrypts all transactions using a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) connection.
  5. The Red Hat Quality Assurance Team tests and verifies all packages before they are added to the Red Hat Errata list and Red Hat Network.

1.7. Before You Begin

By default, all software packages necessary to access Red Hat Network are installed with Red Hat Enterprise Linux distributions. However, if you chose not to install them during the installation process, you must obtain the Red Hat Update Agent (up2date) and possibly the Red Hat Network Registration Client (rhn_register). In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 and later, registration functionality is built into the Red Hat Update Agent, while Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 users will need the Red Hat Network Registration Client.

Warning

The SSL certificate packaged with older versions of the Red Hat Update Agent and the Red Hat Network Registration Client reached its end of life August 28, 2003. Users attempting to connect using this certificate will receive SSL connection or certificate verification errors. You may view and obtain the versions of these applications containing new certificates at the RHN Client Software page. In the RHN website, click Help at the top-right corner, Get RHN Software in the left navigation bar, and scroll down to examine the packages and versions.
To determine the versions of the client applications installed, run the rpm -q command followed by the package name. For instance, for the Red Hat Network Registration Client, type the following command:
rpm -q rhn_register
If the Red Hat Network Registration Client is installed, it will return something similar to:
rhn_register-2.9.3-1
The version number might differ slightly.
If you do not have the Red Hat Network Registration Client installed, the command will return:
package rhn_register is not installed
Perform this check for every package in Table 1.1, “Red Hat Network Packages” that is relevant to your system. Remember, only Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 users need Red Hat Network Registration Client. If you prefer to use the command line versions, the two packages ending in gnome are not required..

Table 1.1. Red Hat Network Packages

Package Name Description
rhn_register Provides the Red Hat Network Registration Client program and the text mode interface
rhn_register-gnome Provides the GNOME interface (graphical version) for the Red Hat Network Registration Client; runs if the X Window System is available
up2date Provides the Red Hat Update Agent command line version and the Red Hat Network Daemon
up2date-gnome Provides the GNOME interface (graphical version) for the Red Hat Update Agent; runs if the X Window System is available

Chapter 2. Red Hat Update Agent

The Red Hat Update Agent is your connection to Red Hat Network. It enables you to register your systems, create System Profiles, and alter the settings by which your organization and RHN interact. Once registered, your systems can use the Red Hat Update Agent to retrieve the latest software packages from Red Hat. This tool allows you to always have the most up-to-date Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems with all security updates, bug fixes, and software package enhancements.
Remember, this tool must be run on the system you wish to update. You cannot use the Red Hat Update Agent on the system if it is not entitled to an RHN service offering.

Warning

Only systems running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 and later can use the Red Hat Update Agent to register with RHN. Systems running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 must use Red Hat Network Registration Client before starting the Red Hat Update Agent. Refer to Chapter 5, Red Hat Network Registration Client for instructions, then return to this chapter for Red Hat Update Agent instructions.

Important

You must use Red Hat Update Agent Version 2.5.4 or higher to upgrade your kernel automatically. It installs the updated kernel and configures LILO or GRUB to boot the new kernel the next time the system is rebooted. To ensure that you are running the latest version, execute the command up2date up2date. If you do not have the latest version installed, this command updates it.

2.1. Starting the Red Hat Update Agent

If you are not running the X Window System or prefer the command line version of the Red Hat Update Agent, skip to Section 2.3, “Command Line Version”.
You must be root to run the Red Hat Update Agent. If started as a standard user, Red Hat Update Agent prompts you to enter the root password before proceeding. The Red Hat Update Agent can be started using one of the following methods:
For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 and 4:
  • On the GNOME and KDE desktops, go to Applications (the main menu on the panel) => System Tools => Red Hat Network.
  • At a shell prompt (for example, an xterm or gnome-terminal), type the command up2date.
For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1:
  • On the GNOME desktop, go to the Main Menu Button (on the Panel) => Programs => System => Update Agent.
  • On the KDE desktop, go to the Main Menu Button (on the Panel) => Update Agent.
  • At a shell prompt (for example, an xterm or gnome-terminal), type the command up2date.
If you choose the last option and start the application from a shell prompt, you can specify the options in Table 2.1, “Graphical Update Agent Options”. To view these options, type the command up2date --help.
For example, use the following command to specify the directory in which to download the updated packages (temporarily overriding your saved configuration):
up2date --tmpdir=/tmp/up2date/

Table 2.1. Graphical Update Agent Options

Option Description
--configure Configure Red Hat Update Agent options. Refer to Section 2.4, “Configuration” for detailed instructions.
-d, --download Download packages only; do not install them. This argument temporarily overrides the configuration option Do not install packages after retrieval. Use this option if you prefer to install the packages manually.
-f, --force Force package installation. This option temporarily overrides the file, package, and configuration skip lists.
-i, --install Install packages after they are downloaded. This argument temporarily overrides the configuration option Do not install packages after retrieval.
-k, --packagedir Specify a colon separated path of directories in which to look for packages before trying to download them.
--nosig Do not use GPG to check package signatures. This option temporarily overrides the saved configuration option.
--tmpdir=directory Temporarily override the configured package directory. The default location is /var/spool/up2date. This option is useful if you do not have enough space in the configured location.
--dbpath=dir Specify an alternate RPM database to use temporarily.
The first time you run the Red Hat Update Agent, two dialog boxes appear that you will not see in subsequent startups: Configure Proxy Server and Install GPG Key.
As shown in Figure 2.1, “Configure Proxy Server”, the first dialog box to appear prompts you for HTTP Proxy Server information. This is useful if your network connection requires you to use a proxy server to make HTTP connections. To use this feature, select the Enable HTTP Proxy checkbox and type your proxy server in the text field with the format HOST:PORT, such as squid.mysite.org:3128. Additionally, if your proxy server requires a username and password, select the Use Authentication checkbox and enter your username and password in the respective text fields.
An HTTP Proxy Server is not required by Red Hat Network. If you do not want to use this feature, click the OK button without making any selections. Note that the Red Hat Network Server dropdown menu at the top of the dialog box is only useful to RHN Proxy and Satellite customers. These customers should refer to the RHN Client Configuration Guide for registration steps. Also note that this dialog box is actually the General tab of the Red Hat Update Agent Configuration Tool. Refer to Section 2.4, “Configuration” for detailed instructions.
Configure Proxy Server

Figure 2.1. Configure Proxy Server

The second dialog box to appear prompts you to install the Red Hat GPG key, as shown in Figure 2.2, “Install GPG Key”. This key is used to verify the packages you download for security purposes. Click Yes to install the key, and you will not see this message again.
Install GPG Key

Figure 2.2. Install GPG Key

2.2. Registration

Before you begin using Red Hat Network, you must create a username, password, and System Profile. Upon launch, the Red Hat Update Agent senses whether these tasks have been accomplished. If not, it guides you through the registration process.
If you ever need to force the Red Hat Update Agent into registration mode, such as to re-register an existing system, you may do so by issuing the following command at a shell prompt:
 up2date --register 

Important

If your username is part of a larger organizational account, you should take caution when registering systems. By default, all systems registered with the Red Hat Update Agent end up in the Ungrouped section of systems visible only to Organization Administrators. To ensure you retain management of these systems, Red Hat recommends that your organization create an activation key associated with a specific system group and grant you permissions to that group. You may then register your systems using that activation key and find those System Profiles within RHN immediately. Refer to Section 2.5, “Registering with Activation Keys” for instructions.
After installing the Red Hat GPG Key, the screen shown in Figure 2.3, “Welcome Screen” appears. It appears each time you start the Red Hat Update Agent. Click Forward to continue.
Welcome Screen

Figure 2.3. Welcome Screen

2.2.1. Registering a User Account

Before you create a System Profile, you must create a user account. Red Hat recommends that you do so through the website at https://rhn.redhat.com/newlogin/, but you may also do so via Red Hat Update Agent (up2date).

Important

Users may access and read Red Hat's privacy statement from this screen. Click the Read our Privacy Statement button to do so. Red Hat is committed to protecting your privacy. The information gathered during the registration process is used to create a System Profile, which is essential to receiving update notifications about your system. When finished, click OK
Those users that have created a Red Hat login previously may enter their username and password and click the Forward button to continue.
Users that have registered at least one system with Red Hat Network can add new machines to the same account. To do so, run the Red Hat Update Agent on the new machine and enter the existing Red Hat username and password at this screen.
Red Hat Login Screen

Figure 2.4. Red Hat Login Screen

New users must select the I don't have a Red Hat login. I need to create one. radio button and click the Forward button. Add details about yourself and your business to the screen shown in Figure 2.5, “Create a User Account”, and identify the methods by which you may be reached.
Your username has the following restrictions:
  • Cannot contain any spaces
  • Cannot contain the characters & +, %, or '
  • Is not case-sensitive, thereby eliminating the possibility of duplicate usernames differing only by capitalization
In addition, the following restrictions apply to both your username and password:
  • Must be at least four characters long
  • Cannot contain any tabs
  • Cannot contain any line feeds
Passwords are case-sensitive for obvious reasons.

Note

You must choose a unique username. If you enter one already in use, you will see an error message. Try different usernames until you find one that has not been used.
Complete all fields marked by an asterisk (*). The address and email addresses are required so that Red Hat may communicate with you regarding your account. You may select to receive monthly copies of Red Hat Magazine, a valuable source of tips, insights, and Red Hat news.
When finished, click Forward.
Create a User Account

Figure 2.5. Create a User Account

2.2.2. Activate

The Activation screen allows you to select various details of your registration. If you have a subscription number, enter it in the appropriate field. If not, select the Use one of my existing, active subscriptions radio button.
In the Connect Your System option group, select whether to send a hardware or software profile.
After creating a username and password for your Red Hat Network account, the Red Hat Update Agent probes your system for the following information:
  •        package rhn_register is not installed 
    Red Hat Enterprise Linux version
  • Hostname
  • IP address
  • CPU model
  • CPU speed
  • Amount of RAM
  • PCI devices
  • Disk sizes
  • Mount points
The software System Profile consists of a list of RPM packages for which you wish to receive notifications. The Red Hat Update Agent displays a list of all RPM packages listed in the RPM database on your system and then allows you to customize the list by deselecting packages.
To see the details of the information gathered from your system, click the Details button next to the profile. When finished, click OK. If you uncheck the box to the left of the profile, that information is not sent to RHN.

Note

If you do not send a Software Profile, this system will receive no Errata Updates.
Click Forward to send the information to RHN.
Activate

Figure 2.6. Activate

Figure 2.7, “Sending System Profile to Red Hat Network” shows the progress bar displayed as the System Profile is sent.
Sending System Profile to Red Hat Network

Figure 2.7. Sending System Profile to Red Hat Network

2.2.3. Channels

Red Hat Update Agent next displays all package channels to which you have access. The channels you select from this screen must match the base operating system of the system you are registering. if any child channels are available, such as the RHEL AS (v.4 for x86) Extras channel in the figure, you may select them as well. Additional information regarding the selected channel is displayed in the Channel Information pane. When finished, click Forward to continue.
Channels

Figure 2.8. Channels

Red Hat Update Agent now compares the packages in your RPM database with those available from the Channel you selected. The progress bar shown in Figure 2.9, “Fetching package list” is displayed during this process.
Fetching package list

Figure 2.9. Fetching package list

Note

If the version of up2date on your system is older than the one in your selected channel, the Red Hat Update Agent asks whether you would like to update it. If you agree, the only package that will be updated is the up2date package. This is equivalent to executing the up2date up2date command from a shell prompt. Once the updated process has completed, the Red Hat Update Agent restarts and completes the initial update of the system.

2.2.4. Packages Flagged to be Skipped

The next step in the initial update is the selection of files to be skipped. Any packages checked here will not be downloaded and updated by the Red Hat Update Agent. This screen is displayed whenever packages are available that are currently selected to be ignored. You may change these settings at any time from the Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool. Refer to Chapter 4, Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool for addition information.
Make your selections and click Forward to continue.
Packages Flagged to be Skipped

Figure 2.10. Packages Flagged to be Skipped

2.2.5. Available Package Updates

The Red Hat Update Agent next displays all available updates except those you chose to skip in the previous screen. Select those you wish to download and click Forward to continue.To view the complete Errata Advisory text for an update, highlight the relevant package and click the View Advisory button. When finished, click OK.
Select those you wish to download and click Forward to continue.
Available Package Updates

Figure 2.11. Available Package Updates

Example Errata Advisory

Figure 2.12. Example Errata Advisory

2.2.6. Retrieving Packages

The Red Hat Update Agent tests the packages you selected to be certain that the requirements of each RPM are met. If any additional packages are required, Red Hat Update Agent displays an error message. Click OK to continue.
Once all dependencies are met, Red Hat Update Agent retrieves the packages from RHN. As the packages are downloaded, they are temporarily stored in /var/spool/up2date/.
When all packages have been downloaded, click Forward to continue.
Retrieving Packages

Figure 2.13. Retrieving Packages

2.2.7. Installing Packages

The packages must be installed after downloading them via the Red Hat Update Agent. If you chose not to install the packages via the Red Hat Update Agent, skip to Section 2.3.2, “Manual Package Installation” for further instructions. If you configured the Red Hat Update Agent to install the packages (the default setting), the installation process begins. The progress of installing each package, as well as the total progress, is displayed. When the packages have been installed, as seen in Figure 2.14, “Installing Packages”, click Forward to continue.
Installing Packages

Figure 2.14. Installing Packages

When the Red Hat Update Agent has finished downloading the desired packages (and installing them if you chose the install option), it displays the screen in Figure 2.15, “All Finished”. Click Finish to exit the Red Hat Update Agent.
All Finished

Figure 2.15. All Finished

2.3. Command Line Version

If you are not running X, you can still run the Red Hat Update Agent from a virtual console or remote terminal. If you are running X but want to use the command line version, you can force it not to display the graphical interface with the following command:
up2date --nox
The command line version of the Red Hat Update Agent allows you to perform advanced functions or to perform actions with little or no interaction. For example, the following command updates your system with no interaction. It downloads the newer packages and installs them if you configured it to do so.
up2date -u
The command line version of the Red Hat Update Agent accepts the following arguments:

Table 2.2. Update Agent Command Line Arguments

Option Description
-?, --usage Briefly describe the available options.
-h, --help List the available options and exit.
--arch=architecture Force up2date to install this architecture of the package. Not valid with --update, --list, or --dry-run.
--channel=channel Specify from which channels to update using channel labels.
--configure Configure Red Hat Update Agent options. Refer to Section 2.4, “Configuration” for detailed instructions.
-d, --download Download packages only; do not install them. This argument temporarily overrides the configuration option Do not install packages after retrieval. Use this option if you prefer to install the packages manually.
--dbpath=dir Specify an alternate RPM database to use temporarily.
--dry-run Do everything but download and install packages. This is useful in checking dependencies and other requirements prior to actual installation.
-f, --force Force package installation. This option temporarily overrides the file, package, and configuration skip lists.
--firstboot Pop up in the center of the screen for Firstboot.
--get Fetch the package specified without resolving dependencies.
--get-source Fetch the source package specified without resolving dependencies.
--gpg-flags Show the flags with which GPG is invoked, such as the keyring.
--hardware Update this system's hardware profile on RHN.
-i, --install Install packages after they are downloaded. This argument temporarily overrides the configuration option Do not install packages after retrieval.
--installall=<channel-label> Install all available packages from a given channel
--justdb Only add packages to the database and do not install them.
-k, --packagedir Specify a colon-separated path of directories in which to look for packages before trying to download them.
-l, --list List packages relevant to the system.
--list-rollbacks Show the package rollbacks available.
--nodownload Do not download packages at all. This is useful in testing.
--nosig Do not use GPG to check package signatures. This option temporarily overrides the saved configuration option.
--nosrc Do not download source packages (SRPMs).
--nox Do not attempt to run in X. This launches the command line version of the Red Hat Update Agent.
-p, --packages Update packages associated with this System Profile.
--proxy=proxy URL Specify an HTTP proxy to use.
--proxyPassword=proxy password Specify a password to use with an authenticated HTTP proxy.
--proxyUser=proxy user ID Specify a username to use with an authenticated HTTP proxy.
--register Register (or re-register) this system with RHN. Refer to Section 2.2, “Registration” for detailed instructions.
--serverUrl=server URL Specify an alternate server from which to retrieve packages.
--showall List all packages available for download.
--show-available List all packages available that are not currently installed.
--show-channels Show the channel name associated with each package.
--show-orphans List all packages currently installed that are not in channels to which the system is subscribed.
--show-package-dialog Show the package installation dialog in GUI mode.
--solvedeps=dependencies Find, download, and install the packages necessary to resolve dependencies.
--src Download source packages, as well as binary RPMs.
--tmpdir=directory Temporarily override the configured package directory. The default location is /var/spool/up2date. This option is useful if you do not have enough space in the configured location.
-u, --update Update system with all relevant packages.
--undo Reverse the last package set update.
--upgrade-to-release=release version Upgrade to the channel specified.
--uuid=uuid Pass in a Unique User ID generated by the Alert Notification tool.
-v, --verbose Show additional output while updating.
--version Show up2date version information.
--whatprovides=dependencies Show the packages that resolve the comma-separated list of dependencies.

Note

The --solvedeps and --whatprovides options can be used to solve the dependencies for an RPM regardless even if your system does not currently have access to a channel that contains that package.

2.3.1. Installing the Red Hat GPG key

The first time you run the graphical version of the Red Hat Update Agent, it prompts you to install the Red Hat GPG key. This key is required to authenticate the packages downloaded from Red Hat Network. If you run the command line version the first time you start Red Hat Update Agent, you must install the Red Hat GPG key manually. If you do not have it installed, you will see the following message:
 Your GPG keyring does not contain the Red Hat, Inc. public key. Without it, you will be unable to verify that packages Update Agent downloads are securely signed by Red Hat. 

Note

GPG keys must be installed for each user. To install the key to use with Red Hat Network, import the key while logged in as root.
The method for installing the key varies depending on your version of RPM. Starting with version 4.1, which shipped with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3, you may use RPM to import GPG keys. Issue the following command at a shell prompt as root:
 rpm --import /usr/share/doc/rpm-4.1/RPM-GPG-KEY 
For older versions of RPM, such as the one that came with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1, use the gpg command (as root):
 /usr/bin/gpg --import /usr/share/rhn/RPM-GPG-KEY 
To download the Red Hat GPG key first, you may obtain it from https://www.redhat.com/security/team/key.html . Here's an example:
Type bits/keyID Date User ID
pub  1024D/650D5882 2001-11-21 Red Hat, Inc. (Security Response Team)
sub  2048g/7EAB9AFD 2001-11-21 

-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
Version: GnuPG v1.2.1 (GNU/Linux)

mQGiBDv70vQRBADh701rf8WUzDG88kqlV/N5KQ1PF0amnODB/1EeuAD7n6bCBRmV
ekQWJCdfab0Rf1S+VsFg6IAAAmDIarVnacTLQzqCdGJqTpXm/rGVpLv+mCh+OmT9
QRFbjSzB0uPJOpiIvJwSS00D/wJ8XKzHkVNgW3DiJ9Qz2BHYszU2ISI6FwCgxY6d
IVjWT5jblkLNjtD3+fR024ED/i0e2knetTX3S9LjC+HdGvP8Eds92Ti2CnJLaFJk
Rp749PucnK9mzxPcO2jSHgdtjWAXst/st+gWFVbFmkjBQDVSd00B/xEwI1T1+LN8
V7R8BElBmg99IlJmDvA2BI/seXvafhzly9bxSHScFnceco/Az9umIs3NXwv3/yOm
ZakDBAC6SAGHBmpVkOdeXJDdb4LcbEhErFU3CpRCjZ6AOnFuiV1MGdulZXvEUgBA
I6/PDE5nBHfZY3zPjyLPZVtgYioJpZqcRIx/g+bX2O8kPqvJEuZ19tLCdykfZGpy
bsV7QdSGqBk3snNOizmFj543RaHyEbnwKWbNADhujWMeUAxN+7Q8UmVkIEhhdCwg
SW5jLiAoU2VjdXJpdHkgUmVzcG9uc2UgVGVhbSkgPHNlY2FsZXJ0QHJlZGhhdC5j
b20+iFcEExECABcFAj3GczYFCwcKAwQDFQMCAxYCAQIXgAAKCRBeVICDZQ1YghAU
AJoCeQfuMR2dKyLft/10O6qUs+MNLQCggJgdO8MUO2y11TWID3XOYgyQG+2InAQT
AQIABgUCPtyYpQAKCRDurUz9SaVj2e97A/0b2s7OhhAMljNwMQS4I2UWVGbgtxdu
D+yBcG/3mwL76MJVY7aX+NN/tT9yDGU+FSiQZZCL/4OFOHMvjpcDqfJY+zpTlBii
ZMAPJWTs2bB+0QaXxUgWlwW84GVf2rA6RSbvMLTbDjTH8t7J1RGP9zAqu8SgraTA
QbQdao6TNxVt+ohGBBMRAgAGBQI+3LjCAAoJECGRgM3bQqYOf5MAoIjiJDe+hDOj
9+jlR0qDs9lIi/C2AJ9SBBfd4A8hyR4z3lY7e0LzjWF51LkCDQQ7+9O3EAgA8tMs
xdUmuTfA+X78fMXh7LCvrL4Hi28CqvNM+Au81XJjDLNawZvpVmFlMmd9h0Xb5Jt2
BZWLR13rcDUByNdw1EWhVAzCz6Bp9Z3MIDhcP00iIBctIHn7YP9fi5vV0G03iryT
XE01mhWoBlC233wr3XHwsqxFfZzaCZqqNKTl0+PNfEAIzJRgtYiW8nzFTPpIR05E
oRn6EvmQfayOF2uYDX9Sk//lOD7T7RLtKjM/hPW/9NoCGwwROaG+VUzVv4aelh1L
dJGEjpFtdxcrOUMD8xbkuGMznu0mpDI+J2BUDh5n57yOyEMaGrQ0jfY1ZqdqDvZg
osY1ZHa6KlmuCWNTnwADBQf/XYhCicp6iLetnPv6lYtyRfFRpnK98w3br+fThywC
t81P2nKv8lio6OsRbksGc1gX8Zl6GoHQYfDe7hYsCHZPoWErobECFds5E9M7cmzV
TTyNTvrELrs07jyuPb4Q+mHcsYPILGR3M+rnXKGjloz+05kOPRJaBEBzP6B8SZKy
QNqEfTkTYU4Rbhkzz/UxUxZoRZ+tqVjNbPKFpRraiQrUDsZFbgksBCzkzd0YURvi
CegO2K7JPKbZJo6eJA10qiBQvAx2EUijZfxIKqZeLx40EKMaL7Wa2CM/xmkQmCgg
Hyu5bmLSMZ7cxFSWyXOst78dehCKv9WyPxHV3m4iANWFL4hGBBgRAgAGBQI7+9O3
AAoJEF5UgINlDViCKWcAoMCeYStWVKXJTytzHEL6Wl8rXr8WAKCHuapJIA4/eFsf
4ciWtjY8cO0v8Q==
=yOVZ
-----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
Save the text file and import it into your keyring using the method applicable to your version of RPM.

2.3.2. Manual Package Installation

If you chose to download, but not install, the software updates with the Red Hat Update Agent or from the RHN website, you must install them manually using RPM.
To install them, change to the directory that contains the downloaded packages. The default directory is /var/spool/up2date. Type the command rpm -Uvh *.rpm. When the packages finish installing, you can delete them if you wish. You do not need them anymore.
After installing the packages, you must update your System Profile so that you are not prompted to download them again. Refer to Section 2.3.3, “Synchronizing Your System Profile” for details.

2.3.3. Synchronizing Your System Profile

If you configured the Red Hat Update Agent to install the latest packages, the System Profile stored by Red Hat Network is updated after the packages are installed. However, if you only download the latest RPM packages using the Red Hat Update Agent, download the RPM packages from the website, or upgrade/install/remove RPM packages yourself, your System Profile is not updated automatically. You must send your updated System Profile to the RHN Servers.
To synchronize the RPM package list on your local system and on Red Hat Network, run the command:
up2date -p
After running this command, your RHN System Profile reflects the latest software versions installed on your system.

2.3.4. Log File

The Red Hat Update Agent keeps a log of all the actions that it performs on your system in the file /var/log/up2date. It uses the standard rotating log method. Thus, older logs are in /var/log/up2date.1, /var/log/up2date.2, and /var/log/up2date.3. The log files store actions performed by the Red Hat Update Agent such as when your RPM database is opened, when it connects to Red Hat Network to retrieve information from your System Profile, which packages are downloaded, which packages are installed using the Red Hat Update Agent, and which packages are deleted from your system after installation. If you choose to install and delete packages yourself, it is not logged in this file. Red Hat Network recommends that you keep a log of actions not performed with the Red Hat Update Agent.

2.4. Configuration

The Red Hat Update Agent offers various options to configure its settings.
If you are not running the X Window System or prefer the command line version, skip to Section 2.4.2, “Command Line Version”.

2.4.1. Using the Red Hat Update Agent Configuration Tool

You must be root to run the Red Hat Update Agent Configuration Tool. If started by a user other than root, the Red Hat Update Agent prompts you for the root password. The Red Hat Update Agent Configuration Tool can be started by typing the command up2date --config at a shell prompt (for example, an xterm or a gnome-terminal).

2.4.1.1. General Settings

The General tab allows you to enable an HTTP Proxy Server. If your network connection requires you to use an HTTP Proxy Server to make HTTP connections, select the Enable HTTP Proxy option and type your proxy server in the text field with the format http://HOST:PORT. For example, to use the proxy server squid.mysite.org on port 3128, you would enter squid.mysite.org:3128 in the text field. Additionally, if your proxy server requires a username and password, select the Use Authentication option and enter your username and password in the respective text fields.
General Settings

Figure 2.16. General Settings

In addition, RHN Proxy and Satellite customers have the option of selecting Red Hat Network Servers here. These customers should refer to the RHN Client Configuration Guide for detailed instructions.

2.4.1.2. Retrieval/Installation Settings

The Retrieval/Installation tab allows you to customize your software package retrieval and package installation preferences.

Warning

You must use Red Hat Update Agent Version 2.5.4 or higher to upgrade your kernel automatically. Red Hat Update Agent will install the updated kernel and configure LILO or GRUB to boot the new kernel the next time the system is rebooted.
Retrieval/Installation Settings

Figure 2.17. Retrieval/Installation Settings

The following package retrieval options can be selected (see Figure 2.17, “Retrieval/Installation Settings”):
  • Do not install packages after retrieval — download selected RPM packages to the desired directory and ignore the installation preferences
  • Do not upgrade packages when local configuration file has been modified — if the configuration file has been modified for a package such as apache or squid, do not attempt to upgrade it. This option is useful if you are installing custom RPMs on your system and you do not want them updated or reverted to the default Red Hat Enterprise Linux packages.
  • Retrieve source RPM along with binary package — download both the source (*.src.rpm) and the binary (*.[architecture].rpm) files
The following installation options are configurable (see Figure 2.17, “Retrieval/Installation Settings”):
  • Use GPG to verify package integrity — before installing packages, verify Red Hat's GPG signature (highly recommended for security reasons)
  • After installation, keep binary packages on disk — save binary packages in the desired directory instead of deleting them after installation
The following additional options are configurable from this tab:
  • Override version stored in System Profile — override the Red Hat Linux version in your System Profile
  • Package storage directory — change the directory where packages are downloaded; the default location is /var/spool/up2date/

2.4.1.3. Package Exceptions Settings

The Package Exceptions tab allows you to define which packages to exclude from the list of updated RPM packages according to the package name or file name (see Figure 2.18, “Package Exceptions Settings”).
To define a set of packages to be excluded according to the package name, enter a character string including wild cards (*) in the Add new text field under in the Package Names to Skip section heading. A wild card at the end of the character string indicates that all packages beginning with the character string are excluded from the list. A wild card at the beginning of the character string indicates that any packages that end with the character string are excluded from the list.
For example, if the string kernel* is in the Package Names to Skip section, the Red Hat Update Agent will not display any packages beginning with kernel.
To exclude packages by file name, apply the same rules to the field below File Names to Skip section heading.
Package Exceptions Settings

Figure 2.18. Package Exceptions Settings

2.4.2. Command Line Version

The command line version of this tool performs the same function as the graphical version. It allows you to configure the settings used by the Red Hat Update Agent and store them in the configuration file /etc/sysconfig/rhn/up2date.
To run the command line version of the Red Hat Update Agent Configuration Tool, use the following command:
up2date --nox --configure
You are presented with a list of options and their current values:

0. debug No
1. isatty Yes
2. depslist []
3. networkSetup Yes
4. retrieveOnly No
5. enableRollbacks No
6. pkgSkipList ['kernel*']
7. storageDir /var/spool/up2date
8. adminAddress ['root@localhost']
9. noBootLoader No
10. serverURL https://xmlrpc.rhn.redhat.com/XMLRPC
11. fileSkipList []
12. sslCACert /usr/share/rhn/RHNS-CA-CERT
13. noReplaceConfig Yes
14. useNoSSLForPackage No
15. systemIdPath /etc/sysconfig/rhn/systemid
16. enableProxyAuth No
17. retrieveSource No
18. versionOverride
19. headerFetchCount 10
20. networkRetries 5
21. enableProxy No
22. proxyPassword
23. noSSLServerURL http://xmlrpc.rhn.redhat.com/XMLRPC
24. keepAfterInstall No
25. proxyUser
26. removeSkipList ['kernel*']
27. useGPG Yes
28. gpgKeyRing /etc/sysconfig/rhn/up2date-keyring.gpg
29. httpProxy
30. headerCacheSize 40
31. forceInstall No


Enter number of item to edit <return to exit, q to quit without saving>: 

Enter the number of the item to modify and enter a new value for the option. When you finish changing your configuration, press Enter to save your changes and exit. Press q and then Enter to quit without saving your changes.

Important

Although this is not configurable, users should still make note that the port used by the Red Hat Update Agent is 443 for SSL (HTTPS) and 80 for non-SSL (HTTP). By default, up2date uses SSL only. For this reason, users should ensure that their firewalls allow connections over port 443. To bypass SSL, change the protocol for serverURL from https to http in the /etc/sysconfig/rhn/up2date configuration file.

2.5. Registering with Activation Keys

In addition to the standard Red Hat Update Agent interface, up2date offers a utility aimed at batch processing system registrations: activation keys. Each unique key can be used to register Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems, entitle them to an RHN service level, and subscribe them to specific channels and system groups, all in one action. This automation bypasses entitlement and registration via Red Hat Network Registration Client and Red Hat Update Agent.
Alternatively, both the Red Hat Network Registration Client and Red Hat Update Agent offer the activation keys utility rhnreg_ks as part of their packages.

Note

Systems running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 need version 2.9.3-1 or higher of the rhn_register package. It is highly recommended that you obtain the latest version before using activation keys.
Before using an activation key you must first generate one through the RHN website. Refer to Section 6.4.6, “Activation Keys — for precise steps.
To use an activation key, run the following command as root from a shell prompt on the system to be registered:
rhnreg_ks --activationkey=7202f3b7d218cf59b764f9f6e9fa281b
The precise value of the activation key varies.
Systems running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 substitute the --serialnumber option for the --activationkey option:
rhnreg_ks --serialnumber=7202f3b7d218cf59b764f9f6e9fa281b
In addition, Provisioning-entitled systems may use multiple activation keys at once, either at the command line or within kickstart profiles. This allows Administrators to include a variety of values without creating a special key for the desired results. To do this, specify the keys separated by commas, like this:
rhnreg_ks --activationkey=7202f3b7d218cf59b764f9f6e9fa281b,\ 39f41081f0329c20798876f37cb9p6a3

Note

The trailing backslash (\) in this command example is a continuation character; it may safely be omitted.
Refer to Section 6.4.6.2, “Using Multiple Activation Keys at Once — to understand how differences in activation keys are handled.
The above command performs all the actions of the Red Hat Network Registration Client and the registration function of the Red Hat Update Agent. Do not run either of these applications for registration after running rhnreg_ks.
A System Profile, including software and hardware information, is created for the system and sent to the RHN Servers along with the unique activation key. The system is registered with RHN under the account used to generate the key, entitled to an RHN service offering, and subscribed to the RHN channels and system groups selected during key generation. The system is not subscribed to channels that contain packages unsuitable for the system. For example, a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 system cannot be subscribed to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 channel.
The unique Digital Certificate for the system is generated on the system in the file /etc/sysconfig/rhn/systemid.
When using activation keys to assign channels, consider these rules:
  • A key may specify either zero or one base channel. If specified, it must be a custom base channel. If not, the base channel corresponding to the system's Red Hat distribution is chosen. For instance, you may not subscribe a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 system to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 channel.
  • A key may specify any number of child channels. For each child channel, subscription is attempted. If the child channel matches the system's base channel, subscription succeeds. If it does not, the subscription fails silently. Refer to Section 6.6, “Channels” for more information.
  • Keys may be modified by any user with the role of Activation Key Administrator or Organization Administrator (or both). These permissions are set through the Users tab of the RHN website. Refer to Section 6.9, “Users — for details.
  • Systems registered by activation keys are tied to the organization account in which the key was created, not the key itself. After registration, a key can be deleted safely without any effect on the systems it was used to register.

Chapter 3. Red Hat Network Daemon

The Red Hat Network Daemon (rhnsd) periodically connects to Red Hat Network to check for updates and notifications. The daemon, which runs in the background, is typically started from the initialization scripts in /etc/init.d/rhnsd or /etc/rc.d/init.d/rhnsd.

Note

Provisioning-entitled systems served by an RHN Satellite Server may have actions immediately initiated or pushed to them. Refer to Section 6.4.2.9.1, “System Details ⇒ Details” for instructions on enabling this feature.
To check for updates, rhnsd runs an external program called rhn_check located in /usr/sbin/. This is a small application that makes the network connection to RHN. The Red Hat Network Daemon does not listen on any network ports or talk to the network directly. All network activity is done via the rhn_check utility.

3.1. Configuring

The Red Hat Network Daemon can be configured by editing the /etc/sysconfig/rhn/rhnsd configuration file. This is actually the configuration file the rhnsd initialization script uses. The most important setting offered by the daemon is its check-in frequency. The default interval time is four hours (240 minutes). If you modify the configuration file, you must (as root) restart the daemon with the command service rhnsd restart or /etc/rc.d/init.d/rhnsd restart.

Important

The minimum time interval allowed is one hour (60 minutes). If you set the interval below one hour, it will default to four hours (240 minutes).

3.2. Viewing Status

You can view the status of the rhnsd by typing the command service rhnsd status or /etc/rc.d/init.d/rhnsd status at a shell prompt.

3.3. Disabling

To disable the daemon, (as root) run the ntsysv utility and uncheck rhnsd. You can also (as root) execute the command chkconfig rhnsd off. Using these two methods only disables the service the next time the system is started. To stop the service immediately, use the command service rhnsd stop or /etc/rc.d/init.d/rhnsd stop.

3.4. Troubleshooting

If you see messages indicating that checkins are not taking place, the RHN client on your system is not successfully reaching Red Hat Network. Make certain:
  • your client is configured correctly.
  • your system can communicate with RHN via SSL (port 443). You may test this by running the following command from a shell prompt:
    telnet xmlrpc.rhn.redhat.com 443
  • the Red Hat Network Daemon is activated and running. You may ensure this by running the following commands:
    chkconfig --level 345 rhnsd on
    service rhnsd start
    If these are correct and your systems still indicate they are not checking in, please contact our technical support team.

Chapter 4. Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool

The Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool is a notifier that appears on the panel and alerts users when software package updates are available for their systems. The list of updates is retrieved from the RHN Servers. The system does not have to be registered with Red Hat Network to display a list of updates; however, retrieving the updates with the Red Hat Update Agent requires registration with Red Hat Network and a subscription to an RHN service offering. The notifier does not send any identifiable information about the user or the system to the RHN Servers.
To use the Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool, you must install the rhn-applet RPM package and use the X Window System.
Starting with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3, the Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool appears on the panel by default as shown in Figure 4.1, “GNOME Panel with Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool.
GNOME Panel with Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool

Figure 4.1. GNOME Panel with Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool

If it does not appear on the panel, you can add it:
  • In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 and later, select Applications (the main menu on the panel) => System Tools => Red Hat Network Alert Icon. To ensure the icon appears on subsequent sessions, select the Save current setup checkbox when logging out.
  • In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1, select the Main Menu Button => Panel => Add to Panel => Applet => Red Hat Network Monitor. To move it around the panel, right-click on the applet, select Move, move the mouse left and right until it is in the desired location, and click the mouse to place the applet.

4.1. Configuring the Applet

The first time the Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool is run, a configuration wizard starts. It displays the terms of service and allows the user to configure an HTTP proxy as shown in Figure 4.2, “HTTP Proxy Configuration”.
HTTP Proxy Configuration

Figure 4.2. HTTP Proxy Configuration

If your network connection requires you to use an HTTP Proxy Server to make HTTP connections, on the Proxy Configuration screen, type your proxy server in the text field with the format HOST:PORT. For example, to use the proxy server http://squid.mysite.org on port 3128, enter squid.mysite.org:3128 in the text field. Additionally, if your proxy server requires a username and password, select the Use Authentication option and enter your username and password in the respective text fields.

Note

To run the configuration wizard again, right-click on the applet, and select Configuration.
Your preferences are written to the .rhn-applet.conf file in your home directory. The Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool also uses the system-wide configuration file /etc/sysconfig/rhn/rhn-applet. The setting for server_url should be set to your satellite server. For example:
server_url=http://YourRHN_Satellite.com/APPLET
Or, for SSL:
server_url=https://YourRHN_Satellite.com/APPLET
You can also configure the Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool to ignore specific packages. To select these packages, click on the applet and select the Ignored Packages tab.

4.2. Notification Icons

The applet displays a different icon, depending on the status of the updates. Table 4.1, “Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool Icons” shows the possible icons and their meaning.

Table 4.1. Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool Icons

Icon Description
Updates are available
System is up-to-date
Checking for updates
Error has occurred
If you see the icon, it is strongly recommended that you apply the updates. Refer to Section 4.4, “Applying Updates” for information on applying updates.
If you have scheduled updates to be installed, you can watch the applet icon to determine when updates are applied. The icon changes to the icon after the Errata Updates are applied.
If you apply a kernel update (or the kernel update is automatically applied), the applet displays the icon until the system is rebooted with the new kernel. If you double-click on the applet, the Available Updates tab displays a list of packages that can be updated on your system.

4.3. Viewing Updates

Clicking on the Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool displays a list of available updates. To alter your list of excluded packages, click the Ignored Packages tab and make your modifications.
Available Updates

Figure 4.3. Available Updates

4.4. Applying Updates

If the system is registered with RHN and entitled to a service offering, you can apply the Errata Updates with the Red Hat Update Agent. To launch the Red Hat Update Agent, click on the applet, and then click on the Launch up2date button. You can also right-click on the icon and select Launch up2date. For more information on the Red Hat Update Agent, refer to Chapter 2, Red Hat Update Agent.

4.5. Launching the RHN Website

The simplest way to obtain a comprehensive view of your system's status is to access the RHN website. This can be accomplished through the Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool by right-clicking on it and selecting RHN Website. For more information on the RHN website, refer to Section 6.1, “Navigation”.

Chapter 5. Red Hat Network Registration Client

Before you begin using Red Hat Network, you must create a username, password, and System Profile. The Red Hat Network Registration Client walks you through this process.

Warning

Only systems running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 need to use the Red Hat Network Registration Client before starting the Red Hat Update Agent. Systems running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 and later have this registration functionality built into the Red Hat Update Agent. After registering your system, refer to Chapter 2, Red Hat Update Agent for instructions on starting the Red Hat Update Agent.

5.1. Configuring the Red Hat Network Registration Client

To start the graphical interface for configuring the application to connect through an HTTP proxy server, type the following command at a shell prompt:
rhn_register --configure
Red Hat Network Registration Client Configuration

Figure 5.1. Red Hat Network Registration Client Configuration

To start the command line version, use the command:
rhn_register --nox --configure
It has more configuration options than the graphical version.
You will be presented with a list of options and their current values:
0. enableProxyAuth No 
1. noSSLServerURL http://xmlrpc.rhn.redhat.com/XMLRPC 
2. oemInfoFile /etc/sysconfig/rhn/oeminfo 
3. enableProxy No 
4. networkSetup Yes 
5. httpProxy 
6. proxyUser 
7. serverURL https://xmlrpc.rhn.redhat.com/XMLRPC 
8. proxyPassword 
9. debug No 

Enter number of item to edit <return to exit, q to quit without saving>:
Enter the number of the item to modify and enter a new value for the option. When finished changing your configuration, press Enter to save your changes and exit. Press q and then Enter to quit without saving your changes.
The most common options configured are enableProxy and httpProxy to enable a proxy server. To enable a proxy server, change the value for enableProxy to Yes and the value of httpProxy to the name of the proxy server and port number in the format HOST:PORT. For example, to use the proxy server squid.mysite.org on port 3128, you would change the value to squid.mysite.org:3128.
If you require a proxy username and password, set enableProxyAuth to Yes to enable username/password authentication for the proxy, and set proxyUser and proxyPassword to the appropriate username and password for the proxy.
To bypass SSL, change the protocol for serverURL from https to http in the /etc/sysconfig/rhn/rhn_register file.

5.2. Starting the Red Hat Network Registration Client

You must be root to register a system with RHN. If started by a standard users, the Red Hat Network Registration Client prompts you to enter the root password before proceeding.

Important

If your username is part of a larger organizational account, be cautious when registering your systems. By default, all systems registered with the Red Hat Network Registration Client end up in the Ungrouped section of systems visible only to Organization Administrators. To ensure that you retain management of these systems, Red Hat recommends that your organization create an activation key associated with a specific system group and grant you permissions to that group. You may then register your systems using that activation key and find those System Profiles within RHN immediately. Refer to Section 2.5, “Registering with Activation Keys” for instructions.
To start the Red Hat Network Registration Client, use one of the following methods:
  1. On the GNOME desktop, go to Applications (the main menu on the panel) => Programs => System => Red Hat Network
  2. On the KDE desktop, go to Applications (the main menu on the panel) => System => Red Hat Network
  3. Type the command rhn_register at a shell prompt (for example an XTerm or GNOME terminal)
  4. If you are not running the X Window System, type the command rhn_register at a shell prompt. Refer to Section 5.7, “Text Mode RHN Registration Client” for further details.

Warning

You must use Python 1.5.2-24 or later with Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) support. If not, the information transferred is not encrypted. If you have an earlier version of Python, you will see the message shown in Figure 5.2, “Use Python 1.5.2-24 or later”. To determine the version of Python on your system, use the command rpm -q python. It is strongly recommended that you use Python 1.5.2-24 or later.
Use Python 1.5.2-24 or later

Figure 5.2. Use Python 1.5.2-24 or later

If you have already registered your system and try to register it again, the dialog box shown in Figure 5.3, “Warning: This System Already Registered” appears. If you continue, it overwrites your existing Digital Certificate file (/etc/sysconfig/rhn/systemid), and creates a different System Profile. You will no longer be able to use your previous System Profile — be sure this is what you want to do before you choose Yes.
If you overwrite an existing system registration, you can delete the unused profile via the website at https://rhn.redhat.com.
Warning: This System Already Registered

Figure 5.3. Warning: This System Already Registered

The opening screen for the Red Hat Network Registration Client provides a brief overview of the services available and the steps required to register (see Figure 5.4, “Welcome Screen”). Click Next to continue with the registration process. If you click Cancel, the registration process ends and no information is sent.
Welcome Screen

Figure 5.4. Welcome Screen

Red Hat is committed to protecting your privacy (see Figure 5.5, “Red Hat Privacy Statement”). The information gathered during the Red Hat Network registration process is used to create a System Profile. The System Profile is essential if you wish to receive update notifications about your system.
Red Hat Privacy Statement

Figure 5.5. Red Hat Privacy Statement

5.3. Registering a User Account

Before you can create a System Profile, you must create a user account. The only required information in this section is a unique username, password, and a valid email address.
In the screen shown in Figure 5.7, “Create a Unique Username and Password”, you must choose a username and password. Once logged in to Red Hat Network, you can modify your preferences, view your existing System Profile, or obtain the latest Red Hat software packages. You must choose a unique username. If you enter one already in use, you will see an error message (see Figure 5.6, “Error: Username Already Exists”). Try different usernames until you find one that has not been used.
Error: Username Already Exists

Figure 5.6. Error: Username Already Exists

Note

If you are already a member of redhat.com, you can use the same user name and password. However, you must continue with the registration process to create your System Profile.
Your username has the following restrictions:
  • Cannot contain any spaces
  • Cannot contain the characters & +, %, or '
  • Is not case-sensitive, thereby eliminating the possibility of duplicate usernames differing only by capitalization
In addition, the following restrictions apply to both your username and password:
  • Must be at least four characters long
  • Cannot contain any tabs
  • Cannot contain any line feeds
Passwords are case-sensitive for obvious reasons.
If you have already registered a machine and created a System Profile, you can add a new machine to your account. Run the Red Hat Network Registration Client on the new machine you wish to add, and enter your existing Red Hat Network username and password. The new machine is added to your existing account, and you can log into Red Hat Network with your username and password to view all your systems simultaneously.
Create a Unique Username and Password

Figure 5.7. Create a Unique Username and Password

Most users can leave the Org Info section blank. If you have an existing organization account, work with your Organization Administrator to ensure that your system is added to that account.This requires entering your organization's ID and password in the provided text fields. If the values are valid, the system is added to the organization's Red Hat Network account. Your Organization Administrator can then create your user account through the Users category of the RHN website. Refer to Section 6.9, “Users — for instructions.
Click Next to continue.

5.4. Registering a System Profile

Now that you have a user account, you can create a System Profile that consists of hardware and software information about your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. The software System Profile information is used by Red Hat Network to determine what software update notifications you receive.

5.4.1. Hardware System Profile

After creating a username and password for your Red Hat Network account, the Red Hat Network Registration Client probes your system for the following information:
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux version
  • Hostname
  • IP address
  • CPU model
  • CPU speed
  • Amount of RAM
  • PCI devices
  • Disk sizes
  • Mount points
The next step is choosing a profile name for your system as shown in Figure 5.8, “System Profile - Hardware”. The default value is the hostname for the system. You may modify this to be a more descriptive string, such as Email Server for Support Team. Optionally, you can enter a computer serial or identification number for the system.
If you do not wish to include information about your hardware or network in your System Profile, deselect Include information about hardware and network (see Figure 5.8, “System Profile - Hardware”).
Click Next to continue with the registration process.
System Profile - Hardware

Figure 5.8. System Profile - Hardware

5.4.2. Software System Profile

The software System Profile consists of a list of RPM packages for which you wish to receive notifications. The Red Hat Network Registration Client displays a list of all RPM packages listed in the RPM database on your system and then allows you to customize the list by deselecting packages.

5.4.2.1. Gathering RPM Database Information

Only those packages you choose during this part of the registration are included in your System Profile, and you will only receive notifications about the packages in your System Profile. Thus, if you use an older version of a package and deselect it from the list, it will not be replaced with a newer version. This RPM list can be modified through the Red Hat Network website or by using the Red Hat Update Agent. Figure 5.9, “Registration Wizard” shows the progress bar displayed while the Red Hat Network Registration Client gathers a list of the RPM packages installed on your system. This operation may take some time depending on your system.
Registration Wizard

Figure 5.9. Registration Wizard

Once the RPM package list is built, the list is displayed as shown in Figure 5.10, “RPM Package Information”. Deselecting Include RPM Packages installed on this system in my System Profile omits this information from your System Profile.
RPM Package Information

Figure 5.10. RPM Package Information

5.4.2.2. Choosing RPM Packages to Exclude from the System Profile

By default, all RPM packages in your RPM database are included in your System Profile to be updated by Red Hat Network. To exclude a package, uncheck the package from the list by clicking the checkbox beside the package name. For example, Figure 5.11, “Choose which RPM Packages to Exclude from System Profile” shows that the procmail, procps, and psgml packages have been omitted from the package list.
Choose which packages to exclude, if any, from the System Profile, and click Next to continue with the registration process.
Choose which RPM Packages to Exclude from System Profile

Figure 5.11. Choose which RPM Packages to Exclude from System Profile

5.5. Finishing Registration

As seen in Figure 5.12, “Finished Collecting Information for System Profile”, the last step of registration is to confirm that you want to send your System Profile to the Red Hat Network. If you choose Cancel at this point, no information is sent. Clicking Next submits your RHN System Profile.
Finished Collecting Information for System Profile

Figure 5.12. Finished Collecting Information for System Profile

Figure 5.13, “Send System Profile to Red Hat Network” shows the progress bar displayed while your profile is sent. This process may take some time depending on your connection speed.
Send System Profile to Red Hat Network

Figure 5.13. Send System Profile to Red Hat Network

The Red Hat Network Registration Client displays the Registration Finished screen (Figure 5.14, “Registration Finished” once your System Profile has been sent successfully. Click Finish to exit the Red Hat Network Registration Client.
After completing the registration, you must entitle your system to an RHN service level. Refer to Section 5.6, “Entitling Your System” for details.
Registration Finished

Figure 5.14. Registration Finished

5.6. Entitling Your System

Now that you have registered your system, it must be entitled before you can receive updated packages. In other words, you must subscribe it to a service level offering.
To entitle a system, go to http://rhn.redhat.com and log in using the same username and password you just used in the Red Hat Network Registration Client. Click Systems on the top navigation bar and then Systems Entitlements in the left navigation bar.
The System Entitlements page displays the following items:
  • a list of the system for which the user can choose an entitlement level
  • the current entitlements applied to each of these systems
  • buttons that allow the user to change entitlement level
  • an overview of the number and types of purchased entitlements that remain available to the organization
To change the entitlement level of a system or systems, check the box to the left of the systems and click the appropriate button for the desired entitlement level. Note that you must apply a Management entitlement to a system before you can add a Provisioning entitlement. You can change entitlements to any available level at any time.

Note

Removing a required entitlement (such as Provisioning) will not cancel a previously scheduled action (such as a kickstart).
As you change the selected entitlements for your systems, the number of available entitlements is updated at the bottom of the screen.

5.7. Text Mode RHN Registration Client

If you are not running the X Window System, the Red Hat Network Registration Client starts in text mode.
You can force the Red Hat Network Registration Client to run in text mode with the command:
rhn_register --nox
The screens for the text mode Red Hat Network Registration Client are almost identical to the screens for the graphical Red Hat Network Registration Client. Some of the text in the text mode version is more concise due to lack of space in the interface. However, there are equal numbers of screens and fields in both versions. Thus, if you are using the text mode version, you can still follow the instructions that begin in Section 5.2, “Starting the Red Hat Network Registration Client.
Text Mode Welcome Screen

Figure 5.15. Text Mode Welcome Screen

5.8. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 rhn_register Client

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 introduces a new version of rhn_register. The new version of this application works with the yum-based RHN client that will replace up2date. The rhn_register application included as part of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 and earlier will continue to operate as expected.
The rhn_register application runs as part of the firstboot process. The first time a newly-installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 system is booted, an application that performs the initial configuration of your system uses rhn_register to register your system with RHN.
If you should need to re-register your system at a later time, you can use rhn_register to do so. You can execute the command rhn_register from the command line as root. If you have never registered, you can start rhn_register by selecting Applications (the main menu on the panel) ⇒ System ToolsPackage Updater. (You will be asked to enter the root password.) The yum-based client then triggers rhn_register if there is no /etc/sysconfig/rhn/systemid file on the system.
If you have already registered before and /etc/sysconfig/rhn/systemid exists on the system, rhn_register first asks if you are sure that you would like to register in this way. Doing so may create a duplicate system profile in RHN. Consider using rhnreg_ks and activation keys to re-register a system without creating a duplicate entry.
Verify Re-Registration

Figure 5.16. Verify Re-Registration

If you are certain you would like to re-register this way, select the Yes, Continue button.
  1. Registering for Software Updates

    Figure 5.17. Registering for Software Updates

    This first page describes the purpose of the application. To learn more about the benefits of RHN, press the Why Should I Connect to RHN? button. Otherwise, press the Forward button to continue.
  2. Choose an Update Location

    Figure 5.18. Choose an Update Location

    This page allows you to select the source of your software updates - either from RHN's Hosted environment or from an RHN Satellite Server or RHN Proxy Server. If your organization has a Satellite or Proxy, select the second radio button and enter the URL of your Satellite or Proxy into the Red Hat Network Location field.
    If you connect to the internet through an HTTP Proxy, press the Advanced Network Configuration button. In the next window, use the appropriate fields for your HTTP proxy; if your proxy requires authentication, enter the username and password here. When finished, press the Close button to continue. You are returned to the Choose an Update Location page. Press Forward to continue.
  3. Enter Your Account Information

    Figure 5.19. Enter Your Account Information

    This page requires you to enter your account information, if you already have an RHN account, or to create a new account if you do not. To create a new RHN account, press the Create a New Account button. Fill in the fields that are marked with an asterisk and any other information you wish to enter. Press the Create New Login button to create your new login.

    Note

    If you are registering to RHN Hosted as part of an organization, please do not create a new account through this screen. Contact your Organization Administrator and request that they create an account for you, then provide that information in the Enter Your Account Information page. Otherwise, you may not be correctly associated with your organization or its resources.
  4. Create Your System Profile

    Figure 5.20. Create Your System Profile

    This page allows you to select a profile name for the system you are registering. The default name for any system is that system's hostname, although you may change it as you like. You can also select whether to report hardware and package information to RHN. It is recommended that you choose to report this information; doing so allows RHN to automatically subscribe your system to the base and child channels most appropriate to your system. If you wish, you may press either the View Hardware Profile or View Package Profile button to view the information that rhn_register uploads to RHN in this step.

    Note

    This automatic registration does not automatically subscribe your system to optional child channels, such as the RHN Tools channel. If you wish to register a system and have them automatically subscribed to a set of channels of your choice, consider using a kickstart profile or rhnreg_ks and activation keys to do so.
  5. Review System Subscription Details

    Figure 5.21. Review System Subscription Details

    This page displays the base and child channel information to which your system has been subscribed. Take a moment to review the channels, and then press Forward to continue.
  6. Finish Setting Up Software Updates

    Figure 5.22. Finish Setting Up Software Updates

    This page indicates that you have successfully registered a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 system with RHN. From this point, you do not have to do anything to receive software updates. A package icon will appear in the upper right corner of your desktop when updates are available. Click on this icon to apply available updates. Click Finish to exit the wizard.
    If you do not have any entitlements available for this system, this final page indicates that the registration has failed. This does not mean that the system profile has not been stored with RHN, only that you will not receive automatic updates without manual intervention. You can always login to the RHN web interface and either purchase additional entitlements or shift an entitlement from another system in order to entitle this one. Click the Exit software update setup button to exit the wizard.

Chapter 6. Red Hat Network Website

You can use the Red Hat Network website to manage multiple Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems simultaneously, including viewing Errata Alerts, applying Errata Updates, and installing packages. This chapter seeks to identify all of categories, pages, and tabs within the website and explain how to use them.

6.1. Navigation

The Top Navigation Bar is divided into tabs. Organization Administrators see the following Top Navigation Bar. Note that only RHN Satellite Server customers see the Monitoring and Satellite Tools tabs.
Top Navigation bar — RHN Satellite Server

Figure 6.1. Top Navigation bar — RHN Satellite Server

Top Navigation bar — RHN's Hosted Environment

Figure 6.2. Top Navigation bar — RHN's Hosted Environment

The Left Navigation Bar is divided into pages. The links are context-sensitive and may vary slightly between RHN Satellite Server and non-Satellite web interfaces. The following is an exaple of the Left Navigation Bar for the Users tab.
Left Navigation Bar — Users

Figure 6.3. Left Navigation Bar — Users

Some pages have sub-tabs. These tabs offer an additional layer of granularity in performing tasks for systems or users. The following is a menu bar for all System Details sub-tabs. This system has Management and Provisioning entitlements, but not Monitoring:
Sub-Tabs — System Details

Figure 6.4. Sub-Tabs — System Details

6.1.1. Entitlement Views

Keep in mind, since this guide covers all entitlement levels, some tabs, pages, and even whole categories described here may not be visible to you. For this reason, icons are used here to identify which functions are available to each entitlement level.

Table 6.1. Entitlement Icons

Icon Entitlement
Management or higher
Provisioning
Monitoring
If no icon follows a category, page, or tab label within this chapter, the area described is available to all Red Hat Network users. If an icon does follow, the associated entitlement is needed. Remember that Provisioning inherits all of the functions of Management.
If an icon precedes a paragraph, only the specific portion of the page or tab discussed afterward requires the indicated entitlement level. When a page or tab is associated with a particular entitlement level, all of its tabs and sub-tabs require at least the same entitlement level but may need a higher entitlement. Regardless, each tab is identified separately.

6.1.2. Categories and Pages

This section summarizes all of the categories and primary pages (those linked from the top and left navigation bars) within the RHN website. It does not list the many subpages, tabs and sub-tabs accessible from the left navigation bar and individual pages. Each area of the website is explained in detail later in this chapter:
  • Your RHN — View and manage your primary account information and obtain help.
    • Your RHN — Obtain a quick overview of your account. It notifies you if your systems need attention, provides a quick link to go directly to them, and displays the most recent Errata Alerts for your account.
    • Your Account — Update your personal profile and addresses.
    • Your Preferences — Indicate if you wish to receive email notifications about Errata Alerts for your systems, set how many items are displayed at one time for lists such as system lists and system group lists, set your time zone, and identify your contact options.
    • Purchase History — View a history of your entitlements, including the expiration date and the number available.
    • Help — Learn how to use Red Hat Network and receive support if needed.
  • Systems — Manage your systems here.
    • Overview — View a summary of your systems or system groups showing how many Errata Alerts each system has and which systems are entitled.
    • Systems — Select and view subsets of your systems by specific criteria, such as Out of Date, Unentitled, Ungrouped, and Inactive.
    • System Groups — List your system groups. Create additional groups.
    • System Set Manager — Perform actions on currently selected systems.
    • System Entitlements — Change the entitlement levels of systems.
    • Advanced Search — Quickly search all of your systems by specific criteria, such as name, hardware, devices, system info, networking, packages, and location.
    • Activation Keys — Generate an activation key for an RHN-entitled system. This activation key can be used to grant a specified level of entitlement or group membership to a newly registered system with the rhnreg_ks command.
    • Stored Profiles — View system profiles used to provision systems.
    • Custom System Info — Create and edit system information keys containing completely customizable values that can be assigned while provisioning systems.
    • Kickstart — Display and modify various aspects of kickstart profiles used in provisioning systems.
  • Errata — View and manage Errata Alerts here.
    • Errata — List Errata Alerts and download associated RPMs.
    • Advanced Search — Search Errata Alerts based on specific criteria, such as synopsis, advisory type, and package name.
  • Channels — View and manage the available RHN channels and the files they contain.
    • Software Channels — View a list of all software channels and those applicable to your systems.
    • Channel Entitlements — View a list of software channels for which you have paid, as well as the systems associated with each.
    • Download Software — Access priority downloading of Red Hat ISO images. ISO images are used to write to CD.
    • Package Search — Search packages using all or some portion of the package name.
    • Manage Config Channels — Create and edit channels used to deploy configuration files.
  • Configuration — Manage configuration files globally and for each individual system with a Provisioning entitlement.
    • Overview — Provides status information for your configuration files and actions, as well as quick links to the most common configuration management tasks.
    • Configuration Channels — Provides status information about your centrally-managed (or global) configuration channels, including the number of files they contain.
    • Configuration Files — Provides status information about your global and local configuration files on two sub-tabs.
    • Systems — Provides configuration management information about your systems, including which systems have enabled configuration management and which systems are not prepared for configuration management.
    • Quota — Provides information about the used and remaining storage quota for your configuration files.
  • Schedule — Keep track of your scheduled actions.
    • Pending Actions — List scheduled actions that have not been completed.
    • Failed Actions — List scheduled actions that have failed.
    • Completed Actions — List scheduled actions that have been completed. Completed actions can be archived at any time.
    • Archived Actions — List completed actions that have been selected to archive.
  • Users — View and manage users for your organization.
    • User List — List users for your organization.
  • Monitoring — Run probes and receive notifications regarding systems.
    • Probe Status — View probes by state.
    • Notification — View contact methods established for your organization.
    • Scout Config Push — Reconfigure your monitoring infrastructure.
    • Global Config — Change organization-wide monitoring settings.

6.1.3. Errata Alert Icons

Throughout Red Hat Network you will see three Errata Alert icons. represents a Security Alert. represents a Bug Fix Alert. represents an Enhancement Alert.
In the Your RHN page, click on the Errata advisory to view details about the Erratum or click on the number of affected systems to see which are affected by the Errata Alert. Both links take you to tabs of the Errata Details page. Refer to Section 6.5.2.2, “Errata Details” for more information.

6.1.5. Systems Selected

Also near the top of the page is a tool for keeping track of the systems you have selected for use in the System Set Manager. It identifies the number of selected systems at all times and provides the means to work with them. Clicking the Clear button deselects all systems, while clicking the Manage button launches the System Set Manager with your selected systems in place.
These systems can be selected in a number of ways. Only systems with at least a Management entitlement are eligible for selection. On all system and system group lists, a Select column exists for this purpose. Select the checkboxes next to the systems or groups and click the Update List button below the column. Each time, the Systems Selected tool at the top of the page changes to reflect the new number of systems ready for use in the System Set Manager. Refer to Section 6.4.4, “System Set Manager — for details.

6.1.6. Lists

The information within most categories is presented as lists. These lists have some common features for navigation. For instance, you can navigate through virtually all lists by clicking the back and next arrows above and below the right side of the table. Some lists also offer the ability to retrieve items alphabetically by clicking the letters above the table.

6.2. Logging into the RHN Website

Use a web browser to navigate to http://rhn.redhat.com. RHN displays the login page shown below unless one of two things is true:
  • You have recently logged into your account at http://www.redhat.com.
  • You have recently either logged into RHN or recently visited the new account verification page.
If you have recently logged into http://rhn.redhat.com or http://www.redhat.com, you are automatically authenticated and redirected to the Your RHN page.
RHN Website

Figure 6.5. RHN Website

If you have not registered a system yet or do not have a redhat.com account, create a new account by following the Learn More link, then selecting Create Login on the resulting page. After creating a new user account, you must register a system before using RHN. Refer to Chapter 2, Red Hat Update Agent for step-by-step instructions.
After registering your system with Red Hat Network, go back to http://rhn.redhat.com and complete the username and password fields with the same information established during registration. Once complete, press the Log In button to continue.

Note

You may click the Sign In tab at the top of the screen to display the fields if they are not already visible.
If you have not previously accepted the RHN Site Terms and the T7 agreement, you will be asked to do so now before proceeding. To read the content of either agreement, click on its title, which will open a new window. When ready to proceed, select the checkbox indicating your acceptance of the agreements and press the Continue button.

Note

You must accept both the Site Terms and the T7 agreement in order to use RHN.
Once you have accepted the agreements and pressed the Continue button, RHN displays the Your RHN page.

6.3. Your RHN

After logging into the website of Red Hat Network, the first page to appear is Your RHN. This page contains important information about your systems, including summaries of system status, actions, and Errata Alerts.

Note

If you are new to the RHN website, it is recommended that you read Section 6.1, “Navigation” to become familiar with the layout and symbols used throughout the website.
Your Red Hat Network

Figure 6.6. Your Red Hat Network

This page is broken into functional areas, with the most critical areas displayed first. Users can control which of the following areas are displayed by making selections on the Your RHNYour Preferences page. Refer to Section 6.3.2, “Your Preferences” for more information.
  • The Tasks area lists the most common tasks that an administrator performs via the web. Click on any of the links to be taken to the page within RHN that allows you to accomplish that task.
  • To the right is the Inactive System listing. If any systems have not been checking in to RHN, they are listed here. Highlighting them in this way allows an administrator quickly select those systems for troubleshooting.
  • — Customers with Monitoring enabled on their Satellite can also choose to include a list of all probes in the Warning state.
  • — Customers with Monitoring enabled on their Satellite can also choose to include a list of all probes in the Critical state.
  • The section below lists the most critical systems within your organization. It provides a link to quickly view those systems, and displays a summary of the errata updates that have yet to be applied to those systems. Click on the name of the system to be taken to the System Details page of that system and apply the errata updates. Below the list is a link to the Out of Date systems page.
  • Next is the Recently Scheduled Actions section. Any action that is less than thirty days old is considered to be recent. This section allows you to see all actions and their status, whether they have failed, completed, or are still pending. Click on the label of any given actions to view the details page for that action. Below the list is a link to the Pending Actions page, which lists all actions that have not yet been picked up by your client systems.
  • The following section lists the Security Errata that are available and have yet to be applied to some or all of your client systems. It is critical that you apply these security errata to keep your systems secure. Below this section are links to all errata and to those errata that apply to your systems.
  • The final section lists your System Groups and indicates whether the systems in those groups are fully updated. Click on the link below this section to be taken to the System Groups page, from which you can chose System Groups to use with the System Set Manager.
You can return to this page by clicking Your RHN on the left navigation bar.

6.3.1. Your Account

The Your Account page has been removed. Please see the Account Details page at the main Red Hat site to manage this information.

6.3.2. Your Preferences

The Your Preferences page allows you to configure Red Hat Network options, including:
  • Email Notifications — Determine whether you want to receive email every time an Errata Alert is applicable to one or more systems in your RHN account.

    Important

    This setting also enables Management and Provisioning customers to receive a daily summary of system events. These include actions affecting packages, such as scheduled Errata Updates, system reboots, or failures to check in. In addition to selecting this checkbox, you must identify each system to be included in this summary email. (By default, all Management and Provisioning systems are included in the summary.) This can be done either individually through the System Details page or for multiple systems at once through the System Set Manager interface. Note that RHN sends these summaries only to verified email addresses. To disable all messages, simply deselect this checkbox.
  • RHN List Page Size — Maximum number of items that appear in a list on a single page. If more items are in the list, clicking the Next button displays the next group of items. This preference applies to system lists, Errata lists, package lists, and so on.
  • "Your RHN" Start Page — select the information areas that are displayed on the Your RHN Start Page. Check the box to the left of the information area you would like to include.
After making changes to any of these options, click the Save Preferences button in the bottom right-hand corner.

6.3.3. Locale Preferences

The Your RHNLocale Preferences page has been removed. Please see the Account Details page at the main Red Hat site to manage this information.

6.3.4. Subscription Management

To use all of the features of RHN, your systems must be entitled — subscribed to an RHN service level. Use the System Entitlements page to configure which systems are entitled to which service offerings. There are four primary types of entitlements:
  • Update — manages a single Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. It includes Errata Alerts, Scheduled Errata Updates, Package Installation, and the Red Hat Update Agent.
  • Management — manages multiple systems with multiple system administrators. In addition to the features of the Update offering, it includes system group management, user management, and the System Set Manager interface to quickly perform actions on multiple systems.
  • Provisioning — offers the highest level of functionality. It should be used to provision multiple systems that will need to be re-installed and reconfigured regularly. The Provisioning offering provides tools for kickstarting machines, managing their configuration files, conducting snapshot rollbacks, and inputting searchable custom system information, as well as all of the functionality included in the Management service level.
  • Monitoring — monitors the health of multiple systems. The Monitoring offering provides probes that watch system metrics and notify Administrators when changes occur. Such notifications alert Administrators to system performance degradation before it becomes critical.
  • Virtualization — applies to virtual host systems. Virtual hosts with this entitlement may register as many as four guest systems without violating RHN's Service Level Agreement. Guest systems may be subscribed to any channel with the virtualization-free channel group label without consuming channel entitlements. Subscribing a guest to any channel that does not belong to virtualization-free, such as a Directory Server or RHN Satellite channel, consumes an additional channel entitlement.
  • Virtualization Platform — also applies to virtual host systems. Host systems to which this entitlement apply may register an unlimited number of virtual guests without invalidating your Service Level Agreement. Guests of a host with this entitlement may subscribe to any channel that has the virtualization-platform-free content group label without consuming any channel entitlements. Subscribing a guest to any channel that does not belong to virtualization-platform-free, such as a Directory Server or RHN Satellite channel, consumes an additional channel entitlement.

Note

The two virtualization entitlements specifically apply to host systems.
Guest systems that exist on unregistered hosts are treated the same as any physical system — each guest consumes a channel and a system entitlement.

6.3.4.1. System Entitlements

The System Entitlements page allows you to view, add, and remove the entitlements for your registered systems. Red Hat Network 4.0 allows you to apply and remove entitlements at will, allowing you to adjust your Red Hat Network infrastructure as your organization grows and changes.
To change an individual base entitlement, select the checkbox to the left of the system, then click the button that corresponds to the entitlement you wish to add. For add-on entitlements, select the system's checkbox, followed by the desired entitlement from the drop-down box, and finally press the Add Entitlement button.
If clicking on an entitlement fails to update the information in the table, you may need to purchase additional entitlements. Check the number of available subscriptions, listed in bold below the table. Non-RHN Satellite Server customers may purchase more entitlements; click the Buy Now link at the left of the page to do so.
When an entitlement expires, the last system entitled to the same service level (such as Management) will be unentitled. For instance, if you have 10 Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS systems entitled to Management and either one of the RHN entitlements or one of the operating system subscriptions expire, the last system subscribed or entitled will have their subscription or entitlement removed.

6.3.4.2. Virtualization Entitlements

This page only appears if you have applied Virtualization or Virtualization Platform entitlements. It allows you to quickly assess whether you have used these entitlements in the most effective manner.
The first table on this page displays any Virtualization-entitled hosts that have more guest systems than are allowed in the Red Hat Network service level agreement. If you would like to upgrade these systems to any available Virtualization Platform entitlements, click the profile name of that system. This displays the System Details page for the system. Click the Edit Properties link on the page to edit that system's add-on entitlements.
The second table displays any Virtualization Platform-entitled hosts that have fewer than four guests. It may be advisable to to downgrade these systems' entitlements to the Virtualization entitlement. To do so, click the profile name of the system you would like to downgrade, then edit the add-on entitlements from the resulting System Details page.

6.3.4.3. Software Channel Entitlements

The software channels listed on this page are the subscription-based channels to which your organization has paid access. The table lists each of the supported operating systems that can be managed via RHN, the number of such systems you have registered with RHN, and finally the remaining number of entitlements for that operating system. Clicking on the name of the channel opens a page that displays information about the channels associated with that channel entitlement. Clicking on the number of entitled systems displays a list of the systems so entitled.

6.3.4.4. Purchase or Renew

This page is only visible to RHN Hosted customers.
As the title suggests, this page provides links to the main Red Hat site, from which you can renew or purchase entitlements. The Red Hat Renewal Center can renew both your Red Hat Enterprise Linux subscription and your Red Hat Network entitlements. The Red Hat Store can provide additional entitlements.

6.3.4.5. Expiration Dates &Purchase History

The Purchase History page provides a link to the main Red Hat site, where you can view your purchase history and the expiration dates for web and phone support, Red Hat Enterprise Linux subscriptions, and Red Hat Network software and service entitlements.

6.4. Systems

If you click the Systems tab on the top navigation bar, the Systems category and links appear. The pages in the Systems category allow you to select systems so that you can perform actions on them and create System Profiles.

6.4.1. Overview —

As shown in Figure 6.7, “Systems Overview”, the Overview page provides a summary of your systems, including their status, number of associated Errata and packages, and entitlement level. Clicking on the name of a system takes you to its System Details page. Refer to Section 6.4.2.9, “System Details” for more information.
Systems Overview

Figure 6.7. Systems Overview

Clicking the View System Groups link at the top of the Overview page takes you to a similar summary of your system groups. It identifies group status and displays the number of systems contained. Clicking on the number of systems takes you to the Systems tab of the System Group Details page, while clicking on the system name takes you to the Details tab for that system. Refer to Section 6.4.3.3, “System Group Details — for more information.
You can also click the Use Group button in the System Groups section of the Overview page to go directly to the System Set Manager. Refer to Section 6.4.4, “System Set Manager — for more information.

6.4.2. Systems

The Systems page displays a list of all of your registered systems. The Systems list contains several columns of information for each system:
  • Select — Update or unentitled systems cannot be selected. To select systems, mark the appropriate checkboxes. Selected systems are added to the System Set Manager. After adding systems to the System Set Manager, you can use it to perform actions on them simultaneously. Refer to Section 6.4.4, “System Set Manager — for details.
  • Status — Shows which type of Errata Alerts are applicable to the system or confirms that it is up-to-date. Some icons are linked to pages providing resolution. For instance, the standard Updates icon is linked to the Upgrade sub-tab of the packages list, while the Critical Updates icon links directly to the Update Confirmation page. Also, the Not Checking In icon is linked to instructions for resolving the issue.
    • — System is up-to-date
    • — Critical Errata available, update strongly recommended
    • — Updates available and recommended
    • — System is locked; Actions prohibited
    • — System is being kickstarted
    • — Updates have been scheduled
    • — System not checking in properly (for 24 hours or more)
    • — System not entitled to any update service
  • Errata — Total number of Errata Alerts applicable to the system.
  • Packages — Total number of package updates for the system. Includes packages from Errata Alerts as well as newer packages that are not from Errata Alerts. For example, imagine a client system that has an early version of a package installed. If this client is then subscribed to the appropriate base channel of RHN (such as Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4), that channel may have an updated version of the package. If so, the package appears in the list of available package updates.

    Important

    If the RHN website identifies package updates for the system, yet the Red Hat Update Agent responds with "Your system is fully updated" when run, a conflict likely exists in the system's package profile or in the up2date configuration file. To resolve the conflict, either schedule a package list update or remove the packages from the Package Exceptions list for the Red Hat Update Agent. Refer to Section 6.4.2.9, “System Details” or Section 2.4.1.3, “Package Exceptions Settings”, respectively, for instructions.
  • System — The name of the system as configured when registering it. The default name is the hostname of the system. Clicking on the name of a system takes you to the System Details page for the system. Refer to Section 6.4.2.9, “System Details” for more information.
  • Base Channel — The primary channel for the system, based upon its operating system distribution. Refer to Section 6.6.1, “Software Channels” for more information.
  • Entitlement — Whether or not the system is entitled and at what service level.
Links in the left navigation bar below Systems enable you to select and view predefined sets of your systems. All of the options described above can be applied within these pages.

6.4.2.1. All

The All page contains the default set of your systems. It displays every system you have permission to manage. A user has permission to manage a system if he is the only user in his organization, if he is an Organization Administrator, or if the system is a member of a group to which he has admin rights.

6.4.2.2. Virtual Systems

RHN can help you manage your virtual systems. RHN automatically recognizes whether a registered system is a virtual guest or host, and lists both types of systems here.
This page displays your virtual guest systems, grouped according to their host system. Hosts are indicated by the word Hosts: before the hostname of the system. Guests appear underneath thier host system, along with their status. The table displays whether the guests are running, stopped, or crashed, whether there are any errata available for them, and the base software channel to which they are sunscribed.
You can manage multiple guest systems by selecting the checkbox next to their hostname and one of the buttons at the bottom of the page. You can then press the Manage button at the top right of the screen to manage the systems using the System Set Manager.

Note

Red Hat Network does not support the migration of virtual systems from one host to another. It is possible that if a virtual guest is migrated from one RHN-registered host to another, the web interface will indicate that the guest exists on the wrong host.

6.4.2.3. Out of Date

The Out of Date page displays the systems that have applicable Errata Alerts that have not been applied.

6.4.2.4. Unentitled —

The Unentitled page displays the systems that have not yet been entitled for Red Hat Network service.

6.4.2.5. Ungrouped

The Ungrouped page displays the systems that have not yet been assigned to a specific system group.

6.4.2.6. Inactive

The Inactive page displays the systems that have not checked into RHN for 24 hours or more. When the Red Hat Update Agent connects to RHN to see if there are any updates available or if any actions have been scheduled, this is considered a checkin. If you are seeing a message indicating checkins are not taking place, the RHN client on your system is not successfully reaching Red Hat Network for some reason. This indicates:
  • The system is not entitled to any RHN service. System Profiles that remain unentitled for 180 days (6 months) are removed.
  • The system is entitled, but the Red Hat Network Daemon has been disabled on the system. Refer to Chapter 3, Red Hat Network Daemon for instructions on restarting and troubleshooting.
  • The system is behind a firewall that does not allow connections over https (port 443).
  • The system is behind an HTTP proxy server that has not been properly configured.
  • The system is connected to an RHN Proxy Server or RHN Satellite Server that has not been properly configured.
  • The system itself has not been properly configured, perhaps pointing at the wrong RHN Server.
  • The system is not on the network.
  • Some other barrier exists between the system and the RHN Servers.

6.4.2.7. Satellite

The Satellite page displays the RHN Satellite Server systems registered to your RHN account.

6.4.2.8. Proxy

The Proxy page displays the RHN Proxy Server systems registered to your RHN account.

6.4.2.9. System Details

Click on the name of a system on any page and RHN displays the System Details page for that client. From here, you may modify the displayed information or remove the system altogether by clicking the delete system link on the top-right corner.

Note

The delete system link in the upper right of this screen refers to the system profile only. Deleting a host system profile will not destroy or remove the registration of guest systems. Deleting a guest system profile does not remove it from the list of guests for its host, nor does it stop or pause the guest. It does, however, remove your ability to manage it via RHN.
If you mistakenly delete a system profile from RHN, you may re-register the system.
The System Details page is further divided into the following tabs:
  • Details
  • Software
  • Configuration
  • Provisioning —
  • Monitoring —
  • Groups
  • Events
The following sections discuss these tabs and their sub-tabs in detail.
6.4.2.9.1. System Details ⇒ Details
This page is not accessible from any of the standard navigation bars. However, clicking on the name of a system anywhere in the web interface brings you to this page. The default tab displayed on this page is the DetailsOverview sub-tab. Other tabs are available, depending on the current entitlement level of the system.
6.4.2.9.1.1. System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Overview
This system summary page displays the system status message and the following key information about the system:
System Info
System Status Message
This message indicates the current state of your system in relation to RHN.

Note

If updates are available for any entitled system, the message Critical updates available appears. To apply these updates, click the update now link.
Hostname
The hostname as defined by the client system. This information is often found in /etc/hostname for Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems.
Virtualization
If the system is a virtual guest, the type of virtualization used to create the guest is displayed here.
UUID
If the system is a virtual guest, the UUID of the guest system is displayed here.
IP Address
The IP address of the client.
Kernel
The kernel that is installed and operating on the client system.
RHN system ID
A unique identifier generated each time a system registers with RHN.

Note

The system ID can be used to eliminate duplicate profiles from RHN. Compare the system ID listed on this page with the information stored on the client system in the /etc/sysconfig/rhn/systemid file. In that file, the system's current ID is listed under "system_id". The value starts after the characters "ID-" If the value stored in the file does not match the value listed in the profile, the profile is not the most recent one and may be removed.
Locked
Indicates whether a system has been locked.
Actions cannot be scheduled for locked systems through the web interface until the lock is removed manually. This does not include preventing auto-errata updates scheduled through the web interface. To prevent the application of auto-errata updates, de-select Auto Errata Update from the System DetailsDetailsProperties sub-tab.
Locking a system can help to prevent you from accidentally making any changes to a system until you are ready to do so. For example, the system may be a production system that you do not wish to receive updates or new packages until you decide to unlock it.

Important

Locking a system in the web interface will not prevent any actions that originate from the client system. For example, if a user logs into the client directly and runs up2date, up2date will install available errata whether or not the system is locked in the web interface.
Further, locking a system does not restrict the number of users who can access the system via the web interface. If you wish to restrict access to the system, associate that system with a System Group and assign it a System Group Administrator. Refer to Section 6.4.3, “System Groups — for more information about System Groups.
It is also possible to lock multiple systems via the System Set Manager. Refer to Section 6.4.4.11.4, “System Set Manager ⇒ Misc ⇒ Lock Systems — to learn how to do so.
— OSA status is also displayed for client systems registered to a Satellite that have a Provisioning entitlement and have enabled OSA.
Push enables Satellite customers to immediately initiate tasks on Provisioning-entitled system rather than wait for those systems to check in with RHN. Scheduling actions through push is identical to the process of scheduling any other action, except that the task begins immediately instead of waiting the set interval.
In addition to the configuration of the Satellite, each client system to receive pushed actions must have the osad package installed and its service started. Refer to the Enabling Push to Clients section of the RHN Satellite Server 5.0.0 Installation Guide for details.
Subscribed Channels
Base Channel
The first line indicates the base channel to which this client is subscribed. The base channel should match the operating system of the system.
Child Channels
The subsequent lines of text, which depend from the base channel, are child channels. Examples are the Red Hat Network Tools channel and the RHEL AS Extras channel.

Note

The final link under Subscribed Channels is the Alter Channel subscriptions link. Click on this link to select from the available base and child channels for this system. When finished making selections, click the Change Subscriptions button to confirm the changes.
System Events
Checked In
The date and time at which the system last checked in with RHN.
Registered
The date and time at which the system registered with RHN and created this profile.
Last Booted
The date and time at which the system was last started or restarted.

Note

Systems with a Management entitlement can be rebooted from this screen.
  • Select Schedule system reboot
  • Provide the earliest date and time at which the reboot may take place.
  • Click the Schedule Reboot button in the lower right.
When the client checks in after the scheduled start time, RHN will instruct the system to restart itself.
System Properties
Entitlements
A list of the base and add-on entitlements applied to this system. Virtual hosts should have the Virtualization or Virtualization Platform entitlement; guest systems should not.

Note

Base and add-on entitlements are inherited by guest systems from the host system. If you change the entitlements of the host, those of the guest change accordingly.
Notifications
Indicates the the notification options for this system. You can choose whether you wish to receive email notifying you of available errata updates for this system. In addition, you may choose to include Management-entitled systems in the daily summary email.
Auto Errata Update
Indicates whether this system is configured to accept updates automatically.
System Name
This editable name for the system profile is set to the system's hostname by default. It serves to distinguish this system profile from others.
Description
This information is automatically generated at registration. You can edit this to include any information you wish.
Location
If entered, this field displays the physical address of the system.
The final link on the page is Edit these properties. Clicking this link opens the System DetailsProperties sub-tab. On this page, edit any text you choose, then click the Update Properties button to confirm.

Important

When you apply a virtualtization or virtualization platform entitlement to a system, RHN automatically schedules additional tasks in order to be certain your system is fully prepared.
  1. The system is subscribed to the RHEL Virtualization (v.5) child channel that is appropriate to that system's architecture.
  2. The system is subscribed to the Red Hat Network Tools for RHEL Server (v.5) child channel that is appropriate to that system's architecture.
  3. A package install is scheduled for the rhn-virtualization-host package. The installation takes place the next time the system checks in with RHN.
6.4.2.9.1.2. System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Properties
This sub-tab allows you to alter the following basic properties of your system:
Profile Name
By default, this is the hostname of the system. You can however alter the profile name to anything that allows you to distinguish this profile from others.
Base Entitlement
Select a base channel for the system from the available base entitlements.
Add-on entitlements
If available, apply a Monitoring or Provisioning entitlement to the system.
Notifications
Toggle whether notifications about this system are sent and whether this system is included in the daily summary. (By default, all Management and Provisioning systems are included in the summary.) This setting keeps you abreast of all advisories pertaining to the system. Anytime an update is produced and released for the system, a notification is sent via email.
The daily summary reports system events that affect packages, such as scheduled Errata Updates, system reboots, or failures to check in. In addition to including the system here, you must choose to receive email notification sin the Your Preferences page of the Your RHN category.
Auto-errata update
If this box is checked, available errata are automatically applied to the system when it checks in. This action takes place without user intervention. Customers should note that Red Hat does not recommend the use of the auto-update feature for production systems because conflicts between packages and environments can cause system failures. The Red Hat Network Daemon must be enabled on the system for this feature to work.
Description
By default, this text box records the operating system, release, and architecture of the system when it first registers. You may edit this information to include anything you like.
The remaining fields record the physical address at which the system is stored. To confirm any changes to these fields, click the Update Properties button.

Note

Many of these properties can be set for multiple systems at once through the System Set Manager interface. Refer to Section 6.4.4, “System Set Manager — for details.
6.4.2.9.1.3. System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Remote Command —
This sub-tab allows you to run a remote command on the system if the system possesses a Provisioning entitlement. Before doing so, you must first configure the system to accept such commands.
  • First, subscribe the system to the RHN Tools channel and use up2date to install the rhncfg, rhncfg-client, and rhncfg-actions packages.
     up2date rhncfg rhncfg-client rhncfg-actions 
  • Log into the system as root and add the following file to the local RHN configuration directory: allowed-actions/scripts/run.
    • Create the necessary directory on the target system:
       mkdir -p /etc/sysconfig/rhn/allowed-actions/script 
    • Create an empty run file in that directory to act as a flag to RHN signaling permission to allow remote commands:
       touch /etc/sysconfig/rhn/allowed-actions/script/run 
Once the setup is complete, refresh the page in order to view the text fields for remote commands. You may then identify a specific user, group, and timeout period, as well as the script itself on this page. Select a date and time to begin attempting the command, and click Schedule Remote Command.
6.4.2.9.1.4. System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Reactivation —
An activation key specific to this System Profile. Reactivation keys, available only for systems that have a Provisioning entitlement, include this system's ID, history, groups, and channels. This key can then be used only once with the rhnreg_ks command line utility to re-register this system and regain all Red Hat Network settings. Refer to Section 2.5, “Registering with Activation Keys” for instructions. Unlike typical activation keys, which are not associated with a specific system ID, keys created here do not show up within the Activation Keys page.

Warning

When kickstarting a system with its existing RHN profile, the kickstart profile uses the system-specific activation key created here to re-register the system and return its other RHN settings. For this reason, you should not regenerate, delete, or use this key (with rhnreg_ks) while a profile-based kickstart is in progress. If you do, the kickstart will fail.
6.4.2.9.1.5. System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Hardware
This sub-tab provides detailed information about the system, including networking, BIOS, storage, and other devices. This appears only if you selected to include the hardware profile for this machine during registration. If the hardware profile looks incomplete or outdated, click the Schedule Hardware Refresh button to schedule a Hardware Profile update for your system. The next time the RHN Daemon connects to RHN, it will update your System Profile with the latest list of hardware.
6.4.2.9.1.6. System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Notes
This sub-tab provides a place to create notes about the system. To add a new note, click the create new note link, type a subject and details, and click the Create button. To modify a note, click on its subject in the list of notes, make your changes, and click the Update button. To remove a note, click on its subject in the list of notes and then click the delete note link.
6.4.2.9.1.7. System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Custom Info —
This sub-tab, available for systems with a Provisioning entitlement, provides completely customizable information about the system. Unlike Notes, Custom Info is structured, formalized, and can be searched upon. Before you can provide custom information about a system, you must first have Custom Information Keys. This is done via the Custom System Info page, available from the left navigation bar. Refer to Section 6.4.8, “Custom System Info — for instructions.
Once you have created one or more Keys, you may assign a value for this system by select the create new value link. Click the name of the key in the resulting list and enter a value for it in the Description field, then click the Update Key button.
6.4.2.9.1.8. System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Proxy
Activates an RHN Proxy Server. This tab is only available for Provisioning-entitled systems. Select a version of RHN Proxy Server and click the Activate Proxy button to begin the installation and activation process. For detailed information, refer to the RHN Proxy Server Guide and the Client Configuration Guide.
6.4.2.9.1.9. System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Satellite
Displays the certificate of an active Red Hat Network. You can deactivate an old certificate here and upload a new one if necessary. This tab requires a Provisioning entitlement. For detailed information on activating a Satellite, refer to the RHN Satellite Installation Guide.
6.4.2.9.2. System Details ⇒ Software
This tab and its accompanying sub-tabs allow you to manage the software of the system: errata, packages and package profiles, and software channel memberships.
6.4.2.9.2.1. System Details ⇒ Software ⇒ Errata
This sub-tab contains a list of Errata Alerts applicable to the system. Refer to Section 6.1.3, “Errata Alert Icons” for meanings of the icons on this tab. To apply updates, select them and click the Apply Errata button. Double-check the updates to be applied on the confirmation page, then click the Confirm button. After confirming, the action is added to the Pending Actions list under Schedule. Errata that have been scheduled cannot be selected for update. In the place of a checkbox is a clock icon that, when clicked, takes you to the Action Details page.
To help users determine whether an update has been scheduled, a Status column exists within the Errata table. Possible values are: None, Pending, Picked Up, Completed, and Failed. This column identifies only the latest action related to an Erratum. For instance, if an action fails and you reschedule it, this column shows the status of the Erratum as Pending only (with no mention of the previous failure). Clicking a status other than None takes you to the Action Details page. This column corresponds to the one on the Affected Systems tab of the Errata Details page.
6.4.2.9.2.2. System Details ⇒ Software ⇒ Packages
This sub-tab allows you to manage the packages on the system.
— When selecting packages to install, upgrade, or remove, Provisioning customers have the option of running a remote command automatically before or after the package installation. Refer to Section 6.4.2.9.1.3, “System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Remote Command — for more information.
Packages
The default display of the Packages tab describes the options available to you and provides the means to update your package list. To update or complete a potentially outdated list, possibly due to the manual installation of packages, click the Update Package List button on the bottom right-hand corner of this page. The next time the RHN Daemon connects to RHN, it updates your System Profile with the latest list of installed packages.
List/Remove
Lists installed packages from the system's software System Profile and enables you to remove them. Click on a package name to view its Package Details page. To delete packages from the system, select their checkboxes and click the Remove Packages button on the bottom right-hand corner of the page. A confirmation page appears with the packages listed. Click the Confirm button to remove the packages.
Upgrade
Displays a list of packages that have a new version available based on the package versions in the channels for the system. Click on the latest package name to view its Package Details page. To upgrade packages immediately, select them and click the Upgrade Packages button. To download the packages as a .tar file, select them and click the Download Packages button.
Install
Enables you to install new packages on the system from the available channels. Click on the package name to view its Package Details page. To install packages, select them and click the Install Selected Packages button.
Verify
Validates the packages installed on the system against its RPM database. This is the equivalent of running rpm -V. Specifically, this tab allows you to compare the metadata of the system's packages with information from the database, such as MD5 sum, file size, permissions, owner, group and type. To verify a package or packages, select them, click the Verify Selected Packages button, and confirm this action. Once finished, you can view the results by selecting this action within the History sub-tab under Events.
Profiles
Gives you the ability to compare the packages on this system with the packages of stored profiles and other Management and Provisioning systems. To make the comparison with a stored profile, select that profile from the pulldown menu and click the Compare button. To make the comparison with another system, select it from the associated pulldown menu and click the Compare button. To create a stored profile based upon the existing system, click the Create System Profile button, enter any additional information you desire, and click the Create Profile button. These profiles are kept within the Stored Profiles page linked from the left navigation bar.
— Once package profiles have been compared, Provisioning customers have the ability to synchronize the packages of the selected system with the package manifest of the compared profile. Note that this action may delete packages on the system not in the profile, as well as install packages from the profile. To install specific packages, select the checkboxes of packages from the profile. To remove specific packages already installed on the system itself, select the checkboxes of packages showing a difference of This system only. To synchronize fully the system's packages with the compared profile, select the master checkbox at the top of the column. Then click the Sync Packages to button. On the confirmation screen, review the changes, select a time frame for the action, and click the Schedule Sync button.
6.4.2.9.2.3. System Details ⇒ Software ⇒ Software Channels
Software channels provide a well-defined method to determine which packages should be available to a system for installation or upgrade based upon its operating systems, packages, and functionality.

Note

Subscribing a virtual guest to a base or child channel does not generally consume a channel entitlement. However, there are two cases in which they do:
  1. Subscribing a guest to a layered product channel, such as Red Hat Directory Server, consumes a channel entitlement.
  2. If a guest is the fifth or later guest on a host that has a Virtualization entitlement, channel subscriptions are not consumed - however, it is important to note that this violates your organization's Service Level Agreement.
Click a channel name to view its Channel Details page. To modify the child channels associated with this system, use the checkboxes next to the channels and click the Change Subscriptions button. You will receive a success message or be notified of any errors. To change the system's base channel, select the new one from the pulldown menu and click the Modify Base Channel button. Refer to Section 6.6.1, “Software Channels” for more information.
6.4.2.9.3. System Details ⇒ Configuration —
This tab and its sub-tabs, which do not appear without a Provisioning entitlement, assist in managing the configuration files associated with the system. These configuration files may be managed solely for the current system, or may be distributed widely via a Configuration Channel. The following section describe these and other available options on the System DetailsConfiguration sub-tabs.
Like software channels, configuration channels store files to be installed on systems. While software updates are provided by RHN, configuration files are managed solely by you. Also unlike software packages, various versions of configuration files may prove useful to a system at any given time. However, only the latest version can be deployed.
You should understand the difference between local and centrally-managed configuration files. Local configuration files are specific to a single system, and are managed through the System DetailsConfiguration sub-tab. They always take precedence over centrally-managed configuration files and are also referred to as override configuration files as a result. Centrally-managed configuration files are also referred to as global files. They exist in a channel to which multiple systems may be subscribed. They are managed from the Configuration tab on the top navigation bar.
6.4.2.9.3.1. System Details ⇒ Configuration ⇒ Overview
This sub-tab provides access to the configuration statistics of your system and to the most common tasks used to manage configuration files. It is made up of three panels: Configuration Overview, Recent Events, and Configuration Actions.
Configuration Overview
This panel provides information about the numbers and types of configuration files that apply to this system. For centrally-managed files, the total number of central files and the number of files that are not overridden by local files are listed. The number of central (global) channels to which the system is subscribed is also displayed.
Recent Events
Recently scheduled configuration events appear here, along with their status. You can see the results of recent file comparisons by clicking the blue [View Details] link.
Configuration Actions
Any configuration actions scheduled from this page apply to this system only.
Deploy Files
Selecting one of the Deploy Files links allows you to deploy any of the configuration files to which this system has access. In each case, RHN allows you to select the time at which the deployment occurs. (Note that the deployed files will always be the latest revisions.) Press the Schedule Deploy button to confirm the action.
Compare Files
The Compare Files actions issue a diff command between the files stored with RHN and those on the system in question. As with deployed files, the files that are compared are the latests revisions only. Select the time at which the comparison should take place, then press the Schedule Compare button to confirm the action.
Add/Create Files
The Add/Create Files actions allow you to place files in the Sandbox channel for this system by either uploading a file, importing a file from another channel, or creating a file from scratch. A configuration file that is in a system's Sandbox channel is considered to be experimental or potentially unstable. Without intervention, a Sandbox file cannot be deployed to any system. This is to prevent accidental deployment of the file.

Note

If you wish to deploy and test a Sandbox file, you must first copy it to another channel. You can copy the file to the local (override) channel by selecting the Copy Latest to System Config Channel button, or to a central configuration channel using the Copy Latest to Central Config Channell button. Select the channels into which you want to import it, then selectg the Copy To Central Channel button.
The file is not deleted from the Sandbox when you copy it to another channel. When you copy a configuration file to other channels, you store multiple copies of the file. You can delete Sandbox files by selecting the box next to the file and then pressing the Delete Files button. This action only deletes the file from the Sandbox, not from any other channels.
6.4.2.9.3.2. System Details ⇒ Configuration ⇒ View/Modify Files
Via this page and its sub-tabs, you can view and modify files already in the configuration channels to which this system is subscribed. You can copy files from one channel to another, view the files, or compare the file stored via RHN with the file currently deployed to the system. Each of the types of configuration files is listed on a separate sub-tab, described below:
Centrally-Managed Files
From this page, you can examine the centrally-managed configuration files that apply to this system. If the are overridden by a local file, the Overridden By column displays the revision number of the local file that overrides it. This makes it easy to see if the local file is an older version of a configuration file, or if perhaps it has custom options.
You can choose to view the contents of each file, compare it to the file that exists on the system ,or view the contents of the channel form which if comes. You can also import a copy of the centrally-managed file to the local override channel or to the local Sandbox by selecting the file and pressing the appropriate button in the lower right.
Locally-Managed Files
This list is similar in layout to the Central and Local tables described above. You can copy files from the Sandbox to the Local Override channel or to a Centrally-Managed configuration channel by pressing the appropriate button in the lower right.
Local Sandbox
If this configuration file overrides another, the overridden file is listed in this column along with its host channel.
6.4.2.9.3.3. System Details ⇒ Configuration ⇒ Add Files
You can add files to the local Sandbox channel via one of three methods: upload files from your system, import files from another configuration channel, or create a file from scratch. You can only add them to the Sandbox. If you wish to place them in the local override channel (which allows you to deploy the file to this system), or to a central configuration channel, you can do so from the System DetailsConfigurationView/Modify Files tab described above.
The Add Files sub-tab has three sub-tabs of its own, which allow you to Upload, Import, or Create configuration files to be included in the channel.
Upload File
To upload a file into the configuration channel, browse for the file on your local system, populate all fields, and click the Upload Configuration File button. The Filename/Path field is the absolute path where the file will be deployed. You can also indicate the ownership and permissions to be attached to the file when it is deployed. Finally, if the configuration file includes a macro, enter the symbol that marks the beginning and end of the macro.
Import Files
From this page you can import files from the system by entering the absolute path to any desired files in the Import New Files text box. You can also import files from other configuration channels. Check the box to the left of any file you wish to import and press the Import Configuration File(s) button.
Create File
From this page you can create a configuration file from scratch to be included in the configuration channel. Indicate the absolute path along which the file should be deployed, enter the ownership and permissions for the file, and enter the configuration file content in the appropriate fields. Finally, press the Create Configuration File button to create the new file.
6.4.2.9.3.4. System Details ⇒ Configuration ⇒ Deploy Files
This page lists the files that may be deployed to this system. If includes files from central configuration channels and local override channels. You may select to deploy one or all of the listed files by selecting the box to the left of the file and pressing the Deploy Files button.

Note

This action deploys configuration files to this system only. If you wish to deploy configuration files to a group of systems, use the System Set Manager to do so.
6.4.2.9.3.5. System Details ⇒ Configuration ⇒ Compare Files
This page allows you to select files to compare to the files that currently exist on this system. Select the box to the left of the desired files, press thee Compare Files button, choose a time to run the comparison, and finally press the Schedule Compare button to run the comparison on this system.
6.4.2.9.3.6. System Details ⇒ Configuration ⇒ Manage Configuration Channels
The three sub-tabs on this page allow you to alter the system's subscription to centrally-managed channels and to alter the precedence each channel takes for this system.
List/Unsubscribe from Channels
This page displays the various centrally-managed configuration channels to which the system is subscribed. You can choose to unsubscribe from any listed channels by selecting the box to the left of the channel and pressing the Unsubscribe button.
Subscribe to Channels
This page displays all centrally-managed configuration channels. Those channels to which the system is subscribed are marked with a check. You can subscribe the system to additional channels by checking the box to the left of them and pressing the Continue button.
View/Modify Rankings
It is possible for different global configuration channels to contain different versions of the same file. If a system is subscribed to two or more such channels, it is necessary to know which of the files will be deployed to the system. This is accomplished through ranking. On this page, you can select which of the centrally-managed configuration channels has the highest precedence. (Remember, however, that local overrides always take the very highest priority.) On this page, the various channels to which the system is subscribed are displayed. The channel that is highest on the list has the highest priority; a file contained in this channel will be deployed rather than a similar file in any other global channel. To re-order the channels, highlight the name of the channel you wish to move, then use the up and down arrows to reposition it. When finished, press the Update button to make the changes permanent.
6.4.2.9.4. System Details ⇒ Provisioning —
This tab and its sub-tabs allow you to schedule and monitor kickstarts and to return your system to a previous state. Kickstart is a Red Hat utility that allows you to automate the reinstallation of a system. Snapshots keep a record of every change to a Provisioning system and allow you to "undo" those changes at will. Both features are described in the sections that follow.
6.4.2.9.4.1. System Details ⇒ Provisioning ⇒ Kickstart —
This sub-tab is further divided into Session Status, which tracks the progress of previously scheduled kickstarts, and Schedule, which allows you to configure and schedule a kickstart for this system.
Schedule
This sub-tab allows you to schedule the selected system for kickstart. Choose from the list of available kickstart profiles, select a time for the kickstart to begin, and click the Schedule Kickstart and Finish button to begin the kickstart. You may first alter kickstart settings by clicking the Advanced Configuration button.

Note

You must first create a kickstart profile before it appears on this sub-tab. If you have not created any profiles, refer to Section 6.4.9.3, “Create a New Kickstart Profile” before scheduling a kickstart for a system.
Session Status
If you have scheduled a kickstart, this sub-tab shows the progress of the kickstart. The provided details include the kickstart profile used, its state, the next action and the number of requested packages. Kickstarts that do not complete within approximately two hours are marked Kickstart Failed. The page refreshes itself periodically, or you can force a refresh using your browser's controls.
6.4.2.9.4.2. System Details ⇒ Provisioning ⇒ Snapshots —
Snapshots enable you to roll back the system's package profile, configuration files, and RHN settings. Snapshots are captured whenever an action takes place on a Provisioning-entitled system. The Snapshots sub-tab lists all snapshots for the system , including the reason the snapshot was taken, the time it was taken, and the number of tags applied to each snapshot. To revert to a previous configuration, click the Reason of the snapshot taken and review the potential changes on the provided sub-tabs, starting with Rollback.
Each sub-tab provides the specific changes that will be made to the system during the rollback:
  • group memberships
  • channel subscriptions
  • installed packages
  • configuration channel subscriptions
  • configuration files
  • snapshot tags
When satisfied with the reversion, return to the Rollback sub-tab and click the Rollback to Snapshot button. To see the list again, click Return to snapshot list.
6.4.2.9.4.3. System Details ⇒ Provisioning ⇒ Snapshot Tags —
Provides a means to add meaningful descriptions to your most recent system snapshot. This can be used to indicate milestones, such as a known working configuration or a successful upgrade. To tag the most recent snapshot, click create new system tag, enter a descriptive term in the Tag name field, and click the Tag Current Snapshot button. You may then revert using this tag directly by clicking its name in the Snapshot Tags list. To delete tags, select their checkboxes, click Remove Tags, and confirm the action.
6.4.2.9.5. System Details ⇒ Monitoring —
This tab is only visible for systems registered to a RHN Satellite Server with Monitoring enabled and that are Monitoring entitled. It displays all of the probes monitoring the system. The State column shows icons representing the status of each probe. Refer to Section 6.10, “Monitoring — for descriptions of these states. Clicking the Probe Description takes you to its Current State page. The Status String column displays the last message received from the probe.
To add a probe to the system, click the create new probe link at the top-right corner of the page and complete the fields on the following page. Refer to Section 7.5.1, “Managing Probes” for detailed instructions.
Once the probe has been added, you must reconfigure your Monitoring infrastructure to recognize it. Refer to Section 6.10.4, “Scout Config Push — for details. After the probe has run, its results become available on the Current State page. Refer to Section 6.10.1.7, “Current State — for details.
To remove a probe from a system, click on the name of the probe, then click the delete probe link in the upper right corner. Finally, click the Delete Probe button to complete the process.
6.4.2.9.6. System Details ⇒ Groups —
This tab and its sub-tabs allow you to manage the system's group memberships.
6.4.2.9.6.1. System Details ⇒ Groups ⇒ List/Leave —
This sub-tab lists groups to which the system belongs and enables you to cancel those associations. Only System Group Administrators and Organization Administrators can remove the system from groups. Non-admins just see a Review this system's group membership page. To remove the system from groups, select the groups' checkboxes and click the Leave Selected Groups button. Click on a group's name to go to its System Group Details page. Refer to Section 6.4.3.3, “System Group Details — for more information.
6.4.2.9.6.2. System Details ⇒ Groups ⇒ Join —
Lists groups that the system may be subscribed to. Only System Group Administrators and Organization Administrators can add the system to groups. Non-admins see a Review this system's group membership page. To add the system to groups, select the groups' checkboxes and click the Join Selected Groups button.
6.4.2.9.7. System Details ⇒ Events
Displays past, current, and scheduled actions on the system. You may cancel pending events here. The following sections describe the Events sub-tabs and the features they offer.
6.4.2.9.7.1. System Details ⇒ Events ⇒ Pending
Lists events that are scheduled but have not begun. A prerequisite action must complete successfully before a given action is attempted. If an action has a prerequisite, no checkbox is available to cancel that action. Instead, a checkbox appears next to the prerequisite action; canceling the prerequisite action causes the action in question to fail.
Actions can be chained in this manner so that action 'a' requires action 'b' which requires action 'c'. Action 'c' is the first one attempted and has a checkbox next to it until it is completed successfully - if any action in the chain fails, the remaining actions also fail. To unschedule a pending event, select the event and click the Cancel Events button at the bottom of the page. The following icons indicate the type of events listed here:
  • — Package Event
  • — Errata Event
  • — Preferences Event
  • — System Event
6.4.2.9.7.2. System Details ⇒ Events ⇒ History
The default display of the Events tab lists the type and status of events that have failed, occurred or are occurring. To view details of an event, click its summary in the System History list. To again view the table, click Return to history list at the bottom of the page.

6.4.3. System Groups —

The System Groups page allows all RHN Management and Provisioning users to view the System Groups list. Only System Group Administrators and Organization Administrators may perform the following additional tasks:
  1. Create system groups. (Refer to Section 6.4.3.1, “Creating Groups”.)
  2. Add systems to system groups. (Refer to Section 6.4.3.2, “Adding and Removing Systems in Groups”.)
  3. Remove systems from system groups. (Refer to Section 6.4.2.9, “System Details”.)
  4. Assign system group permissions to users. (Refer to Section 6.9, “Users — .)
As shown in Figure 6.8, “System Group List”, The System Groups list displays all of your system groups.
System Group List

Figure 6.8. System Group List

The System Groups list contains several columns for each group:
  • Select — These checkboxes enable you to add systems in groups to the System Set Manager. To select groups, mark the appropriate checkboxes and click the Update button below the column. All systems in the selected groups are added to the System Set Manager. You can then use the System Set Manager to perform actions on them simultaneously. It is possible to select only those systems that are members of all of the selected groups, excluding those systems that belong only to one or some of the selected groups. To do so, select them and click the Work with Intersection button. To add all systems in all selected groups, select them and click the Work with Union button. Each system will show up once, regardless of the number of groups to which it belongs. Refer to Section 6.4.4, “System Set Manager — for details.
  • Status — Shows which type of Errata Alerts are applicable to the group or confirms that it is up-to-date. Clicking on a group's status icon takes you to the Errata tab of its System Group Details page. Refer to Section 6.4.3.3, “System Group Details — for more information.
    The status icons call for differing degrees of attention:
    • — All systems within group are up-to-date
    • — Critical Errata available, update strongly recommended
    • — Updates available and recommended
  • Group Name — The name of the group as configured during its creation. The name should be explicit enough to easily differentiate between it and other groups. Clicking on the name of a group takes you to Details tab of its System Group Details page. Refer to Section 6.4.3.3, “System Group Details — for more information.
  • Systems — Total number of systems contained by the group. Clicking on the number takes you to the Systems tab of the System Group Details page for the group. Refer to Section 6.4.3.3, “System Group Details — for more information.
  • Use in SSM — Clicking the Use Group button in this column loads the group from that row and launches the System Set Manager immediately. Refer to Section 6.4.4, “System Set Manager — for more information.

6.4.3.1. Creating Groups

To add a new system group, click the create new group button at the top-right corner of the page. Type a name and description and click the Create Group button. Make sure you use a name that clearly sets this group apart from others. The new group will appear in the System Groups list.

6.4.3.2. Adding and Removing Systems in Groups

Systems can be added and removed from system groups in two places: the Target Systems tab of the System Group Details page and the Groups tab of the System Details page. The process is similar in both instances. Select the systems to be added or removed and click the Add Systems or Remove Systems button.

6.4.3.3. System Group Details —

At the top of each System Group Details page are two links: work with group and delete group. Clicking delete group deletes the System Group and should be used with caution. Clicking Work with Group functions similarly to the Use Group button from the System Groups list in that it loads the group's systems and launches the System Set Manager immediately. Refer to Section 6.4.4, “System Set Manager — for more information.
The System Group Details page is broken down into tabs:
6.4.3.3.1. System Group Details ⇒ Details —
Provides the group name and group description. To change this information, click Edit Group Properties, make your changes in the appropriate fields, and click the Modify Details button.
6.4.3.3.2. System Group Details ⇒ Systems —
Lists systems that are members of the system group. Clicking links within the table takes you to corresponding tabs within the System Details page for the associated system. To remove systems from the group, select the appropriate checkboxes and click the Remove from group button on the bottom of the page. Clicking it does not delete systems from RHN entirely. This is done through the System Set Manager or System Details pages. Refer to Section 6.4.4, “System Set Manager — or Section 6.4.2.9, “System Details”, respectively.
6.4.3.3.3. System Group Details ⇒ Target Systems —
Target Systems — Lists all systems in your organization. This tab enables you to add systems to the specified system group. Select the systems using the checkboxes to the left and click the Add Systems button on the bottom right-hand corner of the page.
6.4.3.3.4. System Group Details ⇒ Errata —
List of relevant Errata for systems in the system group. Clicking the Advisory takes you to the Details tab of the Errata Details page. (Refer to Section 6.5.2.2, “Errata Details” for more information.) Clicking the Affected Systems number lists all of the systems addressed by the Errata. To apply the Errata Updates in this list, select the systems and click the Apply Errata button.
6.4.3.3.5. System Group Details ⇒ Admins —
List of all organization users that have the ability to manage the system group. Organization Administrators are clearly identified. System Group Administrators are marked with an asterisk (*). To change the system group's users, select and unselect the appropriate checkboxes and click the Update button.

6.4.4. System Set Manager —

Many actions performed for individual systems through the System Details page may be performed for multiple systems via the System Set Manager, including:
  • Apply Errata updates
  • Upgrade packages to the most recent versions available
  • Add/remove systems to/from system groups
  • Subscribe/unsubscribe systems to/from channels
  • Update system profiles
  • Modify system preferences such as scheduled download and installation of packages
  • Kickstart several Provisioning-entitled systems at once
  • Set the subscription and rank of configuration channels for Provisioning-entitled systems
  • Tag the most recent snapshots of your selected Provisioning-entitled systems
  • Revert Provisioning-entitled systems to previous snapshots
  • Run remote commands on Provisioning-entitled systems
Before performing actions on multiple systems, select the systems you wish to modify. To do so, click the List the systems link, check the boxes to the left of the systems you wish to select, and click the Update List button.
You can access the System Set Manager in three ways:
  1. Click the System Set Manager link in the left gray navigation area.
  2. Click the Use Group button in the System Groups list.
  3. Check the Work with Group link on the System Group Details page.

6.4.4.1. System Set Manager ⇒ Overview —

Description of the various options available to you in the remaining tabs.

6.4.4.2. System Set Manager ⇒ Systems —

List of systems now selected. To remove systems from this set, select them and click the Remove button.

6.4.4.3. System Set Manager ⇒ Errata —

List of Errata Updates applicable to the current system set. Click the number in the Systems column to see to which systems in the System Set Manager the given Errata applies. To apply updates, select the Errata and click the Apply Errata button.

6.4.4.4. System Set Manager ⇒ Packages —

Options to modify packages on the system within the following sub-tabs (Click the number in the Systems column to see to which systems in the System Set Manager the given package applies):
— When selecting packages to install, upgrade, or remove, Provisioning customers have the option of running a remote command automatically before or after the package installation. Refer to Section 6.4.2.9.1.3, “System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Remote Command — for more information.
6.4.4.4.1. System Set Manager ⇒ Packages ⇒ Upgrade —
A list of all the packages installed on the selected systems that might be upgraded. Systems must be subscribed to a channel providing the package for the system to be able to upgrade the package. If multiple versions of a package appear, note that only the latest version available to each system is upgraded on that system. Select the packages to be upgraded, then click the Upgrade Packages button.
6.4.4.4.2. System Set Manager ⇒ Packages ⇒ Install —
A list of channels from which you may retrieve packages. This list includes all channels to which systems in the set are subscribed; a package is installed on a system only if the system is subscribed to the channel from which the package originates. Click on the channel name and select the packages from the list. Then click the Install Packages button.
6.4.4.4.3. System Set Manager ⇒ Packages ⇒ Remove —
A list of all the packages installed on the selected systems that might be removed. Multiple versions appear if systems in the System Set Manager have more than one version installed. Select the packages to be deleted, then click the Remove Packages button.

6.4.4.5. System Set Manager ⇒ Patches

Tools to manage patches to Solaris clients. Patches may be installed or removed via the sub-tabs.

6.4.4.6. System Set Manager ⇒ Patch Clusters

Tools to manage patch clusters for Solaris clients. Patches may be installed or removed via the sub-tabs.

6.4.4.7. System Set Manager ⇒ Groups —

Tools to create groups and manage group membership. These functions are limited to Organization Administrators and System Group Administrators. To add a new group, click create new group on the top-right corner. In the resulting page, type its name and description in the identified fields and click the Create Group button. To add or remove the selected systems in any of the system groups, toggle the appropriate radio buttons and click the Alter Membership button.

6.4.4.8. System Set Manager ⇒ Channels —

Options to manage channel associations through the following sub-tabs:
6.4.4.8.1. System Set Manager ⇒ Channels ⇒ Channel Subscriptions —
To subscribe or unsubscribe the selected systems in any of the channels, toggle the appropriate radio buttons and click the Alter Subscriptions button. Keep in mind that subscribing to a channel uses a channel entitlement for each system in the selected group. If too few entitlements are available, some systems fail to subscribe. Systems must subscribe to a base channel before subscribing to a child channel.
6.4.4.8.2. System Set Manager ⇒ Channels ⇒ Config Channels —
Channel Administrators may change the base channels to which the selected systems are subscribed via this sub-tab. The default Red Hat base channel selection in the pulldown menu subscribes the system to whichever Red Hat-provided base channel represents the operating system installed on the system. Systems are unsubscribed from all channels and subscribed to the new base channels. For this reason, this should be done with caution. Select the new base channel from the pulldown menus and click the Change Base Channels button.

6.4.4.9. System Set Manager ⇒ Channels ⇒ Config Channels —

Like the options within the System Details ⇒ Channels ⇒ Configuration tab, the sub-tabs here can be used to subscribe the selected systems to configuration channels and deploy and compare the configuration files on the systems. The channels are created on the ConfigurationConfiguration Channels page, by clicking the create new config channel link in the upper right.
The interface behaves very similarly to that of the Configuration tab. The System Set Manager ⇒ Configuration sub-tab is itself comprised of several sub-tabs, each of which is described below:
6.4.4.9.1. System Set Manager ⇒ Channels ⇒ Config Channels ⇒ Deploy —
Use this sub-tab to distribute configuration files from your central repository on RHN to each of the selected systems. The table lists the configuration files associated with any of the selected systems. Clicking its system count displays the systems already subscribed to the file.
To deploy the latest version of any of the listed files, check the box to the left of the Filename and press the Schedule File Deploy button. Next, select a time for the deployment to occur, and finally press the Confirm File Deploy button.
6.4.4.9.2. System Set Manager ⇒ Channels ⇒ Config Channels ⇒ Compare Files —
Use this sub-tab to compare configuration files on the selected systems against copies in your central repository on RHN. The table lists the configuration files associated with any of the selected systems. Clicking its system count displays the systems already subscribed to the file.
To compare the configuration files deployed on the systems with those in RHN, select the checkbox for each file to be compared. Then click Schedule File Comparison and schedule the action. Note that the files compared are of the latest version at the time of scheduling and do not account for versions that may appear before the action takes place. Find the results within the main Schedule category or within the System Details ⇒ Configuration ⇒ Overview tab.
6.4.4.9.3. System Set Manager ⇒ Channels ⇒ Config Channels ⇒ Subscribe to Channels —
Use this sub-tab to subscribe systems to configuration channels. Note that this tab is available only to Organization Administrators and Configuration Administrators. Select the checkbox to the left of the channels to which you wish to subscribe the selected systems and press the Continue button. Using the up and down arrows, indicate the order in which the contents of those channels should be applied. For example, if different versions of the same file exist within two or more channels, you must indicate which channel's version is the one that is deployed to subscribed systems. The channel that is at the top of the list is the one with the highest priority - its files are deployed instead of duplicate files from any other channel.

Note

There is an exception - local configuration channels always have the very highest priority, and can only be managed one system at a time. To manage the contents of a local override channel, navigate to that system's System Details ⇒ Configuration ⇒ View/Modify Files ⇒ Locally-Managed Files page.
6.4.4.9.4. System Set Manager ⇒ Channels ⇒ Config Channels ⇒ Unsubscribe from Channels —
Use this sub-tab to unsubscribe the selected systems from configuration channels. To do so, select the checkbox to the left of the undesired channel, press the Unsubscribe systems button, and finally press the Confirm Unsubscribe button.
6.4.4.9.5. System Set Manager ⇒ Channels ⇒ Config Channels ⇒ Enable Configuration —
This page displays those systems that you have selected that are not currently configured to accept configuration file management via RHN. In the far right of the list, the various necessary steps to enable configuration management on those systems are listed. To enable configuration management for these systems:
  1. First, select the checkbox to the left of the systems you wish to enable. Indicate the time at which you would like necessary files to be deployed, and press the Enable RHN Configuration Management button.
  2. RHN subscribes the systems to the proper channels in order to deploy the rhncfg-* packages, then schedules the deployment of these files according to the time you selected.
  3. If you wish to install these files immediately, run the rhn_check command on the selected systems. Otherwise, the deployment will not occur until they next check in with RHN.
  4. Once the rhncfg-* packages have been successfully deployed, run the rhn-actions-control --enable-all command as root on each system.

6.4.4.10. System Set Manager ⇒ Provisioning —

Options for provisioning systems through the following sub-tabs:
6.4.4.10.1. System Set Manager ⇒ Provisioning ⇒ Kickstart —
Use this sub-tab to re-install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the selected Provisioning-entitled systems. To schedule kickstarts for these systems, select a distribution, identify the type (IP address or manual), and click Continue. Finish choosing from the options available on the subsequent screen. If any of the systems connect to RHN via a RHN Proxy Server, choose either the Preserve Existing Configuration radio button or the Use RHN Proxy radio button. If you choose to kickstart through a RHN Proxy Server, select from the available Proxies listed in the drop-down box beside the Use RHN Proxy radio button. All of the selected systems will kickstart through the selected Proxy. Click the Schedule Kickstart button to confirm your selections. When the kickstarts for the selected systems are successfully scheduled, the web interface returns you to the System Set Manager page.
6.4.4.10.2. System Set Manager ⇒ Provisioning ⇒ Tag Systems —
Use this sub-tab to add meaningful descriptions to the most recent snapshots of your selected systems. To tag the most recent system snapshots, enter a descriptive term in the Tag name field and click the Tag Current Snapshots button.
6.4.4.10.3. System Set Manager ⇒ Provisioning ⇒ Rollback —
Use this sub-tab to rollback selected Provisioning-entitled systems to previous snapshots marked with a tag. Click the name of the tag, verify the systems to be reverted, and click the Rollback Systems button.
6.4.4.10.4. System Set Manager ⇒ Provisioning ⇒ Remote Command —
Use this sub-tab to issue remote commands on selected Provisioning-entitled systems. First create a run file on the client systems to allow this function to operate. Refer to the description of the Configuration sub-tab of the Channels tab for instructions. You may then identify a specific user, group, timeout period, and the script on this page. Select a date and time to perform the command, and click Schedule Remote Command.

6.4.4.11. System Set Manager ⇒ Misc —

Misc — Update System Profiles and preferences for the system set through the following links:
6.4.4.11.1. System Set Manager ⇒ Misc ⇒ System Profile Updates —
Click Update Hardware Profile followed by the Confirm Refresh button to schedule a hardware profile update. Clicking Update Package Profile,followed by the Confirm Refresh button schedules a package profile update.
6.4.4.11.2. System Set Manager ⇒ Misc ⇒ Custom System Information —
Click Set a custom value for selected systems followed by the name of a key to allow you to provide values for all selected systems. Enter the information and click the Set Values button. Click Remove a custom value from selected systems followed by the name of a key to allow you to remove values for all selected systems. Click the Remove Values button to finalize the deletion.
6.4.4.11.3. System Set Manager ⇒ Misc ⇒ Reboot Systems —
Select the appropriate systems and click the Reboot Systems link to set those systems for reboot. To immediately cancel this action, click the list of systems link that appears within the confirmation message at the top of the page, select the systems, and click Unschedule Action.
6.4.4.11.4. System Set Manager ⇒ Misc ⇒ Lock Systems —
Select the appropriate systems and click the Lock Systems link to prevent the scheduling of any action through RHN that affects the selected systems. This can be reversed by clicking the Unlock Systems link.
6.4.4.11.5. System Set Manager ⇒ Misc ⇒ Delete Systems —
Click Delete System Profiles, then click the Confirm Deletions button to remove the selected profiles permanently.
6.4.4.11.6. System Set Manager ⇒ Misc ⇒ Add or Remove Add-On Entitlements —
Select, via the radio button, whether to Add, Remove, or make No Change in the entitlements of the selected systems. Click the Change Entitlements button to confirm your selection.
6.4.4.11.7. System Set Manager ⇒ Misc ⇒ System Preferences —
Toggle the Yes and No radio buttons and click the Change Preferences button to alter your notification preferences for the selected systems. You may apply these preferences to individual systems through the Properties sub-tab of the System Details page. Refer to Section 6.4.2.9.1.2, “System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Properties” for instructions.
  • Receive Notifications of Updates/Errata — This setting keeps you abreast of all advisories pertaining to your systems. Any time an update is produced and released for a system under your supervision, a notification is sent via email.
  • Include system in Daily Summary — This setting includes the selected systems in a daily summary of system events. (By default, all Management and Provisioning systems are included in the summary.) These system events are actions that affect packages, such as scheduled Errata Updates, system reboots, or failures to check in. In addition to including the systems here, you must choose to receive email notifications in the Your Preferences page of Your RHN. Refer to Section 6.3.2, “Your Preferences” for instructions. Note that RHN sends these summaries only to verified email addresses.
  • Automatic application of relevant Errata — This setting enables the automatic application of Errata Updates to the selected systems. This means packages associated with Errata are updated without any user intervention. Customers should note that Red Hat does not recommend the use of the auto-update feature for production systems because conflicts between packages and environments can cause system failures.

6.4.6. Activation Keys —

RHN Management and Provisioning customers with the Activation Key Administrator role (including Organization Administrators) can generate activation keys through the RHN website. These keys can then be used to register a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, entitle the system to an RHN service level and subscribe the system to specific channels and system groups through the command line utility rhnreg_ks. Refer to Section 2.5, “Registering with Activation Keys” for instructions on use.

Note

System-specific activation keys created through the Reactivation sub-tab of the System Details page are not part of this list because they are not reusable across systems.

6.4.6.1. Managing Activation Keys

To generate an activation key:
  1. Select Systems => Activation Keys from the top and left navigation bars.
  2. Click the create new key link at the top-left corner.

    Warning

    In addition to the fields listed below, RHN Satellite Server customers may also populate the Key field itself. This user-defined string of characters can then be supplied with rhnreg_ks to register client systems with the Satellite. Do not insert commas in the key. All other characters are accepted. Commas are problematic since they are the separator used when including two or more activation keys at once. Refer to Section 6.4.6.2, “Using Multiple Activation Keys at Once — for details.
  3. Provide the following information:
    • Description — User-defined description to identify the generated activation key.
    • Usage Limit — The maximum number of registered systems that can be registered to the activation key at any one time. Leave blank for unlimited use. Deleting a system profile reduces the usage count by one and registering a system profile with the key increases the usage count by one.
    • Base Channel — The primary channel for the key. Selecting nothing will enable you to select from all child channels, although systems can be subscribed to only those that are applicable.
    • Entitlement — The service level for the key, either Management or Provisioning. All systems will be subscribed at this level with the key.
    • Universal default — Whether or not this key should be considered the primary activation key for your organization.
    Click Create Key.
After creating the unique key, it appears in the list of activation keys along with the number of times it has been used. Note that only Activation Key Administrators can see this list. At this point, you may associate child channels and groups with the key so that systems registered with it automatically subscribe to them.
To change information about a key, such as the channels or groups, click its description in the key list, make your modifications in the appropriate tab, and click the Update Key button. To disassociate channels and groups from a key, deselect them in their respective menus by Ctrl-clicking their highlighted names. To remove a key entirely, click the delete key link in the top-right corner of the edit page.
A system may be set to subscribe to a base channel during registration with an activation key. However, if the activation key specifies a base channel that is not compatible with the operating system of the systems, the registration fails. For example, a Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS v.4 for x86 system cannot register with an Activation Key that specifies a Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES v.4 for x86 base channel. A system is always allowed to subscribe to a custom base channel.
To disable system activations with a key, unselect the corresponding checkbox under the Enabled column in the key list. The key can be re-enabled by selecting the checkbox. After making these changes, click the Update Keys button on the bottom right-hand corner of the page.

6.4.6.2. Using Multiple Activation Keys at Once —

Provisioning customers should note that multiple activation keys can be included at the command line or in a single kickstart profile. This allows you to aggregate the aspects of various keys without recreating a new key specific to the desired systems, simplifying the registration and kickstart processes while slowing the growth of your key list.
Without this stacking ability, your organization would need at least six activation keys to manage four server groups and subscribe a server to any two groups. Factor in two versions of the operating system, such as Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 and 4, and you need twice the number of activation keys. A larger organization would need keys in the dozens.
Registering with multiple activation keys requires some caution; conflicts between some values cause registration to fail. Conflicts in the following values do not cause registration to fail, a combination of values is applied: software packages, software child channels, and config channels. Conflicts in the remaining properties are resolved in the following manner:
  • base software channels — registration fails
  • entitlements — registration fails
  • enable config flag — configuration management is set
Do not use system-specific activation keys along with other activation keys; registration fails in this event.
You are now ready to use multiple activation keys at once. This is done with comma separation at the command line with rhnreg_ks or in a kickstart profile within the Post tab of the Kickstart Details page. Refer to Section 2.5, “Registering with Activation Keys” and Section 6.4.9.3, “Create a New Kickstart Profile”, respectively, for instructions.

6.4.7. Stored Profiles —

RHN Provisioning customers can create package profiles through the Profiles sub-tab of the Packages tab within the System Details page. Those profiles are displayed on the Stored Profiles page, where they may be edited and even deleted.
To edit a profile, click its name in the list, alter its name and description, and click the Update Profile button. To view software associated with the profile, click the Packages sub-tab. To remove the profile entirely, click delete stored profile at the upper-right corner of the page.

6.4.8. Custom System Info —

RHN Provisioning customers may include completely customizable information about their systems. Unlike notes, the information here is more formal and may be searched upon. For instance, you may decide to identify an asset tag for each system. To do this, you must create an asset key within the Custom System Info page.
Click create new key at the upper-right corner of the page. Enter a descriptive label and description, such as Asset and Precise location of each system, and click the Create Key. The key will then show up in the custom info keys list.
Once the key exists, you may assign a value to it through the Custom Info tab of the System Details page. Refer to Section 6.4.2.9.1.7, “System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Custom Info — for instructions.

6.4.9. Kickstart —

To satisfy the provisioning needs of customers, RHN provides this interface for developing kickstart profiles that can be used to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on either new or already-registered systems. This enables systems to be installed automatically to particular specifications.

Important

If your systems are connected to the central RHN Servers, you will need an external installation tree for each distribution to be kickstarted. This tree can be hosted anywhere that is accessible by the target system via HTTP. If the systems are connected through an RHN Proxy Server, then you may place the installation tree in /var/www/html/pub/ on the Proxy. RHN Satellite Servers already have a tree for each Red Hat distribution and therefore do not require separate trees. Even if the system connects through an RHN Proxy Server to get to the Satellite, these trees will be available for kickstart. Refer to Section 6.4.9.6, “Kickstart ⇒ Distributions — for instructions on setting up installation trees.
Kickstart Overview

Figure 6.9. Kickstart Overview

This overview page displays the status of kickstart on your client systems: the types and number of profiles you have created and the progress of systems that are scheduled to be kickstarted. In the upper right is the Kickstart Actions section, which contains a series of links to management actions for your kickstart profiles. Before explaining the various kickstart options that are available from this page, the next section provides some introduction to the subject of kickstart.

6.4.9.1. Introduction to Kickstart

Many system administrators would prefer to use an automated installation method to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on their machines. To answer this need, Red Hat created the kickstart installation method. Using kickstart, a system administrator can create a single file containing the answers to all the questions that would normally be asked during a typical installation.
Kickstart files can be kept on a single server system and read by individual computers during the installation. This installation method can support the use of a single kickstart file to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on multiple machines, making it ideal for network and system administrators.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide contains an in-depth discussion of kickstart and is available here: http://access.redhat.com/set/documentation/Red_Hat_Enterprise/Linux/.
6.4.9.1.1. Kickstart Explained
When a machine is to receive a network-based kickstart, the following events must occur in this order:
  1. After being placed on the network and turned on, the machine's PXE logic broadcasts its MAC address and a request to be discovered.
  2. If a static IP address is not being used, the DHCP server recognizes the discovery request and extends an offer of network information needed for the new machine to boot. This includes an IP address, the default gateway to be used, the netmask of the network, the IP address of the TFTP or HTTP server holding the bootloader program, and the full path and file name of that program (relative to the server's root).
  3. The machine applies the networking information and initiates a session with the server to request the bootloader program.
  4. The bootloader, once loaded, searches for its configuration file on the server from which it was itself loaded. This file dictates which kernel and kernel options, such as the initial RAM disk (initrd) image, should be executed on the booting machine. Assuming the bootloader program is SYSLINUX, this file is located in the pxelinux.cfg directory on the server and named the hexadecimal equivalent of the new machine's IP address. For example, a bootloader configuration file for Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 2.1 should contain:
     port 0 
    prompt 0 
    timeout 1 
    default My_Label 
    label My_Label 
          kernel vmlinuz 
          append ks=http://myrhnsatellite/ initrd=initrd.img network apic
  5. The machine accepts and uncompresses the init image and kernel, boots the kernel, and initiates a kickstart installation with the options supplied in the bootloader configuration file, including the server containing the kickstart configuration file.
  6. This kickstart configuration file in turn directs the machine to the location of the installation files.
  7. The new machine is built based upon the parameters established within the kickstart configuration file.
6.4.9.1.2. Kickstart Prerequisites
Although Red Hat Network has taken great pains to ease the provisioning of systems, some preparation is still required for your infrastructure to handle kickstarts. For instance, before creating kickstart profiles, you may consider:
  • A DHCP server is not required for kickstarting, but it can make things easier. If you are using static IP addresses, you should select static IP while developing your kickstart profile.
  • An FTP server can be used in place of hosting the kickstart distribution trees via HTTP.
  • If conducting a bare metal kickstart, you should 1)Configure DHCP to assign required networking parameters and the bootloader program location. 2)Specify within the bootloader configuration file the kernel to be used and appropriate kernel options.
6.4.9.1.3. Building Bootable Kickstart ISOs
While you can schedule a registered system to be kickstarted to a new operating system and package profile, it is also useful to be able to kickstart a system that is not registered with RHN, or does not yet have an operating system installed. One common method of doing this is to create a bootable CD-ROM that is inserted into the target system. When the system is rebooted, it boots from the CD-ROM, loads the kickstart configuration from the RHN Servers or your Satellite, and proceeds to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux according to the kickstart profile you have created.
To do this, copy the contents of /isolinux from the first CD-ROM of the target distribution. Then edit the isolinux.cfg file to default to 'ks'. Change the 'ks' section to the following template:
 label ks 
kernel vmlinuz 
   append text ks={url} initrd=initrd.img lang= devfs=nomount ramdisk_size=16438 \
   {ksdevice}
IP addressed-based kickstart URLs will look something like this:
http://my.sat.server/kickstart/ks/mode/ip_range
The kickstart distribution selected by the IP range should match the distribution from which you are building, or errors will occur. {ksdevice} is optional, but looks like:
ksdevice=eth0
It is possible to change the distribution for a kickstart profile within a family, such as Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 4 to Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES 4, by specifying the new distribution label. Note that you cannot move between versions (2.1 to 3) or between updates (U1 to U2).
Next, you may customize isolinux.cfg further for your needs, such as by adding multiple kickstart options, different boot messages, shorter timeout periods, etc.
Next, create the ISO as described in the Making an Installation Boot CD-ROM section of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Installation Guide. Alternatively, issue the command:
 mkisofs -o file.iso -b isolinux.bin -c boot.cat -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 \ -boot-info-table -R -J -v -T isolinux/ 
Note that isolinux/ is the relative path to the directory containing the isolinux files from the distribution CD, while file.iso is the output ISO file, which is placed into the current directory.
You may then burn the ISO to CD-ROM. To use the disc (assuming you left the label for the kickstart boot as 'ks'), boot the system and type "ks" at the prompt. When you press Enter, the kickstart should begin.
6.4.9.1.4. Integrating Kickstart with PXE
In addition to CD-ROM-based installs, RHN supports kickstarts through a Pre-Boot Execution Environment (PXE). This is less error-prone than CDs, enables kickstarting from bare metal, and integrates with existing PXE/DHCP environments.
To use this method, make sure your systems have network interface cards (NIC) that support PXE, install and configure a PXE server, ensure DHCP is running, and then place the appropriate files on an HTTP server for deployment. Once the kickstart profile has been created, use the URL from the Kickstart Details page, as for CD-ROM-based installs.
To obtain specific instructions for conducting PXE kickstarts, refer to the PXE Network Installations chapter of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 System Administration Guide.

Note

Upon running the Network Booting Tool as described in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4: System Administration Guide, ensure that you select "HTTP" as the protocol and include the domain name of the RHN Satellite Server in the Server field if you intend to use it to distribute the installation files.
The following sections describe the kickstart options available from the SystemsKickstart page.

6.4.9.2. View a List of Kickstart Profiles

Kickstart Profiles

Figure 6.10. Kickstart Profiles

This page lists all profiles for your organization, whether those profiles are active, and the boot image to which that profile points. You can either create a new kickstart profile by clicking the create new kickstart profile link in the upper right or edit existing profiles by clicking in the name of the profile.

6.4.9.3. Create a New Kickstart Profile

If you are not using RHN Satellite Server, and wish to develop a new kickstart profile, first create a distribution through the SystemsKickstartDistributions page. Refer to Section 6.4.9.6, “Kickstart ⇒ Distributions — for instructions. Once that is done, return to the Kickstart Overview page to create the Kickstart Profile.
Click on the Create a New Kickstart Profile link from the SystemsKickstart page to start the brief wizard that populates the base values needed for a kickstart profile.
  1. On the first page, enter a kickstart profile label and select a kickstartable tree for this profile. The kickstartable tree drop-down menu is only populated if one or more distributions have been created for the selected base channel.
  2. On the second page, select (or enter) the URL of the kickstart tree.
  3. On the third page, select a root password for the system. Be sure to follow the password recommendations from the Password Security section of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security Guide, available at http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/enterprise/.
The final stage of the wizard presents the Kickstart DetailsDetails tab. On this tab and the other sub-tabs, nearly every option for the new kickstart profile can be customized. The following sections describe the options available on each sub-tab.
6.4.9.3.1. Kickstart Details ⇒ Details —
Kickstart Details

Figure 6.11. Kickstart Details

The figure above shows the sub-tabs that are available from the Kickstart Details tab.
From the Kickstart DetailsDetails sub-tab, you can:
  • Rename the profile
  • Change the operating system it installs by clicking (Change)
  • Deactivate the profile so that it cannot be used to schedule a kickstart by removing the Active checkmark
  • Select whether this profile is the default for all of your organization's kickstarts by checking or unchecking the box.
  • Enter comments that are useful to you in distinguishing this profile from others
6.4.9.3.2. Kickstart Details ⇒ Operating System —
From this page, you can make the following changes to the operating system that the kickstart profile installs:
Change the base channel
Select from the available base channels, such as Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS version 4. Satellite customers see a list of all base channels that are currently synced to their Satellite.
File Location
The exact location from which the kickstart tree is mounted. This value is determined when the profile is created. You can view it on this page but you cannot change it.
6.4.9.3.3. Kickstart Details ⇒ Advanced Options —
From this page, you can toggle several installation options on and off by checking and unchecking the boxes to the left of the option. For most installations, the default options are correct. The Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide discusses each of these options in detail.
6.4.9.3.4. Kickstart Details ⇒ Bare Metal Kickstart —
This sub-tab provides the information necessary to kickstart systems that are not currently registered with RHN. Using the on-screen instructions, you may either kickstart systems using boot media (CD-ROM) or by IP address.

Important

The Bare Metal Kickstart By IP page lists a URL that may be appended to the kernel parameters for a kickstart install. It is important to understand that this URL points to RHN Hosted (or to your RHN Satellite Server if that is where you are logged in.) RHN has no means of remote sensing your Proxy or firewall setup.
If you wish the kickstart to be managed by an RHN Proxy Server,or to proceed through some other location, modify the URL to specify that location. A (non-functional) example is:
ks=https://your-proxy.example.com/ks/org/410672xa19ccBf33f628fd2d94465Beae5aB656/mode/ip_range
6.4.9.3.5. System Details ⇒ Details —
System Details

Figure 6.12. System Details

The figure above shows the sub-tabs that are available from the System Details tab.
From the System DetailsDetails sub-tab, you can:
  • Select from DHCP and static IP, depending on your network
  • Choose the level of SELinux that is configured on kickstarted systems
  • Enable configuration management or remote command execution on kickstarted systems
  • Change the root password associated with this profile
6.4.9.3.6. System Details ⇒ Locale —
From this sub-tab, you can change the timezone associated with kickstarted systems.
6.4.9.3.7. System Details ⇒ Partitioning —
From this sub-tab, you can indicate the partitions that you wish to be created during installation. For example:
 partition /boot --fstype=ext3 --size=200 
partition swap --size=2000 
partition pv.01 --size=1000 --grow 
volgroup myvg pv.01 logvol / --vgname=myvg --name=rootvol --size=1000 --grow
6.4.9.3.8. System Details ⇒ File Preservation —
If you have previously created a file preservation list, you may include that list as part of the kickstart. This will prevent the files in that list from being over-written during the installation process. Refer to Section 6.4.9.7, “Kickstart ⇒ File Preservation — for information on how to create a file preservation list.
6.4.9.3.9. System Details ⇒ GPG and SSL —
From this sub-tab, select the GPG keys and/or SSL certificates to be imported to the kickstarted system during the %post section of the kickstart. For Satellite customers, this list includes the SSL Certificate used during the installation of the Satellite.

Note

Any GPG key you wish to import to the kickstarted system must be in ASCII rather than binary format.
6.4.9.3.10. System Details ⇒ Troubleshooting —
From this sub-tab, you can change information that may help with troubleshooting hardware problems:
Bootloader
For some headless systems, it is better to select the non-graphic LILO bootloader.
Kernel Parameters
Enter kernel parameters here that may help to narrow down the source of hardware issues.
6.4.9.3.11. Software ⇒ Package Groups —
Software

Figure 6.13. Software

The figure above shows the sub-tabs that are available from the Software tab.
Enter the package groups, such at @office or @admin-tools you would like to install on the kickstarted system in the large text box on this page. If you would like to know what package groups are available, and what packages they contain, refer to the RedHat/base/ file of your kickstart tree. Satellite customers will most likely locate this file here: /var/www/satellite/rhn/kickstart/<kickstart label>/RedHat/base/comps.xml.
6.4.9.3.12. Software ⇒ Package Profiles —
If you have previously created a Package Profile from one of your registered systems, you can use that profile as a template for the files to be installed on a kickstarted system. Refer to Section 6.4.2.9.2.2, “System Details ⇒ Software ⇒ Packages” for more information about package profiles.
6.4.9.3.13. Activation Keys —
Activation Keys

Figure 6.14. Activation Keys

The Activation Keys tab, which has no sub-tabs, allows you select Activation Keys to include as part of the kickstart profile. These keys, which must have been created previous to creating the kickstart profile, will be used when re-registering kickstarted systems.
6.4.9.3.14. Scripts —
Scripts

Figure 6.15. Scripts

The Scripts tab, which has no sub-tabs, is where %pre and %post scripts are created. This page lists any scripts that have already been created for this kickstart profile. To create a new kickstart script:
  1. Click the add new kickstart script link in the upper right
  2. Enter the path to the scripting language used to create the script, such as /usr/bin/perl
  3. Enter the full script in the large text box
  4. Indicate whether this script is to be executed in the %pre or %post section of the kickstart process
  5. Indicate whether this script is to run outside of the chroot environment. Refer to the Post-installation Script section of the Red Hat Enterprise LinuxSystem Admin Guide for further explanation of the nochroot option

Note

RHN supports the inclusion of separate files within the Partition Details section of the kickstart profile. For instance, you may dynamically generate a partition file based on the machine type and number of disks at kickstart time. This file can be created via %pre script and placed on the system, such as /tmp/part-include. Then you can call for that file by including the following line within the Partition Details field of the System DetailsPartitioning tab:
 %include /tmp/part-include 
6.4.9.3.15. Kickstart File —
Kickstart File

Figure 6.16. Kickstart File

The Kickstart File tab, which has no sub-tabs, allows you to view or download the kickstart profile that has been generated from the options chosen in the previous tabs.

6.4.9.4. Kickstart ⇒ Bare Metal —

Lists the IP addresses that have been associated with kickstart profiles created by your organization. Click either the range or the profile name to access different tabs of the Kickstart Details page.

6.4.9.5. Kickstart ⇒ GPG and SSL Keys —

Lists keys and certificates available for inclusion in kickstart profiles and provides a means to create new ones. This is especially important for customers of RHN Satellite Server or RHN Proxy Server because systems kickstarted by them must have the server key imported into RHN and associated with the relevant kickstart profiles. Import it by creating a new key here and then make the profile association in the GPG and SSL keys sub-tab of the Kickstart Details page.
To develop a new key/certificate, click the create new stored key/cert link in the upper-right corner of the page. Enter a description, select the type, upload the file, and click the Update Key button. Note that a unique description is required.

Important

The GPG key you upload to RHN must be in ASCII format. Using a GPG key in binary format causes anaconda, and therefore the kickstart process, to fail.

6.4.9.6. Kickstart ⇒ Distributions —

Enables you to identify custom installation trees that may be used for kickstarting. (Satellite users should note that this does not display Red Hat distributions provided to them. They can be found within the Distribution dropdown menu of the Kickstart Details page.) Before creating a distribution, you must make an installation tree available, as described in the Kickstart Installations chapter of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 System Administration Guide. This tree must be located in a public directory on an HTTP or FTP server.

Important

RHN Satellite Server users should note that channels imported with satellite-sync are made available automatically and do not require the creation of a separate installation tree. These trees are available to client systems that kickstart through the Satellite. While you may be able to access the files from a non-kickstarting client, this functionality is not supported and may be removed at any time in the future.
To create a new distribution, enter an intuitive label (without spaces) in the Distribution Label field, such as my-orgs-rhel-as-4. In the External Location field, paste the URL to the base of the installation tree. (You can test this by appending "README" to the URL in a Web browser, pressing Enter, and ensuring that the distribution's readme file appears.)
In the Autokickstart RPM field, enter the auto-ks kernel image for the distribution. You can find all of the available packages by searching packages for "auto-kickstart". Identify the appropriate package based upon the distribution to be kickstarted. It should look something like, "auto-kickstart-ks-rhel-i386-as-4". Strip everything preceding the "ks" to derive the boot image. For instance, in the above example, you would enter "ks-rhel-i386-as-4" in the Autokickstart RPM field.
Select the matching distribution from the Base Channel and Installer Generation dropdown menus, such as Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS (v.4 for x86) and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4, respectively. When finished, click the Create button.

6.4.9.7. Kickstart ⇒ File Preservation —

Collects lists of files to be protected and re-deployed on systems during kickstart. For instance, if you have many custom configuration files located on a system to be kickstarted, enter them here as a list and associate that list with the kickstart profile to be used.
To use this feature, click the create new file preservation list link at the top and enter a relevant label and all files and directories to be preserved on the resulting page. Enter absolute paths to all files and directories. Then click Create List.

Important

Although file preservation is useful, it does have limitations. First, each list is limited to a total size of 1 MB. Further, special devices like /dev/hda1 and /dev/sda1 are not supported. Finally, only file and directory names may be entered. No regular expression wildcards can be included.
When finished, you may include the file preservation list in the kickstart profile to be used on systems containing those files. Refer to Section 6.4.9.3, “Create a New Kickstart Profile” for precise steps.

6.5. Errata

Select the Errata tab from the top navigation bar to track the availability and application of errata to your managed systems.
The first page to appear here is the Errata Overview page. This page displays relevant errata, which are errata that apply to at least one system to which you have administrative access and that have not yet been applied.

Note

To receive an email when Errata Updates are issued for your system, go to Your RHNYour Preferences and select Receive email notifications.
Red Hat releases Errata Updates in three categories, or types: Security Updates, Bug Fix Updates, and Enhancement Updates. Each Errata Update is comprised of a summary of the problem and the solution, including the RPM packages required to fix the problem.
Icons are used to identify the three types of Errata Updates:
  • — Security Updates available, update strongly recommended
  • — Bug Fix Updates available and recommended
  • — Enhancement Updates available
A synopsis of each erratum is provided in list form. This view instantly informs you of the type, severity (for Security Updates), and subject of the erratum, as well as the number of affected systems.
In addition to the pages described within this chapter, you may view Errata by product line from the following location: https://rhn.redhat.com/errata.

6.5.1. Relevant Errata

As shown in Figure 6.17, “Errata List”, the Relevant Errata page displays a customized list of Errata Updates that applies to your registered systems. The list provides a summary of each Errata Update, including its type, severity (for Security Updates), advisory number, synopsis, systems affected, and date updated.
Errata List

Figure 6.17. Errata List

Clicking on the Advisory takes you to the Details tab of the Errata Details page. Clicking on the number of associated systems takes you to the Affected Systems tab of the Errata Details page. Refer to Section 6.5.2.2, “Errata Details” for more information.

6.5.2. All Errata

The All Errata page displays a list of all Errata Updates released by Red Hat. It works much the same as the Relevant Errata page in that clicking either the Advisory or the number of systems affected takes you to related tabs of the Errata Details page. Refer to Section 6.5.2.2, “Errata Details” for more information.

6.5.2.1. Apply Errata Updates

Errata Updates include a list of updated packages that are required to apply the Errata Update. To apply Errata Updates to a system, the system must be entitled.
Apply all applicable Errata Updates to a system by clicking on SystemsSystems in the top and left navigation bars. Click on the name of an entitled system, and click the Errata tab of the resulting System Details page. When the Relevant Errata list appears, click Select All then the Apply Errata button on the bottom right-hand corner of the page. Only those Errata that have not been scheduled or were scheduled and failed or canceled are listed. Updates already pending are excluded from the list.
In addition, Management users can apply Errata Updates using two other methods:
  • To apply a specific Errata Update to one or more systems, find the update within the Errata lists. In the table, click on the number of systems affected, which takes you to the Affected Systems tab of the Errata Details page. Select the individual systems to be updated and click the Apply Errata button. Double-check the systems to be updated on the confirmation page, then click the Confirm button.
  • To apply more than one Errata Update to one or more systems, select the systems from a Systems list and click the Update List button. Click the System Set Manager link in the left navigation bar, then click the Systems tab. After ensuring the appropriate systems are selected, click the Errata tab, select the Errata Updates to apply, and click the Apply Errata button. You can select to apply the Errata as soon as possible (the next time the Red Hat Network Daemon on the client systems connect to RHN) or schedule a date and time for the Errata Updates to occur. Then click the Schedule Updates button. You can follow the progress of the Errata Updates through the Pending Actions list. Refer to Section 6.8, “Schedule” for more details.

Important

If you use scheduled package installation, the packages are installed via the RHN Daemon. You must enable the RHN Daemon on your systems. Refer to Chapter 3, Red Hat Network Daemon for more details.
The following rules apply to Errata Updates:
  • Each package is a member of one or more channels. If a selected system is not subscribed to a channel containing the package, the package will not be installed on that system.
  • If a newer version of the package is already on the system, the package will not be installed on that system.
  • If an older version of the package is installed, the package will be upgraded.

6.5.2.2. Errata Details

If you click on the Advisory of an Errata Update in the Relevant or All pages, its Errata Details page appears. This page is further divided into the following tabs:
6.5.2.2.1. Errata Details ⇒ Details
This sub-tab displays the Erratum Report issued by Red Hat. It provides a synopsis of the erratum first, including the severity (for security updates), issue date, and any update dates. This is followed by brief and detailed descriptions of the erratum and the steps required to resolve the issue.
Below the Affected Channels label, all channels that contain the affected package are listed. Clicking on a channel name displays the Packages sub-tab of the Channel Details page for that channel. Refer to Section 6.6.1.4, “Software Channel Details” for more information.
Below Fixes, the specific Bugzilla entries resolved by this erratum are listed. Clicking on any summary text opens that Bugzilla entry at http://bugzilla.redhat.com. Note that you must have a Bugzilla account to view the entry.
Security updates list the specific vulnerability as tracked by http://cve.mitre.org. This information is listed below the CVEs label.
Red Hat provides security update information in OVAL format. OVAL is an open vulnerability and assessment language promoted by Mitre, http://oval.mitre.org. Clicking on the link below the Oval label downloads this information to your system.
6.5.2.2.2. Errata Details ⇒ Packages
Provides links to each of the updated RPMs broken down by channel. Clicking on the name of a package displays its Package Details page.
6.5.2.2.3. Errata Details ⇒ Affected Systems
Lists systems affected by the Errata Update. You can apply updates here. (See Section 6.5.2.1, “Apply Errata Updates”.) Clicking on the name of a system takes you to its System Details page. Refer to Section 6.4.2.9, “System Details” for more information.
To help users determine whether an update has been scheduled, a Status column exists within the affected systems table. Possible values are: None, Pending, Picked Up, Completed, and Failed. This column identifies only the latest action related to an Erratum. For instance, if an action fails and you reschedule it, this column shows the status of the Erratum as Pending (with no mention of the previous failure). Clicking a status other than None takes you to the Action Details page. This column corresponds to one on the Errata tab of the System Details page.

6.6. Channels

If you click the Channels tab on the top navigation bar, the Channels category and links appear. The pages in the Channels category enable you to view and manage the channels and packages associated with your systems. In addition, you can obtain ISO images here.

6.6.1. Software Channels

The Software Channels page is the first to appear in the Channels category. A software channel is a list of Red Hat Enterprise Linux packages grouped by use. Channels are used to choose packages to be installed on a system.
There are two types of software channels: base channels and child channels. A base channel consists of a list of packages based on a specific architecture and Red Hat Enterprise Linux release. For example, all of the packages in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 for the x86 architecture make up a base channel. The list of packages in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 for the Itanium architecture make up a different base channel. A child channel is a channel associated with a base channel that contains extra packages. For instance, an organization can create a child channel associated with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 for the x86 architecture that contains extra packages needed only for the organization, such as a custom engineering application.
A system must be subscribed to one base channel only. This base channel is assigned automatically during registration based upon the Red Hat Enterprise Linux release and system architecture selected. In the case of public free channels, the action will succeed. In the case of paid base channels, this action will fail if an associated entitlement doesn't exist.
A system can be subscribed to multiple child channels of its base channel. Only packages included in a system's subscribed channels can be installed or updated on that system. Further, RHN Satellite Server and RHN Proxy Server customers have channel management authority. This authority gives them the ability to create and manage their own custom channels. Refer to the RHN Channel Management Guide for details.
Channels can be further broken down by their relevance to your systems. Two such lists emerge: Relevant and All.

6.6.1.1. Relevant Channels

As shown in Figure 6.18, “Relevant Channels”, the Relevant Channels page is shown by default when you click Software Channels in the left navigation bar. It displays a list of channels now associated with your systems. Links within this list go to different tabs of the Software Channel Details page. Clicking on a channel name takes you to the Details tab. Clicking on the number of packages takes you to the Packages tab. Clicking on the number of systems number takes you to the Subscribed Systems tab. Refer to Section 6.6.1.4, “Software Channel Details” for details.
Relevant Channels

Figure 6.18. Relevant Channels

6.6.1.2. Retired Channels

The Retired Channels page displays channels available to your organization that have reached their end-of-life dates. These channels do not receive updates.

6.6.1.3. All Channels

The All Channels page can be retrieved by clicking All below Software Channels in the left navigation bar. It works identically to the Relevant button with one exception; it displays all software channels offered by Red Hat Network, regardless of whether you have systems associated with them.

6.6.1.4. Software Channel Details

If you click on the name of a channel, the Software Channel Details page appears. This page is broken down into the following tabs:
6.6.1.4.1. Software Channel Details ⇒ Details
General information about the channel and the parent channel, if it is a child channel. This is the first tab displayed when you click on a channel. It displays essential information about the channel, such as summary, description, and architecture.
—In addition, a Globally Subscribable checkbox can be seen by Organization Administrators and Channel Administrators. This signifies the default behavior of every channel allowing any user to subscribe systems to it. Unchecking this box and clicking Update causes the appearance of a Subscribers tab, which may then be used to grant certain users subscription permissions to the channel. Organization Administrators and Channel Administrators can always subscribe systems to any channel.
— Only customers with custom base channels may change their systems' base channel assignment. They may do this through the website in two ways:
  • Customers with a custom base channel may assign the system to that base channel.
  • Customers may revert system subscriptions from a custom base channel to the appropriate distribution-based base channel.

Note

The system base channel's distribution variant must match the variant installed on the system. For example, a system that has Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS v.4 for x86 cannot be registered to a Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES v.4 for x86 base channel.
6.6.1.4.2. Software Channel Details ⇒ Subscribers —
List of users who have subscription permissions to the channel. This tab appears on two conditions: First, the user must be an Organization Administrator or a Channel Administrator. Second, the Globally Subscribable checkbox on the Details tab must be unchecked, thereby making the channel subscribable by user. On this tab, select the checkboxes of the users to be allowed to subscribe systems to this channel and click Update. Note that Organization Administrators and Channel Administrators automatically have subscription access to all channels.
6.6.1.4.3. Software Channel Details ⇒ Managers —
List of users who have permission to manage the channel. This tab is applicable only to RHN Proxy Server and RHN Satellite Server customers with custom channel management privileges. It works much like the Subscribers tab but is available only for channels owned by the organization. There is no Globally Manageable flag like there is for subscription. A check in the Managers tab for a channel means that a user is a Channel Administrator for that channel alone. The user cannot create new channels or clone them.
6.6.1.4.4. Software Channel Details ⇒ Errata
List of Errata affecting the channel. The list displays advisory types, names, summaries, and the dates issued. Clicking on an advisory name takes you to its Errata Details page. Refer to Section 6.5.2.2, “Errata Details” for more information.
6.6.1.4.5. Software Channel Details ⇒ Packages
List of packages in the channel. To download packages as a .tar file, select them and click the Download Packages button at the bottom-left corner of the page. Clicking on a package name takes you to the Package Details page. This page displays a set of tabs with information about the package, including which architectures it runs on, the package size, build date, package dependencies, the change log, list of files in the package, newer versions, and which systems have the package installed. From here, you can download the packages as RPMs or SRPMs.
To search for a specific package or a subset of packages, use the package filter at the top of the list. Enter a substring to search all packages in the list for package names that contain the string. For example, typing ks in the filter might return: ksconfig, krb5-workstation, and links. The filter is case-insensitive.
6.6.1.4.6. Software Channel Details ⇒ Subscribed Systems
List of entitled systems subscribed to the channel. The list displays system names, base channels, and their levels of entitlement. Clicking on a system name takes you to its System Details page. Refer to Section 6.4.2.9, “System Details” for more information.
—If it is a child channel, you also have the option of unsubscribing systems from the channel. Use the checkboxes to select the systems, then click the Unsubscribe button on the bottom right-hand corner.
6.6.1.4.7. Software Channel Details ⇒ Target Systems
List of entitled systems that are eligible for subscription to the channel. This tab appears only for child channels. Use the checkboxes to select the systems, then click the Subscribe button on the bottom right-hand corner. You will receive a success message or be notified of any errors. This can also be accomplished through the Channels tab of the System Details page. Refer to Section 6.4.2.9, “System Details” for more information.
6.6.1.4.8. Software Channel Details ⇒ Downloads
ISO images associated with the channel. This tab appears only for base channels. Links on the Easy ISOs pages bring you to this tab for the related channel. Red Hat recommends using curl or wget for ISO downloads. Click the help on using curl or wget link for precise instructions.
6.6.1.4.9. Software Channel Details ⇒ License
Text of the channel's End User License Agreement. This tab is associated only with channels of third-party providers. It appears when you attempt to subscribe to such a channel through the Target Systems tab. To complete the subscription, read the agreement, click the Accept button, and then click the Confirm button. To decline the subscription, click the Cancel button.

6.6.2. Channel Entitlements

The Channel Entitlements page displays the list of channels for which you have paid. Click the number of systems subscribed to see a list of systems tied to the corresponding channel.

6.6.3. Download Software

The Download Software pages provide direct access to the ISO images available to you. These images, comprising full installations of various Red Hat operating system distributions, are actually located within the Downloads tab of the Channel Details page. This feature is available only to paid RHN subscribers.
To download an ISO image, Red Hat recommends copying its URL and using either curl or wget. Click the help on using curl or wget link for precise instructions. To obtain the URL, right-click on the disc link and choose to open the link in a new window or tab. You may then cancel the download, copy the lengthy URL from the location bar, and paste it into the curl or wget command.
Once downloaded, either burn the images to CD-Rs or CD-RWs or copy them to the machine for direct installation. Refer to http://www.redhat.com/download/howto_download.html for additional download instructions and steps to burn images to discs. Refer to the operating system's respective installation guide for instructions on installing from CD-ROM or hard drive, available at http://access.redhat.com/site/documentation/.
ISOs can be further broken down by their relevance to your systems. Two such lists emerge: Relevant and All.

6.6.3.1. Relevant ISOs

The Relevant ISOs page is shown by default when you click Download Software in the left navigation bar. It displays a list of ISOs by channel now associated with your systems. Links within this list go to the Downloads tab of the Channel Details page. Refer to Section 6.6.3, “Download Software” for instructions on use.

6.6.3.2. All ISOs

The All ISOs page can be retrieved by clicking All below Easy ISOs in the left navigation bar. It works identically to the Relevant button with one exception; It displays all ISOs available to you through Red Hat Network, regardless of whether you have systems associated with the related channels. Refer to Section 6.6.3, “Download Software” for instructions on use.

6.6.5. Manage Software Channels

This tab allows Administrators to create, clone, and delete custom channels. These channels may contain altered versions of distribution-based channels or custom packages.

6.6.5.1. Manage Software Channels ⇒ Channel Details

The default screen of the Manage Software Channels tab is a listing of all available channels. This includes custom, distribution-based, and child channels.
To clone an existing channel, click the clone channels link in the upper right of the screen, select the channel to be cloned from the dropdown menu, and click the Create Channel button. The next screen presents various options for the new channel, including base architecture and GPG options. Make your selections and click the Create Channel button to complete the process.
To create a new channel, click the create new channel link in the upper right of the screen. Select the various options for the new channel, including base architecture and GPG options. Make your selections and click the Create Channel button. Note that a channel created in this manner is blank, containing no packages. You must either upload software packages or add packages from other channels. You may also choose to include Errata Updates in your custom channel.
6.6.5.1.1. Manage Software Channels ⇒ Channel Details ⇒ Channel Details
This screen lists the selections you made during the channel creation process. This page includes the Globally Subscribable checkbox that permits all users to subscribe to the channel.
6.6.5.1.2. Manage Software Channels ⇒ Channel Details ⇒ Managers
This sub-tab allows you to select which users may alter or delete this channel. Organization Administrators and Channel Administrators may alter or delete any channel.
To allow a user to alter the channel, select the checkbox next to the user's name and click the Update button. To allow all users to manage the channel, click the Select All button at the bottom of the list followed by the Update button. To remove a user's ability to manage the channel, uncheck the box next to their name and click the Update button.
6.6.5.1.3. Manage Software Channels ⇒ Channel Details ⇒ Errata
This sub-tab allows channel managers to list, remove, clone, and add Errata to their custom channel. Custom channels not cloned from a distribution may not add Errata until there are packages in the channel. Only Errata that match the base architecture of the channel and apply to a package in that channel may be added to the channel. Finally, only cloned or custom Errata may be added to custom channels. Errata may be included in a cloned channel if they are selected during channel creation.
6.6.5.1.4. Manage Software Channels ⇒ Channel Details ⇒ Packages
This sub-tab is similar to the Errata subtab. It allows Channel and Organization Administrators to list, remove, compare, and add packages to the custom channel.
To list all packages in the channel, click the List / Remove Packages link. Check the box to the left of any package you wish to remove, then click the Remove Packages button in the lower right of the page.
To add packages, click the Add Packages link. Choose a channel from which to select packages from the drop-down menu and click the View button to continue. Check the box to the left of any package you wish to add to the channel, then click the Add Packages button in the bottom right of the screen.
To compare packages within the current channel with those of another channel, select the other channel from the drop-down menu and click the Compare button. All packages present in either channel are compared, and the results displayed on the next screen. This information includes the architecture and version of each package.
To make the two channels identical, click the Merge Differences button in the lower right. The following screen allows you to select how conflicts are resolved. Click the Preview Merge button to view the results of the merging without making any changes to the channels. Finally, select those packages that you wish to merge and click the Merge Packages button followed by the Confirm button to perform the merge.

6.6.5.2. Manage Software Channels ⇒ Manage Software Packages

This tab allows you to manage custom software packages owned by your organization. You may view a list of all custom software or view only those packages in a selected custom channel. To select the channel whose custom packages you wish to view, select the channel from the drop-down menu and click the View button.

6.7. Configuration

This tab is the portal to managing your configuration channels and files, whether they are centrally managed or limited to a single system. You must be a Configuration Administrator or an Organization Administrator to see the Configuration tab. In addition, you must have at least one Provisioning entitlement, or the tab does not appear.
Centrally-managed files are those that are available to multiple systems; changes to a single file in a central configuration channel can affect many systems. In addition, there are local configuration channels. Each system with a Provisioning entitlement has a local configuration channel (also referred to as an override channel) and a Sandbox channel. Both central and local configuration management are discussed in detail later in this chapter.

6.7.1. Overview

The Configuration Overview page allows you to assess at a glance the status of your configuration files and the systems that use them.
Configuration Summary
This panel provides quick reference information about your configuration files. Clicking on any of the blue text to the right displays an appropriate list of either relevant systems, channel details, or configuration files.
Configuration Actions
This panel offers direct access to the most common configuration management tasks. You can view or create files or channels, or enable configuration management on your systems.
Recently Modified Configuration Files
The list displayed here indicates which files have changed, to which channel they belong, and when they were changed. If no files have been recently changed, no list appears. Click on the name of the file to be taken to that file's Details page. Click on the channel name to be taken to the Channel Details page for that channel.
Recently Scheduled Configuration Deployments
Each action that has been scheduled is listed here along with the status of the action. Any configuration task that is scheduled, from enabling configuration management on a system to deploying a specific configuration file, is displayed here. This allows you to quickly assess if your tasks have succeeded, and to take action to correct any issues. Clicking on any blue text displays the System DetailsSchedule page for the specified system.

6.7.2. Configuration Channels

As mentioned above, RHN manages both central and local configuration channels and files. Central configuration management allows you to deploy configuration files to multiple systems. Local configuration management allows you to specify overrides, or configuration files that are not changed by subscribing the system to a central channel.
Central configuration channels must be created via the link on this page. Local configuration channels are not created here; they automatically exist for each system to which a Provisioning entitlement has been applied.
Click on the name of the configuration channel to be taken to the details page for that channel. If you click on the number of files in the channel, you are taken to the List/Remove Files page of that channel. If you click on the number of systems subscribed to the configuration channel, you are taken to the SystemsSubscribed Systems page for that channel.
To create a new central configuration channel:
  1. Click the create new config channel link in the upper right of this screen.
  2. Enter a name for the channel.
  3. Enter a label for the channel. This field must contain only alphanumeric characters, "-", "_", and "."
  4. Enter a description for the channel. You must enter a description, though there is no character restriction. This field can contain any brief information that allows you to distinguish this channel from others.
  5. Press the Create Config Channel button to create the new channel.
  6. The following page is a subset of the Channel Details page, and has three sub-tabs: Overview, Add Files, and Systems. The Channel Details page is discussed fully in Section 6.7.2.1, “Configuration ⇒ Configuration Channels ⇒ Configuration Channel Details”.

6.7.2.1. Configuration ⇒ Configuration Channels ⇒ Configuration Channel Details

Overview
This sub-tab is very similar to the Configuration Overview page. The Channel Information panel provides status information for the contents of the channel. The Configuration Actions panel provides access to the most common configuration tasks. The main difference is the Channel Properties panel. By clicking on the Edit Properties link, you can edit the name, label, and description of the channel.
List/Remove Files
This tab, which only appears if there are files in the configuration channel, lists the files that this configuration channel contains. You can remove a file or files, or copy the latest version into a set of local overrides or into other central configuration channels. Check the box next to any files you wish to manipulate and then press one of the buttons at the bottom of the screen.
Add Files
The Add Files sub-tab has three sub-tabs of its own, which allow you to Upload, Import, or Create configuration files to be included in the channel.
Upload File
To upload a file into the configuration channel, browse for the file on your local system, populate all fields, and click the Upload Configuration File button. The Filename/Path field is the absolute path where the file will be deployed. You can also indicate the ownership and permissions to be attached to the file when it is deployed. Finally, if the configuration file includes a macro, enter the symbol that marks the beginning and end of the macro.
Import Files
From this page you can import files from other configuration channels, including any locally-managed channels. Check the box to the left of any file you wish to import and press the Import Configuration File(s) button.

Note

A sandbox icon indicates that the listed file is currently located in a local sandbox channel. Files in a system's sandbox channel are considered experimental and could be unstable. Use caution when selecting them for a central configuration channel.
Create File
From this page you can create a configuration file from scratch to be included in the configuration channel. Indicate the absolute path along which the file should be deployed, enter the ownership and permissions for the file, and enter the configuration file content in the appropriate fields. Finally, press the Create Configuration File button to create the new file.
Deploy Files
This sub-tab only appears when there are files present in the channel. You can deploy all files by pressing the Deploy All Files button, or you can check selected files and press the Deploy Selected Files button. You will then be asked to select to which systems the file(s) should be applied. The listed systems are those that are subscribed to this channel. If you wish to apply the file to a system not listed here, first subscribe that system to the channel. When ready, press the Confirm and Deploy to Selected Systems button to deploy the files.
Systems
This tab, which consists of two sub-tabs, allows you to manage the systems that are subscribed to the configuration channel.
Subscribed Systems
This sub-tab displays a list of all systems that are subscribed to the current channel. Clicking on the name of the system takes you to the System Details page for that system.
Target Systems
This sub-tab displays a list of systems that have been enabled for configuration management and that are not yet subscribed to the channel. To add a system to the configuration channel, check the box to the left of the system's name and press the Subscribe System button.

6.7.3. Configuration Files

This tab allows you to manage your configuration files independently. Both centrally-managed and locally-managed files can be reached from sub-tabs.

6.7.3.1. Centrally-Managed Files

Centrally-managed files are those that are available to multiple systems. Changing a file within a centrally-managed channel may result in changes to several systems.
This page lists all files that are currently stored in your central configuration channels. Click on the Path of a file to be taken to the Configuration File Details page for that file. Select the name of the configuration channel to be taken to the Channel Details page of the channel that contains the file. Clicking on the number of systems takes you to a listing of systems currently subscribed to the channel containing that file. Finally, clicking on the number of overriding systems displays a list of systems that have a local (or override) version of the configuration files (which means that the centrally-managed file will not be deployed to those systems.)

6.7.4. Locally-Managed Files

Locally-managed configuration files are those files that apply to only one system. They may be files in the system's sandbox or they may be files that can be deployed to the system at any time. Local files have higher priority than centrally-managed files - that is, if a system is subscribed to a configuration channel with a given file, and also has a locally-managed version of that same file, the locally-managed version is the one that will be deployed.
This page lists all of the local (override) configuration files for your systems. This includes the local configuration channels and the sandbox channel for each Provisioning-entitled system.
Click the Path of the file to go to the Config File Details page for the file. Click the name of the system to which it belongs to go to the System DetailsConfigurationConfigurationOverview page for the system.

6.7.5. Systems

This page displays status information about your system in relation to configuration. There are two sub-tabs: Managed Systems and Target Systems.

6.7.5.1. Managed Systems

This page is the default display for the ConfigurationSystems page. The systems displayed here have been fully prepared for configuration file deployment. The number of local and centrally-managed files is displayed. Clicking the name of the system takes you to the System DetailsConfigurationOverview page for the system. Clicking on the number of local files takes you to the System DetailsConfigurationView/Modify FilesLocally-Managed Files page, which allows you to manage which local (override) files apply to the system. Clicking on the number of centrally-managed configuration channels takes you to the System DetailsConfigurationList/Unsubscribe from Channels page. This allows you to unsubscribe from any channels you wish.

6.7.5.2. Target Systems

This page displays the systems that are either not prepared for configuration file deployment or have not yet been subscribed to a configuration channel. The table has three columns which identify the system name, whether they are prepared for configuration file deployment, and a list of the steps that have yet to be completed before the system is prepared. By selecting the check box to the left of the profile name and then pressing the Enable RHN Configuration Management button, all of the preparatory steps that can be automatically performed are scheduled by RHN.

Note

You will still have to perform a few manual steps to enable configuration file deployment, but on-screen instructions are provided to assist with this step.

6.7.6. Quota for File Storage

Red Hat Network's hosted service provides 25 MB of storage for each organization's configuration infrastructure. This page provides a summary of the available and used storage space, including a table that shows how much space is taken by each file. Note that the total space used indicates the space used by all revisions of a file. When you create a new revision of a file, RHN stores the entire new file, not just the changes.

6.8. Schedule

If you click the Schedule tab on the top navigation bar, the Schedule category and links appear. These pages enable you to track the actions taking place within your systems. An action is a scheduled RHN task that is to be performed on one or more client systems. For example, an action can be scheduled to apply all Errata Updates to a system.
Red Hat Network keeps track of the following action types:
  1. Package Alteration (installation, upgrade, and removal)
  2. Rollback Package Actions
  3. System Reboots
  4. Errata Updates
  5. Configuration File Alteration (deploy, upload, and diff)
  6. Hardware Profile Updates
  7. Package List Profile Updates
  8. Kickstart Initiation
  9. Remote Commands
Each page in the Schedule category represents an action status.

6.8.1. Pending Actions

As shown in Figure 6.19, “Schedule - Pending Actions”, the Pending Actions page is shown by default when you click Schedule in the top navigation bar. It displays actions that have not started or are in progress.
Schedule - Pending Actions

Figure 6.19. Schedule - Pending Actions

6.8.2. Failed Actions

Actions that could not be completed. If the action returns an error, it is displayed here.

6.8.3. Completed Actions

Actions that have succeeded.

6.8.4. Archived Actions

Actions that you have selected to store for review.

6.8.5. Actions List

In each page, each row in the list represents a single scheduled event or action that might affect multiple systems and involve various packages. The list contains several columns of information:
  • Select — Use the checkboxes in this column to select actions. After selecting actions, you can either add them to your selection list or move them to the Archived Actions list. If you archive a pending action, it is not canceled; the action item moves from the Pending Actions list to the Archived Actions list.
  • Action — Type of action to perform such as Errata Update or Package Install. Clicking an action name takes you to its Action Details page. Refer to Section 6.8.5.1, “Action Details” for more information.
  • Earliest — The earliest day and time the action will be performed.
  • Succeeded — Number of systems on which this action was successful.
  • Failed — Number of systems on which this action has been tried and failed.
  • In Progress — Number of systems on which this action is taking place.
  • Total — Total number of systems on which this action has been scheduled.

6.8.5.1. Action Details

If you click on the name of an action, the Action Details page appears. This page is broken down into the following tabs:
6.8.5.1.1. Action Details ⇒ Details
General information about the action. This is the first tab you see when you click on an action. It displays the action type, scheduling administrator, earliest execution, and notes. Clicking the Errata Advisory takes you to the Errata Details page.The Errata Advisory appears only if the action is an Errata Update. Refer to Section 6.5.2.2, “Errata Details” for more information.
6.8.5.1.2. Action Details ⇒ Completed Systems
List of systems on which the action has been successfully undertaken. Clicking a system name takes you to its System Details page. Refer to Section 6.4.2.9, “System Details” for more information.
6.8.5.1.3. Action Details ⇒ In Progress Systems
List of systems on which the action is now being undertaken. To cancel an action, select the system using the appropriate checkbox and click the Unschedule Action button. Clicking a system name takes you to its System Details page. Refer to Section 6.4.2.9, “System Details” for more information.
6.8.5.1.4. Action Details ⇒ Failed Systems
List of systems on which the action has been attempted and failed. The actions can be rescheduled here. Clicking a system name takes you to its System Details page. Refer to Section 6.4.2.9, “System Details” for more information.

6.9. Users —

Only Organization Administrators can see the Users tab on the top navigation bar. If you click the Users tab, the Users category and links appear. These pages enable you to grant and edit permissions for those who administer your system groups. Click in the User List to modify users within your organization.

6.9.1. User List ⇒ Active —

This tab lists all active users of your RHN account. It displays the following basic information about each user: their username, real name, roles, and the date of their last sign in.
As shown in Figure 6.20, “User List”, each row in the User List represents a user within your organization. There are four columns of information for each user:
  • Username — The login name of the user. If you click on a username, the User Details page for the user is displayed. Refer to Section 6.9.1.1, “User List ⇒ Active ⇒ User Details — for more information.
  • Real Name — The full name of the user (last name first).
  • Roles — List of the user's privileges, such as Organization Administrator, Channel Administrator and normal user. Users can have multiple roles.
  • Last Sign In — Shows when the user last logged into RHN.
User List

Figure 6.20. User List

6.9.1.1. User List ⇒ Active ⇒ User Details —

The User Details page allows Organization Administrators to manage the permissions and activity of all users.
6.9.1.1.1. User List ⇒ Active ⇒ User Details ⇒ Details —
User Details are maintained on the Red Hat account management pages. Organization Administrators can manage contact details, access permissions and general Red Hat website preferences, such as language and timezone for all users created in their Red Hat account.
Through Red Hat account management pages Organization Administrators can deactivate other users within their account. Users may be deactivated by Organization Administrators, or users may deactivate their own accounts. Deactivated users cannot log in to the RHN web interface, nor may they schedule any actions. Organization Administrators may not be deactivated until that role is removed from their account. Actions scheduled by a user prior to their deactivation remain in the action queue. For added flexibility, deactivated users may be reactivated by Organization Administrators.
To delegate responsibilities within your organization, Red Hat Network provides several roles with varying degrees of responsibility and access. This list describes the permissions of each and the differences between them:
  • Activation Key Administrator — This role is designed to manage your organization's collection of activation keys. This person can create, modify, and delete any key within your overarching account.
  • Channel Administrator — This role has complete access to the software channels and related associations within your organization. It requires RHN Satellite Server or RHN Proxy Server. This person may change the base channels of systems, make channels globally subscribable, and create entirely new channels.
  • Configuration Administrator — This role enables the user to manage the configuration of systems in the organization using either the RHN website or the Red Hat Network Configuration Manager.
  • Monitoring Administrator — This role allows for the scheduling of probes and oversight of other Monitoring infrastructure. This role is available only on Monitoring-enabled RHN Satellite Server version 3.6 or later.
  • Organization Administrator — This role can perform any function available within Red Hat Network. As the master account for your organization, the person holding this role can alter the privileges of all other accounts, as well as conduct any of the tasks available to the other roles. Like the other roles, multiple Organization Administrators may exist.
  • System Group Administrator — This role is one step below Organization Administrator in that it has complete authority over the systems and system groups to which it is granted access. This person can create new system groups, delete any assigned systems groups, add systems to groups, and manage user access to groups.
While it is possible for one Organization Administrator to remove Organization Administrator rights from another user, it is impossible to remove Organization Administrator rights from the sole remaining Organization Administrator. It is possible to remove your own Organization Administrator privileges so long as you are not the last Organization Administrator.
To assign a user a new role, select the appropriate checkbox. Remember that Organization Administrators are automatically granted administration access to all other roles, signified by grayed-out checkboxes. To grant a user the ability to manage the configuration of systems, select the Configuration Administrator checkbox. When satisfied with the changes, click Update.
6.9.1.1.2. User List ⇒ Active ⇒ User Details ⇒ System Groups —
This tab displays a list of system groups that the user may administer. Organization Administrators may use the check boxes to set this user's access permissions to each system group. Check or uncheck the box to the left of the system group and click the Update Permissions button to save the changes.
Organization Administrators may select one or more default system groups for this user. When the user registers a system, that system is assigned to the selected group or groups. This allows the user to have access to the newly-registered system immediately, if he or she has permissions to one or more of the groups to which the system is assigned. System Groups to which this user has access are preceded by an (*).
6.9.1.1.3. User List ⇒ Active ⇒ User Details ⇒ Systems —
This tab lists all systems to which the user has access permission. These systems come from the system groups assigned to the user on the previous tab. You may choose a set of systems to work with by checking the boxes to the left of the systems and clicking the Update List button. Use the System Set Manager page to execute actions on those systems. Clicking the name of a system takes you to its System Details page. Refer to Section 6.4.2.9, “System Details” for more information.
6.9.1.1.4. User List ⇒ Active ⇒ User Details ⇒ Channel Permissions —
This tab lists all channels available to your organization. You may grant explicit channel subscription permission to this user for each of the channels listed by checking the box to the left of the channel and clicking the Update Permissions button. Permissions granted through Organization Administrator status, certificate authority status, or because the channel is globally subscribable have no checkbox, but display a check icon instead.
6.9.1.1.4.1. User List ⇒ Active ⇒ User Details ⇒ Channel Permissions ⇒ Subscription —
Identifies channels to which the user may subscribe systems. To change these, select or unselect the appropriate checkboxes and click the Update Permissions button. Note that channels subscribable through the user's admin status or the channel's global setting cannot be altered. They are identified with a check icon.
6.9.1.1.4.2. User List ⇒ Active ⇒ User Details ⇒ Channel Permissions ⇒ Management —
Identifies channels the user may manage. To change these, select or unselect the appropriate checkboxes and click the Update Permissions button. This status does not enable the user to create new channels. Note that channels automatically manageable through the user's admin status cannot be altered. They are identified with a check icon. Remember, Organization Administrators and Channel Administrators can subscribe to or manage any channel.
6.9.1.1.5. User List ⇒ Active ⇒ User Details ⇒ Preferences —
This page allows you to configure whether the user receives email notifications, the number of entries displayed per list page, and the timezone of the user. Make selections and click the Save Preferences button to update.
  • Email Notification — Determine whether this user should receive email every time an Errata Alert is applicable to one or more systems in his or her RHN account, as well as daily summaries of system events.
  • RHN List Page Size — Maximum number of items that appear in a list on a single page. If more items are in the list, clicking the Next button displays the next group of items. This preference applies to the user's view of system lists, Errata lists, package lists, and so on.
To modify any of these options, make your changes and click the Save Preferences button.

6.9.2. User List ⇒ Deactivated —

This page lists all users who have been deactivated. To reactivate any of the users listed here, click the check box to the left of their name and click the Reactivate button followed by the Confirm button. Reactivated users retain the permissions and system group associations they had when they were deactivated. Clicking on the User Name of any individual takes you to their User Details page.

6.9.3. User List ⇒ All —

The All page lists all users that belong to your organization. In addition to the fields listed in the previous two screens, the table of users includes a Status field. This field indicates whether the user is Active or Deactivated. Deactivated users are also grayed out to indicate their status. Click on the username to move to the user's User Details page.

6.10. Monitoring —

If you click the Monitoring tab on the top navigation bar, the Monitoring category and links appear. These pages, which require Monitoring entitlements, enable you to view the results of probes you have set to run against Monitoring-entitled systems and manage the configuration of your monitoring infrastructure.
Initiate monitoring of a system through the Probes tab of the System Details page. Refer to Section 6.4.2.9, “System Details” for a description of the tab. See Appendix C, Probes for the complete list of available probes.

6.10.1. Probe Status —

As shown in Figure 6.21, “Probe Status”,the Probe Status page is shown by default when you click Monitoring in the top navigation bar.
Probe Status

Figure 6.21. Probe Status

The Probe Status page displays the summary count of probes in the various states and provides a simple interface to find problematic probes quickly. Please note that the probe totals in the tabs at the top of the page may not match the numbers of probes displayed in the tables below. The counts at the top include probes for all systems in your organization, while the tables display probes on only those systems to which you have access through the System Group Administrator role. Also, the probe counts displayed here may be out of sync by as much as one minute.
The following list describes each state and identifies the icons associated with them:
  • Critical - The probe has crossed a CRITICAL threshold.
  • Warning - The probe has crossed a WARNING threshold.
  • Unknown - The probe is not able to accurately report metric or state data.
  • Pending - The probe has been scheduled but has not yet run or is unable to run.
  • OK - The probe is running successfully.
The Probe Status page contains tabs for each of the possible states, as well as one that lists all probes. Each table contains columns indicating probe state, the monitored system, the probes used, and the date and time the status was last updated.
In these tables, clicking the name of the system takes you to the Probes tab of the System Details page. Clicking the name of the probe takes you to its Current State page. From there, you may edit the probe, delete it, and generate reports based upon its results.
Monitoring data and probe status information that was previously availble only through the web interface of the Satellite can now be exported as a CSV file. Click on the Download CSV links throughout the Monitoring pages to download CSV files of relevent information. The exported data may include, but is not limited to:
  • Probe status
  • All probes in a given state (OK, WARN, UNKNOWN, CRITICAL, PENDING)
  • A Probe Event history

6.10.1.1. Probe Status ⇒ Critical —

The probes that have crossed their CRITICAL thresholds or reached a critical status by some other means. For instance, some probes become critical (rather than unknown) when exceeding their timeout period.

6.10.1.2. Probe Status ⇒ Warning —

The probes that have crossed their WARNING thresholds.

6.10.1.3. Probe Status ⇒ Unknown —

The probes that cannot collect the metrics needed to determine probe state. Most but not all probes enter an unknown state when exceeding their timeout period. This may mean that the timeout period should be increased, or the connection cannot be established to the monitored system.
It is also possible the probes' configuration parameters are not correct and their data cannot be found. Finally, this state may indicate that a software error has occurred.

6.10.1.4. Probe Status ⇒ Pending —

The probes whose data have not been received by RHN. This state is expected for a probe that has just been scheduled but has not yet run. If all probes go into a pending state, your monitoring infrastructure may be failing.

6.10.1.5. Probe Status ⇒ OK —

The probes that have run successfully without exception. This is the state desired for all probes.

6.10.1.6. Probe Status ⇒ All —

All probes scheduled on systems in your account, listed in alphabetical order by the name of system.

6.10.1.7. Current State —

Identifies the selected probe's status and when it last ran, while providing the ability to generate a report on the probe. Although this page is integral to monitoring, it is found under the Probes tab within the System Details page since its configuration is specific to the system being monitored.
To view a report of the probe's results, choose a relevant duration using the date fields and decide whether you would like to see metric data, the state change history or both. To obtain metric data, select the metric(s) on which you wish to see a report, and decide (using the checkboxes) whether the results should be shown in a graph, an event log, or both. Then click Generate report at the bottom of the page. If no data exist for the probe's metrics, you are presented with the following message: NO DATA SELECTED TIME PERIOD AND METRIC.

6.10.2. Notification —

Identifies the contact methods that have been established for your organization. These methods contain email or pager addresses designated to receive alerts from probes.
The various notification methods available to your organization are listed here on the default Notification screen. The methods are listed according to the user to which they apply.
To create a new notification method, click on the name of the user to whom the notification will apply. The user's User Details ⇒ Notification Methods page appears. Click on the title of the notification method to edit the properties of the method.

6.10.2.1. Notification ⇒ Filters

Notification filters allow you to create long-term rules that suspend, redirect, or automatically acknowledge standard notifications or send supplemental notifications. This can be helpful in managing verbose or frequent probe communication.
6.10.2.1.1. Notification ⇒ Notification Filters ⇒ Active Filters
This is the default screen for the Notification Filters tab. It lists all active filters available for your organization. Click the name of the filter to edit the properties of the filter.
To create a notification filter, click the create new notification filter link in the upper right of the screen. Configure each option listed below and click the Save Filter button to create the filter.
  1. Description: Enter a value that allows you to distinguish this filter from others.
  2. Type: Determine what action the filter should take: redirect, acknowledge, suspend, or supplement the incoming notification.
  3. Send to: The Redirect Notification and Supplemental Notification options in step two require an email address to which to send the notifications. The remaining options require no email address.
  4. Scope: Determine which monitoring components are subject to the filter.
  5. Organization/Scout/Probe: This option allows you to select the organization, scout(s), or probe(s) to which this filter applies. To select multiple items from the list, hold the Ctrl key while clicking the names of the items. To select a range of items, hold the Shift key while clicking on the first and last items in the range.
  6. Probes in State: Select which probe state(s) relate to the filter. For example, you may choose to create a supplemental notification for critical probes only. Un-check the box to the left of any state you want the filter to ignore.
  7. Notifications sent to: This is the method to which the notification would be sent if no filter were in place. You may, for example, redirect notifications that would normally go to a user should that individual go on vacation, leaving all other notifications from the probe unchanged.
  8. Match Output: Select precise notification results by entering a regular expression here. If the "Message:" portion of the notification does not match the regular expression, the filter is not applied.
  9. Recurring: Select whether a filter runs continuously or on a recurring basis. A recurring filter runs multiple times for a period of time smaller than the duration of the filter. For example, a recurring filter could run for 10 minutes of every hour between the start and end times of the filter. A non-recurring filter runs continuously between the start and end times of the filter.
  10. Beginning: Enter a date and time for the filter to begin operation.
  11. Ending: Enter an end date and time for the filter.
  12. Recurring Duration: How long a recurring filter instance is active. This field, applicable to recurring filters only, begins at the Beginning time specified above. Any notification generated outside of the specified duration is not filtered.
  13. Recurring Frequency: How often the filter activates.
Notification filters cannot be deleted. However, a filter may be canceled by setting the end date to some time in the past. (Note that the end date must be equal to or later than the start date, or the change fails.) Another method is to select a set of filters from the Active page and click the Expire Notification Filters button in the lower right. These filters are then canceled and appears in the Expired Filters tab.
6.10.2.1.2. Notification ⇒ Notification Filters ⇒ Expired Filters
This tab lists all notification filters whose end date has passed. Expired filters are stored indefinitely; this allows an organization to recycle useful filters as needed and provides a historical record for troubleshooting.

6.10.3. Probe Suites

Probe Suites allow you to configure and apply one or more probes to a system or systems. Probe Suites may be configured once and then applied to any number of systems in a batch. This results in time savings and consistency for Monitoring customers.
To create and apply a Probe Suite, first create an empty Probe Suite, then configure member probes, and finally apply the Suite to selected systems.
  1. From the Monitoring ⇒ Probe Suites page, select the create probe suite link. Enter an easily distinguishable name for the Probe Suite. You may also choose to add a brief description of the Suite. Click the Create Probe Suite button to continue.
  2. Add and configure the probes that comprise the Suite. Click the create new probe link in the upper right.
  3. As described in Section 6.4.2.9.5, “System Details ⇒ Monitoring — , configure the probe and click the Create Probe button in the lower right. Repeat this process until all desired probes have been added.

    Note

    Sendmail must be configured correctly on your RHN Satellite Server and each client system to which the Probe Suite is applied must have the rhnmd daemon installed and running. Refer to the RHN Satellite Server 5.0.0 Installation Guide for additional information.
  4. Add the systems to which the Probe Suite applies. Click the add systems to probe suite link in the upper right of the screen to continue.
  5. The next page displays a list of all systems with Monitoring entitlements. Check the box to the left of the system(s) to which you wish to apply the Probe Suite, select the monitoring scout you wish to use, and click the Add systems to probe suite button to complete the creation of the Probe Suite.
You can either delete or detach probes from the suite. Detaching a probe disassociates the probes from the suite and converts them to system-specific probes for the specified system. This means that changes to the detached probes only effect that system. Deleting a probe removes it from the Suite for all systems.
To remove probes from the Probe Suite:
  1. From the Monitoring ⇒ Probe Suites page, click on the title of the Probe Suite you wish to alter.
  2. Select the Probes sub-tab.
  3. Check the box next to the probe you wish to remove.
  4. Click the Delete probes from Probe Suites button.
You may also remove a system from the Probe Suite. There are two ways to accomplish this. The first method is to detach the system from the Probe Suite. When you do so, the system still has the same probes assigned to it. However, you now have the ability to configure these probes individually without affecting any other systems. For more information about removing probes from an individual system, refer to Section 6.4.2.9.5, “System Details ⇒ Monitoring — .
To detach a system from the suite:
  1. From the MonitoringProbe Suites page, click on the title of the Probe Suite you wish to alter.
  2. Select the Systems sub-tab.
  3. Check the box next to the system(s) you wish to remove from the Probe Suite.
  4. Click the Detach System(s) from Probe Suite button
The second method is to remove the system from the suite. This removes the system from the suite and deletes all running probes from the system.

Note

This action deletes all of the Probe Suites' probes from the system as well as all of the historical Time Series and Event Log data. This action is irreversible.
To remove a system from the Probe Suite and delete all associated probes from the system:
  1. From the Monitoring ⇒ Probe Suites page, click on the title of the Probe Suite you wish to alter.
  2. Select the Systems sub-tab.
  3. Check the box next to the system(s) you wish to remove from the Probe Suite.
  4. Click the Remove System(s) from Probe Suite button.
Finally, as with single Probes, you may download a CSV file containing information about Probe Suites. Click the Download CSV link at the bottom of the MonitoringProbe Suites page to download the file.

6.10.4. Scout Config Push —

Displays the status of your monitoring infrastructure. Anytime you make a change to your monitoring configuration, such as adding a probe to a system or editing a probe's thresholds, you must reconfigure your monitoring infrastructure. Do this by selecting the RHN Server's checkbox and clicking Push Scout Configs. The table on this page identifies the date and time of requested and completed pushes.
Clicking the name of the server opens its Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon SSH Public Key. This allows you to copy and paste the SSH key to the systems that are monitored by the scout. This is required in order for the Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon to connect to the Satellite.

6.10.5. General Config —

Collects information that is universally applicable to your Monitoring infrastructure.Modifying anything on this page causes the Monitoring services on the RHN Satellite Server to reset. It also schedules restart events for the Monitoring services on all Monitoring-enabled RHN Proxy Servers that connect to this Satellite. This is done so that the Monitoring services on these servers immediately reload their configuration.
Typically, the defaults provided in other fields are acceptable, since they are derived from your Satellite installation. Nevertheless, you may use the fields on this page to alter your Monitoring configuration. For instance, you may change your mail exchange server here. This page also allows you to alter the destination of all administrative emails from the Satellite. When finished, click Update Config.

6.11. Satellite Tools

This page allows RHN Satellite Server customers to manage the basic configuration of their Satellite. The default page, Task Engine Status, provides a summary of the latest execution times for key tasks.
Satellite Tools

Figure 6.22. Satellite Tools

6.11.1. Satellite Tools ⇒ Satellite Configuration

This tab is broken down into sub-tabs that allow you to configure most aspects of the RHN Satellite Server. Once changes have been made, it is important to restart the Satellite, which may be accomplished on the final tab.

6.11.1.1. Satellite Tools ⇒ Satellite Configuration ⇒ General

The Satellite Configuration ⇒ General Configuration page allows you to alter the most basic Satellite settings, such as the admin email address and whether Monitoring is enabled.

6.11.1.2. Satellite Tools ⇒ Satellite Configuration ⇒ Monitoring

The RHN Satellite Configuration ⇒ Monitoring page allows you to configure the monitoring aspects of this Satellite. The local mail exchanger and local main domain are used to mail monitoring notification messages to administration. This is required only if you intend to receive alert notifications from probes. If you do, provide the mail server (exchanger) and domain to be used. Note that sendmail must be configured to handle email redirects of notifications. When finished, click Update Config.

6.11.1.3. Satellite Tools ⇒ Satellite Configuration ⇒ Certificate

The RHN Satellite Configuration ⇒ Certificate page allows you to either upload a new Satellite certificate. To identify the certificate's path, click Browse, navigate to the file, and select it. To input its contents, open your certificate in a text editor, copy all lines, and paste them directly into the large text field at the bottom. Red Hat recommends using the file locator as it is less error prone. Click Validate Certificate to continue. If you receive errors related to DNS, ensure your Satellite is configured correctly.

6.11.1.4. Satellite Tools ⇒ Satellite Configuration ⇒ Bootstrap

The RHN Satellite Configuration ⇒ Bootstrap page allows you to generate a bootstrap script for redirecting client systems from the central RHN Servers to the Satellite. This script, to be placed in the /var/www/html/pub/bootstrap/ directory of the Satellite, significantly reduces the effort involved in reconfiguring all systems, which by default obtain packages from the central RHN Servers. The required fields are pre-populated with values derived from previous installation steps. Ensure this information is accurate.
Checkboxes offer options for including built-in security SSL and GNU Privacy Guard (GPG) features, both of which are advised. In addition, you may enable remote command acceptance and remote configuration management of the systems to be bootstrapped here. Both features are useful for completing client configuration. Finally, if you are using an HTTP proxy server, complete the related fields. When finished, click Generate Bootstrap Script.

6.11.1.5. Satellite Tools ⇒ Satellite Configuration ⇒ Restart

The RHN Satellite Configuration ⇒ Restart page contains the final step in configuring the Satellite. Click the Restart button to restart the Satellite in order to incorporate all of the configuration options added on the previous screens. Note that it will take between four and five minutes for the restart to finish.

6.11.2. Satellite Tools ⇒ Satellite Configuration ⇒ String Manager

The Satellite String Manager allows you to control the standard strings generated in emails from the Satellite. You can customize the email account information, the email footer, and the hostname for the Satellite.
Click on the label of the information you wish to alter for your satellite. Edit the text on the following screen, and click the Submit button to save your changes.

6.12. Help

The Help pages provide access to the full suite of documentation and support available to RHN users. Click Help in the Your RHN category to see a list of options available to you.

6.12.1. Help Desk

The Help Desk page summarizes the help options available within this section. Click either the links within this page or the buttons on the left navigation bar to explore further.

6.12.2. Quick Start Guide

The Quick Start Guide page contains a brief overview of Red Hat Network and its many features. If you are unfamiliar with RHN, it is recommended you read this guide in its entirety. Topics covered include registering your systems, applying Errata Updates, using one-click updates, and troubleshooting.

6.12.3. FAQ

The FAQ page lists Frequently Asked Questions and answers to those questions. These are broken down into the following categories, each represented by a separate button and page: Top Ten, General, Account Management, Getting Started, Service Levels, Using RHN, Technical Questions, Management Service, Privacy/Legal, Policies, Definitions, and All.

6.12.4. Migration FAQ

Frequently Asked Questions regarding migration from RHL end-of-life products.

6.12.5. Reference Guide

The Reference Guide page takes you to this same document, the most comprehensive set of instructions for using Red Hat Network. Note that links to other technical guides may also appear in the left navigation bar, depending on the entitlement level and product offering of the account with which you logged in.

6.12.6. Best Practices Guide

A set of best practices for corporate RHN users.

6.12.7. Contact RHN

The Contact RHN page provides methods by which customers may obtain help. Specifically, logged out users have access to the FAQ, Customer Service email address, and rhn-users mailing list. Logged in paid users have access to all of the above and an online form that can be submitted to rhn-feedback or the Customer Service address. In addition, the online form enables them to submit requests for technical support.
The Customer Service address handles billing and purchasing questions, while the rhn-users list enables customers to help one another. The rhn-feedback address collects customer input and provides an auto response, but nothing more. The technical support form ensures the customer will get a personalized and helpful response in a timely manner.

6.12.8. Satellite Installation Guide

Detailed information regarding RHN Satellite server and its installation.

6.12.9. Proxy Guide

Detailed information regarding RHN Proxy server.

6.12.10. Client Configuration Guide

Documentation for setting up clients to connect to an RHN Proxy or Satellite server.

6.12.11. Channel Management Guide

Documentation for the creation and maintenance of custom channels using RHN.

6.12.12. Terms &Conditions

The Terms &Conditions page displays the RHN Network Services Use and Subscription Agreement.

6.12.13. Outage Policy

The Outage Policy page identifies scheduled maintenance windows for Red Hat Network and provides the means to subscribe to the Email Outage List (rhn-outage-list@redhat.com) to be notified of emergency and other unscheduled outages.

6.12.14. Release Notes

The Release Notes page lists the notes accompanying every recent release of Red Hat Network. These notes describe all significant changes occurring in a given release cycle, from major enhancements to the user interface to minor changes to the related documentation.

6.12.15. Get RHN Software

The RHN Software page provides direct links to the Red Hat Update Agent and Red Hat Network Registration Client for every supported distribution. In addition, it describes how to resolve expired Secure Sockets Layers (SSL) certificates if you are using an older version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux that shipped with a certificate that is now expired.

Chapter 7. Monitoring

The Red Hat Network Monitoring entitlement allows you to perform a whole host of actions designed to keep your systems running properly and efficiently. With it, you can keep close watch on system resources, network services, databases, and both standard and custom applications.
Monitoring provides both real-time and historical state-change information, as well as specific metric data. You are not only notified of failures immediately and warned of performance degradation before it becomes critical, but you are also given the information necessary to conduct capacity planning and event correlation. For instance, the results of a probe recording CPU usage across systems would prove invaluable in balancing loads on those systems.
Monitoring entails establishing notification methods, installing probes on systems, regularly reviewing the status of all probes, and generating reports displaying historical data for a system or service. This chapter seeks to identify common tasks associated with the Monitoring entitlement. Remember, virtually all changes affecting your Monitoring infrastructure must be finalized by updating your configuration, through the Scout Config Push page.

7.1. Prerequisites

Before attempting to implement RHN Monitoring within your infrastructure, ensure you have all of the necessary tools in place. At a minimum, you need:
  • Monitoring entitlements — These entitlements are required for all systems that are to be monitored. Monitoring is supported only on Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems.
  • RHN Satellite Server with Monitoring — Monitoring systems must be connected to a Satellite with a base operating system of Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 3 Update 5, Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 4, or later. Refer to the RHN Satellite Server Installation Guide within Help for installation instructions. Contact a Red Hat sales representative to purchase Satellite.
  • Monitoring Administrator — This role must be granted to users installing probes, creating notification methods, or altering the monitoring infrastructure in any way. (Remember, the Organization Administrator automatically inherits the abilities of all other roles within an organization and can therefore conduct these tasks.). Assign this role through the User Details page for the user.
  • Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon — This daemon, along with the SSH key for the scout, is required on systems that are monitored in order for the internal process monitors to be executed. You may, however, be able to run these probes using the systems' existing SSH daemon (sshd). Refer to Section 7.2, “Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd)” for installation instructions and a quick list of probes requiring this secure connection. Refer to Appendix C, Probes for the complete list of available probes.

7.2. Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd)

To get the most out of your Monitoring entitlement, Red Hat suggests installing the Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemonon your client systems. Based upon OpenSSH, rhnmd enables the RHN Satellite Server to communicate securely with the client system to access internal processes and retrieve probe status.
Please note that the Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemonrequires that monitored systems allow connections on port 4545. You may avoid opening this port and installing the daemon altogether by using sshd instead. Refer to Section 7.2.3, “Configuring SSH” for details.

7.2.1. Probes requiring the daemon

An encrypted connection, either through the Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemonor sshd, is required on client systems for the following probes to run:
  • Linux::CPU Usage
  • Linux::Disk IO Throughput
  • Linux::Disk Usage
  • Linux::Inodes
  • Linux::Interface Traffic
  • Linux::Load
  • Linux::Memory Usage
  • Linux::Process Counts by State
  • Linux::Process Count Total
  • Linux::Process Health
  • Linux::Process Running
  • Linux::Swap Usage
  • Linux::TCP Connections by State
  • Linux::Users
  • Linux::Virtual Memory
  • LogAgent::Log Pattern Match
  • LogAgent::Log Size
  • Network Services::Remote Ping
  • Oracle::Client Connectivity
  • General::Remote Program
  • General::Remote Program with Data
Note that all probes in the Linux group have this requirement.

7.2.2. Installing the Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon

Install the Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemonto prepare systems for monitoring with the probes identified in Section 7.2.1, “Probes requiring the daemon”. Note that the steps in this section are optional if you intend to use sshd to allow secure connections between the RHN monitoring infrastructure and the monitored systems. Refer to Section 7.2.3, “Configuring SSH” for instructions.
The rhnmd package can be found in the RHN Tools channel for all Red Hat Enterprise Linux distributions. To install it:
  1. Subscribe the systems to be monitored to the RHN Tools channel associated with the system. This can be done individually through the System Details ⇒ Channels ⇒ Software sub-tab or for multiple systems at once through the Channel Details ⇒ Target Systems tab.
  2. Once subscribed, open the Channel Details ⇒ Packages tab and find the rhnmd package (under 'R').
  3. Click the package name to open the Package Details page. Go to the Target Systems tab, select the desired systems, and click Install Packages.
  4. Install the SSH public key on all client systems to be monitored, as described in Section 7.2.4, “Installing the SSH key”.
  5. Start the Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemonon all client systems using the command:
    service rhnmd start
  6. When adding probes requiring the daemon, accept the default values for RHNMD User and RHNMD Port: nocpulse and 4545, respectively.

7.2.3. Configuring SSH

If you wish to avoid installing the Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemonand opening port 4545 on client systems, you may configure sshd to provide the encrypted connection required between the systems and RHN. This may be especially desirable if you already have sshd running. To configure the daemon for monitoring use:
  1. Ensure the SSH package is installed on the systems to be monitored:
    rpm -qi openssh-server
  2. Identify the user to be associated with the daemon. This can be any user available on the system, as long as the required SSH key can be put in the user's ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file.
  3. Identify the port used by the daemon, as identified in its /etc/ssh/sshd_config configuration file. The default is port 22.
  4. Install the SSH public key on all client systems to be monitored, as described in Section 7.2.4, “Installing the SSH key”.
  5. Start the sshd on all client systems using the command:
    service sshd start
  6. When adding probes requiring the daemon, insert the values derived from steps 2 and 3 in the RHNMD User and RHNMD Port fields.

7.2.4. Installing the SSH key

Whether you use rhnmd or sshd, you must install the Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemonpublic SSH key on the systems to be monitored to complete the secure connection. To install it:
  1. Navigate to the Monitoring ⇒ Scout Config Push page of the RHN website and click the name of the RHN Server that will monitor the client system. The SSH id_dsa.pub key is visible on the resulting page.
  2. Copy the character string (beginning with ssh-dss and ending with the hostname of the RHN Server).
  3. On the command line of the system to be monitored, switch to the user aligned with the daemon. This is accomplished for rhnmd with the command:
    su - nocpulse
  4. Paste the key character string into the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file for the daemon's user. For rhnmd, this is /opt/nocpulse/.ssh/authorized_keys.
    If config management is enabled on the systems to be monitored, you may deploy this file across systems using a config channel.

    Note

    If valid entries already exist in authorized_keys, add the daemon key to the file rather than replacing the existing key. To do so, save the copied text to id_dsa.pub in the same .ssh/ directory and then run the following command: cat ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys.
  5. Finally, ensure the .ssh/ directory and authorized_keys file have the appropriate permissions set. This can be done as the daemon's user with the following commands:
    chmod 700 ~/.ssh 
    chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
Once the key is in place and accessible, all probes that require it should allow ssh connections between the Monitoring infrastructure and the monitored system. You may then schedule probes requiring the monitoring daemon to run against the newly configured systems.

7.3. mysql-server package

If your RHN Satellite Server will serve Monitoring-entitled client systems against which you wish to run MySQL probes, you must configure the mysql-server package on the RHN Satellite Server. Refer to Appendix C, Probes for a listing of all available probes.
Subscribe the Satellite to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS Extras channel and install the mysql-server package either through the RHN website or via up2date.
Two additional packages will also be downloaded in the transaction. These are needed for the mysql-server package to be installed and run successfully. Once finished, your Satellite may be used to schedule MySQL probes.

7.4. Notifications

In addition to viewing probe status within the RHN interface, you may be notified whenever a probe changes state. This is especially important when monitoring mission-critical production systems. For this reason, Red Hat recommends taking advantage of this feature.
To enable probe notifications within RHN, you must have identified a mail exchange server and mail domain during installation of your RHN Satellite Server and configured sendmail to properly handle incoming mail. Refer to the Installation chapter of the RHN Satellite Server Installation Guide for details.

7.4.1. Creating Notification Methods

Notifications are sent via a notification method, an email or pager address associated with a specific RHN user. Although the address is tied to a particular user account, it may serve multiple administrators through an alias or mailing list. Each user account can contain multiple notification methods. To create a notification method:
  1. Log into the RHN website as either an Organization Administrator or Monitoring Administrator.
  2. Navigate to the User Details ⇒ Notification Methods tab and click create new method.
  3. Enter an intuitive, descriptive label for the method name, such as DBA day email, and provide the correct email or pager address. Remember, the labels for all notification methods are available in a single list during probe creation, so they should be unique to your organization.
  4. Select the checkbox if you desire abbreviated messages to be sent to the pager. This shorter format contains only the probe state, system hostname, probe name, time of message, and Send ID. The standard, longer format displays additional message headers, system and probe details, and instructions for response.
  5. When finished, click Create Method. The new method shows up in the User Details ⇒ Notification Methods tab and the Notification page under the top Monitoring category. Click its name to edit or delete it.
  6. While adding probes, select the Probe Notifications checkbox and select the new notification method from the resulting pulldown menu. Notification methods assigned to probes cannot be deleted until they are dis-associated from the probe.

7.4.2. Receiving Notifications

If you create notification methods and associate them with probes, you must be prepared to receive them. These notifications come in the form of brief text messages sent to either email or pager addresses. Here is an example of an email notification:
Subject: CRITICAL: [hostname]: Satellite: Users at 1
From: "Monitoring Satellite Notification" (rogerthat01@redhat.com)
Date: Mon, 6 Dec 2004 13:42:28 -0800  
To: user@organization.com

This is RHN Monitoring Satellite notification 01dc8hqw. 

Time: Mon Dec 06, 21:42:25 PST 
State: CRITICAL
System: [hostname] ([IP address]) 
Probe: Satellite: Users 
Message: Users 6 (above critical threshold of 2)
Notification #116 for Users
 
Run from: RHN Monitoring Satellite
As you can see, the longer email notifications contain virtually everything you would need to know about the associated probe. In addition to the probe command, run time, system monitored, and state, the message contains the Send ID, which is a unique character string representing the precise message and probe. In the above message, the Send ID is 01dc8hqw.
Pager notifications, by necessity, contain only the most important details, namely the subject of the email message (containing state, system, probe, and time) and the Send ID. Here is an example pager notification:
 CRITICAL: [hostname]: Satellite: Users at 21:42 PST, notification 01dc8hqw 

7.4.3. Redirecting Notifications

Upon receiving a notification, you may redirect it by including advanced notification rules within an acknowledgment email. Just reply to the notification and include the desired option. These are the possible redirect options, or filter types:
  • ACK METOO — Sends the notification to the redirect destination(s) in addition to the default destination.
  • ACK SUSPEND — Suspends the notification method for a specified time period.
  • ACK AUTOACK — Does not change the destination of the notification, but automatically acknowledges matching alerts as soon as they are sent.
  • ACK REDIR — Sends the notification to the redirect destination(s) instead of the default destination.
The format of the rule should be filter_type probe_type duration email_address where filter_type indicates one of the previous advanced commands, probe_type indicates probe or system, duration indicates the length of time for the redirect, and email_address indicates the intended recipient. For example:
 ACK METOO system 1h boss@domain.com 
Capitalization is not required. Duration can be listed in minutes (m), hours (h), or days (d). Email addresses are needed only for redirects (REDIR) and supplemental (METOO) notifications.
The description of the action contained in the resulting email defaults to the command entered by the user. The reason listed is a summary of the action, such as email ack redirect by user@domain.com where user equals the sender of the email.

Note

You can halt or redirect almost all probe notifications by replying to a notification emails with a variation of the command ack suspend host. However, you cannot halt Satellite probe notifications by responding to a probe with ack suspend host or other redirect responses. These probes require you to change the notifications within the web interface of the Satellite.

7.4.4. Filtering Notifications

Since notifications can be generated whenever a probe changes state, simple changes in your network can result in a flood of notifications. The creation, cancellation, and application of Notification filters is discussed in detail in Section 6.10.2.1, “Notification ⇒ Filters”.

7.4.5. Deleting Notification Methods

Theoretically, removing notification methods should be as easy as creating them. After all, you must populate no fields to conduct the deletion and a button exists for this explicit purpose. However, existing relationships between methods and probes can complicate this process. Follow these steps to remove a notification method:
  1. Log into the RHN website as an Organization Administrator or Monitoring Administrator.
  2. Navigate to the Monitoring ⇒ Notifications page and click the name of the method to be removed.
  3. On the User Details ⇒ Notification Methods tab, click delete method. If the method is not associated with any probes, you are presented with a confirmation page. Click Confirm Deletion. The notification method is removed.

    Note

    Since both the notification method name and address can be edited, consider updating the method rather than deleting it. This redirects notifications from all probes using the method without having to edit each probe and create a new notification method.
  4. If the method is associated with one or more probes, you are presented with a list of the probes using the method and the systems to which the probes are attached instead of a confirmation page. Click the probe name to go directly to the System Details ⇒ Probes tab.
  5. On the System Details ⇒ Probes tab, select another notification method and click Update Probe.
  6. You may now return to the Monitoring ⇒ Notifications page and delete the notification method.

7.5. Probes

Now that the Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemonhas been installed and notification methods have been created, you may begin installing probes on your Monitoring-entitled systems. If a system is entitled to Monitoring, a Probes tab appears within its System Details page. This is where you will conduct most probe-related work.

7.5.1. Managing Probes

To add a probe to a system, the system must be entitled to Monitoring. Further, you must have access to the system itself, either as the system's root user, through the System Group Administrator role, or as the Organization Administrator. Then:
  1. Log into the RHN website as either an Organization Administrator or the System Group Administrator for the system.
  2. Navigate to the System Details ⇒ Probes tab and click create new probe.
  3. On the System Probe Creation page, complete all required fields. First, select the Probe Command Group. This alters the list of available probes and other fields and requirements. Refer to Appendix C, Probes for the complete list of probes by command group. Remember that some probes require the Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemonto be installed on the client system.
  4. Select the desired Probe Command and the Monitoring Scout, typically RHN Monitoring Satellite but possibly an RHN Proxy Server. Enter a brief but unique description for the probe.
  5. Select the Probe Notifications checkbox to receive notifications when the probe changes state. Use the Probe Check Interval pulldown menu to determine how often notifications should be sent. Selecting 1 minute (and the Probe Notification checkbox) means you will receive notifications every minute the probe surpasses its CRITICAL or WARNING thresholds. Refer to Section 7.4, “Notifications” to find out how to create notification methods and acknowledge their messages.
  6. Use the RHNMD User and RHNMD Port fields, if they appear, to force the probe to communicate via sshd, rather than the Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon. Refer to Section 7.2.3, “Configuring SSH” for details. Otherwise, accept the default values of nocpulse and 4545, respectively.
  7. If the Timeout field appears, review the default value and adjust to meet your needs. Most but not all timeouts result in an UNKNOWN state. If the probe's metrics are time-based, ensure the timeout is not less than the time alloted to thresholds. Otherwise, the metrics serve no purpose, as the probe will time out before any thresholds are crossed.
  8. Use the remaining fields to establish the probe's alert thresholds, if applicable. These CRITICAL and WARNING values determine at what point the probe has changed state. Refer to Section 7.5.2, “Establishing Thresholds” for best practices regarding these thresholds.
  9. When finished, click Create Probe. Remember, you must commit your Monitoring configuration change on the Scout Config Push page for this to take effect.
To delete a probe, navigate to its Current State page (by clicking the name of the probe from the System Details ⇒ Probes tab), and click delete probe. Finally, confirm the deletion.

7.5.2. Establishing Thresholds

Many of the probes offered by RHN contain alert thresholds that, when crossed, indicate a change in state for the probe. For instance, the Linux::CPU Usage probe allows you to set CRITICAL and WARNING thresholds for the percent of CPU used. If the monitored system reports 75 percent of its CPU used, and the WARNING threshold is set to 70 percent, the probe will go into a WARNING state. Some probes offer a multitude of such thresholds.
In order to get the most out of your Monitoring entitlement and avoid false notifications, Red Hat recommends running your probes without notifications for a time to establish baseline performance for each of your systems. Although the default values provided for probes may suit you, every organization has a different environment that may require altering thresholds.

7.5.3. Monitoring the RHN Server

In addition to monitoring all of your client systems, you may also use RHN to monitor your RHN Server, whether that be an RHN Satellite Server a RHN Proxy Server. To monitor your RHN Server, find a system monitored by the server, and go to that system's System Details ⇒ Probes tab.
Click create new probe and select the Satellite Probe Command Group. Next, complete the remaining fields as you would for any other probe. Refer to Section 7.5.1, “Managing Probes” for instructions.
Although the RHN Server appears to be monitored by the client system, the probe is actually run from the server on itself. Thresholds and notifications work normally.

Note

Any probes that require Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemonconnections cannot be used against a RHN Satellite Server or RHN Proxy Server on which Monitoring software is running. This includes most probes in the Linux command group as well as the Log Agent probes and the Remote Program probes. Use the Satellite command group probes to monitor RHN Satellite Servers and RHN Proxy Servers. In the case of Proxy scouts, the probes are listed under the system for which they are reporting data.

7.6. Troubleshooting

Though all Monitoring-related activities are conducted through the RHN website, Red Hat provides access to some command line diagnostic tools that may help you determine the cause of errors. To use these tools, you must be able to become the nocpulse user on the RHN Server conducting the monitoring.
First log into the RHN Server as root. Then switch to the nocpulse user with the following command:
su - nocpulse
You may now use the diagnostic tools described within the rest of this section.

7.6.1. Examining Probes with rhn-catalog

To thoroughly troubleshoot a probe, you must first obtain its probe ID. You may obtain this information by running rhn-catalog on the RHN Server as the nocpulse user. The output will resemble:
2 ServiceProbe on example1.redhat.com (199.168.36.245): test 2
3 ServiceProbe on example2.redhat.com (199.168.36.173): rhel2.1 test
4 ServiceProbe on example3.redhat.com (199.168.36.174): SSH
5 ServiceProbe on example4.redhat.com (199.168.36.175): HTTP
The probe ID is the first number, while the probe name (as entered in the RHN website) is the final entry on the line. In the above example, the 5 probe ID corresponds to the probe named HTTP.
Further, you may pass the --commandline (-c) and --dump (-d) options along with a probe ID to rhn-catalog to obtain additional details about the probe, like so:
rhn-catalog --commandline --dump 5 
The --commandline option yields the command parameters set for the probe, while --dump retrieves everything else, including alert thresholds and notification intervals and methods.
The command above will result in output similar to:
5 ServiceProbe on example4.redhat.com (199.168.36.175 ):
linux:cpu usage
 Run as: Unix::CPU.pm --critical=90 --sshhost=199.168.36.175
--warn=70 --timeout=15 --sshuser=nocpulse
--shell=SSHRemoteCommandShell --sshport=4545
Now that you have the ID, you use it with rhn-rhnprobe to examine the probe's output. Refer to Section 7.6.2, “Viewing the output of rhn-runprobe for instructions.

7.6.2. Viewing the output of rhn-runprobe

Now that you have obtained the probe ID with rhn-catalog, use it in conjunction with rhn-runprobe to examine the complete output of the probe. Note that by default, rhn-runprobe works in test mode, meaning no results are entered in the database. Here are its options:

Table 7.1. rhn-runprobe Options

Option Description
--help List the available options and exit.
--probe=PROBE_ID Run the probe with this ID.
--prob_arg=PARAMETER Override any probe parameters from the database.
--module=PERL_MODULE Package name of alternate code to run.
--log=all=LEVEL Set log level for a package or package prefix.
--debug=LEVEL Set numeric debugging level.
--live Execute the probe, enqueue data and send out notifications (if needed).
At a minimum, you should include the --probe option, the --log option, and values for each. The --probe option takes the probeID as its value and the --log option takes the value "all" (for all run levels) and a numeric verbosity level as its values. Here is an example:
rhn-runprobe --probe=5 --log=all=4 
The above command requests the probe output for probeID 5, for all run levels, with a high level of verbosity.
More specifically, you may provide the command parameters derived from rhn-catalog, like so:
rhn-runprobe 5 --log=all=4 --sshuser=nocpulse --sshport=4545 
This yields verbose output depicting the probe's attempted execution. Errors are clearly identified.

Chapter 8. UNIX Support Guide

8.1. Introduction

This chapter documents the installation procedure for, and identifies differences in, Red Hat Network functionality when used to manage UNIX-based client systems. RHN offers UNIX support to help customers migrate from UNIX to Linux. Because of the limited scope of this task, the features offered for UNIX client management are not as comprehensive as those available for managing Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems.
Subsequent sections specify supported UNIX variants, RHN features supported by the UNIX management system, the prerequisites for managing a UNIX system with RHN, as well as the installation procedure for UNIX clients.

8.1.1. Supported UNIX Variants

The following UNIX variants, versions, and architectures are supported by Red Hat Network:
  • Solaris 8, 9, 10 (sparc)
  • Solaris 9, 10 (x86)

8.1.2. Prerequisites

These items are needed to obtain UNIX support:
  • RHN Satellite Server 5.0.0 or later
  • A Satellite certificate with Management entitlements
  • Management entitlements for each UNIX client
  • RHN packages for UNIX including python, pyOpenSSL, and the Red Hat Network Client packages.
  • Sunfreeware packages that provide supporting libraries. Some of these packages are available via the RHN Satellite Server. Refer to Section 8.2.2.1, “Download and Install Additional Packages” for the complete list.

8.1.3. Included Features

The following features are included in the UNIX support service level as they exist within RHN:
  • The Red Hat Network Service Daemon (rhnsd), which triggers rhn_check according to a configurable interval
  • The Red Hat Network Configuration Client (rhncfg-client), which executes all configuration actions scheduled from the Satellite
  • The Red Hat Network Configuration Manager (rhncfg-manager), which allows command line administration of RHN configuration channels
  • The rhn_check program, which checks in with the Satellite and performs any actions scheduled from the server
  • All Management-level functionality, such as system grouping, package profile comparison, and use of the System Set Manager to administer multiple systems at once
  • A Provisioning feature called Remote Command that enables users to schedule root-level commands on any managed client through the Satellite's website, if the client allows this action

8.1.4. Differences in Functionality

The following RHN features work differently in a UNIX environment:
  • The Red Hat Update Agent for UNIX offers a much smaller set of options than its Linux counterpart and relies upon the operating system's native toolset for package installation, rather than rpm - Refer to Section 8.3.2.3, “Updating From the Command Line” for the precise list of options.
  • The RHN Push application has been similarly modified to upload native UNIX file types, including packages, patches, and patch clusters.
    Since Solaris package, patch and patch cluster files are different from RPM files, the channel upload mechanism is somewhat different.There are two applications in the rhnpush package for Solaris:
    • The first, solaris2mpm, is an RHN utility that create an MPM file for each Solaris package or patch. The neutral format of the MPM file allows the Satellite to understand and manage the uploaded files.
    • The second, rhnpush, has been extended so that it can handle MOM as well as RPM files. Otherwise, it operates identically to the Linux version of rhnpush.
  • The Channels tab of the RHN website has been augmented to accommodate the storage and installation of native UNIX file types.

8.1.5. Excluded Features

The following RHN features are not available with the UNIX support system:
  • All Provisioning-level functionality, such as kickstarting and package rollback, with the exception of configuration file management
  • All Errata-related options, since the concept of Errata Updates is not understood in UNIX
  • Source files for packages
In addition, answer files are not yet supported. Support for such files is planned for a future release.

8.2. Preparation

Preparation and configuration steps must be performed on both the Satellite and the UNIX client before management via RHN may begin. The next sections describe this in detail.

8.2.1. Satellite Server Preparation/Configuration

You must configure the Satellite to support UNIX clients before the required files are available for deployment to the client systems. This can be accomplished in one of two ways, depending on whether you have yet installed your Satellite server:
  1. During the Satellite installation:
    Enable UNIX support on the Satellite by checking the "Enable Solaris Support" box during the installation process, as pictured:
    Enabling UNIX Support During Satellite Installation

    Figure 8.1. Enabling UNIX Support During Satellite Installation

  2. After the Satellite has been installed:
    Enable UNIX support by configuring the Satellite after it has been installed. To do so, select Satellite Tools in the top menubar, then select Satellite Configuration in the left navigation bar. In the screen that follows, check the Enable Solaris Support box, as pictured:
    Enabling UNIX Support After Satellite Installation

    Figure 8.2. Enabling UNIX Support After Satellite Installation

    Click the Update Configuration button to confirm the change.
  3. Finally, you must create a base channel to which your client systems may subscribe. This is because RHN does not provide UNIX content; as a result, you cannot use satellite-sync to create the channel.
    To create a Solaris channel, login to the web interface of the Satellite as either an Organization Administrator or a certificate authority. Navigate to the Channel tab, followed by the Manage Software Channels from the left navigation bar. Click the create new channel link in the upper right of the resulting screen. Provide a name and label for your new channel, and select either Sparc Solaris or i386 Solaris as the architecture, depending on the architecture of your client.

8.2.2. Client System Preparation

Before your UNIX-based client systems benefit from Red Hat Network, they must be prepared for connection:
  1. Download and install gzip and required third-party libraries.
  2. Download the RHN application tarball from the Satellite to the client and install the contents.
  3. Next, deploy the SSL certificates required for a secure connection.
  4. Configure the client applications to connect to the RHN Satellite Server.
Once finished, your systems will be ready to begin receiving RHN updates. The following three section explain these steps in detail.

8.2.2.1. Download and Install Additional Packages

This section steps you through the process of downloading and installing third-party applications and the RHN applications from the Satellite onto the UNIX client.
Of primary importance is the Red Hat Update Agent for UNIX (up2date), which provides the link between your client systems and Red Hat Network. The UNIX-specific version of the Red Hat Update Agent is limited in functionality compared to its Linux counterpart but still enables system registration and facilitates package installs and patches. Refer to Section 8.3, “Registration and Updates” for a full description of the tool's options.

Note

It may be useful to enter the command bash when first logging into the Solaris client. If the BASH shell is available, it will make the system's behavior as Linux-like as possible.
8.2.2.1.1. Install Third-Party Packages
Installation of the RHN applications cannot proceed unless the following utility and libraries are present:
  • gzip
  • libgcc
  • openssl
  • zlib
The gzip utility is provided by the SUNWgzip package and may be downloaded from http://www.sunfreeware.com.
On recent versions of Solaris, the necessary libraries are provided by the following natively installed packages:
  • SUNWgccruntime
  • SUNWopenssl*
  • SUNWzlib
For older Solaris versions, the following required packages may be downloaded from http://www.sunfreeware.com:
  • SMClibgcc or SMCgcc
  • SMCossl
  • SMCzlib
To verify if a package is installed on the client, use the pkginfo command. For example, to check for a package that contains "zlib" in the name, run the following command:
# pkginfo | grep zlib

Note

Solaris package archive names differ from the name of the installed package. For example, the package archive libgcc<version>-sol<solaris-version>-sparc-local.gz becomes SMClibgcc after installation
8.2.2.1.2. Configure the Library Search Path
In order to allow the Solaris client to use the libraries installed in the previous step, you must add their location to the library search path. To do so, use one of the following commands, depending on the architecture of the client:
On Sparc:
# crle -c /var/ld/ld.conifg -l /lib:/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib
On x86:
# crle -c /var/ld/ld.config -l /lib:/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/sfw/lib
8.2.2.1.3. Download RHN Client Packages
Download the appropriate tarball of packages from the /var/www/html/pub/ directory of your Satellite. If you are able to use a GUI web browser like Mozilla, navigate to the /pub directory of the Satellite and save the appropriate tarball to your client:
http://your-satellite.example.com/pub/rhn-solaris-bootstrap-<version>-<solaris-arch>-<solaris-version>.tar.gz
If you must download the tarball from the command line, it should be possible to use ftp to transfer the file from the Satellite to the client.
Using gzip, decompress the tarball. You should have the following packages:
  • RHATpossl
  • RHATrcfg
  • RHATrcfga
  • RHATrcfgc
  • THATrcfgm
  • RHATrhnc
  • RHATrhnl
  • RHATrpush
  • RHATsmart
SMClibgcc and SMCosslg may also be included in the tarball.
8.2.2.1.4. Install the RHN Packages
Change to the uncompressed directory and use the UNIX variant's native installation tool to install each package. For example, on Solaris, use the pkgadd command. Answer "yes" to any prompts during package install.
Here is how a typical installation might proceed:
# pkgadd -d RHATpossl-0.6-1.p24.6.pkg all 
# pkgadd -d RHATpythn-2.4.1-2.rhn.4.sol9.pkg all 
# pkgadd -d RHATrhnl-1.8-7.p23.pkg all 
...

Note

You may choose to use the -n of pkgadd, which runs the command in non-interactive mode. However, this may cause the installation of some packages to fail silently on Solaris 10.
Continue until each package is installed in the RHN-specific path: /opt/redhat/rhn/solaris/.
8.2.2.1.5. Include RHN Packages in the PATH
In order to make the RHN packages available at each login, you may wish to add them to your PATH. To do so, add these commands to your login script:
# PATH=$PATH:/opt/redhat/rhn/solaris/bin 
# PATH=$PATH:/opt/redhat/rhn/solaris/usr/bin 
# PATH=$PATH:/opt/redhat/rhn/solaris/usr/sbin 
# export PATH
To enable access to the RHN client command man pages, add them to your MANPATH. To do so, add the following commands to your login script:
 
# MANPATH=$MANPATH:/opt/redhat/rhn/solaris/man 
# export MANPATH
Alternatively, you can also access the man pages from the command line, with the following command:
 
# man -M /opt/redhat/rhn/solaris/man <man page>
Finally, add the Red Hat Libraries to your PATH as you did with libgcc, openssl and zlib.
crle -c /var/ld/ld.config -l <current library paths>:/opt/redhat/rhn/solaris/lib

8.2.2.2. Deploying Client SSL Certificates

To ensure secure data transfer, Red Hat strongly recommends the use of SSL. The RHN Satellite Server eases implementation of SSL by generating the necessary certificates during its installation. The server-side certificate is automatically installed on the Satellite itself, while the client certificate is placed in the /pub/ directory of the Satellite's Web server.
To install the certificate, follow these steps for each client:
  1. Download the SSL certificate from the /var/www/html/pub/ directory of the RHN Satellite Server onto the client system. The certificate will be named something similar to RHN-ORG-TRUSTED-SSL-CERT. It is accessible via the web at the following URL: https://your-satellite.example.com/pub/RHN-ORG-TRUSTED-SSL-CERT.
  2. Move the client SSL certificate to the RHN-specific directory for your UNIX variant. For Solaris, this can be accomplished with a command similar to:
     mv /path/to/RHN-ORG-TRUSTED-SSL-CERT /opt/redhat/rhn/solaris/usr/share/rhn/ 
When finished, the new client certificate will be installed in the appropriate directory for your UNIX system. If you have a large number of systems to prepare for RHN management, you may script this entire process.
Now you must reconfigure the RHN client applications to refer to the newly installed SSL certificate. Refer to Section 8.2.2.3, “Configuring the clients” for instructions.

8.2.2.3. Configuring the clients

The final step before registering your client systems with Red Hat Network is to reconfigure their RHN applications to use the new SSL certificate and obtain updates from the RHN Satellite Server. Both of these changes can be made by editing the configuration file of the Red Hat Update Agent, which provides registration and update functionality.
Follow these steps on each client system:
  1. As root, change to the RHN configuration directory for the system. For Solaris, the full path is /opt/redhat/rhn/solaris/etc/sysconfig/rhn/.
  2. Open the up2date configuration file in a text editor.
  3. Find the serverURL entry and set its value to the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of your RHN Satellite Server:
    serverURL[comment]=Remote server URL
    serverURL=https://your-satellite.example.com/XMLRPC
    
  4. Ensure the application refers to the RHN Satellite Server even when SSL is turned off by also setting the noSSLServerURL value to the Satellite:
     
    noSSLServerURL[comment]=Remote server URL without SSL
    noSSLServerURL=http://your-satellite.example.com/XMLRPC
    
  5. With the up2date configuration file still open, find the sslCACert entry and set its value to the name and location of the SSL certificate described in Section 8.2.2.2, “Deploying Client SSL Certificates”, for example:
    sslCACert[comment]=The CA cert used to verify the ssl server
    sslCACert=/opt/redhat/rhn/solaris/usr/share/rhn/RHN-ORG-TRUSTED-SSL-CERT
    
Your client systems are now ready for registration with Red Hat Network and management by your Satellite.

8.3. Registration and Updates

Now that you have installed RHN-specific packages, implemented SSL, and reconfigured your client systems to connect to the RHN Satellite Server, you are ready to begin registering systems and obtaining updates.

8.3.1. Registering Systems

This section describes the RHN registration process for UNIX systems. You must use the rhnreg_ks command to accomplish this; the use of activation keys for registering your systems is optional. These keys allow you to predetermine settings within RHN, such as base channels and system groups, and to apply those automatically to systems during their registration.
Since activation key generation and use is covered extensively in other chapters, this section focuses on differences when applying them to UNIX variants. Refer to Section 6.4.6.1, “Managing Activation Keys” for full descriptions of this process.
To register UNIX systems with your RHN Satellite Server, accomplish the following tasks in this order:
  1. Log into the Satellite's web interface and click the Systems tab in the top navigation bar followed by Activation Keys in the left navigation bar. Then click the create new key link at the top-right corner of the page.
  2. On the following page, select the base channel you created at the end of Section 8.2.1, “Satellite Server Preparation/Configuration”.
  3. After creating the key, click its name in the Activation Keys list to enhance its RHN settings by associating software and configuration channels and system groups.
  4. Open a terminal on the client system to be registered and switch user to root.
  5. Use rhnreg_ks along with the --activationkey option to register the client with the Satellite. The string of characters that make up the key may be copied directly from the Activation Keys list on the website. The resulting command will look something like the following:
    rhnreg_ks --activationkey=b25fef0966659314ef9156786bd9f3af
    
    Be sure to replace the argument of each option with values appropriate to your organization.
  6. Go back to the website, click the name of the activation key, and ensure the new system appears within the Activated Systems tab.

8.3.2. Obtaining Updates

Package updates in UNIX are handled much differently than in Linux. For instance, Solaris relies on Patch Clusters to update multiple packages at once, while Red Hat operating systems use Errata Updates to associate upgrades with specific packages. In addition, Solaris uses answer files to automate interactive package installations, something Linux doesn't understand, while Red Hat offers the concept of source packages. For this reason, this section seeks to highlight differences in using RHN tools on UNIX systems. (Note: RHN does not support Solaris answer files in the current release; such support is planned for future releases.)
Despite inherent differences, such as the lack of Errata, the channel and package management interfaces within the RHN website on the Satellite work largely the same for UNIX systems. All software channels designed to serve UNIX variants can be constructed almost exactly as the custom channels described in the RHN Channel Management Guide. The most significant difference is the architecture. When creating a UNIX software channel, ensure you select the base channel architecture appropriate for the systems to be served.
Furthermore, Red Hat recommends you break down your packages into base and child channels depending on their nature. For example, on Solaris, installation packages should go in the Solaris base channel, while patches and Patch Clusters should go in a child channel of the Solaris base channel. Extra installation packages can go in a separate Extras child channel.
RHN treats patches similarly to packages; they are listed and installed in the same way and with the same interface as normal packages. Patches are 'numbered' by Solaris, and will have names like "patch-solaris-108434". The version of a Solaris patch is extracted from the original Solaris metadata, and the release is always 1.
Patch Clusters are bundles of patches that are installed as a unit. RHN keeps track of the last time that a Patch Cluster was installed successfully on a system. However, Patch Clusters are not tracked on the client as installed entities so they do not appear in the installed packages or patches list. Patch Cluster names look like "patch-cluster-solaris-7_Recommended". The version is a datestring, such as "20040206", the release is always 1 and the epoch is always 0.

8.3.2.1. Uploading Packages to the Satellite

RHN does not provide UNIX content; any Solaris packages, patches or Patch Clusters must be uploaded to the Satellite in a format that it understands from a client system. That package can then be managed and distributed to other systems. RHN created solaris2mpm to translate Solaris packages, patches, and patch clusters to a format that the Satellite can understand.
8.3.2.1.1. solaris2mpm
As mentioned briefly in Section 8.1.4, “Differences in Functionality”, solaris2mpm is part of RHN Push for Solaris. The content that is pushed to a Solaris channel on the Satellite must first be in .mpm format.
A .mpm file is an archive containing a description of the package data and the package or patch itself. The solaris2mpm command must be run on the client, never the Satellite.

Note

solaris2mpm requires free space equal to three times the size of any package, patch, or patch cluster it is converting. Normally, space in /tmp/ will be used for this purpose. However, the --tempdir option allows you to specify another directory if necessary.
Multiple files may be specified on the command line of solaris2mpm. Below is a usage example:
# solaris2mpm RHATrpush-3.1.5-21.pkg RHATrpush-3.1.5-23.pkg
Opening archive, this may take a while
Writing out RHATrpush-3.1.5-21.sparc-solaris.mpm
Opening archive, this may take a while
Writing out RHATrpush-3.1.5-23.sparc-solaris.mpm
Because no other directory was specified, the resulting .mpm files are written to the /tmp/ directory. Note that the name of the resulting .mpm files includes the architecture of the client on which it was created. In this case, this was Sparc Solaris. The general format of mpm file names is:
name-version-release.arch.mpm
Patch clusters are "exploded" — .mpm files are generated for each patch in the cluster, as well as a top-level "meta" .mpm file containing information about the cluster as a whole.
Below are the options of solaris2mpm:

Table 8.1. solaris2mpm options

Option Description
--version
Displays the program's version number and exits
-h, --help
Displays this information and exits
-?, --usage
Prints program usage information and exits
--tempdir=<tempdir>
Temporary directory to work from
--select-arch=<arch>
Selects the architecture (i386 or Sparc) for multi-arch packages.
8.3.2.1.2. rhnpush with .mpm Files
The Solaris version of rhnpush works like the standard utility, but with the added ability to handle .mpm files. Below is a usage example:
% rhnpush -v --server testbox.example.com --username myuser -c solaris-8 \
RHATrpush-3.1.5-*.mpm
 Red Hat Network password:
 Connecting to http://testbox.example.com/APP
 Uploading package RHATrpush-3.1.5-21.sparc-solaris.mpm
 Uploading package RHATrpush-3.1.5-23.sparc-solaris.mpm

Note

Patch cluster .mpm files must be pushed either concurrently with or after — never before — the .mpm files for the patches contained in that cluster.
Use solaris2mpm on each of the packages, patches, or patch clusters you wish to manage via the Satellite, then use RHN Push to upload them to the channel you created for them.

8.3.2.2. Updating Through the Website

To install packages or patches on an individual system, click the name of the system in the Systems category, select the packages from the Upgrade or Install lists of the Packages or Patches tab, and click Install/Upgrade Selected Packages.
To run a remote command while installing the package, click Run Remote Command rather than Confirm. Refer to Section 8.4, “Remote Commands” for instructions.
To install packages or patches on multiple systems at once, select the systems and click System Set Manager in the left navigation bar. Then, in the Packages tab, select the packages from the Upgrade or Install lists and click Install/Upgrade Packages. To complete the action, schedule the updates.
On Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems, the rhnsd daemon, which instructs the client system to check in with RHN, automatically starts at boot time. On Solaris systems, rhnsddoes not start at boot time by default. It can be started from the command line in this way:
rhnsd --foreground --interval=240
The default location for rhnsd is /opt/redhat/rhn/solaris/usr/sbin/rhnsd. Below are the available options for rhnsd on Solaris:

Table 8.2. rhnsd Options

Option Description
-f, --foreground
Run in foreground
-i, --interval=MINS
Connect to Red Hat Network every MINS minutes
-v, --verbose
Log all actions to syslog
-h, --help
Give this help list
-u, --usage
Give this help list
-V, --version
Print program version

8.3.2.3. Updating From the Command Line

Like the website, command line use of the Red Hat Update Agent is affected by the limitations of UNIX package management. That said, most core functions can still be accomplished through the up2date command. The most significant difference is the absence of all options regarding source files. Refer to Table 8.3, “Update Agent Command Line Arguments” for the precise list of options available for UNIX systems.
The command line version of the Red Hat Update Agent accepts the following arguments on UNIX systems:

Table 8.3. Update Agent Command Line Arguments

Argument Description
--version Show program version information.
-h, --help Show this help message and exit.
-v, --verbose Show additional output.
-l, --list List the latest versions of all packages installed.
-p, --packages Update packages associated with this System Profile.
--hardware Update this system's hardware profile on RHN.
--showall List all packages available for download.
--show-available List all the packages available that are not currently installed.
--show-orphans List all the packages currently installed that are not in channels the system is subscribed to.
--show-channels Show the channel names along with the package names where appropriate.
--installall Install all available packages. Use with --channel.
--channel=CHANNEL Specify which channels to update from using channel labels.
--get Fetch the package specified without resolving dependencies.

8.4. Remote Commands

With UNIX support, RHN offers the flexibility of issuing remote commands on client systems through the Satellite's RHN website. This feature allows you to run virtually any (compatible) application or script on any system in your domain without ever having to open a terminal.

8.4.1. Enabling Commands

With the flexibility this tool offers comes great risk and the responsibility to mitigate that risk. For all practical purposes, this feature grants a root BASH prompt to anyone with administrative access to the system on the website.
This can be controlled, however, through the same config-enable mechanism used to determine which systems can have their configuration files managed by Red Hat Network. Refer to Section 6.4.2.9.3, “System Details ⇒ Configuration — for details.
In short, you must create a directory and file on the UNIX system that tell RHN it is acceptable to run remote commands on the machine. The directory must be named script, the file must be named run, and both must be located in the /etc/sysconfig/rhn/allowed-actions/ directory specific to your UNIX variant.
For instance, in Solaris, issue this command to create the directory:
 mkdir -p /opt/redhat/rhn/solaris/etc/sysconfig/rhn/allowed-actions/script 
To create the requisite file in Solaris, issue this command:
 touch /opt/redhat/rhn/solaris/etc/sysconfig/rhn/allowed-actions/script/run 

8.4.2. Issuing Commands

You may schedule a remote command in a variety of ways: on an individual system, on multiple systems at once, and to accompany a package action.
To run a remote command on an individual system by itself, open the System Details page and click the Remote Command sub-tab. (Note that this subtab only appears if the system has a Provisioning entitlement.) On this page, establish the settings for the command. You may identify a specific user, group, and timeout period, as well as the script itself. Select a date and time to begin attempting the command, and click the Schedule Remote Command link.
Similarly, you may issue a remote command on multiple systems at once through the System Set Manager. Select the systems, go to the System Set Manager, click the Misc tab, and scroll down to the Remote Command section. From there you may run a remote command on the selected systems at once.
To run a remote command with a package action, schedule the action through the Packages tab of the System Details page and click Run Remote Command while confirming the action. Use the radio buttons at the top to determine whether the command should run before or after the package action, establish the settings for the command, and click Schedule Package Install/Upgrade.
Note that installing multiple packages that have different remote commands requires scheduling the installs separately or combining the commands into a single script.

Appendix A. Command Line Config Management Tools

In addition to the options provided in the RHN website, Red Hat Network offers two command line tools for managing a system's configuration files: the Red Hat Network Configuration Client and the Red Hat Network Configuration Manager. There is a complementary Red Hat Network Actions Control tool that is used to enable and disable configuration management on client systems. If you do not yet have these these tools installed, they can be found within the RHN Tools child channel for your operating system.

Note

Keep in mind, whenever a configuration file is deployed via RHN, a backup of the previous file including its full path is made in the /var/lib/rhncfg/backups/ directory on the affected system. The backup retains its filename but has a .rhn-cfg-backup extension appended.

A.1. Red Hat Network Actions Control

The Red Hat Network Actions Control (rhn-actions-control) application is used to enable and disable configuration management of a system. Client systems cannot be managed in this fashion by default. This tool allows Organization Administrators to enable or disable specific modes of allowable actions such as: deploying a configuration file onto the system, uploading a file from the system, diffing what is currently managed on a system and what is available, or allowing running arbitrary remote commands. These various modes are enabled/disabled by placing/removing files and directories in the /etc/sysconfig/rhn/allowed-actions/ directory. Due to the default permissions on the /etc/sysconfig/rhn/ directory, RHN Actions Control will most likely have to be run by someone with root access.

A.1.1. General command line options

There is a man page available, as there are for most command line tools, though the use of this tool is simple enough to describe here briefly. Simply decide what RHN scheduled actions should be enabled for use by system administrators. The following options enable the various scheduled action modes:

Table A.1. rhn-actions-control options

Option Description
--enable-deploy Allow rhncfg-client to deploy files.
--enable-diff Allow rhncfg-client to diff files.
--enable-upload Allow rhncfg-client to upload files.
--enable-mtime-upload Allow rhncfg-client to upload mtime.
--enable-all Allow rhncfg-client to do everything.
--enable-run Enable script.run
--disable-deploy Disable deployment.
--disable-diff Disable diff
--disable-upload Disable upload
--disable-mtime-upload Disable mtime upload
--disable-all Disable all options
--disable-run Disable script.run
--report Report whether the modes are enabled or disabled
-f, --force Force the operation without asking first
-h, --help show help message and exit
Once a mode is set — and for many, rhn-actions-control --enable-all is common — your system is now ready for config management through RHN.

A.2. Red Hat Network Configuration Client

As the name implies, the Red Hat Network Configuration Client (rhncfg-client) is installed and run from an individual client system. From there you may use it to gain knowledge about how RHN deploys configuration files to the client.
The Red Hat Network Configuration Client offers these primary modes: list, get, channels, diff, and verify.

A.2.1. Listing Config Files

To list the configuration files for the machine and the labels of the config channels containing them, issue the command:
rhncfg-client list
The output resembles the following list:
Config Channel File 
config-channel-17 /etc/example-config.txt 
config-channel-17 /var/spool/aalib.rpm
config-channel-14 /etc/rhn/rhn.conf
These are the configuration files that apply to your system. However, there may be duplicate files present in the other channels. For example, issue the following command:
rhncfg-manager list config-channel-14
and observe the following output:
Files in config channel 'config-channel-14'
 /etc/example-config.txt
 /etc/rhn/rhn.conf
You may then wonder where the second version of /etc/example-config.txt went. The rank of the /etc/example-config.txt file in config-channel-17 was higher than that of the same file in config-channel-14. As a result, the version of the configuration file in config-channel-14 is not deployed for this system, although the file still resides in the channel. The rhncfg-client command does not list the file because it will not be deployed on this system.

A.2.2. Getting a Config File

To download the most relevant configuration file for the machine, issue the command:
rhncfg-client get /etc/example-config.txt
You should see output resembling:
Deploying /etc/example-config.txt 
You may then view the contents of the file with less or another pager. Note that the file is selected as the most relevant based upon the rank of the config channel containing it. This is accomplished within the Configuration tab of the System Details page. Refer to Section 6.4.2.9, “System Details” for instructions.

A.2.3. Viewing Config Channels

To view the labels and names of the config channels that apply to the system, issue the command:
rhncfg-client channels
You should see output resembling:
Config channels: 
Label Name 
----- ---- 
config-channel-17 config chan 2 
config-channel-14 config chan 1
The following table lists the options available for rhncfg-client get:

Table A.2. rhncfg-client get options

Option Description
--topdir=TOPDIR Make all file operations relative to this string.
-h, --help Show help message and exit

A.2.4. Differentiating between Config Files

To view the differences between the config files deployed on the system and those stored by RHN, issue the command:
rhncfg-client diff
The output resembles the following:
--- /tmp/@3603.0.rhn-cfg-tmp 2004-01-13 14:18:31.000000000 -0500 
+++ /etc/example-config.txt 2003-12-16 21:35:32.000000000 -0500 
@@ -1,3 +1,5 @@
+additional text
In addition, you may include the --topdir option to compare config files in RHN with those located in an arbitrary (and unused) location on the client system, like so:
[root@ root]# rhncfg-client diff --topdir /home/test/blah/ 
/usr/bin/diff: /home/test/blah/etc/example-config.txt: No such file or directory
/usr/bin/diff: /home/test/blah/var/spool/aalib.rpm: No such file or directory

A.2.5. Verifying Config Files

To quickly determine if client configuration files are different than those associated with it via RHN, issue the command:
rhncfg-client verify
The output resembles the following:
 modified /etc/example-config.txt /var/spool/aalib.rpm 
The file example-config.txt is locally modified, while aalib.rpm is not.
The following table lists the options available for rhncfg-client verify:

Table A.3. rhncfg-client verify options

Option Description
-v, --verbose Increase the amount of output detail. Displays differences in the mode, owner, and group permissions for the specified config file.
-h, --help Show help message and exit

A.3. Red Hat Network Configuration Manager

Unlike the Red Hat Network Configuration Client, the Red Hat Network Configuration Manager (rhncfg-manager) is designed to maintain RHN's central repository of config files and channels, not those located on client systems. This tool offers a command line alternative to the configuration management features within the RHN website, as well as the ability to script some or all of the related maintenance.
It is intended for use by Config Administrators and requires an RHN username and password that has the appropriate permission set. The username may be specified in /etc/sysconfig/rhn/rhncfg-manager.conf or in the [rhncfg-manager] section of ~/.rhncfgrc.
When the Red Hat Network Configuration Manager is run as root, it attempts to pull in needed configuration values from the Red Hat Update Agent. When run as a user other than root, you may have to make configuration changes within the ~/.rhncfgrc file. The session file is cached in ~/.rhncfg-manager-session to prevent logging in for every command.
The default timeout for the Red Hat Network Configuration Manager is 30 minutes. To alter this, add the server.session_lifetime option and new value to the /etc/rhn/rhn.conf file on the server running the manager, like so:
 server.session_lifetime = 120 
The Red Hat Network Configuration Manager offers these primary modes: add, create-channel, diff, diff-revisions, download-channel, get, list, list-channels, remove, remove-channel, revisions, update, and upload-channel.
Each mode offers its own set of options, which can be seen by issuing the following command:
 rhncfg-manager mode --help 
Replace mode with the name of the mode to be inspected:
rhncfg-manager diff-revisions --help
You can see such a list of options for the add mode at Table A.4, “rhncfg-manager add options”.

A.3.1. Creating a Config Channel

To create a config channel for your organization, issue the command:
 rhncfg-manager create-channel channel-label
If prompted for your RHN username and password, provide them. The output resembles the following:
 Red Hat Network username: rhn-user 
 Password:
 Creating config channel channel-label 
 Config channel channel-label created
Once you have created a config channel, use the remaining modes listed above to populate and maintain that channel.

A.3.2. Adding Files to a Config Channel

To add a file to a config channel, specify the channel label as well as the local file to be uploaded, such as:
 rhncfg-manager add --channel=channel-label /path/to/file
In addition to the required channel label and the path to the file, you may use the available options for modifying the file during its addition. For instance, you may alter the path and file name by including the --dest-file option in the command, like:
 rhncfg-manager add --channel=channel-label--dest-file=/new/path/to/file.txt/path/to/file
The output resembles the following:
 Pushing to channel example-channel  
 Local file >/path/to/file -> remote file /new/path/to/file.txt
The following table lists the options available for rhncfg-manager add:

Table A.4. rhncfg-manager add options

Option Description
-cCHANNEL --channel=CHANNEL Upload files in this config channel
-dDEST_FILE --dest-file=DEST_FILE Upload the file as this path
--delim-start=DELIM_START Start delimiter for variable interpolation
--delim-end=DELIM_END End delimiter for variable interpolation
-h, --help show help message and exit

A.3.3. Differentiating between Latest Config Files

To view the differences between the config files on disk and the latest revisions in a channel, issue the command:
 rhncfg-manager diff --channel=channel-label --dest-file=/path/to/file.txt \ /local/path/to/file
You should see output resembling:
/tmp/dest_path/example-config.txt /home/test/blah/hello_world.txt  
--- /tmp/dest_path/example-config.txt config_channel: example-channel revision: 1  
+++ /home/test/blah/hello_world.txt 2003-12-14 19:08:59.000000000  
-0500 @@ -1 +1 @@ -foo +hello, world
The following table lists the options available for rhncfg-manager diff:

Table A.5. rhncfg-manager diff options

Option Description
-cCHANNEL, --channel=CHANNEL Get file(s) from this config channel
-rREVISION, --revision=REVISION Use this revision
-dDEST_FILE, --dest-file=DEST_FILE Upload the file as this path
-tTOPDIR, --topdir=TOPDIR Make all files relative to this string
-h, --help Show help message and exit

A.3.4. Differentiating between Various Versions

To compare different versions of a file across channels and revisions, use the -r flag to indicate which revision of the file should be compared and the -n flag to identify the two channels to be checked. Refer to Section A.3.11, “Determining the Number of File Revisions” for related instructions. Specify only one file name here, since you are comparing the file against another version of itself. For example:
rhncfg-manager diff-revisions -n=channel-label1-r=1-n=channel-label2-r=1/path/to/file.txt
The output resembles the following:
--- /tmp/dest_path/example-config.txt 2004-01-13 14:36:41 \
 config channel: example-channel2 revision: 1
--- /tmp/dest_path/example-config.txt 2004-01-13 14:42:42 \
 config channel: example-channel3 revision: 1 @@ -1 +1,20 @@ -foo
+blaaaaaaaaaaaaaaah 
+-----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE----- 
+Version: GnuPG v1.0.6 (GNU/Linux) 
+Comment: For info see http://www.gnupg.org 
+
+iD8DBQA9ZY6vse4XmfJPGwgRAsHcAJ9ud9dabUcdscdcqB8AZP7e0Fua0NmKsdhQCeOWHX 
+VsDTfen2NWdwwPaTM+S+Cow= 
+=Ltp2 
+-----END PGP SIGNATURE----- 
The following table lists the options available for rhncfg-manager diff-revisions:

Table A.6. rhncfg-manager diff-revisions options

Option Description
-cCHANNEL, --channel=CHANNEL Use this config channel
-rREVISION, --revision=REVISION Use this revision
-h, --help Show help message and exit

A.3.5. Downloading All Files in a Channel

To download all the files in a channel to disk, create a directory and issue the following command:
	 rhncfg-manager download-channel channel-label --topdir . 
The output resembles the following:
Copying /tmp/dest_path/example-config.txt -> \
blah2/tmp/dest_path/example-config.txt
The following table lists the options available for rhncfg-manager download-channel:

Table A.7. rhncfg-manager download-channel options

Option Description
-tTOPDIR, --topdir=TOPDIR Directory all the file paths are relative to. This option must be set.
-h, --help Show help message and exit

A.3.6. Getting the Contents of a File

To direct the contents of a particular file to stdout, issue the command:
rhncfg-manager get --channel=channel-label \
/tmp/dest_path/example-config.txt
You should see the contents of the file as output.

A.3.7. Listing All Files in a Channel

To list all the files in a channel, issue the command:
 rhncfg-manager list channel-label
You should see output resembling:
Files in config channel `example-channel3':
/tmp/dest_path/example-config.txt 
The following table lists the options available for rhncfg-manager get:

Table A.8. rhncfg-manager get options

Option Description
-cCHANNEL, --channel=CHANNEL Get file(s) from this config channel
-tTOPDIR, --topdir=TOPDIR Make all files relative to this string
-rREVISION, --revision=REVISION Get this file revision
-h, --help Show help message and exit

A.3.8. Listing All Config Channels

To list all of your organization's configuration channels, issue the command:
 rhncfg-manager list-channels 
The output resembles the following:
Available config channels: 
 example-channel 
 example-channel2 
 example-channel3
 config-channel-14
 config-channel-17 
Note that this does not list local_override or server_import channels.

A.3.9. Removing a File from a Channel

To remove a file from a channel, issue the command:
 rhncfg-manager remove --channel=channel-label /tmp/dest_path/example-config.txt
If prompted for your RHN username and password, provide them. You should see output resembling:
Red Hat Network username: rhn-user 
Password:
Removing from config channel example-channel3
/tmp/dest_path/example-config.txt removed 
The following table lists the options available for rhncfg-manager remove:

Table A.9. rhncfg-manager remove options

Option Description
-cCHANNEL, --channel=CHANNEL Remove files from this config channel
-tTOPDIR, --topdir=TOPDIR Make all files relative to this string
-h, --help Show help message and exit

A.3.10. Deleting a Config Channel

To destroy a config channel in your organization, issue the command:
rhncfg-manager remove-channel channel-label 
The output resembles the following:
Removing config channel example-channel Config channel example-channel removed

A.3.11. Determining the Number of File Revisions

To find out how many revisions (revisions go from 1 to N where N is an integer greater than 0) of a file/path are in a channel, issue the following command:
 rhncfg-manager revisions channel-label /tmp/dest_path/example-config.txt 
The output resembles the following:
Analyzing files in config channel example-channel \
/tmp/dest_path/example-config.txt: 1 

A.3.12. Updating a File in a Channel

To create a new revision of a file in a channel (or add the first revision to that channel if none existed before for the given path), issue the following command:
rhncfg-manager update \
--channel=channel-label --dest-file=/path/to/file.txt /local/path/to/file
The output resembles the following:
Pushing to channel example-channel: 
Local file example-channel/tmp/dest_path/example-config.txt -> \
remote file /tmp/dest_path/example-config.txt 
The following table lists the options available for rhncfg-manager update:

Table A.10. rhncfg-manager update options

Option Description
-cCHANNEL, --channel=CHANNEL Upload files in this config channel
-dDEST_FILE, --dest-file=DEST_FILE Upload the file as this path
-tTOPDIR, --topdir=TOPDIR Make all files relative to this string
--delim-start=DELIM_START Start delimiter for variable interpolation
--delim-end=DELIM_END End delimiter for variable interpolation
-h, --help Show help message and exit

A.3.13. Uploading Multiple Files at Once

To upload multiple files to a config channel from local disk at once, issue the command:
 rhncfg-manager upload-channel --topdir=topdir channel-label
The output resembles the following:
Using config channel example-channel4 
Uploading /tmp/ola_world.txt from blah4/tmp/ola_world.txt
The following table lists the options available for rhncfg-manager upload-channel:

Table A.11. rhncfg-manager upload-channel options

Option Description
-tTOPDIR, --topdir=TOPDIR Directory all the file paths are relative to
-cCHANNEL, --channel=CHANNEL List of channels the config info will be uploaded into. Channels delimited by ','. Example: --channel=foo,bar,baz
-h, --help Show help message and exit

Appendix B. RHN API Access

In an effort to provide customers with added flexibility, RHN makes an application programming interface (API) available. This interface can be found by clicking Help at the top-right corner of the RHN website, then clicking API in the left navigation bar. Or you may go directly to: https://rhn.redhat.com/rpc/api/. Use this URL for your XMLRPC server and your browser.
The RHN API is based upon XML-RPC, which allows distinct pieces of software on disparate systems to make remote procedure calls using XML over HTTP. For this reason, any calls you make are expected to meet the constraints of XML-RPC. You can find out more at http://www.xmlrpc.com/.
This section bypasses a list of available methods and classes in favor of tips for using the API efficiently. These include steps for determining required values and a sample script that makes some of the calls.

B.1. Using the auth Class and Getting the Session

It is worth noting that you will almost invariably use the auth class first. This class offers a single method, login. Use this to establish an RHN session. It requires values for three parameters: username, password, and duration. The first two come directly from your RHN account, while the third is the length of time the session should last in seconds, typically 1200. It returns a session string than can be used in all other methods.

B.2. Obtaining the system_id

Many of the methods require a value for the system_id parameter. This is the unique alphanumeric value assigned to each system when registered to RHN. It can be found within the /etc/sysconfig/rhn/systemid file on each machine. In addition, you may use the download_system_id method within the system class to obtain the value.

B.3. Determining the sid

Several methods require a value for the sid, or server ID, parameter. Note that this is different from the system_id. You may determine the sid of a machine in two different ways. First, you can log into the RHN website, click the name of a system, and view the sid at the end of the URL in the location bar. It follows the "=" symbol and is part of a string that resembles the following: "index.pxt?sid=1003486534". Second, you may use the list_user_systems method within the system class to obtain a list of systems available to the user that contains the associated sids.

B.4. Viewing the cid

Like servers, channels have their own IDs. This value, the cid, is a required parameter for some methods, including set_base_channel and set_child_channels. Also like the sid, the cid can be obtained through the RHN website. Just click on the name of a channel and view the end of the URL. It follows the "=" symbol, as part of a string that resembles the following: "details.pxt?cid=54".

B.5. Getting the sgid

System groups also have their own IDs. This value, the sgid, is a required parameter for the set_group_membership method, for instance. Like the sid and cid, the sgid can be obtained through the RHN website. Just click on the name of a system group and view the end of the URL. It follows the "=" symbol, as part of a string that resembles the following: "details.pxt?sgid=334958". Note that the member parameter within the set_group_membership method requires only yes or no as input to make the association.

B.6. Channel Labels

The architecture of a channel is not always clear from the channel label. Below is a list that shows the correspondence between channel labels and the official title of the architecture they serve.

Table B.1. Channel Labels

Channel Label Platform
channel-i386-sun-solaris i386 Solaris
channel-ia32 IA-32
channel-ia64 IA-64
channel-sparc Sparc
channel-alpha Alpha
channel-s390 IBM S/390
channel-s390x IBM System z
channel-iSeries IBM eServer System i
channel-pSeries IBM eServer System p
channel-x86_64 AMD64 and Intel EM64T
channel-ppc PPC
channel-sparc-sun-solaris Sparc Solaris
This is particularly necessary to know for the channel.software.create method.

B.7. Sample API Script

The following sample script depicts how to construct an RHN API client. Review the comments and links for a full discussion of the calls made.
#!/usr/bin/perl -w

use strict;
use Frontier::Client;
use Data::Dumper;

############################################################################
# This is a sample script for use of the experimental RHN Management APIs. #
# The API is currently available using XMLRPC only, which is described in  #
# depth at:                                                                #
#                                                                          #
# http://www.xmlrpc.com/                                                   #
#                                                                          #
# We use the Frontier modules, available from:                             #
#                                                                          #
# http://theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca/mod_perl/cpan-search?dist=Frontier-RPC      #
#                                                                          #
############################################################################


############################################################################
#   Defining an XMLRPC session.                                            #
############################################################################

# Define the host first.  This will be the FQDN of your satellite system.
my $HOST = 'satellite.server.yourdomain.com';

# Now we create the client object that will be used throughout the session.

my $client = new Frontier::Client(url => "http://$HOST/rpc/api");

# Next, we execute a login call, which returns a session identifier that will
# be passed in all subsequent calls.  The syntax of this call is described at:
#
#   http://$HOST/rpc/api/auth/login/

my $session = $client->call('auth.login', 'username', 'password');

############################################################################
#   System calls.                                                          #
############################################################################

# This next call returns a list of systems available to the user.  The 
# syntax of this call is described at:
#
#   http://$HOST/rpc/api/system/list_user_systems/
#
# In the code snippet below, we dump data about our systems, and we 
# capture the ID of the first system we find for future operations.

my $systems = $client->call('system.list_user_systems', $session);
for my $system (@$systems) {
  print Dumper($system);
}
print "\n\nCapturing ID of system @$systems[0]->{name}\n\n";
my $systemid = @$systems[0]->{id};

# This next call returns a list of packages present on this system.  The
# syntax of this call is described at:
#
#   http://$HOST/rpc/api/system/list_packages/
#
# This will probably be a pretty long list.

my $packages = $client->call('system.list_packages', $session, $systemid);
for my $package (@$packages) {
  print Dumper($package);
}

# Additional system calls are described at:
#   http://$HOST/rpc/api/system/

Appendix C. Probes

As described in Section 6.10, “Monitoring — , Monitoring-entitled systems can have probes applied to them that constantly confirm their health and full operability. This appendix lists the available probes broken down by command group, such as Apache.
Many probes that monitor internal system aspects (such as the Linux::Disk Usage probe) rather than external aspects (such as the Network Services::SSH probe) require the installation of the Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd). This requirement is noted within the individual probe reference.
Each probe has its own reference in this appendix that identifies required fields (marked with *), default values, and the thresholds that may be set to trigger alerts. Similarly, the beginning of each command group's section contains information applicable to all probes in that group. Section C.1, “Probe Guidelines” covers general guidelines; the remaining sections examine individual probes.

Note

Nearly all of the probes use Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) as their transport protocol. Exceptions to this are noted within the individual probe references.

C.1. Probe Guidelines

The following general guidelines outline the meaning of each probe state, and provide guidance in setting thresholds for your probes.
The following list provides a brief description of the meaning of each probe state:
Unknown
The probes that cannot collect the metrics needed to determine probe state. Most (though not all) probes enter this state when exceeding their timeout period. Probes in this state may be configured incorrectly, as well.
Pending
The probes whose data has not been received by the RHN Satellite Server. It is normal for new probes to be in this state. However, if all probes move into this state, your monitoring infrastructure may be failing.
OK
The probes that have run successfully without error. This is the desired state for all probes.
Warning
The probes that have crossed their WARNING thresholds.
Critical
The probes that have crossed their CRITICAL thresholds or reached a critical status by some other means. (Some probes become critical when exceeding their timeout period.)
While adding probes, select meaningful thresholds that, when crossed, notify you and your administrators of problems within your infrastructure. Timeout periods are entered in seconds unless otherwise indicated. Exceptions to these rules are noted within the individual probe references.

Important

Some probes have thresholds based on time. In order for such CRITICAL and WARNING thresholds to work as intended, their values cannot exceed the amount of time allotted to the timeout period. Otherwise, an UNKNOWN status is returned in all instances of extended latency, thereby nullifying the thresholds. For this reason, Red Hat strongly recommends ensuring that timeout periods exceed all timed thresholds.
Remember that Red Hat recommends running your probes without notifications for a time to establish baseline performance for each of your systems. Although the default values provided for probes may suit your needs, every organization has a different environment that may require altering thresholds.

C.2. Apache 1.3.x and 2.0.x

The probes in this section may be applied to instances of the Apache Web server. Although the default values presume you will apply these probes using standard HTTP, you may also use them over secure connections by changing the application protocol to https and the port to 443.

C.2.1. Apache::Processes

The Apache::Processes probe monitors the processes executed on an Apache Web server and collects the following metrics:
  • Data Transferred Per Child — Records data transfer information only on individual children. A child process is one that is created from the parent process or another process.
  • Data Transferred Per Slot — The cumulative amount of data transferred by a child process that restarts. The number of slots is configured in the httpd.conf file using the MaxRequestsPerChild setting.
The ExtendedStatus directive in the httpd.conf file of the Web server must be set to On for this probe to function properly.

Table C.1. Apache::Processes settings

Field Value
Application Protocol* http
Port* 80
Pathname* /server-status
UserAgent* NOCpulse-ApacheUptime/1.0
Username
Password
Timeout* 15
Critical Maximum Megabytes Transferred Per Child
Warning Maximum Megabytes Transferred Per Child
Critical Maximum Megabytes Transferred Per Slot
Warning Maximum Megabytes Transferred Per Slot

C.2.2. Apache::Traffic

The Apache::Traffic probe monitors the requests on an Apache Web server and collects the following metrics:
  • Current Requests — The number of requests being processed by the server at probe runtime.
  • Request Rate — The accesses to the server per second since the probe last ran.
  • Traffic — The kilobytes per second of traffic the server has processed since the probe last ran.
The ExtendedStatus directive in the httpd.conf file of the Web server must be set to On for this probe to function properly.

Table C.2. Apache::Traffic settings

Field Value
Application Protocol* http
Port* 80
Pathname* /server-status
UserAgent* NOCpulse-ApacheUptime/1.0
Username
Password
Timeout* 15
Critical Maximum Current Requests (number)
Warning Maximum Current Requests (number)
Critical Maximum Request Rate (events per second)
Warning Maximum Request Rate (events per second)
Critical Maximum Traffic (kilobytes per second)
Warning Maximum Traffic (kilobytes per second)

C.2.3. Apache::Uptime

The Apache::Uptime probe stores the cumulative time since the Web server was last started. No metrics are collected by this probe, which is designed to help track service level agreements (SLAs).

Table C.3. Apache::Uptime settings

Field Value
Application Protocol* http
Port* 80
Pathname* /server-status
UserAgent* NOCpulse-ApacheUptime/1.0
Username
Password
Timeout* 15

C.3. BEA WebLogic 6.x and higher

The probes in this section (with the exception of JDBC Connection Pool) can be configured to monitor the properties of any BEA WebLogic 6.x and higher server (Administration or Managed) running on a given host, even in a clustered environment. Monitoring of a cluster is achieved by sending all SNMP queries to the Administration Server of the domain and then querying its Managed Servers for individual data.
In order to obtain this higher level of granularity, the BEA Domain Admin Server parameter must be used to differentiate between the Administration Server receiving SNMP queries and the Managed Server undergoing the specified probe. If the host to be probed is the Administration Server, then the BEA Domain Admin Server parameter can be left blank, and both the SNMP queries and the probe will be sent to it only.
If the host to be probed is a Managed Server, then the IP address of the Administration Server should be provided in the BEA Domain Admin Server parameter, and the Managed Server name should be included in the BEA Server Name parameter and appended to the end of the SNMP Community String field. This causes the SNMP queries to be sent to the Administration Server host, as is required, but redirects the specific probe to the Managed Server host.
It should also be noted that the community string needed for probes run against Managed Server hosts should be in the form of community_prefix@managed_server_name in order for the SNMP query to return results for the desired Managed Server. Finally, SNMP must be enabled on each monitored system. SNMP support can be enabled and configured through the WebLogic Console.
Please see the documentation that came with your BEA server or information on the BEA website for more details about BEA's community string naming conventions: http://e-docs.bea.com/wls/docs70/snmpman/snmpagent.html

C.3.1. BEA WebLogic::Execute Queue

The BEA WebLogic::Execute Queue probe monitors the WebLogic execute queue and provides the following metrics:
  • Idle Execute Threads — The number of execution threads in an idle state.
  • Queue Length — The number of requests in the queue.
  • Request Rate — The number of requests per second.
This probe's transport protocol is User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

Table C.4. BEA WebLogic::Execute Queue settings

Field Value
SNMP Community String* public
SNMP Port* 161
SNMP Version* 1
BEA Domain Admin Server
BEA Server Name* myserver
Queue Name* default
Critical Maximum Idle Execute Threads
Warning Maximum Idle Execute Threads
Critical Maximum Queue Length
Warning Maximum Queue Length
Critical Maximum Request Rate
Warning Maximum Request Rate

C.3.2. BEA WebLogic::Heap Free

The BEA WebLogic::Heap Free probe collects the following metric:
  • Heap Free — The percentage of free heap space.
This probe's transport protocol is User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

Table C.5. BEA WebLogic::Heap Free settings

Field Value
SNMP Community String* public
SNMP Port* 161
SNMP Version* 1
BEA Domain Admin Server
BEA Server Name* myserver
Critical Maximum Heap Free
Warning Maximum Heap Free
Warning Minimum Heap Free
Critical Minimum Heap Free

C.3.3. BEA WebLogic::JDBC Connection Pool

The BEA WebLogic::JDBC Connection Pool probe monitors the Java Database Connection (JDBC) pool on a domain Admin Server only (no Managed Servers) and collects the following metrics:
  • Connections — The number of connections to the JDBC.
  • Connections Rate — The speed at which connections are made to the JDBC, measured in connections per second.
  • Waiters — The number of sessions waiting to connect to the JDBC.
This probe's transport protocol is User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

Table C.6. BEA WebLogic::JDBC Connection Pool settings

Field Value
SNMP Community String* public
SNMP Port* 161
SNMP Version* 1
BEA Domain Admin Server
BEA Server Name* myserver
JDBC Pool Name* MyJDBC Connection Pool
Critical Maximum Connections
Warning Maximum Connections
Critical Maximum Connection Rate
Warning Maximum Connection Rate
Critical Maximum Waiters
Warning Maximum Waiters

C.3.4. BEA WebLogic::Server State

The BEA WebLogic::Server State probe monitors the current state of a BEA Weblogic Web server. If the probe is unable to make a connection to the server, a CRITICAL status results.
This probe's transport protocol is User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

Table C.7. BEA WebLogic::Server State settings

Field Value
SNMP Community String* public
SNMP Port* 161
SNMP Version* 1
BEA Domain Admin Server
BEA Server Name*

C.3.5. BEA WebLogic::Servlet

The BEA WebLogic::Servlet probe monitors the performance of a particular servlet deployed on a WebLogic server and collects the following metrics:
  • High Execution Time — The highest amount of time in milliseconds that the servlet takes to execute since the system was started.
  • Low Execution Time — The lowest amount of time in milliseconds that the servlet takes to execute since the system was started.
  • Execution Time Moving Average — A moving average of the execution time.
  • Execution Time Average — A standard average of the execution time.
  • Reload Rate — The number of times the specified servlet is reloaded per minute.
  • Invocation Rate — The number of times the specified servlet is invoked per minute.
This probe's transport protocol is User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

Table C.8. BEA WebLogic::Servlet settings

Field Value
SNMP Community String* public
SNMP Port* 161
SNMP Version* 1
BEA Domain Admin Server
BEA Server Name* myserver
Servlet Name*
Critical Maximum High Execution Time
Warning Maximum High Execution Time
Critical Maximum Execution Time Moving Average
Warning Maximum Execution Time Moving Average

C.4. General

The probes in this section are designed to monitor basic aspects of your systems. When applying them, ensure their timed thresholds do not exceed the amount of time allotted to the timeout period. Otherwise, the probe returns an UNKOWN status in all instances of extended latency, thereby nullifying the thresholds.

C.4.1. General::Remote Program

The General::Remote Program probe allows you to run any command or script on your system and obtain a status string. Note that the resulting message will be limited to 1024 bytes.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe.

Table C.9. General::Remote Program settings

Field Value
Command*
OK Exit Status* 0
Warning Exit Status* 1
Critical Exit Status* 2
Timeout 15

C.4.2. General::Remote Program with Data

The General::Remote Program with Data probe allows you to run any command or script on your system and obtain a value, as well as a status string. To use this probe, you must include XML code in the body of your script. This probe supports the following XML tags:
  • <perldata> </perldata>
  • <hash> </hash>
  • <item key =" "> </item>
The remote program will need to output some iteration of the following code to STDOUT:
<perldata> 
  <hash> 
    <item key="data">10</item> 
    <item key="status_message">status message here</item> 
  </hash> 
</perldata>
The required value for data is the data point to be inserted in the database for time-series trending. The status_message is optional and can be whatever text string is desired with a maximum length of 1024 bytes. Remote programs that do not include a status_message still report the value and status returned.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe. XML is case-sensitive. The data item key name cannot be changed and it must collect a number as its value.

Table C.10. General::Remote Program with Data settings

Field Value
Command*
OK Exit Status* 0
Warning Exit Status* 1
Critical Exit Status* 2
Timeout 15

C.4.3. General::SNMP Check

The General::SNMP Check probe tests your SNMP server by specifying a single object identifier (OID) in dotted notation (such as 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.1.0) and a threshold associated with the return value. It collects the following metric:
  • Remote Service Latency — The time it takes in seconds for the SNMP server to answer a connection request.
Requirements — SNMP must be running on the monitored system to perform this probe. Only integers can be used for the threshold values.
This probe's transport protocol is User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

Table C.11. General::SNMP Check settings

Field Value
SNMP OID*
SNMP Community String* public
SNMP Port* 161
SNMP Version* 2
Timeout* 15
Critical Maximum Value
Warning Maximum Value
Warning Minimum Value
Critical Minimum Value

C.4.4. General::TCP Check

The General::TCP Check probe tests your TCP server by verifying that it can connect to a system via the specified port number. It collects the following metric:
  • Remote Service Latency — The time it takes in seconds for the TCP server to answer a connection request.
The probe passes the string specified in the Send field upon making a connection. The probe anticipates a response from the system, which should include the substring specified in the Expect field. If the expected string is not found, the probe returns a CRITICAL status.

Table C.12. General::TCP Check settings

Field Value
Send
Expect
Port* 1
Timeout* 10
Critical Maximum Latency
Warning Maximum Latency

C.4.5. General::UDP Check

The General::UDP Check probe tests your UDP server by verifying that it can connect to a system via the specified port number. It collects the following metric:
  • Remote Service Latency — The time it takes in seconds for the UDP server to answer a connection request.
The probe passes the string specified in the Send field upon making a connection. The probe anticipates a response from the system, which should include the substring specified in the Expect field. If the expected string is not found, the probe returns a CRITICAL status.
This probe's transport protocol is User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

Table C.13. General::UDP Check settings

Field Value
Port* 1
Send
Expect
Timeout* 10
Critical Maximum Latency
Warning Maximum Latency

C.4.6. General::Uptime (SNMP)

The General::Uptime (SNMP) probe records the time since the device was last started. It uses the SNMP object identifier (OID) to obtain this value. The only error status it will return is UNKNOWN.
Requirements — SNMP must be running on the monitored system and access to the OID must be enabled to perform this probe.
This probe's transport protocol is User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

Table C.14. General::Uptime (SNMP) settings

Field Value
SNMP Community String* public
SNMP Port* 161
SNMP Version* 2
Timeout* 15

C.5. Linux

The probes in this section monitor essential aspects of your Linux systems, from CPU usage to virtual memory. Apply them to mission-critical systems to obtain warnings prior to failure.
Unlike other probe groups, which may or may not require the Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon, every Linux probe requires that the rhnmd daemon be running on the monitored system.

C.5.1. Linux::CPU Usage

The Linux::CPU Usage probe monitors the CPU utilization on a system and collects the following metric:
  • CPU Percent Used — The five-second average of the percent of CPU usage at probe execution.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to run this probe.

Table C.15. Linux::CPU Usage settings

Field Value
Timeout* 15
Critical Maximum CPU Percent Used
Warning Maximum CPU Percent Used

C.5.2. Linux::Disk IO Throughput

The Linux::Disk IO Throughput probe monitors a given disk and collects the following metric:
  • Read Rate — The amount of data that is read in kilobytes per second.
  • Write Rate — The amount of data that is written in kilobytes per second.
To obtain the value for the required Disk number or disk name field, run iostat on the system to be monitored and see what name has been assigned to the disk you desire. The default value of 0 usually provides statistics from the first hard drive connected directly to the system.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe. Also, the Disk number or disk name parameter must match the format visible when the iostat command is run. If the format is not identical, the configured probe enters an UNKNOWN state.

Table C.16. Linux::Disk IO Throughput settings

Field Value
Disk number or disk name* 0
Timeout* 15
Critical Maximum KB read/second
Warning Maximum KB read/second
Warning Minimum KB read/second
Critical Minimum KB read/second
Critical Maximum KB written/second
Warning Maximum KB written/second
Warning Minimum KB written/second
Critical Minimum KB written/second

C.5.3. Linux::Disk Usage

The Linux::Disk Usage probe monitors the disk space on a specific file system and collects the following metrics:
  • File System Used — The percentage of the file system currently in use.
  • Space Used — The amount of the file system in megabytes currently in use.
  • Space Available — The amount of the file system in megabytes currently available.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe.

Table C.17. Linux::Disk Usage settings

Field Value
File system* /dev/hda1
Timeout* 15
Critical Maximum File System Percent Used
Warning Maximum File System Percent Used
Critical Maximum Space Used
Warning Maximum Space Used
Warning Minimum Space Available
Critical Minimum Space Available

C.5.4. Linux::Inodes

The Linux::Inodes probe monitors the specified file system and collects the following metric:
  • Inodes — The percentage of inodes currently in use.
An inode is a data structure that holds information about files in a Linux file system. There is an inode for each file, and a file is uniquely identified by the file system on which it resides and its inode number on that system.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe.

Table C.18. Linux::Inodes settings

Field Value
File system* /
Timeout* 15
Critical Maximum Inodes Percent Used
Warning Maximum Inodes Percent Used

C.5.5. Linux::Interface Traffic

The Linux::Interface Traffic probe measures the amount of traffic into and out of the specified interface (such as eth0) and collects the following metrics:
  • Input Rate — The traffic in bytes per second going into the specified interface.
  • Output Rate — The traffic in bytes per second going out of the specified interface.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe.

Table C.19. Linux::Interface Traffic settings

Field Value
Interface*
Timeout* 30
Critical Maximum Input Rate
Warning Maximum Input Rate
Warning Minimum Input Rate
Critical Minimum Input Rate
Critical Maximum Output Rate
Warning Maximum Output Rate
Warning Minimum Output Rate
Critical Minimum Output Rate

C.5.6. Linux::Load

The Linux::Load probe monitors the CPU of a system and collects the following metric:
  • Load — The average load on the system CPU over various periods.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe.

Table C.20. Linux::Load settings

Field Value
Timeout* 15
Critical CPU Load 1-minute average
Warning CPU Load 1-minute average
Critical CPU Load 5-minute average
Warning CPU Load 5-minute average
Critical CPU Load 15-minute average
Warning CPU Load 15-minute average

C.5.7. Linux::Memory Usage

The Linux::Memory Usage probe monitors the memory on a system and collects the following metric:
  • RAM Free — The amount of free random access memory (RAM) in megabytes on a system.
You can also include the reclaimable memory in this metric by entering yes or no in the Include reclaimable memory field.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe.

Table C.21. Linux::Memory Usage settings

Field Value
Include reclaimable memory no
Timeout* 15
Warning Maximum RAM Free
Critical Maximum RAM Free

C.5.8. Linux::Process Counts by State

The Linux::Process Counts by State probe identifies the number of processes in the following states:
  • Blocked — A process that has been switched to the waiting queue and whose state has been switched to waiting.
  • Defunct — A process that has terminated (either because it has been killed by a signal or because it has called exit()) and whose parent process has not yet received notification of its termination by executing some form of the wait() system call.
  • Stopped — A process that has been stopped before its execution could be completed.
  • Sleeping — A process that is in the Interruptible sleep state and that can later be reintroduced into memory, resuming execution where it left off.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe.

Table C.22. Linux::Process Counts by State settings

Field Value
Timeout* 15
Critical Maximum Blocked Processes
Warning Maximum Blocked Processes
Critical Maximum Defunct Processes
Warning Maximum Defunct Processes
Critical Maximum Stopped Processes
Warning Maximum Stopped Processes
Critical Maximum Sleeping Processes
Warning Maximum Sleeping Processes
Critical Maximum Child Processes
Warning Maximum Child Processes

C.5.9. Linux::Process Count Total

The Linux::Process Count Total probe monitors a system and collects the following metric:
  • Process Count — The total number of processes currently running on the system.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe.

Table C.23. Linux::Process Count Total settings

Field Value
Timeout* 15
Critical Maximum Process Count
Warning Maximum Process Count

C.5.10. Linux::Process Health

The Linux::Process Health probe monitors user-specified processes and collects the following metrics:
  • CPU Usage — The CPU usage rate for a given process in milliseconds per second. This metric reports the time column of ps output, which is the cumulative CPU time used by the process. This makes the metric independent of probe interval, allows sane thresholds to be set, and generates usable graphs (i.e. a sudden spike in CPU usage shows up as a spike in the graph).
  • Child Process Groups — The number of child processes spawned from the specified parent process. A child process inherits most of its attributes, such as open files, from its parent.
  • Threads — The number of running threads for a given process. A thread is the basic unit of CPU utilization, and consists of a program counter, a register set, and a stack space. A thread is also called a lightweight process.
  • Physical Memory Used — The amount of physical memory (or RAM) in kilobytes used by the specified process.
  • Virtual Memory Used — The amount of virtual memory in kilobytes used by the specified process, or the size of the process in real memory plus swap.
Specify the process by its command name or process ID. (PID). Entering a PID overrides the entry of a command name. If no command name or PID is entered, the error Command not found is displayed and the probe will be set to a CRITICAL state.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe.

Table C.24. Linux::Process Health settings

Field Value
Command Name
Process ID (PID) file
Timeout* 15
Critical Maximum CPU Usage
Warning Maximum CPU Usage
Critical Maximum Child Process Groups
Warning Maximum Child Process Groups
Critical Maximum Threads
Warning Maximum Threads
Critical Maximum Physical Memory Used
Warning Maximum Physical Memory Used
Critical Maximum Virtual Memory Used
Warning Maximum Virtual Memory Used

C.5.11. Linux::Process Running

The Linux::Process Running probe verifies that the specified process is functioning properly. It counts either processes or process groups, depending on whether the Count process groups checkbox is selected.
By default, the checkbox is selected, thereby indicating that the probe should count the number of process group leaders independent of the number of children. This allows you, for example, to verify that two instances of the Apache Web server are running regardless of the (dynamic) number of child processes. If it is not selected, the probe conducts a straightforward count of the number of processes (children and leaders) matching the specified process.
Specify the process by its command name or process ID. (PID). Entering a PID overrides the entry of a command name. If no command name or PID is entered, the error Command not found is displayed and the probe enters a CRITICAL state.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe.

Table C.25. Linux::Process Running settings

Field Value
Command name
PID file
Count process groups (checked)
Timeout* 15
Critical Maximum Number Running
Critical Minimum Number Running

C.5.12. Linux::Swap Usage

The Linux::Swap Usage probe monitors the swap partitions running on a system and reports the following metric:
  • Swap Free — The percent of swap memory currently free.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe.

Table C.26. Linux::Swap Usage settings

Field Value
Timeout* 15
Warning Minimum Swap Free
Critical Minimum Swap Free

C.5.13. Linux::TCP Connections by State

The Linux::TCP Connections by State probe identifies the total number of TCP connections, as well as the quantity of each in the following states:
  • TIME_WAIT — The socket is waiting after close for remote shutdown transmission so it may handle packets still in the network.
  • CLOSE_WAIT — The remote side has been shut down and is now waiting for the socket to close.
  • FIN_WAIT — The socket is closed, and the connection is now shutting down.
  • ESTABLISHED — The socket has a connection established.
  • SYN_RCVD — The connection request has been received from the network.
This probe can be helpful in finding and isolating network traffic to specific IP addresses or examining network connections into the monitored system.
The filter parameters for the probe let you narrow the probe's scope. This probe uses the netstat -ant command to retrieve data. The Local IP address and Local port parameters use values in the Local Address column of the output; the Remote IP address and Remote port parameters use values in the Foreign Address column of the output for reporting.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe.

Table C.27. Linux::TCP Connections by State settings

Field Value
Local IP address filter pattern list
Local port number filter
Remote IP address filter pattern list
Remote port number filter
Timeout* 15
Critical Maximum Total Connections
Warning Maximum Total Connections
Critical Maximum TIME_WAIT Connections
Warning Maximum TIME_WAIT Connections
Critical Maximum CLOSE_WAIT Connections
Warning Maximum CLOSE_WAIT Connections
Critical Maximum FIN_WAIT Connections
Warning Maximum FIN_WAIT Connections
Critical Maximum ESTABLISHED Connections
Warning Maximum ESTABLISHED Connections
Critical Maximum SYN_RCVD Connections
Warning Maximum SYN_RCVD Connections

C.5.14. Linux::Users

The Linux::Users probe monitors the users of a system and reports the following metric:
  • Users — The number of users currently logged in.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe.

Table C.28. Linux::Users settings

Field Value
Timeout* 15
Critical Maximum Users
Warning Maximum Users

C.5.15. Linux::Virtual Memory

The Linux::Virtual Memory probe monitors the total system memory and collects the following metric:
  • Virtual Memory — The percent of total system memory - random access memory (RAM) plus swap - that is free.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe.

Table C.29. Linux::Virtual Memory settings

Field Value
Timeout* 15
Warning Minimum Virtual Memory Free
Critical Minimum Virtual Memory Free

C.6. LogAgent

The probes in this section monitor the log files on your systems. You can use them to query logs for certain expressions and track the sizes of files. For LogAgent probes to run, the nocpulse user must be granted read access to your log files.
Note that data from the first run of these probes is not measured against the thresholds to prevent spurious notifications caused by incomplete metric data. Measurements will begin on the second run.

C.6.1. LogAgent::Log Pattern Match

The LogAgent::Log Pattern Match probe uses regular expressions to match text located within the monitored log file and collects the following metrics:
  • Regular Expression Matches — The number of matches that have occurred since the probe last ran.
  • Regular Expression Match Rate — The number of matches per minute since the probe last ran.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe. For this probe to run, the nocpulse user must be granted read access to your log files.
In addition to the name and location of the log file to be monitored, you must provide a regular expression to be matched against. The expression must be formatted for egrep, which is equivalent to grep -E and supports extended regular expressions. This is the regular expression set for egrep:
^ beginning of line
$ end of line
. match one char
* match zero or more chars
[] match one character set, e.g. '[Ff]oo'
[^] match not in set '[^A-F]oo'
+ match one or more of preceding chars
? match zero or one of preceding chars
| or, e.g. a|b
() groups chars, e.g., (foo|bar) or (foo)+

Warning

Do not include single quotation marks (') within the expression. Doing so causes egrep to fail silently and the probe to time out.

Table C.30. LogAgent::Log Pattern Match settings

Field Value
Log file* /var/log/messages
Basic regular expression*
Timeout* 45
Critical Maximum Matches
Warning Maximum Matches
Warning Minimum Matches
Critical Minimum Matches
Critical Maximum Match Rate
Warning Maximum Match Rate
Warning Minimum Match Rate
Critical Maximum Match Rate

C.6.2. LogAgent::Log Size

The LogAgent::Log Size probe monitors log file growth and collects the following metrics:
  • Size — The size the log file has grown in bytes since the probe last ran.
  • Output Rate — The number of bytes per minute the log file has grown since the probe last ran.
  • Lines — The number of lines written to the log file since the probe last ran.
  • Line Rate — The number of lines written per minute to the log file since the probe last ran.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe. For this probe to run, the nocpulse user must be granted read access to your log files.

Table C.31. LogAgent::Log Size settings

Field Value
Log file* /var/log/messages
Timeout* 20
Critical Maximum Size
Warning Maximum Size
Warning Minimum Size
Critical Minimum Size
Critical Maximum Output Rate
Warning Maximum Output Rate
Warning Minimum Output Rate
Critical Minimum Output Rate
Critical Maximum Lines
Warning Maximum Lines
Warning Minimum Lines
Critical Minimum Lines
Critical Maximum Line Rate
Warning Maximum Line Rate
Warning Minimum Line Rate
Critical Minimum Line Rate

C.7. MySQL 3.23 - 3.33

The probes in this section monitor aspects of the MySQL database using the mysqladmin binary. No specific user privileges are needed for these probes.
Note that the mysql-server package must be installed on the system conducting the monitoring for these probes to complete. Refer to the MySQL Installation section of the RHN Satellite Server Installation Guide for instructions.

C.7.1. MySQL::Database Accessibility

The MySQL::Database Accessibility probe tests connectivity through a database account that has no database privileges. If no connection is made, a CRITICAL status results.

Table C.32. MySQL::Database Accessibility settings

Field Value
Username*
Password
MySQL Port 3306
Database* mysql
Timeout 15

C.7.2. MySQL::Opened Tables

The MySQL::Opened Tables probe monitors the MySQL server and collects the following metric:
  • Opened Tables — The tables that have been opened since the server was started.

Table C.33. MySQL::Opened Tables settings

Field Value
Username
Password
MySQL Port* 3306
Timeout 15
Critical Maximum Opened Objects
Warning Maximum Opened Objects
Warning Minimum Opened Objects
Critical Minimum Opened Objects

C.7.3. MySQL::Open Tables

The MySQL::Open Tables probe monitors the MySQL server and collects the following metric:
  • Open Tables — The number of tables open when the probe runs.

Table C.34. MySQL::Open Tables settings

Field Value
Username
Password
MySQL Port* 3306
Timeout 15
Critical Maximum Open Objects
Warning Maximum Open Objects
Warning Minimum Open Objects
Critical Minimum Open Objects

C.7.4. MySQL::Query Rate

The MySQL::Query Rate probe monitors the MySQL server and collects the following metric:
  • Query Rate — The average number of queries per second per database server.

Table C.35. MySQL::Query Rate settings

Field Value
Username
Password
MySQL Port* 3306
Timeout 15
Critical Maximum Query Rate
Warning Maximum Query Rate
Warning Minimum Query Rate
Critical Minimum Query Rate

C.7.5. MySQL::Threads Running

The MySQL::Threads Running probe monitors the MySQL server and collects the following metric:
  • Threads Running — The total number of running threads within the database.

Table C.36. MySQL::Threads Running settings

Field Value
Username
Password
MySQL Port* 3306
Timeout 15
Critical Maximum Threads Running
Warning Maximum Threads Running
Warning Minimum Threads Running
Critical Minimum Threads Running

C.8. Network Services

The probes in this section monitor various services integral to a functioning network. When applying them, ensure that their timed thresholds do not exceed the amount of time allotted to the timeout period. Otherwise, an UNKNOWN status is returned in all instances of extended latency, thereby nullifying the thresholds.

C.8.1. Network Services::DNS Lookup

The Network Services::DNS Lookup probe uses the dig command to see if it can resolve the system or domain name specified in the Host or Address to look up field. It collects the following metric:
  • Query Time — The time in milliseconds required to execute the dig request.
This is useful in monitoring the status of your DNS servers. To monitor one of your DNS servers, supply a well-known host/domain name, such as a large search engine or corporate Web site.

Table C.37. Network Services::DNS Lookup settings

Field Value
Host or Address to look up
Timeout* 10
Critical Maximum Query Time
Warning Maximum Query Time

C.8.2. Network Services::FTP

The Network Services::FTP probe uses network sockets to test FTP port availability. It collects the following metric:
  • Remote Service Latency — The time it takes in seconds for the FTP server to answer a connection request.
This probe supports authentication. Provide a username and password in the appropriate fields to use this feature.The optional Expect value is the string to be matched against after a successful connection is made to the FTP server. If the expected string is not found, the probe returns a CRITICAL state.

Table C.38. Network Services::FTP settings

Field Value
Expect FTP
Username
Password
FTP Port* 21
Timeout* 10
Critical Maximum Remote Service Latency
Warning Maximum Remote Service Latency

C.8.3. Network Services::IMAP Mail

The Network Services::IMAP Mail probe determines if it can connect to the IMAP 4 service on the system. Specifying an optional port will override the default port 143. It collects the following metric:
  • Remote Service Latency — The time it takes in seconds for the IMAP server to answer a connection request.
The required Expect value is the string to be matched against after a successful connection is made to the IMAP server. If the expected string is not found, the probe returns a CRITICAL state.

Table C.39. Network Services::IMAP Mail settings

Field Value
IMAP Port* 143
Expect* OK
Timeout* 5
Critical Maximum Remote Service Latency
Warning Maximum Remote Service Latency

C.8.4. Network Services::Mail Transfer (SMTP)

The Network Services::Mail Transfer (SMTP) probe determines if it can connect to the SMTP port on the system. Specifying an optional port number overrides the default port 25. It collects the following metric:
  • Remote Service Latency — The time it takes in seconds for the SMTP server to answer a connection request.

Table C.40. Network Services::Mail Transfer (SMTP) settings

Field Value
SMTP Port* 25
Timeout* 10
Critical Maximum Remote Service Latency
Warning Maximum Remote Service Latency

C.8.5. Network Services::Ping

The Network Services::Ping probe determines if the RHN Server can ping the monitored system or a specified IP address. It also checks the packet loss and compares the round trip average against the Warning and Critical threshold levels. The required Packets to send value allows you to control how many ICMP ECHO packets are sent to the system. This probe collects the following metrics:
  • Round-Trip Average — The time it takes in milliseconds for the ICMP ECHO packet to travel to and from the monitored system.
  • Packet Loss — The percent of data lost in transit.
Although optional, the IP Address field can be instrumental in collecting metrics for systems that have multiple IP addresses. For instance, if the system is configured with multiple virtual IP addresses or uses Network Address Translation (NAT) to support internal and external IP addresses, this option may be used to check a secondary IP address rather than the primary address associated with the hostname.
Note that this probe conducts the ping from an RHN Server and not the monitored system. Populating the IP Address field does not test connectivity between the system and the specified IP address but between the RHN Server and the IP address. Therefore, entering the same IP address for Ping probes on different systems accomplishes precisely the same task. To conduct a ping from a monitored system to an individual IP address, use the Remote Ping probe instead. Refer to Section C.8.7, “Network Services::Remote Ping”.

Table C.41. Network Services::Ping settings

Field Value
IP Address (defaults to system IP)
Packets to send* 20
Timeout* 10
Critical Maximum Round-Trip Average
Warning Maximum Round-Trip Average
Critical Maximum Packet Loss
Warning Maximum Packet Loss

C.8.6. Network Services::POP Mail

The Network Services::POP Mail probe determines if it can connect to the POP3 port on the system. A port number must be specified; specifying another port number overrides the default port 110. This probe collects the following metric:
  • Remote Service Latency — The time it takes in seconds for the POP server to answer a connection request.
The required Expect value is the string to be matched against after a successful connection is made to the POP server. The probe looks for the string in the first line of the response from the system. The default is +OK. If the expected string is not found, the probe returns a CRITICAL state.

Table C.42. Network Services::POP Mail settings

Field Value
Port* 110
Expect* +OK
Timeout* 10
Critical Maximum Remote Service Latency
Warning Maximum Remote Service Latency

C.8.7. Network Services::Remote Ping

The Network Services::Remote Ping probe determines if the monitored system can ping a specified IP address. It also monitors the packet loss and compares the round trip average against the Warning and Critical threshold levels. The required Packets to send value allows you to control how many ICMP ECHO packets are sent to the address. This probe collects the following metrics:
  • Round-Trip Average — The time it takes in milliseconds for the ICMP ECHO packet to travel to and from the IP address.
  • Packet Loss — The percent of data lost in transit.
The IP Address field identifies the precise address to be pinged. Unlike the similar, optional field in the standard Ping probe, this field is required. The monitored system directs the ping to a third address, rather than to the RHN Server. Since the Remote Ping probe tests connectivity from the monitored system, another IP address must be specified. To conduct pings from the RHN Server to a system or IP address, use the standard Ping probe instead. Refer to Section C.8.5, “Network Services::Ping”.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe.

Table C.43. Network Services::Remote Ping settings

Field Value
IP Address*
Packets to send* 20
Timeout* 10
Critical Maximum Round-Trip Average
Warning Maximum Round-Trip Average
Critical Maximum Packet Loss
Warning Maximum Packet Loss

C.8.8. Network Services::RPCService

The Network Services::RPCService probe tests the availability of remote procedure call (RPC) programs on a given IP address. It collects the following metric:
  • Remote Service Latency — The time it takes in seconds for the RPC server to answer a connection request.
RPC server programs, which provide function calls via that RPC network, register themselves in the RPC network by declaring a program ID and a program name. NFS is an example of a service that works via the RPC mechanism.
Client programs that wish to use the resources of RPC server programs do so by asking the machine on which the server program resides to provide access to RPC functions within the RPC program number or program name. These conversations can occur over either TCP or UDP (but are almost always UDP).
This probe allows you to test simple program availability. You must specify the program name or number, the protocol over which the conversation occurs, and the usual timeout period.

Table C.44. Network Services::RPCService settings

Field Value
Protocol (TCP/UDP) udp
Service Name* nfs
Timeout* 10
Critical Maximum Remote Service Latency
Warning Maximum Remote Service Latency

C.8.9. Network Services::Secure Web Server (HTTPS)

The Network Services::Secure Web Server (HTTPS) probe determines the availability of the secure Web server and collects the following metric:
  • Remote Service Latency — The time it takes in seconds for the HTTPS server to answer a connection request.
This probe confirms that it can connect to the HTTPS port on the specified host and retrieve the specified URL. If no URL is specified, the probe fetches the root document. The probe looks for a HTTP/1. message from the system unless you alter that value. Specifying another port number overrides the default port of 443.
This probe supports authentication. Provide a username and password in the appropriate fields to use this feature. Unlike most other probes, this probe returns a CRITICAL status if it cannot contact the system within the timeout period.

Table C.45. Network Services::Secure Web Server (HTTPS) settings

Field Value
URL Path /
Expect Header HTTP/1
Expect Content
UserAgent* NOCpulse-check_http/1.0
Username
Password
Timeout* 10
HTTPS Port* 443
Critical Maximum Remote Service Latency
Warning Maximum Remote Service Latency

C.8.10. Network Services::SSH

The Network Services::SSH probe determines the availability of SSH on the specified port and collects the following metric:
  • Remote Service Latency — The time it takes in seconds for the SSH server to answer a connection request.
Upon successfully contacting the SSH server and receiving a valid response, the probe displays the protocol and server version information. If the probe receives an invalid response, it displays the message returned from the server and generates a WARNING state.

Table C.46. Network Services::SSH settings

Field Value
SSH Port* 22
Timeout* 5
Critical Maximum Remote Service Latency
Warning Maximum Remote Service Latency

C.8.11. Network Services::Web Server (HTTP)

The Network Services::Web Server (HTTP) probe determines the availability of the Web server and collects the following metric:
  • Remote Service Latency — The time it takes in seconds for the HTTP server to answer a connection request.
This probe confirms it can connect to the HTTP port on the specified host and retrieve the specified URL. If no URL is specified, the probe will fetch the root document. The probe looks for a HTTP/1. message from the system, unless you alter that value. Specifying another port number will override the default port of 80. Unlike most other probes, this probe will return a CRITICAL status if it cannot contact the system within the timeout period.
This probe supports authentication. Provide a username and password in the appropriate fields to use this feature. Also, the optional Virtual Host field can be used to monitor a separate documentation set located on the same physical machine presented as a standalone server. If your Web server is not configured to use virtual hosts (which is typically the case), you should leave this field blank. If you do have virtual hosts configured, enter the domain name of the first host here. Add as many probes as necessary to monitor all virtual hosts on the machine.

Table C.47. Network Services::Web Server (HTTP) settings

Field Value
URL Path /
Virtual Host
Expect Header HTTP/1
Expect Content
UserAgent* NOCpulse-check_http/1.0
Username
Password
Timeout* 10
HTTP Port* 80
Critical Maximum Remote Service Latency
Warning Maximum Remote Service Latency

C.9. Oracle 8i and 9i

The probes in this section may be applied to instances of the Oracle database matching the versions supported. Oracle probes require the configuration of the database and associations made by running the following command:
 $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/catalog.sql 
In addition, for these probes to function properly, the Oracle user configured in the probe must have minimum privileges of CONNECT and SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE.
Some Oracle probes are specifically aimed at tuning devices for long-term performance gains, rather than avoiding outages. Therefore, Red Hat recommends scheduling them to occur less frequently, between every hour and every two days. This provides a better statistical representation, de-emphasizing anomalies that can occur at shorter time intervals. This applies to following probes: Buffer Cache, Data Dictionary Cache, Disk Sort Ratio, Library Cache, and Redo Log.
For CRITICAL and WARNING thresholds based upon time to work as intended, their values cannot exceed the amount of time allotted to the timeout period. Otherwise, an UNKNOWN status is returned in all cases of extended latency, thereby nullifying the thresholds. For this reason, Red Hat strongly recommends ensuring that timeout periods exceed all timed thresholds. In this section, this refers specifically to the probe TNS Ping.
Finally, customers using these Oracle probes against a database using Oracle's Multi-Threaded Server (MTS) must contact Red Hat support to have entries added to the RHN Server's /etc/hosts file to ensure that the DNS name is resolved correctly.

C.9.1. Oracle::Active Sessions

The Oracle::Active Sessions probe monitors an Oracle instance and collects the following metrics:
  • Active Sessions — The number of active sessions based on the value of V$PARAMETER.PROCESSES.
  • Available Sessions — The percentage of active sessions that are available based on the value of V$PARAMETER.PROCESSES.

Table C.48. Oracle::Active Sessions settings

Field Value
Oracle SID*
Oracle Username*
Oracle Password*
Oracle Port* 1521
Timeout* 30
Critical Maximum Active Sessions
Warning Maximum Active Sessions
Critical Maximum Available Sessions Used
Warning Maximum Available Sessions Used

C.9.2. Oracle::Availability

The Oracle::Availability probe determines the availability of the database from the RHN Satellite Server.

Table C.49. Oracle::Availability settings

Field Value
Oracle SID*
Oracle Username*
Oracle Password*
Oracle Port* 1521
Timeout* 30

C.9.3. Oracle::Blocking Sessions

The Oracle::Blocking Sessions probe monitors an Oracle instance and collects the following metric:
  • Blocking Sessions — The number of sessions preventing other sessions from committing changes to the Oracle database, as determined by the required Time Blocking value you provide. Only those sessions that have been blocking for this duration, which is measured in seconds, are counted as blocking sessions.

Table C.50. Oracle::Blocking Sessions settings

Field Value
Oracle SID*
Oracle Username*
Oracle Password*
Oracle Port* 1521
Time Blocking (seconds)* 20
Timeout* 30
Critical Maximum Blocking Sessions
Warning Maximum Blocking Sessions

C.9.4. Oracle::Buffer Cache

The Oracle::Buffer Cache probe computes the Buffer Cache Hit Ratio so as to optimize the system global area (SGA) Database Buffer Cache size. It collects the following metrics:
  • Db Block Gets — The number of blocks accessed via single block gets (not through the consistent get mechanism).
  • Consistent Gets — The number of accesses made to the block buffer to retrieve data in a consistent mode.
  • Physical Reads — The cumulative number of blocks read from disk.
  • Buffer Cache Hit Ratio — The rate at which the database goes to the buffer instead of the hard disk to retrieve data. A low ratio suggests more RAM should be added to the system.

Table C.51. Oracle::Buffer Cache settings

Field Value
Oracle SID*
Oracle Username*
Oracle Password*
Oracle Port 1521
Timeout* 30
Warning Minimum Buffer Cache Hit Ratio
Critical Minimum Buffer Cache Hit Ratio

C.9.5. Oracle::Client Connectivity

The Oracle::Client Connectivity probe determines if the database is up and capable of receiving connections from the monitored system. This probe opens an rhnmd connection to the system and issues a sqlplus connect command on the monitored system.
The Expected DB name parameter is the expected value of V$DATABASE.NAME. This value is case-insensitive. A CRITICAL status is returned if this value is not found.
Requirements — The Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd) must be running on the monitored system to execute this probe. For this probe to run, the nocpulse user must be granted read access to your log files.

Table C.52. Oracle::Client Connectivity settings

Field Value
Oracle Hostname or IP address*
Oracle SID*
Oracle Username*
Oracle Password*
Oracle Port* 1521
ORACLE_HOME* /opt/oracle
Expected DB Name*
Timeout* 30

C.9.6. Oracle::Data Dictionary Cache

The Oracle::Data Dictionary Cache probe computes the Data Dictionary Cache Hit Ratio so as to optimize the SHARED_POOL_SIZE in init.ora. It collects the following metrics:
  • Data Dictionary Hit Ratio — The ratio of cache hits to cache lookup attempts in the data dictionary cache. In other words, the rate at which the database goes to the dictionary instead of the hard disk to retrieve data. A low ratio suggests more RAM should be added to the system.
  • Gets — The number of blocks accessed via single block gets (not through the consistent get mechanism).
  • Cache Misses — The number of accesses made to the block buffer to retrieve data in a consistent mode.

Table C.53. Oracle::Data Dictionary Cache settings

Field Value
Oracle SID*
Oracle Username*
Oracle Password*
Oracle Port* 1521
Timeout* 30
Warning Minimum Data Dictionary Hit Ratio
Critical Minimum Data Dictionary Hit Ratio

C.9.7. Oracle::Disk Sort Ratio

The Oracle::Disk Sort Ratio probe monitors an Oracle database instance and collects the following metric:
  • Disk Sort Ratio — The rate of Oracle sorts that were too large to be completed in memory and were instead sorted using a temporary segment.

Table C.54. Oracle::Disk Sort Ratio settings

Field Value
Oracle SID*
Oracle Username*
Oracle Password*
Oracle Port* 1521
Timeout* 30
Critical Maximum Disk Sort Ratio
Warning Maximum Disk Sort Ratio

C.9.8. Oracle::Idle Sessions

The Oracle::Idle Sessions probe monitors an Oracle instance and collects the following metric:
  • Idle Sessions — The number of Oracle sessions that are idle, as determined by the required Time Idle value you provide. Only those sessions that have been idle for this duration, which is measured in seconds, are counted as idle sessions.

Table C.55. Oracle::Idle Sessions settings

Field Value
Oracle SID*
Oracle Username*
Oracle Password*
Oracle Port* 1521
Time Idle (seconds)* 20
Timeout* 30
Critical Maximum Idle Sessions
Warning Maximum Idle Sessions

C.9.9. Oracle::Index Extents

The Oracle::Index Extents probe monitors an Oracle instance and collects the following metric:
  • Allocated Extents — The number of allocated extents for any index.
  • Available Extents — The percentage of available extents for any index.
The required Index Name field contains a default value of % that matches any index name.

Table C.56. Oracle::Index Extents settings

Field Value
Oracle SID*
Oracle Username*
Oracle Password*
Oracle Port* 1521
Index Owner* %
Index Name* %
Timeout* 30
Critical Maximum of Allocated Extents
Warning Maximum of Allocated Extents
Critical Maximum of Available Extents
Warning Maximum of Available Extents

C.9.10. Oracle::Library Cache

The Oracle::Library Cache probe computes the Library Cache Miss Ratio so as to optimize the SHARED_POOL_SIZE in init.ora. It collects the following metrics:
  • Library Cache Miss Ratio — The rate at which a library cache pin miss occurs. This happens when a session executes a statement that it has already parsed but finds that the statement is no longer in the shared pool.
  • Executions — The number of times a pin was requested for objects of this namespace.
  • Cache Misses — The number of pins of objects with previous pins since the object handle was created that must now retrieve the object from disk.

Table C.57. Oracle::Library Cache settings

Field Value
Oracle SID*
Oracle Username*
Oracle Password*
Oracle Port* 1521
Timeout* 30
Critical Maximum Library Cache Miss Ratio
Warning Maximum Library Cache Miss Ratio

C.9.11. Oracle::Locks

The Oracle::Locks probe monitors an Oracle database instance and collects the following metric:
  • Active Locks — The current number of active locks as determined by the value in the v$locks table. Database administrators should be aware of high numbers of locks present in a database instance.
Locks are used so that multiple users or processes updating the same data in the database do not conflict. This probe is useful for alerting database administrators when a high number of locks are present in a given instance.

Table C.58. Oracle::Locks settings

Field Value
Oracle SID*
Oracle Username*
Oracle Password*
Oracle Port* 1521
Timeout* 30
Critical Maximum Active Locks
Warning Maximum Active Locks

C.9.12. Oracle::Redo Log

The Oracle::Redo Log probe monitors an Oracle database instance and collects the following metrics:
  • Redo Log Space Request Rate — The average number of redo log space requests per minute since the server has been started.
  • Redo Buffer Allocation Retry Rate — The average number of buffer allocation retries per minute since the server was started.
The metrics returned and the thresholds they are measured against are numbers representing the rate of change in events per minute. The rate of change for these metrics should be monitored because fast growth can indicate problems requiring investigation.

Table C.59. Oracle::Redo Log settings

Field Value
Oracle SID*
Oracle Username*
Oracle Password*
Oracle Port* 1521
Timeout* 30
Critical Maximum Redo Log Space Request Rate
Warning Maximum Redo Log Space Request Rate
Critical Maximum Redo Buffer Allocation Retry Rate
Warning Maximum Redo Buffer Allocation Retry Rate

C.9.13. Oracle::Table Extents

The Oracle::Table Extents probe monitors an Oracle database instance and collects the following metrics:
  • Allocated Extents-Any Table — The total number of extents for any table.
  • Available Extents-Any Table — The percentage of available extents for any table.
In Oracle, table extents allow a table to grow. When a table is full, it is extended by an amount of space configured when the table is created. Extents are configured on a per-table basis, with an extent size and a maximum number of extents.
For example, a table that starts with 10 MB of space and that is configured with an extent size of 1 MB and max extents of 10 can grow to a maximum of 20 MB (by being extended by 1 MB ten times). This probe can be configured to alert by (1) the number of allocated extents (e.g. "go critical when the table has been extended 5 or more times"), or (2) the table is extended past a certain percentage of its max extents (e.g. "go critical when the table has exhausted 80% or more of its max extents").
The required Table Owner and Table Name fields contain a default value of % that matches any table owner or name.

Table C.60. Oracle::Table Extents settings

Field Value
Oracle SID*
Oracle Username*
Oracle Password*
Oracle Port* 1521
Table Owner* %
Table Name* %
Timeout* 30
Critical Maximum Allocated Extents
Warning Maximum Allocated Extents
Critical Maximum Available Extents
Warning Maximum Available Extents

C.9.14. Oracle::Tablespace Usage

The Oracle::Tablespace Usage probe monitors an Oracle database instance and collects the following metric:
  • Available Space Used — The percentage of available space in each tablespace that has been used.
Tablespace is the shared pool of space in which a set of tables live. This probe alerts the user when the total amount of available space falls below the threshold. Tablespace is measured in bytes, so extents do not factor into it directly (though each extension removes available space from the shared pool).
The required Tablespace Name field is case insensitive and contains a default value of % that matches any table name.

Table C.61. Oracle::Tablespace Usage settings

Field Value
Oracle SID*
Oracle Username*
Oracle Password*
Oracle Port* 1521
Tablespace Name* %
Timeout* 30
Critical Maximum Available Space Used
Warning Maximum Available Space Used

C.9.15. Oracle::TNS Ping

The Oracle::TNS Ping probe determines if an Oracle listener is alive and collects the following metric:
  • Remote Service Latency — The time it takes in seconds for the Oracle server to answer a connection request.

Table C.62. Oracle::TNS Ping settings

Field Value
TNS Listener Port* 1521
Timeout* 15
Critical Maximum Remote Service Latency
Warning Maximum Remote Service Latency

C.10. RHN Satellite Server

The probes in this section may be applied to the RHN Satellite Server itself to monitor its health and performance. Since these probes run locally, no specific application or transport protocols are required.

C.10.1. RHN Satellite Server::Disk Space

The RHN Satellite Server::Disk Space probe monitors the free disk space on a Satellite and collects the following metrics:
  • File System Used — The percent of the current file system now in use.
  • Space Used — The file size used by the current file system.
  • Space Available — The file size available to the current file system.

Table C.63. RHN Satellite Server::Disk Space settings

Field Value
Device Pathname* /dev/hda1
Critical Maximum File System Used
Warning Maximum File System Used
Critical Maximum Space Used
Warning Maximum Space Used
Critical Maximum Space Available
Warning Maximum Space Available

C.10.2. RHN Satellite Server::Execution Time

The RHN Satellite Server::Execution Time probe monitors the execution time for probes run from a Satellite and collects the following metric:
  • Probe Execution Time Average — The seconds required to fully execute a probe.

Table C.64. RHN Satellite Server::Execution Time settings

Field Value
Critical Maximum Probe Execution Time Average
Warning Maximum Probe Execution Time Average

C.10.3. RHN Satellite Server::Interface Traffic

The RHN Satellite Server::Interface Traffic probe monitors the interface traffic on a Satellite and collects the following metrics:
  • Input Rate — The amount of traffic in bytes per second the device receives.
  • Output Rate — The amount of traffic in bytes per second the device sends.

Table C.65. RHN Satellite Server::Interface Traffic settings

Field Value
Interface* eth0
Timeout (seconds)* 30
Critical Maximum Input Rate
Critical Maximum Output Rate

C.10.4. RHN Satellite Server::Latency

The RHN Satellite Server::Latency probe monitors the latency of probes on a Satellite and collects the following metric:
  • Probe Latency Average — The lag in seconds between the time a probe becomes ready to run and the time it is actually run. Under normal conditions, this is generally less than a second. When a Satellite is overloaded (because it has too many probes with respect to their average execution time), the number goes up.

Table C.66. RHN Satellite Server::Latency settings

Field Value
Critical Maximum Probe Latency Average
Warning Maximum Probe Latency Average

C.10.5. RHN Satellite Server::Load

The RHN Satellite Server::Load probe monitors the CPU load on a Satellite and collects the following metric:
  • Load — The load average on the CPU for a 1-, 5-, and 15-minute period.

Table C.67. RHN Satellite Server::Load settings

Field Value
Critical Maximum 1-minute Average
Warning Maximum 1-minute Average
Critical Maximum 5-minute Average
Warning Maximum 5-minute Average
Critical Maximum 15-minute Average
Warning Maximum 15-minute Average

C.10.6. RHN Satellite Server::Probe Count

The RHN Satellite Server::Probe Count probe monitors the number of probes on a Satellite and collects the following metric:
  • Probes — The number of individual probes running on a Satellite.

Table C.68. RHN Satellite Server::Probe Count settings

Field Value
Critical Maximum Probe Count
Warning Maximum Probe Count

C.10.7. RHN Satellite Server::Process Counts

The RHN Satellite Server::Process Counts probe monitors the number of processes on a Satellite and collects the following metrics:
  • Blocked — The number of processes that have been switched to the waiting queue and waiting state.
  • Child — The number of processes spawned by another process already running on the machine.
  • Defunct — The number of processes that have terminated (either because they have been killed by a signal or have called exit()) and whose parent processes have not yet received notification of their termination by executing some form of the wait() system call.
  • Stopped — The number of processes that have stopped before their executions could be completed.
  • Sleeping — A process that is in the Interruptible sleep state and that can later be reintroduced into memory, resuming execution where it left off.

Table C.69. RHN Satellite Server::Process Counts settings

Field Value
Critical Maximum Blocked Processes
Warning Maximum Blocked Processes
Critical Maximum Child Processes
Warning Maximum Child Processes
Critical Maximum Defunct Processes
Warning Maximum Defunct Processes
Critical Maximum Stopped Processes
Warning Maximum Stopped Processes
Critical Maximum Sleeping Processes
Warning Maximum Sleeping Processes

C.10.8. RHN Satellite Server::Processes

The RHN Satellite Server::Processes probe monitors the number of processes on a Satellite and collects the following metric:
  • Processes — The number of processes running simultaneously on the machine.

Table C.70. RHN Satellite Server::Processes settings

Field Value
Critical Maximum Processes
Warning Maximum Processes

C.10.9. RHN Satellite Server::Process Health

The RHN Satellite Server::Process Health probe monitors customer-specified processes and collects the following metrics:
  • CPU Usage — The CPU usage percent for a given process.
  • Child Process Groups — The number of child processes spawned from the specified parent process. A child process inherits most of its attributes, such as open files, from its parent.
  • Threads — The number of running threads for a given process. A thread is the basic unit of CPU utilization, and consists of a program counter, a register set, and a stack space. A thread is also called a lightweight process.
  • Physical Memory Used — The amount of physical memory in kilobytes being used by the specified process.
  • Virtual Memory Used — The amount of virtual memory in kilobytes being used by the specified process, or the size of the process in real memory plus swap.
Specify the process by its command name or process ID. (PID). Entering a PID overrides the entry of a command name. If no command name or PID is entered, the error Command not found is displayed and the probe is set to a CRITICAL state.

Table C.71. RHN Satellite Server::Process Health settings

Field Value
Command Name
Process ID (PID) file
Timeout* 15
Critical Maximum CPU Usage
Warning Maximum CPU Usage
Critical Maximum Child Process Groups
Warning Maximum Child Process Groups
Critical Maximum Threads
Warning Maximum Threads
Critical Maximum Physical Memory Used
Warning Maximum Physical Memory Used
Critical Maximum Virtual Memory Used
Warning Maximum Virtual Memory Used

C.10.10. RHN Satellite Server::Process Running

The RHN Satellite Server::Process Running probe verifies that the specified process is running. Specify the process by its command name or process ID. (PID). Entering a PID overrides the entry of a command name. A Critical status results if the probe cannot verify the command or PID.

Table C.72. RHN Satellite Server::Process Running settings

Field Value
Command Name
Process ID (PID) file
Critical Number Running Maximum
Critical Number Running Minimum

C.10.11. RHN Satellite Server::Swap

The RHN Satellite Server::Swap probe monitors the percent of free swap space available on a Satellite. A CRITICAL status results if the value falls below the Critical threshold. A WARNING status results if the value falls below the Warning threshold.

Table C.73. RHN Satellite Server::Swap settings

Field Value
Critical Minimum Swap Percent Free
Warning Minimum Swap Percent Free

C.10.12. RHN Satellite Server::Users

The RHN Satellite Server::Users probe monitors the number of users currently logged into a Satellite. A CRITICAL status results if the value exceeds the Critical threshold. A WARNING status results if the value exceeds the Warning threshold.

Table C.74. RHN Satellite Server::Users settings

Field Value
Critical Maximum Users
Warning Maximum Users

Appendix D. Revision History

Revision History
Revision 2.0-1.4002013-12-18Rüdiger Landmann
Rebuild with publican 4.0.0
Revision 2.0-1Fri Nov 1 2013Zac Dover
Reconstruct from sources

Glossary

A

Action
A task that is scheduled by a system administrator using Red Hat Network to be performed on one or more client systems. For example, an action can be scheduled to update the kernel packages on all the systems within a selected group.
Activation Key
RHN Management and Provisioningcustomers can generate activation keys through the RHN website. Each unique key can then be used to register a Red Hat system, entitle the system to RHN, subscribe the system to specific channels, and subscribe the system to RHN system groups through the command line utility rhnreg_ks from the rhn_register package.

B

Base Channel
A base channel is a type of Channel that consists of a list of packages based on a specific architecture and Red Hat release. For example, all the packages in Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 3 for the x86 architecture make a base channel.
Bug Fix Alert
An Errata Alert that pertains to a bug fix.
Bugzilla
Bugzilla is an online application (http://www.redhat.com/bugzilla) that allows users to communicate directly with the developers. From Bugzilla, users can submit bug reports and feature requests for Red Hat Enterprise Linux and related open source packages.

C

Channel
A channel is a list of packages. Channels are used to choose packages to be installed from client systems. Every client system must be subscribed to one Base Channel and can be subscribed to one or more Child Channel .
Child Channel
A child channel is a Channel associated with a Base Channel but contains extra packages.
Client System

D

Digital Certificate
A client component in XML format that is stored in the /etc/sysconfig/rhn/systemid file on registered systems. Red Hat Network verifies this certificate to authenticate the registered system before each connection. This certificate is issued by Red Hat and passed to the system as part of the registration process. It includes unique information about the registered system to avoid fraudulent use.

E

Email Notification
Similar to an Errata Alert , except the information is delivered via email. If the email notifications option is selected, notifications are sent for every Red Hat Network Errata Alert . The email includes the type of Errata Alert, summary of the Errata, description of the Errata, and a list of which systems are affected by the report.
Enhancement Alert
An Errata Alert that pertains to a package enhancement request.
Entitled Server
A server that is subscribed to an RHN service level. Because the server is entitled, the RHN website can be used to manage its packages.
Errata
Information published by Red Hat describing security fixes, bug fixes, and package enhancements for Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The information includes the topics of the Errata, Bugzilla bug IDs, relevant releases/architectures, solutions including required RPMs, and MD5 checksums for verification. Errata are also available at http://www.redhat.com/errata/. Each RHN Errata Alert is based on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Errata List.
Security issues and bug fixes are submitted by Red Hat engineers as well as the Linux community through Bugzilla which generates a bug report for each issue. Red Hat engineering evaluates the reports, resolves the bug, and generates new RPM packages. After the Red Hat quality assurance team tests new packages they are placed on the Red Hat Public File Server and on the Red Hat Network Server and an Errata is generated.
Errata Alert
RHN Errata Alert that updated packages based on Red Hat Errata are available for one or more systems within an organization. There are three types of Errata Alerts: Security Alerts, Bug Fix Alerts, and Enhancement Alerts.

M

Management
One of the RHN service level offerings. It has more features than the Update service level, including user management, system groups, and enhanced system details.

N

Notification Method
An email address to which RHN Monitoring messages will be sent.

O

Organization Administrator
Organization Administrator are sets of users that have the highest level of control over an organization's Red Hat Network account. Members of this group can add users, systems, and system groups to the organization as well as remove them. An Organization Administrator can also give users administrative privileges to system groups. An RHN organization must have at least one member of the Organization Administrator group.

P

Package
All software in Red Hat Enterprise Linux is divided into software packages. Software updates are released in the form of RPM packages that can be installed on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system.
Probe
A set of criteria that is either a template or a set of values assigned to a system that is used to measure the performance of a system.
Probe State
The measure of a probe's adherence to its defined criteria. States include: OK, Warning, Critical, Pending, Unknown
Probe Suite
collection or group of RHN Monitoring Probes.
Provisioning
One of the RHN service level offerings. It has more features than the Management service level, including kickstarting, reconfiguring, tracking, and reverting systems.

R

Red Hat Network Daemon
The RHN client daemon (rhnsd) that periodically polls Red Hat Network for scheduled actions.
Registered System
A system that is registered with Red Hat Network. Also known as a client system.
RPM
A software package manager that was developed by Red Hat, Inc. It can be used to build, install, query, verify, update, and uninstall software packages. All software updates from RHN are delivered in RPM format.
RPM Database
Each Red Hat Enterprise Linux system has an RPM database that stores information about all the RPM packages installed on the system. This information includes the version of the package, which files were installed with the package, a brief description of the package, the installation date, and more.
RPM Update
Red Hat Network option to deliver the RPM packages based on the Errata Alert list to a client system without user intervention. If this feature is selected, packages are delivered through the Red Hat Network Daemon running on the client system.
Red Hat Network Registration Client
The RHN client application (rhn_register) that collects information about the client system, creates a System Profile and Digital Certificate , establishes a connection with the Red Hat Network servers, and registers the system with Red Hat Network.
Red Hat Update Agent
The RHN client application (up2date) that allows users to retrieve and install all updated packages for the client system on which the application is run. Use the Red Hat Update Agent Configuration Tool to configure its preferences, including whether to install the packages after they are downloaded.

S

Security Alert
An Errata Alert that pertains to system security.
Service Level
A Red Hat Network subscription service. Different service levels offer different features of RHN. There are three paid service levels currently available: RHN Update, RHN Management, and RHN Provisioning.
System Directory
The System Directory section of Red Hat Network allows an organization to divide its client systems into system groups. Only members of the Organization Administrator group can add systems to the organization.
System ID
A unique string of characters and numbers that identifies a registered system. It is stored in the system's Digital Certificate .
System Profile
Hardware and software information about the client system. It is created during the registration process. The software information is a list of RPM packages and their versions installed on the client system. The System Profile is used to determine every Errata Alert relevant to each client system.
System Set Manager
Interface that allows users to perform actions on multiple systems. Actions include applying Errata Updates, upgrading packages, and adding/removing systems to/from system groups.

U

Update
One of the RHN service level offerings. Update was formerly called Basic. Update offers the same services as the Basic subscription did, plus more new features.

V

Virtual Guest
Any of the virtual instances running on the virtual host, under the control of the hypervisor. Also referred to as domain U or domU.
Virtual Host
The physical system that supports the hypervisor and all guest systems. The virtual host may also be referred to as domain 0, or dom0.

Y

Yellowdog Updater Modified (yum)
The Yellowdog Updater Modified is the Red Hat Network client application (yum) that allows users to retrieve and install new or updated packages for the client system on which the application is run.

Index

B

base channel, Software Channels

C

changing email address, User List ⇒ Active ⇒ User Details ⇒ Details —
changing password, User List ⇒ Active ⇒ User Details ⇒ Details —
channel
configuration
create, Configuration Channels
Channel Entitlements, Channel Entitlements
Channel List , Software Channels
Channels
Software and Configuration Files, Channels
channels, Channels
all, All Channels
base, Software Channels
child, Software Channels
entitling, Channel Entitlements
errata, Software Channel Details ⇒ Errata
list of, Software Channels
packages, Software Channel Details ⇒ Packages
relevant, Relevant Channels
retired, Retired Channels
Channels and Packages
Channel List, Software Channels
child channel, Software Channels
client applications
obtaining, Before You Begin
redirecting, Configuring the clients
client systems
configuring, Configuring the clients
registering, Registering Systems
updating, Obtaining Updates
configuration
actions, Configuration
channel
create, Configuration Channels
files, Configuration
Schedule, Configuration
Configuration Management
command line tools, Command Line Config Management Tools
create
configuration
channel, Configuration Channels
custom information
about systems, System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Custom Info —

D

deleting a system, System Details ⇒ Details
Digital Certificate, Security, Quality Assurance, and Red Hat Network
download ISO images, Download Software

E

email address
changing, User List ⇒ Active ⇒ User Details ⇒ Details —
entitlement
with activation key, Activation Keys —
entitlements
purchase history, Expiration Dates &Purchase History
Errata, Errata
Advanced Search, Advanced Search
All Errata, All Errata
apply applicable, System Details ⇒ Software ⇒ Errata
Relevant Errata, Relevant Errata
Errata Alert Icons
explanation of, Errata Alert Icons
Errata notifications
automatic updates, Errata Notifications and Scheduled Package Installations
Errata Updates
applying, Apply Errata Updates
searching, Advanced Search
viewing details, Errata Details
viewing list of all errata, All Errata
viewing list of applicable errata, Relevant Errata

G

General
probes, General
Remote Program, General::Remote Program
Remote Program with Data, General::Remote Program with Data
SNMP Check, General::SNMP Check
TCP Check, General::TCP Check
UDP Check, General::UDP Check
Uptime (SNMP), General::Uptime (SNMP)
getting started, Before You Begin
GNU Privacy Guard, Security, Quality Assurance, and Red Hat Network

H

hardware profile
Updating on server, System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Hardware
Help Desk, Help
HTTP Proxy, Configuring the Applet

I

initialization script
/etc/init.d/rhnsd , Red Hat Network Daemon
/etc/rc.d/init.d/rhnsd , Red Hat Network Daemon
ISO images
all, All ISOs
download, Download Software
relevant, Relevant ISOs

K

kickstart
explained, Kickstart Explained

L

Linux
CPU Usage, Linux::CPU Usage
Disk IO Throughput, Linux::Disk IO Throughput
Disk Usage, Linux::Disk Usage
Inodes, Linux::Inodes
Interface Traffic, Linux::Interface Traffic
Load, Linux::Load
Memory Usage, Linux::Memory Usage
probes
nocpulse, Linux
Process Count Total, Linux::Process Count Total
Process Counts by State, Linux::Process Counts by State
Process Health, Linux::Process Health
Process Running, Linux::Process Running
Swap Usage, Linux::Swap Usage
TCP Connections by State, Linux::TCP Connections by State
Users, Linux::Users
Virtual Memory, Linux::Virtual Memory
List Navigation
explanation of, Lists
LogAgent
Log Pattern Match, LogAgent::Log Pattern Match
Log Size, LogAgent::Log Size
probes
nocpulse, LogAgent

M

Management
service level, Management
manual installation
System Profile, Manual Package Installation
Monitoring, Monitoring —
All, Probe Status ⇒ All —
Critical, Probe Status ⇒ Critical —
Current State, Current State —
General Config, General Config —
introduction, Monitoring
Notification, Notification —
OK, Probe Status ⇒ OK —
Pending, Probe Status ⇒ Pending —
prerequisites, Prerequisites
Scout Config Push, Scout Config Push —
service level, Monitoring
Status, Probe Status —
Unknown, Probe Status ⇒ Unknown —
Warning, Probe Status ⇒ Warning —
monitoring
list of probes, Probes
MySQL , mysql-server package
Database Accessibility, MySQL::Database Accessibility
Open Tables, MySQL::Open Tables
Opened Tables, MySQL::Opened Tables
probes, MySQL 3.23 - 3.33
Query Rate, MySQL::Query Rate
Threads Running, MySQL::Threads Running
mysql-server package, mysql-server package

O

Oracle
Active Sessions, Oracle::Active Sessions
Availability, Oracle::Availability
Blocking Sessions, Oracle::Blocking Sessions
Buffer Cache, Oracle::Buffer Cache
Client Connectivity, Oracle::Client Connectivity
Data Dictionary Cache, Oracle::Data Dictionary Cache
Disk Sort Ratio, Oracle::Disk Sort Ratio
Idle Sessions, Oracle::Idle Sessions
Index Extents, Oracle::Index Extents
Library Cache, Oracle::Library Cache
Locks, Oracle::Locks
probes, Oracle 8i and 9i
Redo Log, Oracle::Redo Log
Table Extents, Oracle::Table Extents
Tablespace Usage, Oracle::Tablespace Usage
TNS Ping, Oracle::TNS Ping
Organization Administrator, User List ⇒ Active ⇒ User Details ⇒ Details —
overview of website, Categories and Pages

P

package installation
scheduled, Errata Notifications and Scheduled Package Installations
package list
Updating on server, Synchronizing Your System Profile, System Details ⇒ Software ⇒ Packages
packages
filter, Software Channel Details ⇒ Packages
port 22, Configuring SSH
port 4545, Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd)
preferences
change, Your Preferences
language, Locale Preferences
locale, Locale Preferences
probe
guidelines, Probe Guidelines
probe list
Apache
Processes, Apache::Processes
Traffic, Apache::Traffic
Uptime, Apache::Uptime
General
Remote Program, General::Remote Program
Remote Program with Data, General::Remote Program with Data
SNMP Check, General::SNMP Check
TCP Check, General::TCP Check
UDP Check, General::UDP Check
Uptime (SNMP), General::Uptime (SNMP)
Linux
CPU Usage, Linux::CPU Usage
Disk IO Throughput, Linux::Disk IO Throughput
Disk Usage, Linux::Disk Usage
Inodes, Linux::Inodes
Interface Traffic, Linux::Interface Traffic
Load, Linux::Load
Memory Usage, Linux::Memory Usage
Process Count Total, Linux::Process Count Total
Process Counts by State, Linux::Process Counts by State
Process Health, Linux::Process Health
Process Running, Linux::Process Running
Swap Usage, Linux::Swap Usage
TCP Connections by State, Linux::TCP Connections by State
Users, Linux::Users
Virtual Memory, Linux::Virtual Memory
LogAgent
Log Pattern Match, LogAgent::Log Pattern Match
Log Size, LogAgent::Log Size
MySQL
Database Accessibility, MySQL::Database Accessibility
Open Tables, MySQL::Open Tables
Opened Tables, MySQL::Opened Tables
Query Rate, MySQL::Query Rate
Threads Running, MySQL::Threads Running
Network Services
DNS Lookup, Network Services::DNS Lookup
FTP, Network Services::FTP
IMAP Mail, Network Services::IMAP Mail
Mail Transfer (SMTP), Network Services::Mail Transfer (SMTP)
Ping, Network Services::Ping
POP Mail, Network Services::POP Mail
Remote Ping, Network Services::Remote Ping
RPCService, Network Services::RPCService
Secure Web Server (HTTPS), Network Services::Secure Web Server (HTTPS)
SSH, Network Services::SSH
Web Server (HTTP), Network Services::Web Server (HTTP)
Oracle
Active Sessions, Oracle::Active Sessions
Availability, Oracle::Availability
Blocking Sessions, Oracle::Blocking Sessions
Buffer Cache, Oracle::Buffer Cache
Client Connectivity, Oracle::Client Connectivity
Data Dictionary Cache, Oracle::Data Dictionary Cache
Disk Sort Ratio, Oracle::Disk Sort Ratio
Idle Sessions, Oracle::Idle Sessions
Index Extents, Oracle::Index Extents
Library Cache, Oracle::Library Cache
Locks, Oracle::Locks
Redo Log, Oracle::Redo Log
Table Extents, Oracle::Table Extents
Tablespace Usage, Oracle::Tablespace Usage
TNS Ping, Oracle::TNS Ping
RHN Satellite Server
Disk Space, RHN Satellite Server::Disk Space
Execution Time, RHN Satellite Server::Execution Time
Interface Traffic, RHN Satellite Server::Interface Traffic
Latency, RHN Satellite Server::Latency
Load, RHN Satellite Server::Load
Probe Count, RHN Satellite Server::Probe Count
Process Counts, RHN Satellite Server::Process Counts
Process Health, RHN Satellite Server::Process Health
Process Running, RHN Satellite Server::Process Running
Processes, RHN Satellite Server::Processes
Swap, RHN Satellite Server::Swap
Users, RHN Satellite Server::Users
WebLogic
Execute Queue, BEA WebLogic::Execute Queue
Heap Free, BEA WebLogic::Heap Free
JDBC Connection Pool, BEA WebLogic::JDBC Connection Pool
Server State, BEA WebLogic::Server State
Servlet, BEA WebLogic::Servlet
Probes
Monitoring, Probes
probes
Apache, Apache 1.3.x and 2.0.x
General, General
Linux, Linux
LogAgent
nocpulse, LogAgent
managing, Managing Probes
MySQL, MySQL 3.23 - 3.33
Network Services, Network Services
on the RHN Server, Monitoring the RHN Server
Oracle, Oracle 8i and 9i
RHN Satellite Server, RHN Satellite Server
thresholds, Establishing Thresholds
WebLogic, BEA WebLogic 6.x and higher
Provisioning
service level, Provisioning
proxy server
with Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool , Configuring the Applet
with Red Hat Network Registration Client, Configuring the Red Hat Network Registration Client
with Red Hat Update Agent, General Settings

Q

quality assurance
overview, Security, Quality Assurance, and Red Hat Network
Quick Search
explanation of, Quick Search

R

reactivating
systems, System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Reactivation —
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1
requiring the Red Hat Network Registration Client, Introduction to the Guide, Red Hat Update Agent
Red Hat Network
an introduction to, Red Hat Network Overview
components
primary, Red Hat Network Overview
Red Hat Network Actions Control
rhn-actions-control , Red Hat Network Actions Control
Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool
adding to panel, Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool
applying Errata Updates, Applying Updates
configuring, Configuring the Applet
icons, Notification Icons
launching RHN website, Launching the RHN Website
requirements, Red Hat Network Alert Notification Tool
with a proxy server, Configuring the Applet
Red Hat Network Configuration Client
rhncfg-client , Red Hat Network Configuration Client
Red Hat Network Configuration Manager
rhncfg-manager , Red Hat Network Configuration Manager
Red Hat Network Daemon, Red Hat Network Daemon
configuring, Configuring
disabling, Disabling
initial description, Red Hat Network Overview
troubleshooting, Troubleshooting
using to apply Errata Updates, Apply Errata Updates
viewing status, Viewing Status
Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon
(rhnmd) monitoring daemon, Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon (rhnmd)
installation, Installing the Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon
probes requiring the daemon, Probes requiring the daemon
SSH key installation, Installing the SSH key
using sshd instead, Configuring SSH
Red Hat Network packages
comparison, Before You Begin
Red Hat Network Registration Client (rhn)_register)
initial description, Red Hat Network Overview
Red Hat packages
for UNIX, Download and Install Additional Packages
installing, Download and Install Additional Packages
Red Hat Update Agent, Applying Updates
Command Line Arguments, Command Line Version
configuration, Configuration
UNIX Command Line Arguments, Updating From the Command Line
with a proxy server, General Settings
Red Hat Update Agent (up2date)
activation keys, Registering with Activation Keys
command line options, Command Line Version
command line version, Command Line Version, Command Line Version
configuration tool, Using the Red Hat Update Agent Configuration Tool
configuring general settings, General Settings
configuring package exceptions, Package Exceptions Settings
configuring retrieval and installation, Retrieval/Installation Settings
excluding packages, Package Exceptions Settings
graphical options, Starting the Red Hat Update Agent
initial description, Red Hat Network Overview
installing GPG keys, Installing the Red Hat GPG key
log file, Log File
registering with, Registration
starting, Starting the Red Hat Update Agent
synchronizing system profile, Synchronizing Your System Profile
reference guide
bug reporting, Send in Your Feedback
conventions, Introduction to the Guide
introduction to the, Introduction to the Guide
registering
with activation keys, Registering with Activation Keys
Registration, Red Hat Network Registration Client
as part of an organization, Registering a User Account
Configuration, Configuring the Red Hat Network Registration Client
Email notification, Registering a User Account
Hardware System Profile, Hardware System Profile
Password, Registering a User Account
RPM Package List, Software System Profile
Software System Profile, Software System Profile
System Profile, Registering a User Account, Registering a System Profile
text mode, Text Mode RHN Registration Client
through the Web, Logging into the RHN Website
username, Registering a User Account
with a proxy server, Configuring the Red Hat Network Registration Client
with activation key, Activation Keys —
remote commands
enabling, Enabling Commands
issuing, Issuing Commands
RHN Satellite Server
Disk Space, RHN Satellite Server::Disk Space
Execution Time, RHN Satellite Server::Execution Time
Interface Traffic, RHN Satellite Server::Interface Traffic
Latency, RHN Satellite Server::Latency
Load, RHN Satellite Server::Load
Probe Count, RHN Satellite Server::Probe Count
probes, RHN Satellite Server
Process Counts, RHN Satellite Server::Process Counts
Process Health, RHN Satellite Server::Process Health
Process Running, RHN Satellite Server::Process Running
Processes, RHN Satellite Server::Processes
Swap, RHN Satellite Server::Swap
Users, RHN Satellite Server::Users
RHN Tools channel, Installing the Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon
RHN website, Launching the RHN Website
initial description, Red Hat Network Overview
rhn-catalog
troubleshooting with, Examining Probes with rhn-catalog
rhn-runprobe
options, Viewing the output of rhn-runprobe
troubleshooting with, Viewing the output of rhn-runprobe
rhnmd daemon, Installing the Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon
rhnreg_ks , Activation Keys —
rhnsd , Red Hat Network Daemon
rhn_register (see Registration)
RHUA; (up2date)
complete description, Red Hat Update Agent

S

Schedule, Schedule
Scheduled Actions
Action Details, Action Details
Actions List, Actions List
Archived Actions, Archived Actions
Completed Actions, Completed Actions
Failed Actions, Failed Actions
Pending Actions, Pending Actions
Scout Config Push , Monitoring
Secure Sockets Layer, Security, Quality Assurance, and Red Hat Network
security
overview, Security, Quality Assurance, and Red Hat Network
service levels
Management, Management
Monitoring, Monitoring
Provisioning, Provisioning
Update, Update
Software
Channel List
Channel Details, Software Channel Details
Package Search, Package Search
software
searching, Package Search
software channels
details, Software Channel Details ⇒ Details
managers, Software Channel Details ⇒ Managers —
subscribers, Software Channel Details ⇒ Subscribers —
SSH, Configuring SSH
SSH key, Installing the SSH key
sshd , Configuring SSH
SSL
setting up, Configuring the clients
SSL certificates
deploying, Deploying Client SSL Certificates
SSL expiration errors
connection
certificate verification, Before You Begin
subscribe to channel, Software Channels
system group, System Groups —
adding and removing, Adding and Removing Systems in Groups
creating, Creating Groups
deleting, System Group Details ⇒ Details —
editing details, System Group Details ⇒ Details —
list of, System Groups —
viewing details, System Group Details —
system group list
status, System Groups —
System Groups
assigning and removing, System Details ⇒ Groups —
System Group List, System Groups —
system groups
joining and leaving, System Details ⇒ Groups —
system list, Systems
System Profile, Registering a System Profile
Custom Information, System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Custom Info —
Notes, System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Notes
Reactivation, System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Reactivation —
Updating hardware profile, System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Hardware
Updating package list, Synchronizing Your System Profile, System Details ⇒ Software ⇒ Packages
Updating Properties, System Details ⇒ Details ⇒ Properties
System Set Manager, System Set Manager —
systems
deleting, System Details ⇒ Details
entitling, Subscription Management
overview, Overview —
searching, Advanced Search —
viewing a list of, Systems
viewing details for, System Details
Systems
Advanced Search, Advanced Search —
Entitlements, Subscription Management
System Details, System Details
System List, Systems
Systems Overview, Overview —
systems list
status, Systems
Systems Selected
explanation of, Systems Selected

T

Troubleshooting
Monitoring, Troubleshooting

W

WebLogic
Execute Queue, BEA WebLogic::Execute Queue
Heap Free, BEA WebLogic::Heap Free
JDBC Connection Pool, BEA WebLogic::JDBC Connection Pool
probes, BEA WebLogic 6.x and higher
Server State, BEA WebLogic::Server State
Servlet, BEA WebLogic::Servlet
website, Red Hat Network Website
activation keys, Activation Keys —
All Errata, All Errata
Channel List, Software Channels
Channels, Channels
custom system information, Custom System Info —
Errata, Errata
Errata Search, Advanced Search
Help, Help
language, Locale Preferences
locale, Locale Preferences
logging in, Logging into the RHN Website
Monitoring, Monitoring —
navigation bar, Navigation
overview, Navigation
Purchase History, Expiration Dates &Purchase History
Relevant Errata, Relevant Errata
Schedule, Schedule
Software Channel Details, Software Channel Details
Software Search, Package Search
stored profiles, Stored Profiles —
System Details, System Details
System Entitlements, Subscription Management
System Group List, System Groups —
System Groups, System Groups —
System List, Systems
System Search, Advanced Search —
Systems, Systems
Systems Overview, Overview —
Us