Chapter 2. Preparing for your installation

Before you begin to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, review the following sections to prepare your setup for the installation.

2.1. Recommended steps

Preparing for your RHEL installation consists of the following steps:

Steps

  1. Review and determine the installation method.
  2. Check system requirements.
  3. Review the installation boot media options.
  4. Download the required installation ISO image.
  5. Create a bootable installation medium.
  6. Prepare the installation source*

*Only required for the Boot ISO (minimal install) image if you are not using the Content Delivery Network (CDN) to download the required software packages.

2.2. Available installation methods

You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using any of the following methods:

  • GUI-based installations
  • System or cloud image-based installations
  • Advanced installations
Note

This document provides details about installing RHEL using the user interfaces (GUI).

GUI-based installations

The following GUI-based installation methods are available:

  • Install RHEL using an ISO image from the Customer Portal: Install Red Hat Enterprise Linux by downloading the Binary DVD ISO image file from the Customer Portal. Registration is performed after the GUI installation completes. This installation method is also supported by Kickstart.
  • Register and install RHEL from the Content Delivery Network: Register your system, attach subscriptions, and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from the Content Delivery Network (CDN). This installation method is supported by the Boot ISO and Binary DVD ISO image files; however, it is recommended that you use the Boot ISO image file as the installation source defaults to CDN for the Boot ISO image file. Registration is performed before the installation packages are downloaded and installed from the CDN. This installation method is also supported by Kickstart.

    Important

    You can customize the RHEL installation for your specific requirements using the GUI. You can select additional options for specific environment requirements, for example, Connect to Red Hat, software selection, partitioning, security, and many more. For more information, see Chapter 4, Customizing your installation.

System or cloud image-based installations

You can use system or cloud image-based installation methods only in virtual and cloud environments.

To perform a system or cloud image-based installation, use Red Hat Image Builder. Image Builder creates customized system images of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, including the system images for cloud deployment.

For more information about installing RHEL using Image Builder, see the Composing a customized RHEL system image document.

Advanced installations

The following advanced installation methods are available:

  • Perform an automated RHEL installation using Kickstart: Install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using Kickstart. Kickstart is an automated installation that allows you to execute unattended operating system installation tasks.
  • Perform a remote RHEL installation using VNC: The RHEL installation program offers two VNC installation modes: Direct and Connect. Once a connection is established, the two modes do not differ. The mode you select depends on your environment.
  • Install RHEL from the network using PXE : A network installation allows you to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux to a system that has access to an installation server. At a minimum, two systems are required for a network installation.

For more information about the advanced installation methods, see the Performing an advanced RHEL installation document.

2.3. System requirements

If this is a first-time installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux it is recommended that you review the guidelines provided for system, hardware, security, memory, and RAID before installing. See Appendix B, System requirements reference for more information.

Additional resources

For more information about securing Red Hat Enterprise Linux, see the Security hardening document.

For more information about the system requirements for installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux in virtual and cloud environment, using Image Builder, see Composing a customized RHEL system image document.

2.4. Installation boot media options

There are several options available to boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program.

Full installation DVD or USB flash drive
Create a full installation DVD or USB flash drive using the Binary DVD ISO image. The DVD or USB flash drive can be used as a boot device and as an installation source for installing software packages. Due to the size of the Binary DVD ISO image, a DVD or USB flash drive are the recommended media types.
Minimal installation DVD, CD, or USB flash drive
Create a minimal installation CD, DVD, or USB flash drive using the Boot ISO image, which contains only the minimum files necessary to boot the system and start the installation program.
Important

If you are not using the Content Delivery Network (CDN) to download the required software packages, the Boot ISO image requires an installation source that contains the required software packages.

PXE Server
A preboot execution environment (PXE) server allows the installation program to boot over the network. After a system boot, you must complete the installation from a different installation source, such as a local hard drive or a network location.
Image Builder
Image Builder allows to create customized system and cloud images to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in virtual and cloud environment.

Additional resources

2.5. Types of installation ISO images

Two types of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 installation ISO images are available from the Red Hat Customer Portal.

Binary DVD ISO image file

A full installation program that contains the BaseOS and AppStream repositories and allows you to complete the installation without additional repositories.

Important

You can use a Binary DVD for IBM Z to boot the installation program using a SCSI DVD drive, or as an installation source.

Boot ISO image file

The Boot ISO image is a minimal installation that can be used to install RHEL in two different ways:

  1. When registering and installing RHEL from the Content Delivery Network (CDN).
  2. As a minimal image that requires access to the BaseOS and AppStream repositories to install software packages. The repositories are part of the Binary DVD ISO image that is available for download from https://access.redhat.com/home. Download and unpack the Binary DVD ISO image to access the repositories.

The following table contains information about the images that are available for the supported architectures.

Table 2.1. Boot and installation images

ArchitectureInstallation DVDBoot DVD

AMD64 and Intel 64

x86_64 Binary DVD ISO image file

x86_64 Boot ISO image file

ARM 64

AArch64 Binary DVD ISO image file

AArch64 Boot ISO image file

IBM POWER

ppc64le Binary DVD ISO image file

ppc64le Boot ISO image file

IBM Z

s390x Binary DVD ISO image file

s390x Boot ISO image file

Additional resources

2.6. Downloading the installation ISO image

This section contains instructions about downloading a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation image from the Red Hat Customer Portal or by using the curl command.

2.6.1. Downloading an ISO image from the Customer Portal

Follow this procedure to download a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 ISO image file from the Red Hat Customer Portal.

Note
  • The Boot ISO image is a minimal image file that supports registering your system, attaching subscriptions, and installing RHEL from the Content Delivery Network (CDN).
  • The Binary DVD ISO image file contains all repositories and software packages and does not require any additional configuration. See Section 2.8, “Preparing an installation source” for more information.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. From the Product Downloads page, select the By Category tab.
  2. Click the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 link.

    The Download Red Hat Enterprise Linux web page opens.

  3. From the Product Variant drop-down menu, select the variant that you require.

    1. Optional: Select the Packages tab to view the packages contained in the selected variant. For information on the packages available in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, see the Package Manifest document.
  4. The Version drop-down menu defaults to the latest version for the selected variant.
  5. The Architecture drop-down menu displays the supported architecture.

    The Product Software tab displays the image files, which include:

    • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Binary DVD image.
    • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Boot ISO image.

    Additional images may be available, for example, preconfigured virtual machine images, but they are beyond the scope of this document.

  6. Click Download Now beside the ISO image that you require.

2.6.2. Downloading an ISO image using curl

Use the curl command to download installation images directly from a specific URL.

Prerequisites

  • Verify the curl package is installed:

    • If your distribution uses the yum package manager:

      # yum install curl
    • If your distribution uses the dnf package manager:

      # dnf install curl
    • If your distribution uses the apt package manager:

      # apt update
      # apt install curl
    • If your Linux distribution does not use yum, dnf, or apt, or if you do not use Linux, download the most appropriate software package from the curl web site.
  • You have navigated to the Product Downloads section of the Red Hat Customer Portal at https://access.redhat.com/downloads, and selected the variant, version, and architecture that you require. You have right-clicked on the required ISO image file, and selected Copy Link Location to copy the URL of the ISO image file to your clipboard.

Procedure

  1. On the command line, enter a suitable directory, and run the following command to download the file:

    $ curl --output directory-path/filename.iso 'copied_link_location'

    Replace directory-path with a path to the location where you want to save the file; replace filename.iso with the ISO image name as displayed in the Customer Portal; replace copied_link_location with the link that you have copied from the Customer Portal.

2.7. Creating a bootable installation medium

This section contains information about using the ISO image file that you downloaded in Section 2.6, “Downloading the installation ISO image” to create a bootable physical installation medium, such as a USB, DVD, or CD.

Note

By default, the inst.stage2= boot option is used on the installation medium and is set to a specific label, for example, inst.stage2=hd:LABEL=RHEL8\x86_64. If you modify the default label of the file system containing the runtime image, or if you use a customized procedure to boot the installation system, you must verify that the label is set to the correct value.

2.7.1. Creating a bootable DVD or CD

You can create a bootable installation DVD or CD using burning software and a CD/DVD burner. The exact steps to produce a DVD or CD from an ISO image file vary greatly, depending on the operating system and disc burning software installed. Consult your system’s burning software documentation for the exact steps to burn a CD or DVD from an ISO image file.

Warning

You can create a bootable DVD or CD using either the Binary DVD ISO image (full install) or the Boot ISO image (minimal install). However, the Binary DVD ISO image is larger than 4.7 GB, and as a result, it might not fit on a single or dual-layer DVD. Check the size of the Binary DVD ISO image file before you proceed. A USB key is recommended when using the Binary DVD ISO image to create bootable installation media.

2.7.2. Creating a bootable USB device on Linux

Follow this procedure to create a bootable USB device on a Linux system.

Note

This procedure is destructive and data on the USB flash drive is destroyed without a warning.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Connect the USB flash drive to the system.
  2. Open a terminal window and run the dmesg command:

    $ dmesg|tail

    The dmesg command returns a log that details all recent events. Messages resulting from the attached USB flash drive are displayed at the bottom of the log. Record the name of the connected device.

  3. Switch to user root:

    $ su -
  4. Enter your root password when prompted.
  5. Find the device node assigned to the drive. In this example, the drive name is sdd.

    # dmesg|tail
    [288954.686557] usb 2-1.8: New USB device strings: Mfr=0, Product=1, SerialNumber=2
    [288954.686559] usb 2-1.8: Product: USB Storage
    [288954.686562] usb 2-1.8: SerialNumber: 000000009225
    [288954.712590] usb-storage 2-1.8:1.0: USB Mass Storage device detected
    [288954.712687] scsi host6: usb-storage 2-1.8:1.0
    [288954.712809] usbcore: registered new interface driver usb-storage
    [288954.716682] usbcore: registered new interface driver uas
    [288955.717140] scsi 6:0:0:0: Direct-Access     Generic  STORAGE DEVICE   9228 PQ: 0 ANSI: 0
    [288955.717745] sd 6:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg4 type 0
    [288961.876382] sd 6:0:0:0: sdd Attached SCSI removable disk
  6. Run the dd command to write the ISO image directly to the USB device.

    # dd if=/image_directory/image.iso of=/dev/device

    Replace /image_directory/image.iso with the full path to the ISO image file that you downloaded, and replace device with the device name that you retrieved with the dmesg command. In this example, the full path to the ISO image is /home/testuser/Downloads/rhel-8-x86_64-boot.iso, and the device name is sdd:

    # dd if=/home/testuser/Downloads/rhel-8-x86_64-boot.iso of=/dev/sdd
    Note

    Ensure that you use the correct device name, and not the name of a partition on the device. Partition names are usually device names with a numerical suffix. For example, sdd is a device name, and sdd1 is the name of a partition on the device sdd.

  7. Wait for the dd command to finish writing the image to the device. The data transfer is complete when the # prompt appears. When the prompt is displayed, log out of the root account and unplug the USB drive. The USB drive is now ready to be used as a boot device.

2.7.3. Creating a bootable USB device on Windows

Follow the steps in this procedure to create a bootable USB device on a Windows system. The procedure varies depending on the tool. Red Hat recommends using Fedora Media Writer, available for download at https://github.com/FedoraQt/MediaWriter/releases.

Note
  • Fedora Media Writer is a community product and is not supported by Red Hat. You can report any issues with the tool at https://github.com/FedoraQt/MediaWriter/issues.
  • This procedure is destructive and data on the USB flash drive is destroyed without a warning.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Download and install Fedora Media Writer from https://github.com/FedoraQt/MediaWriter/releases.

    Note

    To install Fedora Media Writer on Red Hat Enterprise Linux, use the pre-built Flatpak package. You can obtain the package from the official Flatpak repository Flathub.org at https://flathub.org/apps/details/org.fedoraproject.MediaWriter.

  2. Connect the USB flash drive to the system.
  3. Open Fedora Media Writer.
  4. From the main window, click Custom Image and select the previously downloaded Red Hat Enterprise Linux ISO image.
  5. From Write Custom Image window, select the drive that you want to use.
  6. Click Write to disk. The boot media creation process starts. Do not unplug the drive until the operation completes. The operation may take several minutes, depending on the size of the ISO image, and the write speed of the USB drive.
  7. When the operation completes, unmount the USB drive. The USB drive is now ready to be used as a boot device.

2.7.4. Creating a bootable USB device on Mac OS X

Follow the steps in this procedure to create a bootable USB device on a Mac OS X system.

Note

This procedure is destructive and data on the USB flash drive is destroyed without a warning.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Connect the USB flash drive to the system.
  2. Identify the device path with the diskutil list command. The device path has the format of /dev/disknumber, where number is the number of the disk. The disks are numbered starting at zero (0). Typically, Disk 0 is the OS X recovery disk, and Disk 1 is the main OS X installation. In the following example, the USB device is disk2:

    $ diskutil list
    /dev/disk0
    #:                       TYPE NAME                    SIZE       IDENTIFIER
    0:      GUID_partition_scheme                        *500.3 GB   disk0
    1:                        EFI EFI                     209.7 MB   disk0s1
    2:          Apple_CoreStorage                         400.0 GB   disk0s2
    3:                 Apple_Boot Recovery HD             650.0 MB   disk0s3
    4:          Apple_CoreStorage                         98.8 GB    disk0s4
    5:                 Apple_Boot Recovery HD             650.0 MB   disk0s5
    /dev/disk1
    #:                       TYPE NAME                    SIZE       IDENTIFIER
    0:                  Apple_HFS YosemiteHD             *399.6 GB   disk1
    Logical Volume on disk0s1
    8A142795-8036-48DF-9FC5-84506DFBB7B2
    Unlocked Encrypted
    /dev/disk2
    #:                       TYPE NAME                    SIZE       IDENTIFIER
    0:     FDisk_partition_scheme                        *8.1 GB     disk2
    1:               Windows_NTFS SanDisk USB             8.1 GB     disk2s1
  3. To identify your USB flash drive, compare the NAME, TYPE and SIZE columns to your flash drive. For example, the NAME should be the title of the flash drive icon in the Finder tool. You can also compare these values to those in the information panel of the flash drive.
  4. Use the diskutil unmountDisk command to unmount the flash drive’s filesystem volumes:

    $ diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disknumber
    					Unmount of all volumes on disknumber was successful

    When the command completes, the icon for the flash drive disappears from your desktop. If the icon does not disappear, you may have selected the wrong disk. Attempting to unmount the system disk accidentally returns a failed to unmount error.

  5. Log in as root:

    $ su -
  6. Enter your root password when prompted.
  7. Use the dd command as a parameter of the sudo command to write the ISO image to the flash drive:

    # sudo dd if=/path/to/image.iso of=/dev/rdisknumber
    Note

    Mac OS X provides both a block (/dev/disk*) and character device (/dev/rdisk*) file for each storage device. Writing an image to the /dev/rdisknumber character device is faster than writing to the /dev/disknumber block device.

  8. To write the /Users/user_name/Downloads/rhel-8-x86_64-boot.iso file to the /dev/rdisk2 device, run the following command:

    # sudo dd if=/Users/user_name/Downloads/rhel-8-x86_64-boot.iso of=/dev/rdisk2
  9. Wait for the dd command to finish writing the image to the device. The data transfer is complete when the # prompt appears. When the prompt is displayed, log out of the root account and unplug the USB drive. The USB drive is now ready to be used as a boot device.

2.8. Preparing an installation source

The Boot ISO image file does not include any repositories or software packages; it contains only the installation program and the tools required to boot the system and start the installation. This section contains information about creating an installation source for the Boot ISO image using the Binary DVD ISO image that contains the required repositories and software packages.

Important

An installation source is required for the Boot ISO image file only if you decide not to register and install RHEL from the Content Delivery Network (CDN).

2.8.1. Types of installation source

You can use one of the following installation sources for minimal boot images:

  • DVD: Burn the Binary DVD ISO image to a DVD. The installation program will automatically install the software packages from the DVD.
  • Hard drive or USB drive: Copy the Binary DVD ISO image to the drive and configure the installation program to install the software packages from the drive. If you use a USB drive, verify that it is connected to the system before the installation begins. The installation program cannot detect media after the installation begins.

    • Hard drive limitation: The Binary DVD ISO image on the hard drive must be on a partition with a file system that the installation program can mount. The supported file systems are xfs, ext2, ext3, ext4, and vfat (FAT32).
    Warning

    On Microsoft Windows systems, the default file system used when formatting hard drives is NTFS. The exFAT file system is also available. However, neither of these file systems can be mounted during the installation. If you are creating a hard drive or a USB drive as an installation source on Microsoft Windows, verify that you formatted the drive as FAT32. Note that the FAT32 file system cannot store files larger than 4 GiB.

    In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, you can enable installation from a directory on a local hard drive. To do so, you need to copy the contents of the DVD ISO image to a directory on a hard drive and then specify the directory as the installation source instead of the ISO image. For example: inst.repo=hd:<device>:<path to the directory>

  • Network location: Copy the Binary DVD ISO image or the installation tree (extracted contents of the Binary DVD ISO image) to a network location and perform the installation over the network using the following protocols:

    • NFS: The Binary DVD ISO image is in a Network File System (NFS) share.
    • HTTPS, HTTP or FTP: The installation tree is on a network location that is accessible over HTTP, HTTPS or FTP.

2.8.2. Specify the installation source

You can specify the installation source using any of the following methods:

2.8.3. Ports for network-based installation

The following table lists the ports that must be open on the server providing the files for each type of network-based installation.

Table 2.2. Ports for network-based installation

Protocol usedPorts to open

HTTP

80

HTTPS

443

FTP

21

NFS

2049, 111, 20048

TFTP

69

Additional resources

2.8.4. Creating an installation source on an NFS server

Follow the steps in this procedure to place the installation source on an NFS server. Use this installation method to install multiple systems from a single source, without having to connect to physical media.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Install the nfs-utils package:

    # yum install nfs-utils
  2. Copy the Binary DVD ISO image to a directory on the NFS server.
  3. Open the /etc/exports file using a text editor and add a line with the following syntax:

    /exported_directory/ clients
  4. Replace /exported_directory/ with the full path to the directory with the ISO image. Replace clients with the host name or IP address of the target system, the subnetwork that all target systems can use to access the ISO image, or the asterisk sign (*) if you want to allow any system with network access to the NFS server to use the ISO image. See the exports(5) man page for detailed information about the format of this field.

    A basic configuration that makes the /rhel8-install/ directory available as read-only to all clients is:

    /rhel8-install *
  5. Save the /etc/exports file and exit the text editor.
  6. Start the nfs service:

    # systemctl start nfs-server.service

    If the service was running before you changed the /etc/exports file, run the following command for the running NFS server to reload its configuration:

    # systemctl reload nfs-server.service

    The ISO image is now accessible over NFS and ready to be used as an installation source.

Note

When configuring the installation source, use nfs: as the protocol, the server host name or IP address, the colon sign (:), and the directory holding the ISO image. For example, if the server host name is myserver.example.com and you have saved the ISO image in /rhel8-install/, specify nfs:myserver.example.com:/rhel8-install/ as the installation source.

2.8.5. Creating an installation source using HTTP or HTTPS

Follow the steps in this procedure to create an installation source for a network-based installation using an installation tree, which is a directory containing extracted contents of the Binary DVD ISO image and a valid .treeinfo file. The installation source is accessed over HTTP or HTTPS.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Install the httpd package:

    # yum install httpd
    Warning

    If your Apache web server configuration enables SSL security, verify that you enable only the TLSv1 protocol, and disable SSLv2 and SSLv3. This is due to the POODLE SSL vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566). See https://access.redhat.com/solutions/1232413 for details.

    Important

    If you use an HTTPS server with a self-signed certificate, you must boot the installation program with the noverifyssl option.

  2. Copy the Binary DVD ISO image to the HTTP(S) server.
  3. Mount the Binary DVD ISO image, using the mount command, to a suitable directory:

    # mkdir /mnt/rhel8-install/
    # mount -o loop,ro -t iso9660 /image_directory/image.iso /mnt/rhel8-install/

    Replace /image_directory/image.iso with the path to the Binary DVD ISO image.

  4. Copy the files from the mounted image to the HTTP(S) server root. This command creates the /var/www/html/rhel8-install/ directory with the contents of the image.

    # cp -r /mnt/rhel8-install/ /var/www/html/

    This command creates the /var/www/html/rhel8-install/ directory with the content of the image. Note that some copying methods can skip the .treeinfo file which is required for a valid installation source. Running the cp command for whole directories as shown in this procedure will copy .treeinfo correctly.

  5. Start the httpd service:

    # systemctl start httpd.service

    The installation tree is now accessible and ready to be used as the installation source.

    Note

    When configuring the installation source, use http:// or https:// as the protocol, the server host name or IP address, and the directory that contains the files from the ISO image, relative to the HTTP server root. For example, if you are using HTTP, the server host name is myserver.example.com, and you have copied the files from the image to /var/www/html/rhel8-install/, specify http://myserver.example.com/rhel8-install/ as the installation source.

Additional resources

2.8.6. Creating an installation source using FTP

Follow the steps in this procedure to create an installation source for a network-based installation using an installation tree, which is a directory containing extracted contents of the Binary DVD ISO image and a valid .treeinfo file. The installation source is accessed over FTP.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Install the vsftpd package by running the following command as root:

    # yum install vsftpd
  2. Open and edit the /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf configuration file in a text editor.

    1. Change the line anonymous_enable=NO to anonymous_enable=YES
    2. Change the line write_enable=YES to write_enable=NO.
    3. Add lines pasv_min_port=min_port and pasv_max_port=max_port. Replace min_port and max_port with the port number range used by FTP server in passive mode, e. g. 10021 and 10031.

      This step can be necessary in network environments featuring various firewall/NAT setups.

    4. Optionally, add custom changes to your configuration. For available options, see the vsftpd.conf(5) man page. This procedure assumes that default options are used.

      Warning

      If you configured SSL/TLS security in your vsftpd.conf file, ensure that you enable only the TLSv1 protocol, and disable SSLv2 and SSLv3. This is due to the POODLE SSL vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566). See https://access.redhat.com/solutions/1234773 for details.

  3. Configure the server firewall.

    1. Enable the firewall:

      # systemctl enable firewalld
      # systemctl start firewalld
    2. Enable in your firewall the FTP port and port range from previous step:

      # firewall-cmd --add-port min_port-max_port/tcp --permanent
      # firewall-cmd --add-service ftp --permanent
      # firewall-cmd --reload

      Replace min_port-max_port with the port numbers you entered into the /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf configuration file.

  4. Copy the Binary DVD ISO image to the FTP server.
  5. Mount the Binary DVD ISO image, using the mount command, to a suitable directory:

    # mkdir /mnt/rhel8-install
    # mount -o loop,ro -t iso9660 /image-directory/image.iso /mnt/rhel8-install

    Replace /image-directory/image.iso with the path to the Binary DVD ISO image.

  6. Copy the files from the mounted image to the FTP server root:

    # mkdir /var/ftp/rhel8-install
    # cp -r /mnt/rhel8-install/ /var/ftp/

    This command creates the /var/ftp/rhel8-install/ directory with the content of the image. Note that some copying methods can skip the .treeinfo file which is required for a valid installation source. Running the cp command for whole directories as shown in this procedure will copy .treeinfo correctly.

  7. Make sure that the correct SELinux context and access mode is set on the copied content:

    # restorecon -r /var/ftp/rhel8-install
    # find /var/ftp/rhel8-install -type f -exec chmod 444 {} \;
    # find /var/ftp/rhel8-install -type d -exec chmod 755 {} \;
  8. Start the vsftpd service:

    # systemctl start vsftpd.service

    If the service was running before you changed the /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf file, restart the service to load the edited file:

    # systemctl restart vsftpd.service

    Enable the vsftpd service to start during the boot process:

    # systemctl enable vsftpd

    The installation tree is now accessible and ready to be used as the installation source.

    Note

    When configuring the installation source, use ftp:// as the protocol, the server host name or IP address, and the directory in which you have stored the files from the ISO image, relative to the FTP server root. For example, if the server host name is myserver.example.com and you have copied the files from the image to /var/ftp/rhel8-install/, specify ftp://myserver.example.com/rhel8-install/ as the installation source.