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32.2. Simple Types Defined by Restriction


XML Schema allows you to create simple types by deriving a new type from another primitive type or simple type. Simple types are described using a simpleType element.
The new types are described by restricting the base type with one or more facets. These facets limit the possible valid values that can be stored in the new type. For example, you could define a simple type, SSN, which is a string of exactly 9 characters.
Each of the primitive XML Schema types has their own set of optional facets.


To define your own simple type do the following:
  1. Determine the base type for your new simple type.
  2. Determine what restrictions define the new type based on the available facets for the chosen base type.
  3. Using the syntax shown in this section, enter the appropriate simpleType element into the types section of your contract.

Defining a simple type in XML Schema

Example 32.1, “Simple type syntax” shows the syntax for describing a simple type.

Example 32.1. Simple type syntax

<simpleType name="typeName">
  <restriction base="baseType">
    <facet value="value" />
    <facet value="value" />
The type description is enclosed in a simpleType element and identified by the value of the name attribute. The base type from which the new simple type is being defined is specified by the base attribute of the xsd:restriction element. Each facet element is specified within the restriction element. The available facets and their valid settings depend on the base type. For example, xsd:string has a number of facets including:
  • length
  • minLength
  • maxLength
  • pattern
  • whitespace
Example 32.2, “Postal Code Simple Type ” shows the definition for a simple type that represents the two-letter postal code used for US states. It can only contain two, uppercase letters. TX is a valid value, but tx or tX are not valid values.

Example 32.2. Postal Code Simple Type

<xsd:simpleType name="postalCode">
  <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string">
    <xsd:pattern value="[A-Z]{2}" />

Mapping to Java

Apache CXF maps user-defined simple types to the Java type of the simple type’s base type. So, any message using the simple type postalCode, shown in Example 32.2, “Postal Code Simple Type ”, is mapped to a String because the base type of postalCode is xsd:string. For example, the WSDL fragment shown in Example 32.3, “Credit Request with Simple Types” results in a Java method, state(), that takes a parameter, postalCode, of String.

Example 32.3. Credit Request with Simple Types

<message name="stateRequest">
  <part name="postalCode" type="postalCode" />
<portType name="postalSupport">
  <operation name="state">
    <input message="tns:stateRequest" name="stateRec" />
    <output message="tns:stateResponse" name="credResp" />

Enforcing facets

By default, Apache CXF does not enforce any of the facets that are used to restrict a simple type. However, you can configure Apache CXF endpoints to enforce the facets by enabling schema validation.
To configure Apache CXF endpoints to use schema validation set the schema-validation-enabled property to true. Example 32.4, “Service Provider Configured to Use Schema Validation” shows the configuration for a service provider that uses schema validation

Example 32.4. Service Provider Configured to Use Schema Validation

<jaxws:endpoint name="{}SoapPort"
    <entry key="schema-validation-enabled" value="BOTH" />
For more information on configuring schema validation, see Table 22.10, “Schema Validation Type Values”.