Chapter 10. Configuring firewalld by using the RHEL system role

You can use the firewall RHEL system role to configure settings of the firewalld service on multiple clients at once. This solution:

  • Provides an interface with efficient input settings.
  • Keeps all intended firewalld parameters in one place.

After you run the firewall role on the control node, the RHEL system role applies the firewalld parameters to the managed node immediately and makes them persistent across reboots.

10.1. Introduction to the firewall RHEL system role

RHEL system roles is a set of contents for the Ansible automation utility. This content together with the Ansible automation utility provides a consistent configuration interface to remotely manage multiple systems.

The rhel-system-roles.firewall role from the RHEL system roles was introduced for automated configurations of the firewalld service. The rhel-system-roles package contains this RHEL system role, and also the reference documentation.

To apply the firewalld parameters on one or more systems in an automated fashion, use the firewall RHEL system role variable in a playbook. A playbook is a list of one or more plays that is written in the text-based YAML format.

You can use an inventory file to define a set of systems that you want Ansible to configure.

With the firewall role you can configure many different firewalld parameters, for example:

  • Zones.
  • The services for which packets should be allowed.
  • Granting, rejection, or dropping of traffic access to ports.
  • Forwarding of ports or port ranges for a zone.

Additional resources

10.2. Resetting the firewalld settings by using the firewall RHEL system role

With the firewall RHEL system role, you can reset the firewalld settings to their default state. If you add the previous:replaced parameter to the variable list, the RHEL system role removes all existing user-defined settings and resets firewalld to the defaults. If you combine the previous:replaced parameter with other settings, the firewall role removes all existing settings before applying new ones.

Perform this procedure on the Ansible control node.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Create a playbook file, for example ~/playbook.yml, with the following content:

    ---
    - name: Reset firewalld example
      hosts: managed-node-01.example.com
      tasks:
        - name: Reset firewalld
          ansible.builtin.include_role:
            name: rhel-system-roles.firewall
          vars:
            firewall:
              - previous: replaced
  2. Validate the playbook syntax:

    $ ansible-playbook --syntax-check ~/playbook.yml

    Note that this command only validates the syntax and does not protect against a wrong but valid configuration.

  3. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook ~/playbook.yml

Verification

  • Run this command as root on the managed node to check all the zones:

    # firewall-cmd --list-all-zones

Additional resources

  • /usr/share/ansible/roles/rhel-system-roles.firewall/README.md file
  • /usr/share/doc/rhel-system-roles/firewall/ directory

10.3. Forwarding incoming traffic in firewalld from one local port to a different local port by using the firewall RHEL system role

With the firewall role you can remotely configure firewalld parameters with persisting effect on multiple managed hosts.

Perform this procedure on the Ansible control node.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Create a playbook file, for example ~/playbook.yml, with the following content:

    ---
    - name: Configure firewalld
      hosts: managed-node-01.example.com
      tasks:
        - name: Forward incoming traffic on port 8080 to 443
          ansible.builtin.include_role:
            name: rhel-system-roles.firewall
          vars:
            firewall:
              - { forward_port: 8080/tcp;443;, state: enabled, runtime: true, permanent: true }
  2. Validate the playbook syntax:

    $ ansible-playbook --syntax-check ~/playbook.yml

    Note that this command only validates the syntax and does not protect against a wrong but valid configuration.

  3. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook ~/playbook.yml

Verification

  • On the managed host, display the firewalld settings:

    # firewall-cmd --list-forward-ports

Additional resources

  • /usr/share/ansible/roles/rhel-system-roles.firewall/README.md file
  • /usr/share/doc/rhel-system-roles/firewall/ directory

10.4. Managing ports in firewalld by using the firewall RHEL system role

You can use the firewall RHEL system role to open or close ports in the local firewall for incoming traffic and make the new configuration persist across reboots. For example you can configure the default zone to permit incoming traffic for the HTTPS service.

Perform this procedure on the Ansible control node.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Create a playbook file, for example ~/playbook.yml, with the following content:

    ---
    - name: Configure firewalld
      hosts: managed-node-01.example.com
      tasks:
        - name: Allow incoming HTTPS traffic to the local host
          ansible.builtin.include_role:
            name: rhel-system-roles.firewall
          vars:
            firewall:
              - port: 443/tcp
                service: http
                state: enabled
                runtime: true
                permanent: true

    The permanent: true option makes the new settings persistent across reboots.

  2. Validate the playbook syntax:

    $ ansible-playbook --syntax-check ~/playbook.yml

    Note that this command only validates the syntax and does not protect against a wrong but valid configuration.

  3. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook ~/playbook.yml

Verification

  • On the managed node, verify that the 443/tcp port associated with the HTTPS service is open:

    # firewall-cmd --list-ports
    443/tcp

Additional resources

  • /usr/share/ansible/roles/rhel-system-roles.firewall/README.md file
  • /usr/share/doc/rhel-system-roles/firewall/ directory

10.5. Configuring a firewalld DMZ zone by using the firewall RHEL system role

As a system administrator, you can use the firewall RHEL system role to configure a dmz zone on the enp1s0 interface to permit HTTPS traffic to the zone. In this way, you enable external users to access your web servers.

Perform this procedure on the Ansible control node.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Create a playbook file, for example ~/playbook.yml, with the following content:

    ---
    - name: Configure firewalld
      hosts: managed-node-01.example.com
      tasks:
        - name: Creating a DMZ with access to HTTPS port and masquerading for hosts in DMZ
          ansible.builtin.include_role:
            name: rhel-system-roles.firewall
          vars:
            firewall:
              - zone: dmz
                interface: enp1s0
                service: https
                state: enabled
                runtime: true
                permanent: true
  2. Validate the playbook syntax:

    $ ansible-playbook --syntax-check ~/playbook.yml

    Note that this command only validates the syntax and does not protect against a wrong but valid configuration.

  3. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook ~/playbook.yml

Verification

  • On the managed node, view detailed information about the dmz zone:

    # firewall-cmd --zone=dmz --list-all
    dmz (active)
      target: default
      icmp-block-inversion: no
      interfaces: enp1s0
      sources:
      services: https ssh
      ports:
      protocols:
      forward: no
      masquerade: no
      forward-ports:
      source-ports:
      icmp-blocks:

Additional resources

  • /usr/share/ansible/roles/rhel-system-roles.firewall/README.md file
  • /usr/share/doc/rhel-system-roles/firewall/ directory