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Chapter 7. Controlling access to smart cards using polkit

To cover possible threats that cannot be prevented by mechanisms built into smart cards, such as PINs, PIN pads, and biometrics, and for more fine-grained control, RHEL uses the polkit framework for controlling access control to smart cards.

System administrators can configure polkit to fit specific scenarios, such as smart-card access for non-privileged or non-local users or services.

7.1. Smart-card access control through polkit

The Personal Computer/Smart Card (PC/SC) protocol specifies a standard for integrating smart cards and their readers into computing systems. In RHEL, the pcsc-lite package provides middleware to access smart cards that use the PC/SC API. A part of this package, the pcscd (PC/SC Smart Card) daemon, ensures that the system can access a smart card using the PC/SC protocol.

Because access-control mechanisms built into smart cards, such as PINs, PIN pads, and biometrics, do not cover all possible threats, RHEL uses the polkit framework for more robust access control. The polkit authorization manager can grant access to privileged operations. In addition to granting access to disks, you can use polkit also to specify policies for securing smart cards. For example, you can define which users can perform which operations with a smart card.

After installing the pcsc-lite package and starting the pcscd daemon, the system enforces policies defined in the /usr/share/polkit-1/actions/ directory. The default system-wide policy is in the /usr/share/polkit-1/actions/org.debian.pcsc-lite.policy file. Polkit policy files use the XML format and the syntax is described in the polkit(8) man page.

The polkitd service monitors the /etc/polkit-1/rules.d/ and /usr/share/polkit-1/rules.d/ directories for any changes in rule files stored in these directories. The files contain authorization rules in JavaScript format. System administrators can add custom rule files in both directories, and polkitd reads them in lexical order based on their file name. If two files have the same names, then the file in /etc/polkit-1/rules.d/ is read first.

Additional resources

  • polkit(8), polkitd(8), and pcscd(8) man pages.

7.3. Displaying more detailed information about polkit authorization to PC/SC

In the default configuration, the polkit authorization framework sends only limited information to the Journal log. You can extend polkit log entries related to the PC/SC protocol by adding new rules.


  • You have installed the pcsc-lite package on your system.
  • The pcscd daemon is running.


  1. Create a new file in the /etc/polkit-1/rules.d/ directory:

    # touch /etc/polkit-1/rules.d/00-test.rules
  2. Edit the file in an editor of your choice, for example:

    # vi /etc/polkit-1/rules.d/00-test.rules
  3. Insert the following lines:

    polkit.addRule(function(action, subject) {
      if ( == "org.debian.pcsc-lite.access_pcsc" || == "org.debian.pcsc-lite.access_card") {
    	polkit.log("action=" + action);
    	polkit.log("subject=" + subject);

    Save the file, and exit the editor.

  4. Restart the pcscd and polkit services:

    # systemctl restart pcscd.service pcscd.socket polkit.service


  1. Make an authorization request for pcscd. For example, open the Firefox web browser or use the pkcs11-tool -L command provided by the opensc package.
  2. Display the extended log entries, for example:

    # journalctl -u polkit --since "1 hour ago"
    polkitd[1224]: <no filename>:4: action=[Action id='org.debian.pcsc-lite.access_pcsc']
    polkitd[1224]: <no filename>:5: subject=[Subject pid=2020481 user=user' groups=user,wheel,mock,wireshark seat=null session=null local=true active=true]

Additional resources

  • polkit(8) and polkitd(8) man pages.

7.4. Additional resources