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Installation Guide

Red Hat JBoss Web Server 3.1

Install and Configure Red Hat JBoss Web Server 3.1

Red Hat Customer Content Services

Abstract

This book contains information related to installation and basic configuration of Red Hat JBoss Web Server.

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1. About Red Hat JBoss Web Server

Red Hat JBoss Web Server is a fully integrated and certified set of components for hosting Java web applications. It consists of a web server (Apache HTTP Server), an application server (Apache Tomcat Servlet container), load balancers (mod_jk and mod_cluster), and the Tomcat Native Library.

This Installation Guide includes procedures for the installation, minor upgrade, and basic configuration of the Tomcat servers from JBoss Web Server on supported operating systems. Installation and configuration instructions for the Apache HTTP Server are covered in the JBoss Core Services Documentation.

1.2. Components

JBoss Web Server consists of the following components:

  • Apache Tomcat is a servlet container in accordance with Java Servlet Specification. JBoss Web Server contains Apache Tomcat 7 and Apache Tomcat 8.
  • Apache Tomcat Native Library is a Tomcat library, which improves Tomcat scalability, performance, and integration with native server technologies.
  • Apache Tomcat Connectors (mod_jk, mod_cluster) are connectors between Apache HTTP Server and Apache Tomcat. Note that the default is mod_cluster, as it is the JBoss native load balancer and is more efficient, reliable, and scalable than mod_jk. As of JBoss Web Server 3.1, the mod_jk and mod_cluster connectors are provided as part of JBoss Core Services. For more information on installation and configuration of these two modules, see the HTTP Connectors and Load Balancing Guide.
  • Apache HTTP Server is an open source web server developed by the Apache Software Foundation. The implementation follows the current HTTP standards. As of JBoss Web Server 3.1, the Apache HTTP Server is provided as part of JBoss Core Services. For more information on installation and configuration of the http server, see JBoss Core Services Documentation.
  • Hibernate is an object-relational mapping framework. Hibernate included in JBoss Web Server contains Hibernate Core, Hibernate Annotations, and Hibernate EntityManager with JPA 1.0 APIs.

For a detailed list of component versions included in JBoss Web Server 3.1, see https://access.redhat.com/articles/111723.

Note

Tomcat clustering has been removed from JBoss Web Server 3.1. If you need clustering or session replication support for Java applications, Red Hat recommends that you use Red Hat JBoss Enterprise Application Platform (JBoss EAP).

1.3. Supported Operating Systems and Configurations

For information on supported operating systems and configurations for JBoss Web Server, see https://access.redhat.com/articles/1377603.

1.4. Installation Methods

JBoss Web Server can be installed on supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Microsoft Windows, and Solaris systems using ZIP installation files available for each platform. JBoss Web Server can also be installed on supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems using RPM packages.

For ZIP installations, below is a summary of the components that are included in the ZIP file which form the core part of a JBoss Web Server installation.

  • jws-application-servers-3.1.0-<platform>-<architecture>.zip

    • Tomcat 7
    • Tomcat 8
    • Platform-specific utilities

1.5. Upgrading JBoss Web Server

Upgrading JBoss Web Server is not supported. To upgrade to JBoss Web Server 3.1 from an older version, a fresh installation is recommended.

Important

If the RPM method was used to install JBoss Web Server 1.x or 2.x, it is not possible to remove JBoss Web Server 1.x or 2.x and install JBoss Web Server 3.1 on the same machine. Many configuration files from the old packages will be left on the system, and will create compatibility issues with the newer RPM packages. For the same reason, manually removing the old RPMs and installing the new ones is also not supported.

On a system where JBoss Web Server 1.x or 2.x was installed using the ZIP method, it is possible to remove the old version and install JBoss Web Server 3.1 on the same system.

1.6. Component Documentation Bundle

JBoss Web Server includes an additional documentation bundle that includes the original vendor documentation for each component. This documentation bundle, jws-docs-3.1.0.zip, is available at the Red Hat Customer Portal, and contains additional documentation for the following:

  • mod_cluster
  • openssl
  • tomcat7
  • tomcat8
  • tomcat-native

Chapter 2. Installing JBoss Web Server on Red Hat Enterprise Linux

You can install JBoss Web Server on Red Hat Enterprise Linux using one of two methods:

Regardless of which method you choose, you must first install a supported Java Development Kit (JDK).

2.1. Prerequisites

2.1.1. Installing a Java Development Kit (JDK)

Before installing JBoss Web Server, you must first install a supported Java Development Kit (JDK).

  1. Subscribe your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system to the appropriate channel:

    • OpenJDK:

      • rhel-6-server-rpms
      • rhel-7-server-rpms
    • Oracle:

      • rhel-6-server-thirdparty-oracle-java-rpms
      • rhel-7-server-thirdparty-oracle-java-rpms
    • IBM:

      • rhel-6-server-supplementary-rpms
      • rhel-7-server-supplementary-rpms
  2. As the root user, execute the command to install a 1.7 or 1.8 JDK:

    1. For JDK 1.7:

      # yum install java-1.7.0-<VENDOR>-devel

      Replace <VENDOR> with oracle, ibm, or openjdk.

    2. For JDK 1.8:

      # yum install java-1.8.0-<VENDOR>-devel

      Replace <VENDOR> with oracle, ibm, or openjdk.

  3. Run the following commands as the root user to ensure the correct JDK is in use:

    # alternatives --config java
    # alternatives --config javac

    These commands return lists of available JDK versions with the selected version marked with a plus (+) sign. If the selected JDK is not the desired one, change to the desired JDK as instructed in the shell prompt.

    Important

    All software that use the java and javac commands uses the JDK set by alternatives. Changing Java alternatives may impact on the running of other software.

2.1.2. Red Hat Enterprise Linux Package Prerequisites

Before installing JBoss Web Server on Red Hat Enterprise Linux, ensure the following prerequisites are met.

  • A supported JDK is installed.
  • You must remove the tomcatjss package before installing the tomcat-native package. The tomcatjss package uses an underlying NSS security model rather than the OpenSSL security model.

Removing the tomcatjss Package

  1. As the root user, run the following command to remove tomcatjss:

    # yum remove tomcatjss

2.2. ZIP Installation

Ensure that all of the prerequisites are met before installing JBoss Web Server.

2.2.1. Downloading and Extracting JBoss Web Server

To install JBoss Web Server, download and extract the installation ZIP files.

Downloading JBoss Web Server

  1. Open a browser and log in to the Red Hat Customer Portal.
  2. Click Downloads.
  3. Click Red Hat JBoss Web Server in the Product Downloads list.
  4. Select the correct JBoss Web Server version from the Version drop-down menu.
  5. Click Download for each of the following files, ensuring that you select the correct platform and architecture for your system:

    • Red Hat JBoss Web Server 3.1 Application Server (jws-application-servers-3.1.0-<platform>-<architecture>.zip)

Extracting JBoss Web Server

  1. Unzip the downloaded ZIP files to your installation directory.

    The directory created by extracting the ZIP archives is the top-level directory for JBoss Web Server. This is referred to as JWS_HOME.

2.2.2. Configuring the JBoss Web Server Installation

Some configuration is required before running JBoss Web Server. This section includes the following configuration procedures:

Setting the JAVA_HOME Environment Variable

You must set the JAVA_HOME environment variable for Tomcat before running JBoss Web Server.

In the bin directory of Tomcat (either JWS_HOME/tomcat7/bin or JWS_HOME/tomcat8/bin), create a file named setenv.sh, and insert the JAVA_HOME path definition.

For example: export JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/jre-1.7.0-openjdk.x86_64

Creating a Tomcat User

Follow this procedure to create the tomcat user and its parent group:

  1. In a shell prompt as the root user, change directory to JWS_HOME.
  2. Run the following command to create the tomcat user group:

    # groupadd -g 53 -r tomcat
  3. Run the following command to create the tomcat user in the tomcat user group:

    # useradd -c "Tomcat" -u 53 -g tomcat -s /bin/sh -r tomcat
  4. Check that the tomcat user group and the tomcat user were created correctly:

    $ grep tomcat /etc/group
    
    tomcat:x:53
    
    $ grep tomcat /etc/passwd
    
    tomcat:x:53:53:Tomcat:/home/tomcat:/bin/sh
  5. From JWS_HOME, run the following command to assign the ownership of the Tomcat directories to the tomcat user to allow the user to run the Tomcat service:

    # chown -R tomcat:tomcat tomcat<VERSION>

    Replace <VERSION> with the respective Tomcat version number (7 or 8).

    You can use ls -l to verify that the tomcat user is the owner of the directory.

  6. Ensure that the tomcat user has execute permissions to all parent directories. For example:

    # chmod -R u+X tomcat<VERSION>

Enabling Apache Log4j Logging for Tomcat

To enable logging with Apache Log4j:

  1. Change directory to JWS_HOME/extras/:

    # cd JWS_HOME/extras/
  2. Copy log4j-eap6.jar and log4j.properties from JWS_HOME/extras/ to JWS_HOME/lib.

    # cp log4j.properties log4j-eap6.jar ../tomcat<VERSION>/lib/

    Replace <VERSION> with the Tomcat version number (7 or 8).

  3. Change directory to JWS_HOME/tomcat<VERSION>/extras/:

    # cd ../tomcat<VERSION>/extras/
  4. Copy tomcat-juli-adapters.jar from JWS_HOME/tomcat<VERSION>/extras to JWS_HOME/tomcat<VERSION>/lib.

    # cp tomcat-juli-adapters.jar ../lib/
  5. Replace JWS_HOME/tomcat<VERSION>/bin/tomcat-juli.jar with JWS_HOME/tomcat<VERSION>/extras/tomcat-juli.jar:

    # cp tomcat-juli.jar ../bin/

2.2.3. Starting JBoss Web Server

To start JBoss Web Server, you must start the following:

  • Tomcat (7 or 8).

Before starting Tomcat, ensure that the following prerequisites are met:

Starting Tomcat

  1. Run the following command as the tomcat user with your respective Tomcat version (7 or 8):

    $ sh JWS_HOME/tomcat<VERSION>/bin/startup.sh
    Important

    Although there are multiple methods of starting Tomcat, it is recommended that you use the startup.sh script. To start Tomcat as a service using Jsvc, see the Jsvc chapter.

2.2.4. Stopping JBoss Web Server

To stop JBoss Web Server, you must stop the following:

  • Tomcat (7 or 8).

Stopping Tomcat

  1. To stop Tomcat, run the following command as the root user with your respective Tomcat version (7 or 8):

    # sh JWS_HOME/tomcat<VERSION>/bin/shutdown.sh

2.3. RPM Installation

Installing JBoss Web Server from RPM packages installs Tomcat as service, and installs its resources into absolute paths. The RPM installation option is only available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

RPM installation packages for JBoss Web Server are available from Red Hat Subscription Management.

Note

For users wanting to manage JBoss Web Server installations using Red Hat Satellite: although Red Hat Satellite 6 is recommended for managing JBoss Web Server 3.1 installations, the following Red Hat Network (RHN) channels are also provided specifically for Satellite 5 users:

  • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6:

    • jws-3-x86_64-server-6-rpm
    • jws-3-i386-server-6-rpm
  • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7:

    • jws-3-x86_64-server-7-rpm

Red Hat Satellite 6 users can use the Red Hat Content Delivery Network (CDN) repositories.

Warning

Installing JBoss Web Server from RPM packages shares Java library files with other applications. Library version conflicts occur when using RPM packages to install both JBoss Web Server 3 and JBoss EAP 6 on the same machine. To workaround the issue, you can install either JBoss Web Server 3 or JBoss EAP 6 using the RPM installation method, and the other using the ZIP installation method.

2.3.1. Installing JBoss Web Server from RPM packages

Before downloading and installing the RPM packages, you must register your system with Red Hat Subscription Management and subscribe to the respective Content Delivery Network (CDN) repositories.

For information on registering Red Hat Enterprise Linux, see Configuring the Subscription Service for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 or The Subscription Manager for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

Attaching subscriptions to Red Hat Enterprise Linux (if required)

If the system does not have a subscription attached that provides JBoss Web Server:

  1. Log in to the Red Hat Subscription Manager.
  2. Click on the Systems tab.
  3. Click on the Name of the system to add the subscription to.
  4. Change from the Details tab to the Subscriptions tab, then click Attach Subscriptions.
  5. Select the check box beside the subscription to attach, then click Attach Subscriptions.
Note

To verify that a subscription provides the required CDN repositories:

  1. Log in to: https://access.redhat.com/management/subscriptions.
  2. Click the Subscription Name.
  3. Under Products Provided, you require:

    • JBoss Enterprise Web Server.
    • Red Hat JBoss Core Services.

Installing JBoss Web Server from RPM packages using YUM

  1. On a command line, subscribe to the JBoss Web Server CDN repositories for your operating system version using subscription-manager:

    # subscription-manager repos --enable <repository>
    • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6:

      • jws-3-for-rhel-6-server-rpms
      • jb-coreservices-1-for-rhel-6-server-rpms
    • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7:

      • jws-3-for-rhel-7-server-rpms
      • jb-coreservices-1-for-rhel-7-server-rpms
  2. Issue the following command as the root user to install JBoss Web Server:

    # yum groupinstall jws3
    Note
    • Although not recommended, instead of using the group install, you can install each of the packages and their dependencies individually.
    • The Red Hat JBoss Core Services repositories above are required for the installation of JBoss Web Server.

2.3.2. Installing the JBoss Web Server Plus Group

The JBoss Web Server Plus group contains additional packages, mainly for the addition of Hibernate and its dependencies.

To install the JBoss Web Server Plus group of packages, run the following command as the root user:

# yum groupinstall jws3plus

2.3.3. Starting JBoss Web Server

To start JBoss Web Server, you must start the following:

  • Tomcat (7 or 8)

Starting Tomcat

  1. In a shell prompt as the root user, start the Tomcat service. Replace <VERSION> with the desired Tomcat version (7 or 8):

    1. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6:

      # service tomcat<VERSION> start
    2. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7:

      # systemctl start tomcat<VERSION>.service

This is the only supported method of starting Tomcat for an RPM installation.

  1. To verify that Tomcat is running, the output of the service status command should be reviewed. This can be executed as any user.

    1. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6:

      # service tomcat<VERSION> status
    2. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7:

      # systemctl status tomcat<VERSION>.service

2.3.4. Stopping JBoss Web Server

To stop JBoss Web Server, stop the Tomcat services.

Stopping Tomcat

  1. In a shell prompt as the root user, stop the Tomcat service. Replace <VERSION> with the desired Tomcat version (7 or 8):

    1. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6:

      # service tomcat<VERSION> stop
    2. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7:

      # systemctl stop tomcat<VERSION>.service
  2. To verify that Tomcat is no longer running, the output of the service status command should be reviewed. This can be executed as any user.

    1. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6:

      # service tomcat<VERSION> status
    2. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7:

      # systemctl status tomcat<VERSION>.service

2.3.5. Configuring JBoss Web Server Services to Start at Boot

You can configure JBoss Web Server to start at boot.

Use the following commands to enable the JBoss Web Server services to start at boot. Replace <VERSION> with the desired Tomcat version (7 or 8).

  • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6:

    # chkconfig tomcat<VERSION> on
  • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7:

    # systemctl enable tomcat<VERSION>.service

2.4. SELinux Policies

2.4.1. SELinux Policy Information

The following table contains information about the SELinux policies provided in the tomcat<version>-selinux packages.

Table 2.1. RPMs and Default SELinux Policies

NamePort InformationPolicy Information

tomcat<version>

Four ports in http_port_t (TCP ports 8080, 8005, 8009, and 8443) to allow the tomcat process to use them.

The Tomcat<VERSION> policy is installed, which sets the appropriate SELinux domain for the process when Tomcat executes. It also sets the appropriate contexts to allow tomcat to write to /var/lib/tomcat<VERSION>, /var/log/tomcat<VERSION>, /var/cache/tomcat<VERSION>, and /var/run/tomcat<VERSION>.pid.

For more information about using SELinux and other Red Hat Enterprise Linux security information, see the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security Guide.

2.4.2. SELinux Policies for an RPM Installation

SELinux policies for each Tomcat are provided via their own Tomcat sub-packages: tomcat7-selinux and tomcat8-selinux. These packages are available in the JWS channel.

  • To enable SELinux policies on Tomcat 7, install the tomcat7-selinux package.
  • To enable SELinux policies on Tomcat 8, install the tomcat8-selinux package.

2.4.3. SELinux Policies for a ZIP Installation

In this release, SELinux policies are provided in the ZIP packages. The SELinux security model is enforced by the kernel and ensures applications have limited access to resources such as file system locations and ports. This helps ensure that the errant processes (either compromised or poorly configured) are restricted and in some cases prevented from running. The .postinstall.selinux file is included in each tomcat folder. If required, you can run the .postinstall.selinux script.

To install the SELinux policies using ZIP:

  1. Install the selinux-policy-devel package:

    yum install -y selinux-policy-devel
  2. Execute the .postinstall.selinux script:

    cd <JWS_home>/tomcat<version>
    sh .postinstall.selinux

    Where tomcat<version> refers to tomcat7 or tomcat8.

  3. Make and install the SELinux module:

    cd selinux
    make -f /usr/share/selinux/devel/Makefile
    semodule -i tomcat<version>.pp
  4. Apply the SELinux contexts for JBoss Web Server:

    restorecon -r <JWS_home>/tomcat<version>/
  5. Add access permissions to the required ports for JBoss Web Server:

    semanage port -a -t http_port_t -p tcp 8005
    semanage port -a -t http_port_t -p tcp 8080
    semanage port -a -t http_port_t -p tcp 8009
    semanage port -a -t http_port_t -p tcp 8443
  6. Start the Tomcat service:

    <JWS_home>/bin/startup.sh
  7. Check the context of the running process expecting tomcat_<version>__t:

    ps -eZ | grep tomcat | head -n1
  8. To verify the contexts of the Tomcat directories, for example:

    ls -lZ <JWS_home>/tomcat<version>/logs/
Note

By default, the selinux policy provided is not active and the Tomcat processes run in the unconfined_java_t domain. This domain does not confine the processes, and it is recommended that you undertake the following security precautions if you chose not to enable the selinux policy provided:

  • Restrict file access for the tomcat user to only the files and directories that are necessary to the JBoss Web Server runtime.
  • Do not run Tomcat as the root user.

Chapter 3. Installing JBoss Web Server on Microsoft Windows

3.1. Installing a Java Development Kit (JDK)

Before installing JBoss Web Server on Microsoft Windows, you must first install a supported Java Development Kit (JDK).

For a list of supported configurations, see the Red Hat Customer Portal article: JBoss Web Server 3 Supported Configurations.

Note

For instructions on installing the IBM JDK, visit: https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/jdk/

To install the Oracle Java Development Kit:

  1. Download the Oracle JDK 1.7 or 1.8 for your operating system and architecture. You can download the JDK installation file from the Oracle website: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/index.html.
  2. Double-click the downloaded file to start the installation.
  3. Proceed as instructed in the installation window.

3.2. Downloading and Extracting JBoss Web Server

To install JBoss Web Server, download and extract the installation ZIP files.

Downloading JBoss Web Server

  1. Open a browser and log in to the Red Hat Customer Portal.
  2. Click Downloads.
  3. Click Red Hat JBoss Web Server in the Product Downloads list.
  4. Select the correct JBoss Web Server version from the Version drop-down menu.
  5. Click Download for each of the following files, ensuring that you select the correct platform and architecture for your system:

    • Red Hat JBoss Web Server 3.1 Application Server (jws-application-servers-3.1.0-<platform>-<architecture>.zip)

Extracting JBoss Web Server

  1. Unzip the downloaded ZIP files to your installation directory.

    The directory created by extracting the ZIP archives is the top-level directory for JBoss Web Server. This is referred to as JWS_HOME.

3.3. Configuring the JBoss Web Server Installation

Some configuration is required before running JBoss Web Server. This section includes the following configuration procedures:

Setting Environment Variables

  1. Log in to an account with local administrator permissions.
  2. Go to Control PanelSystem.
  3. Click on the Advanced tab.
  4. Click the Environment Variables button.
  5. Click the New button for System Variables.
  6. For JAVA_HOME, TMP, and TEMP, enter the appropriate name-value pairs for your system.
  7. For the SSL Connector to work, you will also need to add JWS_HOME\bin to the PATH environment variable of the user that the services will run under. This user is SYSTEM by default.

Running the Post-Installation Scripts

  1. Open a command prompt with administrator privileges and change to the etc folder of your JBoss Web Server installation:

    cd /D "JWS_HOME\etc"
  2. Run the Tomcat post-installation script using the following command:

    call postinstall.tomcat.bat

    The script creates the required symbolic links (junction points) for temporary logging and configuration directories.

Installing the Tomcat Service

  1. Open a command prompt with administrator privileges and change to the bin folder for your Tomcat version:

    cd /D "JWS_HOME\share\tomcat<VERSION>\bin"
  2. Install the Tomcat service with the following command:

    call service.bat install

Enabling log4j Logging for Tomcat

  1. Open a command prompt with administrator privileges and change to JWS_HOME\share\extras\.
  2. Copy the log4j files to the lib folder for your Tomcat version:

    copy log4j-eap6.jar log4j.properties tomcat-juli-adapters.jar ..\tomcat<VERSION>\lib
  3. Replace tomcat-juli.jar file in your Tomcat bin directory with the tomcat-juli.jar file from JWS_HOME\share\extras\:

    copy tomcat-juli.jar ..\tomcat<VERSION>\bin

Configuring Folder Permissions for the JBoss Web Server Services

Follow this procedure to ensure that the account used to run the services has full control over the JWS_HOME folder and all of its subfolders:

  1. Right-click the JWS_HOME folder and click Properties.
  2. Select the Security tab.
  3. Click the Edit button.
  4. Click the Add button.
  5. In the text box, enter LOCAL SERVICE.
  6. Select the Full Control check box for the LOCAL SERVICE account.
  7. Click OK.
  8. Click the Advanced button.
  9. Inside the Advanced Security Settings dialog, select LOCAL SERVICE and click Edit.
  10. Select the check box next to the Replace all existing inheritable permissions on all descendants with inheritable permissions from this object option.
  11. Click OK through all the open folder property windows to apply the settings.

3.4. Starting JBoss Web Server

To start JBoss Web Server, you must start the following:

  • Tomcat (7 or 8)

You can start the services from a command prompt, or with the Computer Management tool.

Starting JBoss Web Server from a Command Prompt

  1. Open a command prompt with administrator privileges.
  2. Start the Tomcat service:

    net start tomcat<VERSION>

Starting JBoss Web Server from the Computer Management Tool

  1. Go to StartAdministrative ToolsServices.
  2. In the Services list, right-click the name of the service (tomcat) and click Start.
Note

Some third-party applications add libraries to the system directory in Windows. These take precedence over Tomcat libraries when looked-up. This means that if those third-party libraries have the same name as the those used by Tomcat native libraries, they are loaded instead of the libraries distributed with JBoss Web Server.

In this situation, Tomcat may not start, and does not log any error messages in the Windows Event Log, or Tomcat log files. Errors can only be seen by using catalina.bat run.

If this behavior occurs, inspect the contents of the C:\windows\System32\ directory and other PATH directories, and ensure that there are no DLLs conflicting with those delivered with JBoss Web Server. In particular, look for libeay32.dll, ssleay32.dll, and libssl32.dll.

3.5. Stopping JBoss Web Server

To stop JBoss Web Server, you must stop the following:

  • Tomcat

You can stop the services from a command prompt, or with the Computer Management tool.

Stopping JBoss Web Server from a Command Prompt

  1. Open a command prompt with administrator privileges.
  2. Stop the Tomcat service:

    net stop tomcat<VERSION>

Stopping JBoss Web Server from the Computer Management Tool

  1. Go to StartAdministrative ToolsServices.
  2. In the Services list, right-click the name of the service (tomcat) and click Stop.

Chapter 4. Installing JBoss Web Server on Solaris

4.1. Installing a Java Development Kit (JDK)

Before installing JBoss Web Server on Solaris, you must first install a supported Java Development Kit (JDK).

For a list of supported configurations, see the Red Hat Customer Portal article: JBoss Web Server 3 Supported Configurations.

Installing a Java Development Kit (JDK)

Install the Oracle JDK on a command line as the root user:

# pkg install jdk-<version>

Where <version> is the version of the JDK to install, such as jdk-8

Alternative: Download and Install a Java Development Kit on Solaris

  1. Download the Oracle JDK for your operating system and architecture. You can download the JDK installation file from the Oracle website: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/index.html.
  2. Run the JDK installation file.
  3. Open /usr at a shell prompt, and run the following command to display the current Java symbolic link:

    ls -lad java
  4. Remove the link:

    rm java
  5. Create a new Java symbolic link to the newly installed JDK:

    ln -sf /usr/jdk/<JDK>

4.2. Downloading and Extracting JBoss Web Server

To install JBoss Web Server, download and extract the installation ZIP files.

Downloading JBoss Web Server

  1. Open a browser and log in to the Red Hat Customer Portal.
  2. Click Downloads.
  3. Click Red Hat JBoss Web Server in the Product Downloads list.
  4. Select the correct JBoss Web Server version from the Version drop-down menu.
  5. Click Download for each of the following files, ensuring that you select the correct platform and architecture for your system:

    • Red Hat JBoss Web Server 3.1 Application Server (jws-application-servers-3.1.0-<platform>-<architecture>.zip)

Extracting JBoss Web Server

  1. Unzip the downloaded ZIP files to your installation directory.

    The directory created by extracting the ZIP archives is the top-level directory for JBoss Web Server. This is referred to as JWS_HOME.

4.3. Configuring the JBoss Web Server Installation

Some configuration is required before running JBoss Web Server. This section includes the following configuration procedures:

Running the Post-Installation Scripts

  1. Open a shell prompt, and change directory to JWS_HOME/etc.
  2. As the root user, run the post-installation scripts:

    # sh .postinstall.tomcat

    The post-installation script creates the Tomcat user and group.

Setting the JAVA_HOME Environment Variable

You must set the JAVA_HOME environment variable for Tomcat before running JBoss Web Server.

  1. Open the Tomcat configuration file:

    • For Tomcat 7: JWS_HOME/etc/sysconfig/tomcat7
    • For Tomcat 8: JWS_HOME/etc/sysconfig/tomcat8
  2. Remove the hash (#) at the beginning of the following line:

    # JAVA_HOME="/usr/java"

Enabling log4j Logging for Tomcat

If required, follow this procedure to add log4j logging to Tomcat.

  1. Open a shell prompt and change directory to JWS_HOME/share/extras/.
  2. Copy the log4j-eap6.jar, log4j.properties, and tomcat-juli-adapters.jar files to the lib directory of the Tomcat directory.

    For example:

    # cp log4j.properties ../tomcat<VERSION>/lib/
    # cp log4j-eap6.jar ../tomcat<VERSION>/lib/
    # cp tomcat-juli-adapters.jar ../tomcat<VERSION>/lib/

    Replace <VERSION> with the respective Tomcat version number (7 or 8).

  3. Replace tomcat-juli.jar file in your Tomcat bin directory with the tomcat-juli.jar file from JWS_HOME/share/extras/:

    # cp tomcat-juli.jar ../tomcat<VERSION>/bin/

4.4. Starting JBoss Web Server

To start JBoss Web Server, you must start the following:

  • Tomcat (7 or 8)

Starting Tomcat

  1. As the root user, run the following command with your respective Tomcat version (7 or 8):

    # sh JWS_HOME/share/apache-tomcat-<VERSION>/bin/daemon.sh start
    Important

    Although there are multiple methods of starting Tomcat, it is recommended that you use the daemon.sh script. To start Tomcat as a service using Jsvc, see the Jsvc chapter.

4.5. Stopping JBoss Web Server

To stop JBoss Web Server, you must stop the following:

  • Tomcat (7 or 8)

Stopping Tomcat

  1. To stop Tomcat, in a shell prompt as the root user, run the following command with your respective Tomcat version (7 or 8):

    # sh JWS_HOME/share/apache-tomcat-<VERSION>/bin/daemon.sh stop

Chapter 5. Using Jsvc to Start Tomcat

Jsvc is a set of libraries and applications that facilitates running Java applications on Linux, UNIX, and similar operating systems. Using Jsvc with JBoss Web Server allows Tomcat to switch identities. Using Jsvc, Tomcat can perform root-level operations and then revert to a non-privileged user. Jsvc is primarily used for running Tomcat as a service.

Jsvc files are available at the following locations:

  • For Red Hat Enterprise Linux:

    • JWS_HOME/extras/jsvc
    • JWS_HOME/tomcat<VERSION>/bin/jsvc

      Note

      JWS_HOME/tomcat<VERSION>/bin/jsvc is a symlink to JWS_HOME/extras/jsvc.

  • For Solaris:

    • JWS_HOME/sbin/jsvc
    • JWS_HOME/share/apache-tomcat-<VERSION>/bin/jsvc

      Note

      JWS_HOME/share/apache-tomcat-<VERSION>/bin/jsvc is a symlink to JWS_HOME/sbin/jsvc.

5.1. Starting Tomcat Using Jsvc

Start Tomcat Using Jsvc on Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Run the following command to start Tomcat using Jsvc on Red Hat Enterprise Linux:

JWS_HOME/tomcat<VERSION>/bin/daemon.sh start

Start Tomcat Using Jsvc on Solaris

Run the following command to start Tomcat using Jsvc on Solaris:

JWS_HOME/share/tomcat<VERSION>/bin/daemon.sh start

5.2. Stopping Tomcat Using Jsvc

Stop Tomcat Using Jsvc on Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Run the following command to stop Tomcat that was started using Jsvc on Red Hat Enterprise Linux:

JWS_HOME/tomcat<VERSION>/bin/daemon.sh stop

Stop Tomcat Using Jsvc on Solaris

Run the following command to stop Tomcat that was started using Jsvc on Solaris:

JWS_HOME/share/tomcat<VERSION>/bin/daemon.sh stop

5.3. Jsvc Parameters

The following parameters can be configured when running the daemon.sh script:

Table 5.1. daemon.sh Startup Parameters

Parameter NameEnvironment VariableDefault ValueDescription

--java-home

JAVA_HOME

Based on the value of the PATH variable.

The Java home directory location.

--catalina-home

CATALINA_HOME

Determined by the location of the script.

The Tomcat installation directory location.

--catalina-base

CATALINA_BASE

Based on the value of the PATH variable.

The directory that contains the specific configuration and setup information if multiple servers are using the same installation.

--catalina-pid

-

$CATALINA_BASE/logs/catalina-daemon.pid

The file where the process ID (PID) for the running instance of Tomcat is stored.

--tomcat-user

-

tomcat

The user Tomcat uses.

--service-start-wait-time

-

 

This is a wrapper to the --wait parameter. The --wait parameter accepts values in seconds.

Chapter 6. Hibernate on JBoss Web Server

Hibernate is an object-relational mapping framework. It is packaged independently from JBoss Web Server. This packaged version is used on all supported platforms.

Hibernate is used in the same way it is used for a regular Tomcat installation: the Hibernate JAR files are added into a deployment WAR file. Tomcat provides a default connection pooling mechanism, which is defined in context.xml. However, persistence.xml and web.xml are also required. The example below shows a configuration with the Tomcat connection pooling mechanism.

  • /META-INF/context.xml defines the connection pools Tomcat should create.

    context.xml

    <Context>
      <Resource
        name="jdbc/DsWebAppDB"
        auth="Container"
        type="javax.sql.DataSource"
        username="sa"
        password=""
        driverClassName="org.h2.Driver"
        url="jdbc:h2:mem:target/test/db/h2/hibernate"
        maxActive="8"
        maxIdle="4"/>
    </Context>

  • /WEB-INF/classes/META-INF/persistence.xml is a JPA configuration file. It defines how the application configures Hibernate to consume connections from the Tomcat pool. If you are using the Hibernate API directly, use a similar configuration to that shown in hibernate.cfg.xml.

    persistence.xml

    <persistence version="1.0"
      xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
      xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence/persistence_1_0.xsd">
    
      <persistence-unit name="dswebapp">
        <provider>org.hibernate.ejb.HibernatePersistence</provider>
        <properties>
          <property name="hibernate.dialect" value="org.hibernate.dialect.H2Dialect" />
          <property name="hibernate.connection.datasource" value="java:comp/env/jdbc/DsWebAppDB"/>
        </properties>
      </persistence-unit>
    </persistence>

  • /WEB-INF/web.xml is a regular web application deployment file, which instructs Tomcat which datasource to consume. In the example below, the datasource is jdbc/DsWebAppDB.

    web.xml

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <web-app version="2.5" xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee"
      xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee
      http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_2_5.xsd">
    
     <resource-env-ref>
      <resource-env-ref-name>jdbc/DsWebAppDB</resource-env-ref-name>
      <resource-env-ref-type>javax.sql.DataSource</resource-env-ref-type>
     </resource-env-ref>
    </web-app>

For details, see the Hibernate documentation for JBoss Web Server.

Chapter 7. Monitoring JBoss Web Server with JBoss Operations Network (ON)

JBoss Web Server can be monitored and managed by Red Hat JBoss Operations Network (JBoss ON).

To monitor JBoss Web Server using JBoss ON, you must install the Web Server Plugin Pack on your JBoss ON server, and then configure Tomcat in JBoss Web Server to be monitored.

7.1. Downloading the Web Server Plugin Pack for JBoss ON

To monitor JBoss Web Server using JBoss ON, you must first download and install the Web Server Plugin Pack on your JBoss ON server.

  1. Open a web browser, and log in to the Red Hat Customer Portal: http://access.redhat.com.
  2. Click Downloads.
  3. Click Red Hat JBoss Web Server in the Product Downloads list.
  4. Select JBoss ON for Web Server in the Product drop-down menu.
  5. Find Web Server Plugin Pack for Red Hat JBoss Operations Network in the list and click Download.

Consult the JBoss ON documentation for instructions on installing the plugin on your JBoss ON server.

7.2. Configuring Tomcat for JBoss ON Monitoring

To allow JBoss ON to monitor Tomcat in JBoss Web Server, you must configure Tomcat to allow JBoss ON discovery, as well as providing JBoss ON the required access.

Note

For Microsoft Windows, skip this step and proceed to Configuring Tomcat for JBoss ON Monitoring

The JBoss ON agent requires read and write permission to the Tomcat directories. As a user with root privileges, run the following command to add the user which runs the JBoss ON Agent to the tomcat group:

# usermod -aG tomcat <JBOSSON_AGENT_USER>

Configuring Tomcat for JBoss ON Monitoring

JBoss Web Server instances are auto-discovered on Linux and Unix platforms. However, you need to configure the instance’s JMX to allow for proper handling of authentication and accurate Tomcat monitoring.

To configure JMX to handle authentication:

  1. Open the startup or the setenv file of the respective JBoss Web Server instance for editing:

    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux installed from a ZIP file, open JWS_HOME/tomcat<VERSION>/bin/setenv.sh.
    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux installed from RPMs, open /usr/sbin/tomcat<VERSION>.
    • On Microsoft Windows open JWS_HOME\share\tomcat<VERSION>\bin\setenv.bat.
    • On Solaris using daemon.sh to start Tomcat, open JWS_HOME/tomcat<VERSION>/bin/setenv.sh.
  2. Define an available port for JMX monitoring. Ensure the port is not blocked by any firewall.

    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Solaris:

      JAVA_OPTS="${JAVA_OPTS} -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=PORT_NUMBER -Djava.rmi.server.hostname=IP_ADDRESS"
    • On Microsoft Windows:

      set "JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS% -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=PORT_NUMBER -Djava.rmi.server.hostname=IP_ADDRESS"
  3. In production environments, add the following lines to the JAVA_OPTS variable in the startup file to secure JMX with SSL, and restrict the access with a firewall:

    • On Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Solaris:

      JAVA_OPTS="${JAVA_OPTS} -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.access.file=JWS_HOME/jmxremote.access"
      JAVA_OPTS="${JAVA_OPTS} -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.password.file=JWS_HOME/jmxremote.password"
    • On Microsoft Windows:

      set "JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS% -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.access.file=JWS_HOME\jmxremote.access"
      set "JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS% -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.password.file=JWS_HOME\jmxremote.password"
    Note

    If you want to disable authentication and SSL for development purposes, add the following lines to the JAVA_OPTS variable in the startup file:

    JAVA_OPTS="${JAVA_OPTS} -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=false"
    JAVA_OPTS="${JAVA_OPTS} -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=false"
  4. Once the Tomcat server resource is discovered and imported into the JBoss ON inventory, it may be necessary to update the new resource’s connection settings.

    1. In the JBoss ON interface, Connection Settings for the newly imported Tomcat server resource.
    2. Verify the value of the Manager URL property to the RMI URL, to ensure it uses the correct JMX host name and port number as defined in the Tomcat server startup file. An example for this value is shown below:

      service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://$IP_ADDRESS:$PORT/jmxrmi

7.2.1. Configuring JBoss ON Monitoring for Tomcat Installed from RPMs

  1. In a shell prompt become the root user.
  2. Configure the JMX JAVA_OPTS properties in the /usr/sbin/tomcat<VERSION> file in the start and start-security sections.

    if [ "$1" = "start" ]; then
    JAVA_OPTS="${JAVA_OPTS} -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=8100 -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=false -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=true -Dcom.sun.management.jmxr
    emote.access.file="/etc/tomcat<VERSION>/jmxremote.access" -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.password.file="/etc/tomcat<VERSION>/jmxremote.password""
    
      ${JAVACMD} $JAVA_OPTS $LOGGING_CONFIG $CATALINA_OPTS \
        -classpath "$CLASSPATH" \
        -Dcatalina.base="$CATALINA_BASE" \
        -Dcatalina.home="$CATALINA_HOME" \
        -Djava.endorsed.dirs="$JAVA_ENDORSED_DIRS" \
        -Djava.io.tmpdir="$CATALINA_TMPDIR" \
        org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap start \
         >> ${CATALINA_BASE}/logs/catalina.out 2>&1 &
        if [ ! -z "$CATALINA_PID" ]; then
          echo $! > $CATALINA_PID
        fi
    elif [ "$1" = "start-security" ]; then
    JAVA_OPTS="${JAVA_OPTS} -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=8100 -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=false -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=true -Dcom.sun.management.jmxr
    emote.access.file="/etc/tomcat<VERSION>/jmxremote.access" -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.password.file="/etc/tomcat<VERSION>/jmxremote.password""
    
      ${JAVACMD} $JAVA_OPTS $LOGGING_CONFIG $CATALINA_OPTS \
        -classpath "$CLASSPATH" \
        -Dcatalina.base="$CATALINA_BASE" \
  3. Run the following command to start Tomcat:

    service tomcat<VERSION> start
  4. Start the JBoss ON agent.
  5. In the JBoss ON Web UI, import the JBoss ON agent and Tomcat.
  6. In the JBoss ON Web UI, setup the Tomcat connection configuration (principal and credentials).
  7. In the JBoss ON Web UI, set the Tomcat Control method configuration to RPM System V init script.

    Note

    The Start and Shutdown script may not be set because the Tomcat plugin always runs the service tomcat<VERSION> start/stop command for the RPM System V init script configuration setting.

7.2.2. Configuring JBoss ON Monitoring for Tomcat Installed as a Windows Service

  1. Create the jmxremote.access file with controlRole readwrite in the C:\jmx directory.
  2. Create the jmxremote.password file with controlRole pwd in the C:\jmx directory.

    Note

    Set the owner of jmxremote.access and jmxremote.password to SYSTEM, and restrict the access of jmxremote.password only to SYSTEM. The SYSTEM user must only have read access.

  3. Enable JMX for the Tomcat Windows service:

    JWS_HOME\sbin\tomcat<VERSION>.exe //US//Tomcat<VERSION> ++JvmOptions="-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=8100;-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.access.file="C:\jmx\jmxremote.access";-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.password.file="C:\jmx\jmxremote.password";-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=false;-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=true"
  4. Start the Tomcat Windows service, and verify that it is running.
  5. Install and configure the JBoss ON agent. Type discovery in the agent prompt to discover the Tomcat Windows service.
  6. In the JBoss ON Web UI, click Inventory, then click Discovery Queue, and select import Tomcat and RHQ agent.
  7. In the JBoss ON Web UI, go to Platforms and search for the agent name. Click on your agent.
  8. On the Agent page, Tomcat Servers are listed. Select your Tomcat server by clicking it.
  9. In the JBoss ON Web UI, click on the Inventory tab and then configure the Tomcat Server in Connection Settings.
  10. Enter the Principal and Credentials information. Use the controlRole and password set in the jmxremote files.
  11. Set the control method to RPM System V init script.

    Note

    You cannot set Start and Shutdown script fields.

  12. Click Save.
  13. Update the connection settings of the Tomcat Server JVM, and set Principal and Credentials.

Chapter 8. Using a Password Vault with Red Hat JBoss Web Server 3

8.1. Using a Password Vault with Red Hat JBoss Web Server 3

A password vault is used to mask passwords and other sensitive strings, and store them in an encrypted Java keystore. This allows you to eliminate storing clear-text passwords in your Tomcat configuration files, as Tomcat can lookup passwords and other sensitive strings from a keystore using the vault.

The examples and commands below use JWS_HOME as the JBoss Web Server installation directory. Replace JWS_HOME with the path to your JBoss Web Server installation. Also, the paths below use / for directory separators.

8.1.1. Installing the JBoss Web Server password vault

There are two methods of installing the JBoss Web Server password vault:

8.1.1.1. Installing the JBoss Web Server password vault on Red Hat Enterprise Linux from an RPM

Where the JBoss Web Server has been installed from RPMs on Red Hat Enterprise Linux, install the password vault as the root user by executing:

yum install tomcat-vault tomcat-vault-tomcat<VERSION>

Where <VERSION> is either 7 for tomcat 7 (tomcat-vault-tomcat7) or 8 for tomcat 8 (tomcat-vault-tomcat8).

Note

In the tomcat-vault RPM installation, the vault jar is located in /usr/share/java/vault-tomcat-<VERSION>-jar-with-dependencies.jar. This jar can be used in JWS zip installation: JWS_HOME/tomcat_<VERSION>_/lib/ For JWS RPM installation: /usr/share/tomcat<VERSION>/lib.

8.1.1.2. Downloading and Extracting the Vault Files from a .zip archive

  1. Stop Tomcat if it is running.
  2. Extract the contents of the vault zip to your JWS_HOME directory. In this topic, JWS_HOME/tomcat-vault will refer to the extracted vault directory.
  3. Copy JWS_HOME/tomcat-vault/modules/system/layers/base/tomcat-vault/main/tomcat-vault.jar to JWS_HOME/tomcat<VERSION>/lib/. Edit JWS_HOME/tomcat<VERSION>/conf/catalina.properties, and add the following line:
org.apache.tomcat.util.digester.PROPERTY_SOURCE=org.apache.tomcat.vault.util.PropertySourceVault

8.1.2. Creating a Java Keystore

To use a password vault, you must first create a Java keystore. You can do this using the keytool -genseckey command. For example:

$ keytool -genseckey -keystore JWS_HOME/tomcat/vault.keystore -alias my_vault  -storetype jceks -keyalg AES -keysize 128 -storepass <vault_password> -keypass <vault_password> -validity 730
Important

The values above are examples only. Replace them with values specific to your environment.

For an explanation of the parameters, use the keytool -genseckey -help command.

8.1.3. Storing the tomcat-vault vault.properties file outside of the JWS_HOME directory

This feature was introduced by JBoss Web Server 3.1 Service Pack 2.

The vault.properties file for the tomcat-vault can be stored outside of JWS_HOME/tomcat<VERSION>/conf/ in a CATALINA_BASE/conf/ directory (if set).

To set the CATALINA_BASE directory, follow the instructions in the section 'Advanced Configuration - Multiple Tomcat Instances' in the Running The Apache Tomcat 8.0 Servlet/JSP Container document found on the Apache Tomcat Website.

Note

The default location for CATALINA_BASE is JWS_HOME/tomcat<VERSION>/ (also known as CATALINA_HOME).

For more information on setting CATALINA_BASE, see:

8.1.4. Initializing the Password Vault

The vault must be initialized before it can be used to store sensitive strings. This is done using the JWS_HOME/tomcat-vault/bin/tomcat-vault.sh vault script. For Microsoft Windows, the script is tomcat-vault.bat.

The script can be run interactively or non-interactively. Below is an example of an interactive execution of the script to initialize a password vault, with the values shown below using the example keystore from the previous step.

8.1.4.1. Initializing the Vault for Apache Tomcat interactively

Important

The values below are examples only. Replace them with values appropriate for your environment.

# JWS_HOME/tomcat-vault/bin/tomcat-vault.sh

WARNING JBOSS_HOME may be pointing to a different installation - unpredictable results may occur.

=========================================================================

  JBoss Vault

  JBOSS_HOME: JWS_HOME/tomcat-vault

  JAVA: java

=========================================================================

**********************************
****  JBoss Vault  ***************
**********************************
Please enter a Digit::
0: Start Interactive Session
1: Remove Interactive Session
2: Exit

0

Starting an interactive session
Enter directory to store encrypted files: JWS_HOME/tomcat-vault/
Enter Keystore URL: JWS_HOME/tomcat-vault/vault.keystore
Enter Keystore password: <vault_password>
Enter Keystore password again: <vault_password>
Values match
Enter 8 character salt: 1234abcd
Enter iteration count as a number (Eg: 44): 120
Enter Keystore Alias: my_vault
Initializing Vault
Jun 16, 2018 10:24:27 AM org.apache.tomcat.vault.security.vault.PicketBoxSecurityVault init
INFO: PBOX000361: Default Security Vault Implementation Initialized and Ready
Vault Configuration in tomcat properties file:
********************************************
...
KEYSTORE_URL=JWS_HOME/tomcat-vault/vault.keystore
KEYSTORE_PASSWORD=MASK-3CuP21KMHn7G6iH/A3YpM/
KEYSTORE_ALIAS=my_vault
SALT=1234abcd
ITERATION_COUNT=120
ENC_FILE_DIR=JWS_HOME/tomcat-vault/
...
**
Vault is initialized and ready for use
Handshake with Vault complete
Please enter a Digit::
0: Store a secured attribute
1: Check whether a secured attribute exists
2: Exit

2

Note the output for the Tomcat properties file, as you will need this to configure Tomcat to use the vault.

Configuring Tomcat to Use the Password Vault

In JWS_HOME/tomcat<VERSION>/conf/, create a file named vault.properties containing the vault configuration produced when initializing the vault. The values provided below use the example vault initialized in the previous steps.

Note

For KEYSTORE_PASSWORD, you must use the masked value that was generated when initializing the vault.

KEYSTORE_URL=JWS_HOME/tomcat-vault/vault.keystore
KEYSTORE_PASSWORD=MASK-3CuP21KMHn7G6iH/A3YpM/
KEYSTORE_ALIAS=my_vault
SALT=1234abcd
ITERATION_COUNT=120
ENC_FILE_DIR=JWS_HOME/tomcat-vault/

8.1.4.2. Initializing the Vault for Apache Tomcat non-interactively (silent setup)

The Vault for Apache Tomcat can be created non-interactively by providing the required input as arguments to the tomcat-vault.sh script. The vault.properties file is also created as output of the tomcat-vault.sh script when the -g, --generate-config option is used.

Important

The values below are examples only. Replace them with values appropriate for your environment.

$ JWS_HOME/tomcat-vault/bin/tomcat-vault.sh \
 --keystore JWS_HOME/tomcat-vault/vault.keystore \
 --keystore-password <vault_password> \
 --alias my_vault \
 --enc-dir JWS_HOME/tomcat-vault/ \
 --iteration 120 \
 --salt 1234abcd \
 --generate-config JWS_HOME/tomcat<VERSION>/conf/vault.properties

8.1.5. Storing a Sensitive String in the Password Vault

The vault script used in the previous steps is also used to store sensitive strings in the password vault. The script can be run interactively or non-interactively.

When adding a string to a password vault, the sensitive string needs a name that it will be referred by. For a password vault, this name is called an attribute name, and the password itself is called a secured attribute.

The example below demonstrates using the vault script non-interactively to store a password. It uses the vault that was initialized in the previous steps, and stores the sensitive string P@SSW0#D with the attribute name manager_password.

$ JWS_HOME/tomcat-vault/bin/tomcat-vault.sh --keystore JWS_HOME/tomcat-vault/vault.keystore --keystore-password <vault_password> --alias my_vault --enc-dir JWS_HOME/tomcat-vault/ --iteration 120 --salt 1234abcd --vault-block my_block --attribute manager_password --sec-attr P@SSW0#D
Note

You can optionally specify a vault block to store the password in. If you don’t specify a block, one will be automatically created for you. In the above example, my_block is used.

8.1.6. Using a Stored Sensitive String in Your Tomcat Configuration

After storing a sensitive string in the password vault, you can refer to it in your configuration files by entering the stored string’s attribute as ${VAULT::block_name::attribute_name::}.

For example, to use the password stored in the previous steps, replace:

<user username="manager" password="P@SSW0#D" roles="manager-gui"/>

with:

<user username="manager" password="${VAULT::my_block::manager_password::}" roles="manager-gui"/>

As a result, only a reference to the password is visible in the Tomcat configuration file, and the actual password is only stored in the password vault.

Chapter 9. Configuring JWS Client-Server Communication with WebSocket

9.1. About WebSocket

WebSocket is a web technology that provides bi-directional, full duplex messages to be instantly distributed between a client and server over a single TCP socket connection. A full duplex communication allows two-way communication simultaneously.

The container provides an implementation of the WebSockets 1.0 JSR 356 API. To use the API, you must run Java 7 or later, and configure the APR or NIO2 HTTP/1.1 connectors of the web container.

JSR 356 is the standard for WebSocket API for Java. Developers can use the JSR 356 API for creating WebSocket applications independent of the implementation. The WebSocket API is purely event driven.

Developers can use the JSR 356 Java API for WebSocket to integrate WebSockets in applications on the server side as well as on the client side. Tomcat 7 and 8 implement the WebSocket protocol, which adheres to JSR-356 standard.

A Java client uses a JSR 356-compliant client implementation to connect to a WebSocket server. For web clients, WebSocket JavaScript API can be used to communicate with WebSocket server. The only difference between a WebSocket client and a WebSocket server is the method in which they are connected. A WebSocket client is a WebSocket point from which the connection to a peer originates. A WebSocket server is WebSocket endpoint which is already published and awaits connections from peers.

Some examples where WebSocket can be used include banking, chat, multiplayer, and social networking applications.

9.2. Implementing WebSocket on Tomcat

Configuring WebSocket on Tomcat requires individual configuration of the following:

9.2.1. Configuring Write Timeout

You can change the write timeout in blocking mode by using the org.apache.tomcat.websocket.BLOCKING_SEND_TIMEOUT property. The property accepts values in milliseconds. The default value is 20000 (20 seconds).

9.2.2. Configuring Incoming Binary Messages

To configure incoming binary messages, MessageHandler.Partial must be defined. If MessageHandler.Partial is not defined, then incoming binary messages must be buffered so that the entire message is delivered in a single call to MessageHandler.Whole.

The default buffer size for binary messages is 8192 bytes. You can change the buffer size for a web application by changing the value of the servlet context initializing parameter org.apache.tomcat.websocket.binaryBufferSize.

9.2.3. Configuring Incoming Text Messages

To configure incoming text messages, MessageHandler.Partial must be defined. If MessageHandler.Partial is not defined then incoming text messages must be buffered so that the entire message is delivered in a single call to MessageHandler.Whole.

The default buffer size for text messages is 8192 bytes. You can change the buffer size for a web application by changing the value of the servlet context initializing parameter org.apache.tomcat.websocket.textBufferSize.

9.2.4. Configuring Additional Programmatic Deployment

The Java WebSocket 1.0 specification does not allow programmatic deployment after the first endpoint has started a WebSocket handshake. However, Tomcat by default allows additional programmatic deployment. Additional programmatic deployment can be done by using the servlet context initialization parameter org.apache.tomcat.websocket.noAddAfterHandshake.

Set the system property org.apache.tomcat.websocket.STRICT_SPEC_COMPLIANCE to true to change the default setting.

9.2.5. Configuring Callbacks for Asynchronous Writes

Callbacks for asynchronous writes need to be performed on a different thread to the thread that initiated the write. The container thread pool is not exposed via the Servlet API. Thus the WebSocket implementation has to provide its own thread pool.

The following servlet context initialization parameters control the thread pool:

org.apache.tomcat.websocket.executorCoreSize
The core size of the executor thread pool. If not set, the default of 0 (zero) is used.
org.apache.tomcat.websocket.executorMaxSize
The maximum permitted size of the executor thread pool. If not set, the default of 10 is used.
org.apache.tomcat.websocket.executorKeepAliveTimeSeconds
The maximum time an idle thread will remain in the executor thread pool until it is terminated. If not specified, the default of 60 seconds is used.

9.2.6. Configuring Timeout for IO Operations While Establishing the Connections

The timeout for IO operations while establishing the connections is controlled by the userProperties of the provided javax.websocket.ClientEndpointConfig. You can change timeout by changing the org.apache.tomcat.websocket.IO_TIMEOUT_MS property. The property accepts the values in milliseconds. The default value is 5000 (5 seconds).

To connect a WebSocket client to secure server endpoints, the client SSL configuration is controlled by the userProperties of the provided javax.websocket.ClientEndpointConfig.

The following user properties are supported:

  • org.apache.tomcat.websocket.SSL_CONTEXT
  • org.apache.tomcat.websocket.SSL_PROTOCOLS
  • org.apache.tomcat.websocket.SSL_TRUSTSTORE
  • org.apache.tomcat.websocket.SSL_TRUSTSTORE_PWD

The default truststore password is changeit. The org.apache.tomcat.websocket.SSL_TRUSTSTORE and org.apache.tomcat.websocket.SSL_TRUSTSTORE_PWD properties are ignored if the org.apache.tomcat.websocket.SSL_CONTEXT property is set.

Appendix A. Java IPv4/IPv6 Properties

Configuring Java Properties

In Java ther are 2 properties that are used to configure IPv4 and IPv6. These are java.net.preferIPv4Stack and java.net.preferIPv6Addresses.

java.net.preferIPv4Stack (default: false)

If IPv6 is available then the underlying native socket, by default, is an IPv6 socket. This socket lets applications connect and accept connections from IPv4 and IPv6 hosts. If application use only IPv4 sockets, then set this property to true. However, it will not be possible for the application to communicate with IPv6 only hosts.

java.net.preferIPv6Addresses (default: false)

If a host has both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, and IPv6 is available, then the default behavior is to use IPv4 addresses over IPv6. This allows backward compatibility. If applications that depend on an IPv4 address representation, for example: 192.168.1.1. Then, set this property to true to change the preference and use IPv6 addresses over IPv4 where possible.

To pass these properties to Tomcat, set CATALINA_OPTS in the CATALINA_HOME/bin/setenv.* file.

Note

If the CATALINA_HOME/bin/setenv.sh or CATALINA_HOME/bin/setenv.bat file does not exist, then you need to create one.

On Linux:

export "CATALINA_OPTS=-Djava.net.preferIPv4Stack=YOUR_VALUE -Djava.net.preferIPv6Addresses=YOUR_VALUE"

On Windows:

set "CATALINA_OPTS=-Djava.net.preferIPv4Stack=YOUR_VALUE -Djava.net.preferIPv6Addresses=YOUR_VALUE"

Configuring Tomcat Bindings

The Tomcat bindings can be set in CATALINA_HOME/conf/server.xml with the IPv6 address:

  • Specify the Tomcat binding address:

    <Server …​ address="TOMCAT_BINDING_ADDRESS">

  • Specify the HTTP connector address:

    <Connector protocol="HTTP/1.1" …​ address="HTTP_CONNECTOR_ADDRESS">

  • Specify the AJP connector address:

    <Connector protocol="AJP/1.3" …​ address="AJP_CONNECTOR_ADDRESS">

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