Chapter 5. Using MACsec to encrypt layer-2 traffic in the same physical network

This section describes how to configure MACsec for secure communication for all traffic on Ethernet links.

Media Access Control security (MACsec) is a layer 2 protocol that secures different traffic types over the Ethernet links including:

  • dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP)
  • address resolution protocol (ARP)
  • Internet Protocol version 4 / 6 (IPv4 / IPv6) and
  • any traffic over IP such as TCP or UDP

MACsec encrypts and authenticates all traffic in LANs, by default with the GCM-AES-128 algorithm, and uses a pre-shared key to establish the connection between the participant hosts. If you want to change the pre-shared key, you need to update the NM configuration on all hosts in the network that uses MACsec.

A MACsec connection uses an Ethernet device, such as an Ethernet network card, VLAN, or tunnel device, as parent. You can either set an IP configuration only on the MACsec device to communicate with other hosts only using the encrypted connection, or you can also set an IP configuration on the parent device. In the latter case, you can use the parent device to communicate with other hosts using an unencrypted connection and the MACsec device for encrypted connections.

MACsec does not require any special hardware. For example, you can use any switch, except if you want to encrypt traffic only between a host and a switch. In this scenario, the switch must also support MACsec.

In other words, there are 2 common methods to configure MACsec;

  • host to host and
  • host to switch then switch to other host(s)
Important

You can use MACsec only between hosts that are in the same (physical or virtual) LAN.

The following example shows how to configure MACsec between 2 hosts using a pre-shared key.

5.1. Configuring a MACsec connection using nmcli

You can configure Ethernet interfaces to use MACsec using the nmcli tool. This procedure describes how to create a MACsec connection that uses an Ethernet interface to encrypt the network traffic.

Run this procedure on all the hosts that should communicate in this MACsec-protected network.

Procedure

On Host A:

  • On the first host on which you configure MACsec, create the connectivity association key (CAK) and connectivity-association key name (CKN) for the pre-shared key:

    1. Create 16-byte hexadecimal CAK:

      dd if=/dev/urandom count=16 bs=1 2> /dev/null | hexdump -e '1/2 "%04x"'
      50b71a8ef0bd5751ea76de6d6c98c03a
    2. Create 32-byte hexadecimal CKN:

      dd if=/dev/urandom count=32 bs=1 2> /dev/null | hexdump -e '1/2 "%04x"'
      f2b4297d39da7330910a74abc0449feb45b5c0b9fc23df1430e1898fcf1c4550

On Host A and B:

  1. Create the MACsec connection:

    # nmcli connection add type macsec con-name macsec0 ifname macsec0 connection.autoconnect yes macsec.parent enp1s0 macsec.mode psk macsec.mka-cak 50b71a8ef0bd5751ea76de6d6c98c03a  macsec.mka-ckn f2b4297d39da7330910a7abc0449feb45b5c0b9fc23df1430e1898fcf1c4550

    Use the CAK and CKN generated in the previous step in the macsec.mka-cak and macsec.mka-ckn parameters. The values must be the same on every host in the MACsec-protected network.

  2. Configure the IP settings on the MACsec connection.

    1. Configure the IPv4 settings. For example, to set a static IPv4 address, network mask, default gateway, and DNS server to the macsec0 connection, enter:

      # nmcli connection modify macsec0 ipv4.method manual ipv4.addresses '192.0.2.1/24' ipv4.gateway '192.0.2.254' ipv4.dns '192.0.2.253'
    2. Configure the IPv6 settings. For example, to set a static IPv6 address, network mask, default gateway, and DNS server to the macsec0 connection, enter:

      # nmcli connection modify macsec0 ipv6.method manual ipv6.addresses '2001:db8:1::1/32' ipv6.gateway '2001:db8:1::fffe' ipv6.dns '2001:db8:1::fffd'
  3. Activate the connection:

    # nmcli connection up macsec0

Verification steps

  1. To verify the traffic is encrypted, enter:

    tcpdump -nn -i enp1s0
  2. To view the unencrypted traffic, enter:

    tcpdump -nn -i macsec0
  3. To display MACsec statistics:

    # ip macsec show
  4. To display individual counters for each type of protection: integrity-only (encrypt off) and encryption (encrypt on)

    # ip -s macsec show

5.2. Additional resources