Installation Guide

Red Hat JBoss Web Server 5.3

Install and Configure Red Hat JBoss Web Server 5.3

Red Hat Customer Content Services

Abstract

This book contains information related to installation and basic configuration of Red Hat JBoss Web Server.

Chapter 1. Introduction

This Installation Guide includes procedures for the installation, minor upgrade, and basic configuration of the Tomcat servers from JBoss Web Server on supported operating systems. The installation and configuration instructions for the Apache HTTP Server are available in the JBoss Core Services Documentation.

1.1. About Red Hat JBoss Web Server

Red Hat JBoss Web Server is a fully integrated and certified set of components for hosting Java web applications. It consists of the following components:

  • a web server (Apache HTTP Server),
  • an application server (Apache Tomcat Servlet container),
  • load balancers (mod_jk and mod_cluster),
  • Tomcat Native Library

1.1.1. Full List of Components

Red Hat JBoss Web Server contains the following components:

ComponentVersion

Apache CXF

3.2.7

Apache Tomcat 9

9.0.21

ECJ

4.12.0

Hibernate

5.3.10

JBoss logging

3.3.2

libapr

1.6.3

mod_cluster

1.4.1.Final

OpenSSL

1.1.1c

Tomcat-Native

1.2.21

Tomcat-Vault

1.1.8.Final

Important

Apache Tomcat is also provided by the RHEL platform subscription as part of RHEL 6 and RHEL 7, but NOT RHEL 8. In the future releases, Tomcat will be available as a part of the Middleware Runtimes subscription. There are some differences in the Tomcat provided by RHEL and Tomcat provided by the Runtimes JWS subscription. RHEL 6 has Tomcat 6 and RHEL 7 has Tomcat 7. JWS version 3.1 provides Tomcat 7 and 8 and JWS version 5.x provides Tomcat 9. As RHEL 6 is currently in maintenance and not fully supported, any Tomcat issues would need to apply to the JWS entitled versions only (Tomcat 7, 8, and 9). Additionally, both projects provide RPM packages, but only JWS provides .ZIP archives.

The description for some key components are:

  • Apache tomcat: a servlet container in accordance with the Java Servlet Specification. JBoss Web Server contains Apache Tomcat 9.
  • Apache tomcat native library: a Tomcat library that improves Tomcat scalability, performance, and integration with native server technologies.
  • tomcat-vault: an extension for the JBoss Web Server used for securely storing passwords and other sensitive information used by a JBoss Web Server.
  • mod_cluster library: a library that allows communication between Apache Tomcat and the mod_proxy_cluster module of Apache HTTP Server. This enables you to use the Apache HTTP Server as a load balancer for JBoss Web Server. For more information about the configuration of mod_cluster, or for information about the installation and configuration of the alternative load balancers mod_jk and mod_proxy, see the HTTP Connectors and Load Balancing Guide.
  • Apache portable runtime (APR): A runtime that provides superior scalability, performance, and improved integration with native server technologies. APR is a highly portable library that is at the heart of Apache HTTP Server 2.x. It enables access to:

    • Advanced IO functionality - For example, sendfile, epoll and OpenSSL
    • Operating system level functionality - For example, random number generation and system status
    • Native process handling - For example, shared memory, NT pipes and Unix sockets
  • OpenSSL: A software library that implements the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols and includes a basic cryptographic library.
Note
  • If you need clustering or session replication support for Java applications, Red Hat recommends that you use Red Hat JBoss Enterprise Application Platform (JBoss EAP).

1.2. Supported Operating Systems and Configurations

Red Hat JBoss Web Server supports the following operating systems and configurations:

Operating SystemChipset ArchitectureJava Virtual Machine

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8

x86_64

Red Hat OpenJDK 1.8.x, Red Hat OpenJDK 11, OracleJDK 11

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

x86_64

Red Hat OpenJDK 1.8.x, Red Hat OpenJDK 11, Oracle JDK 1.8.x, Oracle JDK 11, IBM JDK 1.8.x

Red Hat Enterpries Linux 6

x86_64, x86

Red Hat OpenJDK 1.8.x, Oracle JDK 1.8.x, Oracle JDK 11(x86_64 Only), IBM JDK 1.8.x

Microsoft Windows 2016 Server

x86_64

Red Hat OpenJDK 1.8.x, Red Hat OpenJDK 11, Oracle JDK 1.8.x, Oracle JDK 11

Microsoft Windows 2012 Server R2

x86_64

Red Hat OpenJDK 1.8.x, Red Hat OpenJDK 11, Oracle JDK 1.8.x, Oracle JDK 11

1.3. Methods to install Red Hat JBoss Web Server

You can install JBoss Web Server on supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Microsoft Windows systems using archive installation files available for each platform. You can also install JBoss Web Server on supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems using RPM packages.

The following components are included in the archive installation files. These components are the core parts of a JBoss Web Server installation.

  • jws-5.3.0-application-server.zip

    • Tomcat 9
    • mod_cluster
    • tomcat-vault
  • jws-5.3.0-application-server-<platform>-<architecture>.zip

    • Platform-specific utilities

1.4. Component documentation bundle

JBoss Web Server includes an additional documentation bundle that includes the original vendor documentation for each component. This documentation bundle, jws-docs-5.3.0.zip, is available at the Red Hat Customer Portal, and contains additional documentation for the following components:

  • tomcat
  • tomcat-native
  • tomcat-vault

Chapter 2. Installing JBoss Web Server on Red Hat Enterprise Linux

You can install JBoss Web Server on Red Hat Enterprise Linux using one of two methods:

Regardless of which method you choose, you must first install a supported Java Development Kit (JDK).

2.1. Prerequisites

2.1.1. Installing a Java Development Kit (JDK) using the YUM package manager

Before installing JBoss Web Server, you must first install a supported Java Development Kit (JDK).

For a completed list of supported JDKs see Supported operating systems and configurations.

Procedure

  1. Subscribe your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system to the appropriate channel:

    • OpenJDK:

      • rhel-6-server-rpms
      • rhel-7-server-rpms
      • rhel-8-server-rpms
    • IBM:

      • rhel-6-server-supplementary-rpms
      • rhel-7-server-supplementary-rpms
      • rhel-8-server-supplementary-rpms
  2. As the root user, execute the command to install a 1.8 JDK:

    # yum install java-1.8.0-<VENDOR>-devel

    Replace <VENDOR> with ibm or openjdk

  3. Run the following commands as the root user to ensure the correct JDK is in use:

    # alternatives --config java
    # alternatives --config javac

    These commands return lists of available JDK versions with the selected version marked with a plus (+) sign. If the selected JDK is not the desired one, change to the desired JDK as instructed in the shell prompt.

    Important

    All software that use the java and javac commands uses the JDK set by alternatives. Changing Java alternatives may impact on the running of other software.

2.1.2. Installing a JDK from a compressed archive (such as .zip or .tar)

Before installing JBoss Web Server, you must first install a supported Java Development Kit (JDK).

A full list of supported JDKs is given in section 1.2 of this document.

If the JDK was downloaded from the vendor’s website (Oracle or OpenJDK), use the installation instructions provided by the vendor and set the JAVA_HOME environment variable.

If the JDK has was installed from a compressed archive, set the JAVA_HOME environment variable for Tomcat before running JBoss Web Server.

In the bin directory of Tomcat (JWS_HOME/tomcat/bin), create a file named setenv.sh, and insert the JAVA_HOME path definition.

For example:

$ cat JWS_HOME/tomcat/bin/setenv.sh

export JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/jre-1.8.0-openjdk.x86_64

2.1.3. Red Hat Enterprise Linux Package Prerequisites

Before installing JBoss Web Server on Red Hat Enterprise Linux, ensure the following prerequisites are met.

  • A supported JDK is installed.
  • Additionally, RHEL-8 users needing to run JSSE+OpenSSL or APR, you will need to use Tomcat-Native for it to work properly. The file for Tomcat-Native can be found in the native archive directory. To install OpenSSL and APR, run the following commands:

    # yum install openssl
    # yum install apr
  • You must remove the tomcatjss package before installing the tomcat-native package. The tomcatjss package uses an underlying NSS security model rather than the OpenSSL security model.

    • As the root user, run the following command to remove tomcatjss:

      # yum remove tomcatjss

2.2. Installing and Managing JBoss Web Server (ZIP)

You can install JBoss Web Server from an archive file. Installation from an archive results in different methods of managing the product compared to installation from an RPM package. For example, you can use a system daemon at boot time and manage JBoss Web Server from a command line. Start by downloading and extracting the archive file.

2.2.1. Downloading and Extracting JBoss Web Server

This method of installation involves accessing the Red Hat Customer Portal and locating the correct version of JBoss Web Server.

Prerequisites

Procedure

To install JBoss Web Server, download and extract the installation archive files.

  1. Open a browser and log in to the Red Hat Customer Portal.
  2. Click Downloads.
  3. Click Red Hat JBoss Web Server in the Product Downloads list.
  4. Select the correct JBoss Web Server version from the Version drop-down menu.
  5. Click Download for each of the following files, ensuring that you select the correct platform and architecture for your system:

    • The Red Hat JBoss Web Server 5.3 Application Server (jws-5.3.0-application-server.zip).
    • The Red Hat JBoss Web Server 5.3 Native Components for RHEL (jws-5.3.0-application-server-<platform>-<architecture>.zip).
  6. Unzip the downloaded archive files to your installation directory.

    For example:

    # unzip jws-5.2.0-application-server.zip -d /opt/
    # unzip -o jws-5.2.0-application-server-<platform>-<architecture>.zip -d /opt/

The directory created by extracting the archives is the top-level directory for JBoss Web Server. This is referred to as JWS_HOME.

2.2.2. Managing JBoss Web Server on Red Hat Enterprise Linux

There are two supported methods for running and managing Red Hat JBoss Web Server on Red Hat Enterprise Linux:

The recommended method for managing the JBoss Web Server is using a system daemon.

2.2.2.1. Managing JBoss Web Server using a system daemon for .zip installations on Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Using the JBoss Web Server with a system daemon provides a method of starting the JBoss Web Server services at system boot. The system daemon also provides start, stop and status check functions.

The default system daemon for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 is systemd and for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 the default is SysV.

Note

To determine which system daemon is running, issue ps -p 1 -o comm=.

  • For systemd:

    $ ps -p 1 -o comm=
    
    systemd
  • For SysV:

    $ ps -p 1 -o comm=
    
    init
2.2.2.1.1. Setting up and using the JBoss Web Server with SysV
Prerequisites
  • The redhat-lsb-core package. To install, run: yum install redhat-lsb-core
Setting up the JBoss Web Server for SysV

As the root user, execute the .postinstall.sysv script:

# cd JWS_HOME/tomcat
# sh .postinstall.sysv
Controlling the JBoss Web Server with SysV

SysV commands can only be issued by the root user.

  • To enable the JBoss Web Server services to start at boot using SysV:

    # chkconfig jws5-tomcat on
  • To start the JBoss Web Server using SysV:

    # service jws5-tomcat start
  • To stop the JBoss Web Server using SysV:

    # service jws5-tomcat stop
  • To verify the status of the JBoss Web Server using SysV (the status operation can be executed by any user):

    $ service jws5-tomcat status

For more information on using SysV, see: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Deployment Guide: Running Services

2.2.2.1.2. Setting up and using the JBoss Web Server with systemd
Setting up the JBoss Web Server for systemd

As the root user, execute the .postinstall.systemd script:

# cd JWS_HOME/tomcat
# sh .postinstall.systemd
Controlling the JBoss Web Server with systemd

Systemd commands can only be issued by the root user.

  • To enable the JBoss Web Server services to start at boot using systemd:

    # systemctl enable jws5-tomcat.service
  • To start the JBoss Web Server using systemd:

    # systemctl start jws5-tomcat.service
  • To stop the JBoss Web Server using systemd:

    # systemctl stop jws5-tomcat.service
  • To verify the status of the JBoss Web Server using systemd (the status operation can be executed by any user):

    # systemctl status jws5-tomcat.service

For more information on using systemd on RHEL 7, see: RHEL 7 System Administrator’s Guide: Managing System Services

For more information on using systemd on RHEL 8, see: RHEL 8 System Administrator’s Guide: Managing System Services

2.2.2.2. Managing JBoss Web Server on a command line

2.2.2.2.1. Configuring the JBoss Web Server Installation
Note

The following configuration steps are performed by the .postinstall.sysv script and the .postinstall.systemd script described in Managing JBoss Web Server using a system daemon for .zip installations on Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Some configuration is required before running JBoss Web Server. This section includes the following configuration procedures:

Setting the JAVA_HOME Environment Variable

You must set the JAVA_HOME environment variable for Tomcat before running JBoss Web Server.

In the bin directory of Tomcat (JWS_HOME/tomcat/bin), create a file named setenv.sh, and insert the JAVA_HOME path definition.

For example: export JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/jre-1.8.0-openjdk.x86_64

Creating a Tomcat User

Follow this procedure to create the tomcat user and its parent group:

  1. In a shell prompt as the root user, change directory to JWS_HOME.
  2. Run the following command to create the tomcat user group:

    # groupadd -g 53 -r tomcat
  3. Run the following command to create the tomcat user in the tomcat user group:

    # useradd -c "tomcat" -u 53 -g tomcat -s /sbin/nologin -r tomcat
Move the ownership of tomcat directory to the tomcat user
  1. From JWS_HOME, run the following command to assign the ownership of the Tomcat directories to the tomcat user to allow the user to run the Tomcat service:

    # chown -R tomcat:tomcat tomcat/

    You can use ls -l to verify that the tomcat user is the owner of the directory.

  2. Ensure that the tomcat user has execute permissions to all parent directories. For example:

    # chmod -R u+X tomcat/
2.2.2.2.2. Starting JBoss Web Server

Run the following command as the tomcat user:

$ sh JWS_HOME/tomcat/bin/startup.sh
2.2.2.2.3. Stopping JBoss Web Server

To stop Tomcat, run the following command as the tomcat user:

$ sh JWS_HOME/tomcat/bin/shutdown.sh

2.3. RPM Installation

Installing JBoss Web Server from RPM packages installs Tomcat as service, and installs its resources into absolute paths. The RPM installation option is available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.

RPM installation packages for JBoss Web Server are available from Red Hat Subscription Management.

2.3.1. Attaching subscriptions to Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Before downloading and installing the RPM packages, you must register your system with Red Hat Subscription Management and subscribe to the respective Content Delivery Network (CDN) repositories.

For information on registering Red Hat Enterprise Linux, see the following procedures:

Procedure

  1. Log in to the Red Hat Subscription Manager.
  2. Click on the Systems tab.
  3. Click on the Name of the system to add the subscription to.
  4. Change from the Details tab to the Subscriptions tab, then click Attach Subscriptions.
  5. Select the check box beside the subscription to attach, then click Attach Subscriptions.
Note

To verify that a subscription provides the required CDN repositories:

  1. Log in to: https://access.redhat.com/management/subscriptions.
  2. Click the Subscription Name.
  3. Under Products Provided, you require:

    • JBoss Enterprise Web Server.
    • Red Hat JBoss Core Services.

2.3.2. Installing JBoss Web Server from RPM packages using YUM

Procedure

  1. On a command line, subscribe to the JBoss Web Server CDN repositories for your operating system version using subscription-manager:

    # subscription-manager repos --enable <repository>
    • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6:

      • jws-5-for-rhel-6-server-rpms
      • jb-coreservices-1-for-rhel-6-server-rpms
    • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7:

      • jws-5-for-rhel-7-server-rpms
      • jb-coreservices-1-for-rhel-7-server-rpms
    • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8:

      • jws-5-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms
  2. Issue the following command as the root user to install JBoss Web Server:

    # yum groupinstall jws5
    Important

    For RPM distributions, the JWS_HOME folder is /opt/rh/jws5/root/usr/share.

Note
  • Although not recommended, instead of using the group install, you can install each of the packages and their dependencies individually.
  • The Red Hat JBoss Core Services repositories above are required for the installation of JBoss Web Server except on RHEL 8 systems.

2.3.3. Starting JBoss Web Server

This procedure demonstrates how you can start the JBoss Web Server.

Procedure

  • In a shell prompt as the root user, start the Tomcat service.

    • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6:

      # service jws5-tomcat start
    • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 or 8:

      # systemctl start jws5-tomcat.service
      Note

      This is the only supported method of starting JBoss Web Server for an RPM installation.

  • To verify that Tomcat is running, the output of the service status command should be reviewed. This can be executed as any user.

    • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6:

      # service jws5-tomcat status
    • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 or 8:

      # systemctl status jws5-tomcat.service
      Note

      For complete instructions on installing and configuring HTTPD on RHEL 8, please see this link

2.3.4. Stopping JBoss Web Server

This procedure demonstrates how you can stop the JBoss Web Server.

Procedure

  • In a shell prompt as the root user, stop the Tomcat service.

    • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6:

      # service jws5-tomcat stop
    • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 or 8:

      # systemctl stop jws5-tomcat.service
  • To verify that Tomcat is no longer running, the output of the service status command should be reviewed. This can be executed as any user.

    • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6:

      # service jws5-tomcat status
    • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 or 8:

      # systemctl status jws5-tomcat.service
Note

For complete instructions on installing and configuring HTTPD on RHEL 8, please see this link

2.3.5. Configuring JBoss Web Server Services to Start at Boot

Use the following commands to enable the JBoss Web Server services to start at boot.

Procedure

  • Depending on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux version, enter one of the following commands:

    • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6:

      # chkconfig jws5-tomcat on
    • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 or 8:

      # systemctl enable jws5-tomcat.service

2.4. SELinux Policies

2.4.1. SELinux Policy Information

The following table contains information about the SELinux policies provided in the jws5-tomcat-selinux packages.

Table 2.1. RPMs and Default SELinux Policies

NamePort InformationPolicy Information

jws5_tomcat

Four ports in http_port_t (TCP ports 8080, 8005, 8009, and 8443) to allow the tomcat process to use them.

The jws5_tomcat policy is installed, which sets the appropriate SELinux domain for the process when Tomcat executes. It also sets the appropriate contexts to allow tomcat to write to /var/opt/rh/jws5/lib/tomcat, /var/opt/rh/jws5/log/tomcat, /var/opt/rh/jws5/cache/tomcat and /var/opt/rh/jws5/run/tomcat.pid.

For more information about using SELinux and other Red Hat Enterprise Linux security information, see the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security Guide.

2.4.2. SELinux policies for an RPM installation

SELinux policies for JBoss Web Server are provided by the jws5-tomcat-selinux package. These packages are available in the JWS channel.

To enable SELinux policies for JBoss Web Server 5.3, install the jws5-tomcat-selinux package.

2.4.3. SELinux policies for an archive installation

In this release, SELinux policies are provided in the archive packages. The SELinux security model is enforced by the kernel and ensures applications have limited access to resources such as file system locations and ports. This helps ensure that the errant processes (either compromised or poorly configured) are restricted and in some cases prevented from running.

The .postinstall.selinux file is included in the tomcat folder of jws-5.3.0-application-server-<platform>-<architecture>.zip. If required, you can run the .postinstall.selinux script.

To install the SELinux policies using archive:

  1. Install the selinux-policy-devel package:

    yum install -y selinux-policy-devel
  2. Execute the .postinstall.selinux script:

    cd <JWS_home>/tomcat/
    sh .postinstall.selinux
  3. Add access permissions to the required ports for JBoss Web Server. The JBoss Web Server has access to ports 8080, 8009, 8443 and 8005 on Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems.

    When additional ports are required for JBoss Web Server, use the semanage command to provide the necessary permissions, replacing the port number with the port required:

    semanage port -a -t http_port_t -p tcp <port>
  4. Start Tomcat:

    <JWS_home>/tomcat/bin/startup.sh
  5. Check the context of the running process expecting jws5_tomcat:

    ps -eo pid,user,label,args | grep jws5_tomcat | head -n1
  6. To verify the contexts of the Tomcat directories, for example:

    ls -lZ <JWS_home>/tomcat/logs/
Note

By default, the SElinux policy provided is not active and the Tomcat processes run in the unconfined_java_t domain. This domain does not confine the processes, and it is recommended that you undertake the following security precautions if you chose not to enable the SElinux policy provided:

  • Restrict file access for the tomcat user to only the files and directories that are necessary to the JBoss Web Server runtime.
  • Do not run Tomcat as the root user.

Chapter 3. Installing JBoss Web Server on Microsoft Windows

3.1. Installing a Java Development Kit (JDK)

Before installing JBoss Web Server on Microsoft Windows, you must first install a supported Java Development Kit (JDK).

For a list of supported configurations, see the Supporting Operating Systems and Configurations.

Note

For instructions on installing the IBM JDK, visit: https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/jdk/

To install the Oracle Java Development Kit:

  1. Download the Oracle JDK for your operating system and architecture. You can download the JDK installation file from the Oracle website: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/index.html.
  2. Double-click the downloaded file to start the installation.
  3. Proceed as instructed in the installation window.

3.2. Downloading and extracting JBoss Web Server

To install JBoss Web Server, download and extract the installation archive files.

  1. Open a browser and log in to the Red Hat Customer Portal.
  2. Click Downloads.
  3. Click Red Hat JBoss Web Server in the Product Downloads list.
  4. Select the correct JBoss Web Server version from the Version drop-down menu.
  5. Click Download for each of the following files, ensuring that you select the correct platform and architecture for your system:

    • The Red Hat JBoss Web Server 5.3 Application Server (jws-5.3.0-application-server.zip).
    • The Red Hat JBoss Web Server 5.3 Native Components for Windows Server (jws-5.3.0-application-server-<platform>-<architecture>.zip).
  6. Unzip the downloaded archive files to your installation directory.

The directory created by extracting the archives is the top-level directory for JBoss Web Server. This is referred to as JWS_HOME.

3.3. Configuring the JBoss Web Server installation

Some configuration is required before running JBoss Web Server. This section includes the following configuration procedures:

Setting Environment Variables

  1. Log in to an account with local administrator permissions.
  2. Go to Control PanelSystem.
  3. Click on the Advanced tab.
  4. Click the Environment Variables button.
  5. Click the New button for System Variables.
  6. For JAVA_HOME, TMP, and TEMP, enter the appropriate name-value pairs for your system.
  7. For the SSL Connector to work, you will also need to add JWS_HOME\bin to the PATH environment variable of the user that the services will run under. This user is SYSTEM by default.

Installing the Tomcat Service

  1. Open a command prompt with administrator privileges and change to the bin folder for your Tomcat version:

    cd /D "JWS_HOME\tomcat\bin"
  2. Install the Tomcat service with the following command:

    call service.bat install

Configuring Folder Permissions for the JBoss Web Server Services

Follow this procedure to ensure that the account used to run the services has full control over the JWS_HOME folder and all of its subfolders:

  1. Right-click the JWS_HOME folder and click Properties.
  2. Select the Security tab.
  3. Click the Edit button.
  4. Click the Add button.
  5. In the text box, enter LOCAL SERVICE.
  6. Select the Full Control check box for the LOCAL SERVICE account.
  7. Click OK.
  8. Click the Advanced button.
  9. Inside the Advanced Security Settings dialog, select LOCAL SERVICE and click Edit.
  10. Select the check box next to the Replace all existing inheritable permissions on all descendants with inheritable permissions from this object option.
  11. Click OK through all the open folder property windows to apply the settings.

3.4. Starting JBoss Web Server

You can start the JBoss Web Server from a command prompt, or with the Computer Management tool.

Starting JBoss Web Server from a Command Prompt

  1. Open a command prompt with administrator privileges.
  2. Start the Tomcat service:

    net start tomcat9

Starting JBoss Web Server from the Computer Management Tool

  1. Go to StartAdministrative ToolsServices.
  2. In the Services list, right-click the name of the service (Tomcat9) and click Start.
Note

Some third-party applications add libraries to the system directory in Windows. These take precedence over Tomcat libraries when looked-up. This means that if those third-party libraries have the same name as the those used by Tomcat native libraries, they are loaded instead of the libraries distributed with JBoss Web Server.

In this situation, Tomcat may not start, and does not log any error messages in the Windows Event Log, or Tomcat log files. Errors can only be seen by using catalina.bat run.

If this behavior occurs, inspect the contents of the C:\windows\System32\ directory and other PATH directories, and ensure that there are no DLLs conflicting with those delivered with JBoss Web Server. In particular, look for libeay32.dll, ssleay32.dll, and libssl32.dll.

3.5. Stopping JBoss Web Server

You can stop the JBoss Web Server from a command prompt, or with the Computer Management tool.

Stopping JBoss Web Server from a Command Prompt

  1. Open a command prompt with administrator privileges.
  2. Stop the Tomcat service:

    net stop tomcat9

Stopping JBoss Web Server from the Computer Management Tool

  1. Go to StartAdministrative ToolsServices.
  2. In the Services list, right-click the name of the service (Tomcat9) and click Stop.

Chapter 4. Configuring Hibernate for Red Hat JBoss Web Server

Hibernate ORM is an object-relational mapping framework that lets you connect JBoss Web Server to JDBC datasources.

4.1. Installing Hibernate ORM

Complete the following procedure to install Hibernate ORM on all platforms that JBoss Web Server supports.

Prerequisites

Configure your project to use the JBoss Web Server Maven Repository, which is available to download as jboss-web-server-5.3.0-maven-repository.zip.

Procedure

  1. Get the Hibernate JAR files from the JBoss Web Server Maven Repository.
  2. Add the Hibernate JAR files to your deployment WAR file.

4.2. Configuring JDBC Connection Pools

Tomcat provides a default connection pooling mechanism for JDBC datasources.

Procedure

  1. Open your deployment’s /META-INF/context.xml file for editing.
  2. Modify the JDBC connection pools available to applications, as in the following example:

    <Context>
      <Resource
        name="jdbc/DsWebAppDB"
        auth="Container"
        type="javax.sql.DataSource"
        username="sa"
        password=""
        driverClassName="org.h2.Driver"
        url="jdbc:h2:mem:target/test/db/h2/hibernate"
        maxActive="8"
        maxIdle="4"/>
    </Context>

4.3. Configuring Hibernate Connection Properties

Configure Hibernate to use connections from the Tomcat pool. If you use the Hibernate API directly, use a similar configuration to hibernate.cfg.xml.

Procedure

  1. Open your deployment’s /WEB-INF/classes/META-INF/persistence.xml file for editing.
  2. Configure how Hibernate consumes connections from the Tomcat, as in the following example:

    <persistence version="1.0"
      xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
      xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence/persistence_1_0.xsd">
    
      <persistence-unit name="dswebapp">
        <provider>org.hibernate.ejb.HibernatePersistence</provider>
        <properties>
          <property name="hibernate.dialect" value="org.hibernate.dialect.H2Dialect" />
          <property name="hibernate.connection.datasource" value="java:comp/env/jdbc/DsWebAppDB"/>
        </properties>
      </persistence-unit>
    </persistence>

4.4. Adding JDBC Data Sources

Configure Tomcat to consume JDBC datasources.

Procedure

  1. Open your deployment’s /WEB-INF/web.xml file for editing.
  2. Configure JDBC datasources with the resource-env-ref element, as in the following example that uses a jdbc/DsWebAppDB datasource:

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <web-app version="2.5" xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee"
      xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee
      http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_2_5.xsd">
    
     <resource-env-ref>
      <resource-env-ref-name>jdbc/DsWebAppDB</resource-env-ref-name>
      <resource-env-ref-type>javax.sql.DataSource</resource-env-ref-type>
     </resource-env-ref>
    </web-app>

Chapter 5. Enabling HTTP/2 for the Red Hat JBoss Web Server

The Hypertext Transfer Protocols are standard methods of transmitting data between applications (such as servers and browsers) over the internet.

HTTP/2 improves on HTTP/1.1 by providing enhancements such as:

  • header compression - reducing the size of the header transmitted by omitting implied information, and
  • multiple requests and responses over a single connection - using binary framing to break down response messages, as opposed to textual framing.

Using HTTP/2 with the Red Hat JBoss Web Server:

  • is supported for encrypted connections over TLS (h2).
  • is not supported for unencrypted connections over TCP (h2c).

Prerequisites

  • Root user access (Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems)
  • Red Hat JBoss Web Server 5.0 or higher
  • The following operating system native libraries (provided by jws-5.3.0-application-server-<platform>-<architecture>.zip where available).

    RHEL-8 users needing to run JSSE+OpenSSL or APR, you will need to use Tomcat-Native for it to work properly. The file for Tomcat-Native can be found in the native archive directory. To install OpenSSL and APR, run the following commands:

# yum install openssl
# yum install apr
  • A connector that supports the HTTP/2 protocol with SSL enabled. For JBoss Web Server 5.3, the connectors with HTTP/2 protocol support are:

    • The APR Native connector (APR)
    • The NIO connector with JSSE + OpenSSL (JSSE)
    • The NIO2 connector with JSSE + OpenSSL (JSSE)

Procedure

Enable HTTP/2 for a connector:

  1. Add the HTTP/2 upgrade protocol (<UpgradeProtocol className="org.apache.coyote.http2.Http2Protocol" />) to the connector in the server configuration JWS_HOME/tomcat/conf/server.xml.

    For example:

    <Connector port="8443" protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11NioProtocol"
               maxThreads="150" SSLEnabled="true">
        <UpgradeProtocol className="org.apache.coyote.http2.Http2Protocol" />
        <SSLHostConfig>
            <Certificate certificateKeystoreFile="/KeyStore.jks"
                         certificateKeystorePassword="changeit"
                         type="RSA" />
        </SSLHostConfig>
    </Connector>

    server.xml contains an example connector definition for the APR protocol with the upgrade protocol to HTTP/2:

    <Connector port="8443"
               protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11AprProtocol"
               maxThreads="150" SSLEnabled="true" >
        <UpgradeProtocol className="org.apache.coyote.http2.Http2Protocol" />
        <SSLHostConfig>
            <Certificate certificateKeyFile="conf/localhost-rsa-key.pem"
                         certificateFile="conf/localhost-rsa-cert.pem"
                         certificateChainFile="conf/localhost-rsa-chain.pem"
                         type="RSA" />
        </SSLHostConfig>
    </Connector>
  2. Restart the Red Hat JBoss Web Server as the root user, to apply the changed configuration.

    1. For SysV (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6) users:

      # service jws5-tomcat restart
    2. For systemd (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7) users:

      # systemctl restart jws5-tomcat.service
    3. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux users running Red Hat JBoss Web Server using startup.sh:

      # JWS_HOME/sbin/shudown.sh
      # JWS_HOME/sbin/startup.sh
    4. For Windows Server users:

      # net restart tomcat9

Next Steps

Verify that HTTP/2 is enabled by reviewing the Red Hat JBoss Web Server logs or by using the curl command:

  • Check the console output log (JWS_HOME/tomcat/logs/catalina.out) to verify that the "connector has been configured to support negotiation to [h2]":

    $ cat JWS_HOME/tomcat/logs/catalina.out | grep 'h2'
    
    06-Apr-2018 04:49:26.201 INFO [main] org.apache.coyote.http11.AbstractHttp11Protocol.configureUpgradeProtocol The ["https-openssl-apr-8443"] connector has been configured to support negotiation to [h2] via ALPN
  • Or verify using curl (for versions of curl that support HTTP2):

    Note

    To check curl for HTTP/2 support:

    $ curl -V
    
    curl 7.55.1 (x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu) ...
    Release-Date: 2017-08-14
    Protocols: dict file ftp ftps gopher http https ...
    Features: AsynchDNS IDN IPv6 Largefile GSS-API Kerberos SPNEGO NTLM NTLM_WB SSL libz TLS-SRP HTTP2 UnixSockets HTTPS-proxy Metalink PSL
    • For example, when the HTTP/2 protocol is inactive:

      $ curl -I http://<JBoss_Web_Server>:8080/
      
      HTTP/1.1 200
      ...
    • But if the HTTP/2 protocol is active, curl returns:

      $ curl -I https://<JBoss_Web_Server>:8443/
      
      HTTP/2 200
      ...

      Where <JBoss_Web_Server> is the URI of the modified connector (such as example.com), and the port number is dependent on your configuration.

Additional Resources

Chapter 6. Vault For Red Hat JBoss Web Server

6.1. About password vault in Red Hat JBoss Web Server 5.3

Tomcat-vault is a PicketLink vault extension for Apache Tomcat that allows users to mask passwords and other sensitive strings, and store them in an encrypted Java keystore. Using the vault enables you to stop storing clear-text passwords in your Tomcat configuration files, because Tomcat can lookup passwords and other sensitive strings from a keystore using the vault.

Important

For Using CRYPT with the Vault, refer Using CRYPT.

6.2. Installing the JBoss Web Server password vault from .zip archive

As tomcat password vault is pre-installed by the jws-5.3.0-application-server.zip file. The password vault can be used once configured and it is located at: JWS_HOME/tomcat/lib/tomcat-vault.jar.

6.3. Installing the JBoss Web Server password vault on Red Hat Enterprise Linux using the YUM package manager

If the JBoss Web Server has been installed from RPMs on Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you need to install the JBoss Web Server RPM for tomcat-vault.

Procedure

  • Install the password vault as the root user by executing:

    yum install jws5-tomcat-vault

6.4. Enabling password vault in JBoss Web Server

In the following procedure, replace JWS_HOME with the path to your JBoss Web Server installation. Also, the paths below use / for directory separators.

Procedure

  1. Stop Tomcat if it is running.
  2. Edit JWS_HOME/tomcat/conf/catalina.properties, and add the following line:

    org.apache.tomcat.util.digester.PROPERTY_SOURCE=org.apache.tomcat.vault.util.PropertySourceVault

6.5. Creating a Java Keystore in JBoss Web Server

To use a password vault, you must first create a Java keystore.

Important

The values in the procedure are examples only. Replace them with values specific to your environment.

For an explanation of the parameters, use the keytool -genseckey -help command.

Procedure

  • Create a Java keystore using the keytool -genseckey command:

    $ keytool -genseckey -keystore JWS_HOME/tomcat/vault.keystore -alias my_vault  -storetype jceks -keyalg AES -keysize 128 -storepass <vault_password> -keypass <vault_password> -validity 730

6.6. External password vault configuration

The vault.properties file for the tomcat-vault can be stored outside of JWS_HOME/tomcat/conf/ in a CATALINA_BASE/conf/ directory (if set).

To set the CATALINA_BASE directory, follow the instructions in the section Advanced Configuration - Multiple Tomcat Instances in the Running The Apache Tomcat 9.0 Servlet/JSP Container document found on the Apache Tomcat Website.

Note

The default location for CATALINA_BASE is JWS_HOME/tomcat/ also known as CATALINA_HOME.

Additional Resources

For more information on setting CATALINA_BASE, see:

6.7. Initializing Password Vault

6.7.1. Initializing password vault for Apache Tomcat interactively

Important

The values below are examples only. Replace them with values appropriate for your environment.

Procedure

  • Initialize password vault using the tomcat-vault.sh script:

    # JWS_HOME/tomcat/bin/tomcat-vault.sh
    
    WARNING JBOSS_HOME may be pointing to a different installation - unpredictable results may occur.
    
    =========================================================================
    
      JBoss Vault
    
      JBOSS_HOME: JWS_HOME/tomcat
    
      JAVA: java
    
    =========================================================================
    
    **********************************
    ****  JBoss Vault  ***************
    **********************************
    Please enter a Digit::
    0: Start Interactive Session
    1: Remove Interactive Session
    2: Exit
    
    0
    
    Starting an interactive session
    Enter directory to store encrypted files: JWS_HOME/tomcat/
    Enter Keystore URL: JWS_HOME/tomcat/vault.keystore
    Enter Keystore password: <vault_password>
    Enter Keystore password again: <vault_password>
    Values match
    Enter 8 character salt: 1234abcd
    Enter iteration count as a number (Eg: 44): 120
    Enter Keystore Alias: my_vault
    Initializing Vault
    Jun 16, 2018 10:24:27 AM org.apache.tomcat.vault.security.vault.PicketBoxSecurityVault init
    INFO: PBOX000361: Default Security Vault Implementation Initialized and Ready
    Vault Configuration in tomcat properties file:
    ********************************************
    ...
    KEYSTORE_URL=JWS_HOME/tomcat/vault.keystore
    KEYSTORE_PASSWORD=MASK-3CuP21KMHn7G6iH/A3YpM/
    KEYSTORE_ALIAS=my_vault
    SALT=1234abcd
    ITERATION_COUNT=120
    ENC_FILE_DIR=JWS_HOME/tomcat/
    ...
    ********************************************
    Vault is initialized and ready for use
    Handshake with Vault complete
    Please enter a Digit::
    0: Store a secured attribute
    1: Check whether a secured attribute exists
    2: Exit
    
    2

Note the output for the Tomcat properties file, as you will need this to configure Tomcat to use the vault.

6.7.2. Initializing the Vault for Apache Tomcat non-interactively (silent setup)

The Vault for Apache Tomcat can be created non-interactively by providing the required input as arguments to the tomcat-vault.sh script. The vault.properties file is also created as output of the tomcat-vault.sh script when the -g, --generate-config option is used.

Important

The values below are examples only. Replace them with values appropriate for your environment.

Procedure

  • Initialize password vault using the tomcat-vault.sh script:
$ JWS_HOME/tomcat/bin/tomcat-vault.sh \
 --keystore JWS_HOME/tomcat/vault.keystore \
 --keystore-password <vault_password> \
 --alias my_vault \
 --enc-dir JWS_HOME/tomcat/ \
 --iteration 120 \
 --salt 1234abcd \
 --generate-config JWS_HOME/tomcat/conf/vault.properties

6.8. Configuring Tomcat to use the password vault

Prerequisites

Procedure

  • In JWS_HOME/tomcat/conf/, create a file named vault.properties containing the vault configuration produced when initializing the vault.

    The values provided below use the example vault initialized in procedure Initializing password vault for Apache Tomcat interactively

    Note

    For KEYSTORE_PASSWORD, you must use the masked value that was generated when initializing the vault.

    KEYSTORE_URL=JWS_HOME/tomcat/vault.keystore
    KEYSTORE_PASSWORD=MASK-3CuP21KMHn7G6iH/A3YpM/
    KEYSTORE_ALIAS=my_vault
    SALT=1234abcd
    ITERATION_COUNT=120
    ENC_FILE_DIR=JWS_HOME/tomcat/

Chapter 7. Configuring SSI Filter

7.1. Configuring the SSI filter

SSI directives do not work if you try to configure SSI filter like you did in the previous versions.

Procedure

For the SSI Filter configuration to work correctly, uncomment the following block in the conf/web.xml file:

    <mime-mapping>
        <extension>shtml</extension>
        <mime-type>text/x-server-parsed-html</mime-type>
    </mime-mapping>

Appendix A. Java IPv4/IPv6 Properties

Configuring Java properties

In Java there are 2 properties that are used to configure IPv4 and IPv6. These are java.net.preferIPv4Stack and java.net.preferIPv6Addresses.

java.net.preferIPv4Stack (default: false)

If IPv6 is available then the underlying native socket, by default, is an IPv6 socket. This socket lets applications connect and accept connections from IPv4 and IPv6 hosts. If application use only IPv4 sockets, then set this property to true. However, it will not be possible for the application to communicate with IPv6 only hosts.

java.net.preferIPv6Addresses (default: false)

If a host has both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, and IPv6 is available, then the default behavior is to use IPv4 addresses over IPv6. This allows backward compatibility. If applications that depend on an IPv4 address representation, for example: 192.168.1.1. Then, set this property to true to change the preference and use IPv6 addresses over IPv4 where possible.

To pass these properties to Tomcat, set CATALINA_OPTS in the JWS_HOME/tomcat/bin/setenv.* file.

Note

If the JWS_HOME/tomcat/bin/setenv.sh or JWS_HOME/tomcat/bin/setenv.bat file does not exist, then you need to create one.

On Linux:

export "CATALINA_OPTS=-Djava.net.preferIPv4Stack=YOUR_VALUE -Djava.net.preferIPv6Addresses=YOUR_VALUE"

On Windows:

set "CATALINA_OPTS=-Djava.net.preferIPv4Stack=YOUR_VALUE -Djava.net.preferIPv6Addresses=YOUR_VALUE"

Configuring Tomcat bindings

The Tomcat bindings can be set in JWS_HOME/tomcat/conf/server.xml with the IPv6 address:

  • Specify the Tomcat binding address:

    <Server …​ address="TOMCAT_BINDING_ADDRESS">

  • Specify the HTTP connector address:

    <Connector protocol="HTTP/1.1" …​ address="HTTP_CONNECTOR_ADDRESS">

  • Specify the AJP connector address:

    <Connector protocol="AJP/1.3" …​ address="AJP_CONNECTOR_ADDRESS">

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