Chapter 3. Getting started

To get started with the installation, first review the boot menu and the available boot options. Then, depending on the choice you make, proceed to boot the installation.

3.1. Booting the installation

After you have created bootable media you are ready to boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.

3.1.1. Boot menu

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot menu is displayed using GRand Unified Bootloader version 2 (GRUB2) when your system has completed loading the boot media.

Figure 3.1. Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot menu

Boot menu window.

The boot menu provides several options in addition to launching the installation program. If you do not make a selection within 60 seconds, the default boot option (highlighted in white) is run. To select a different option, use the arrow keys on your keyboard to make your selection and press the Enter key.

You can customize boot options for a particular menu entry:

  • On BIOS-based systems: Press the Tab key and add custom boot options to the command line. You can also access the boot: prompt by pressing the Esc key but no required boot options are preset. In this scenario, you must always specify the Linux option before using any other boot options.
  • On UEFI-based systems: Press the e key and add custom boot options to the command line. When ready press Ctrl+X to boot the modified option.

Table 3.1. Boot menu options

Boot menu optionDescription

Install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.x

Use this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using the graphical installation program. For more information, see Section 3.2, “Installing RHEL using an ISO image from the Customer Portal”

Test this media & install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.x

Use this option to check the integrity of the installation media. For more information, see Section A.1.4, “Verifying boot media”

Troubleshooting >

Use this option to resolve various installation issues. Press Enter to display its contents.

Table 3.2. Troubleshooting options

Troubleshooting optionDescription

Troubleshooting > Install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.x in basic graphics mode

Use this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in graphical mode even if the installation program is unable to load the correct driver for your video card. If your screen is distorted when using the Install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.x option, restart your system and use this option. For more information, see Section A.1.8, “Cannot boot into the graphical installation”

Troubleshooting > Rescue a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system

Use this option to repair any issues that prevent you from booting. For more information, see Section A.3.8, “Using rescue mode”

Troubleshooting > Run a memory test

Use this option to run a memory test on your system. Press Enter to display its contents. For more information, see see Section A.1.3, “Detecting memory faults using the Memtest86 application”

Troubleshooting > Boot from local drive

Use this option to boot the system from the first installed disk. If you booted this disk accidentally, use this option to boot from the hard disk immediately without starting the installation program.

3.1.2. Types of boot options

There are two types of boot options; those with an equals "=" sign, and those without an equals "=" sign. Boot options are appended to the boot command line and multiple options must be separated by a single space. Boot options that are specific to the installation program always start with inst.

Options with an equals "=" sign
You must specify a value for boot options that use the = symbol. For example, the inst.vncpassword= option must contain a value, in this case, a password. The correct syntax for this example is inst.vncpassword=password.
Options without an equals "=" sign
This boot option does not accept any values or parameters. For example, the rd.live.check option forces the installation program to verify the installation media before starting the installation. If this boot option is present, the verification is performed; if the boot option is not present, the verification is skipped.

3.1.3. Editing boot options

This section contains information about the different ways that you can edit boot options from the boot menu. The boot menu opens after you boot the installation media.

Editing the boot: prompt in BIOS

When using the boot: prompt, the first option must always specify the installation program image file that you want to load. In most cases, you can specify the image using the keyword. You can specify additional options according to your requirements.

Prerequisites

  • You have created bootable installation media (USB, CD or DVD).
  • You have booted the installation from the media, and the installation boot menu is open.

Procedure

  1. With the boot menu open, press the Esc key on your keyboard.
  2. The boot: prompt is now accessible.
  3. Press the Tab key on your keyboard to display the help commands.
  4. Press the Enter key on your keyboard to start the installation with your options. To return from the boot: prompt to the boot menu, restart the system and boot from the installation media again.
Note

The boot: prompt also accepts dracut kernel options. A list of options is available in the dracut.cmdline(7) man page.

Editing the > prompt

You can use the > prompt to edit predefined boot options. For example, select Test this media and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.1 from the boot menu to display a full set of options.

Note

This procedure is for BIOS-based AMD64 and Intel 64 systems.

Prerequisites

  • You have created bootable installation media (USB, CD or DVD).
  • You have booted the installation from the media, and the installation boot menu is open.

Procedure

  1. From the boot menu, select an option and press the Tab key on your keyboard. The > prompt is accessible and displays the available options.
  2. Append the options that you require to the > prompt.
  3. Press the Enter key on your keyboard to start the installation.
  4. Press the Esc key on your keyboard to cancel editing and return to the boot menu.
Editing the GRUB2 menu

The GRUB2 menu is available on UEFI-based AMD64, Intel 64, and 64-bit ARM systems.

Prerequisites

  • You have created bootable installation media (USB, CD or DVD).
  • You have booted the installation from the media, and the installation boot menu is open.

Procedure

  1. From the boot menu window, select the required option and press the e key on your keyboard.
  2. Move the cursor to the kernel command line. On UEFI systems, the kernel command line starts with linuxefi.
  3. Move the cursor to the end of the linuxefi kernel command line.
  4. Edit the parameters as required. For example, to configure one or more network interfaces, add the ip= parameter at the end of the linuxefi kernel command line, followed by the required value.
  5. When you finish editing, press Ctrl+X on your keyboard to start the installation using the specified options.

3.1.4. Booting the installation from a USB, CD, or DVD

Follow the steps in this procedure to boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation using a USB, CD, or DVD. The following steps are generic. Consult your hardware manufacturer’s documentation for specific instructions.

Prerequisite

You have created bootable installation media (USB, CD or DVD). See Section 2.7, “Creating a bootable installation medium” for more information.

Procedure

  1. Power off the system to which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
  2. Disconnect any drives from the system.
  3. Power on the system.
  4. Insert the bootable installation media (USB, DVD, or CD).
  5. Power off the system but do not remove the boot media.
  6. Power on the system.

    Note

    You might need to press a specific key or combination of keys to boot from the media or configure the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) of your system to boot from the media. For more information, see the documentation that came with your system.

  7. The Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot window opens and displays information about a variety of available boot options.
  8. Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select the boot option that you require, and press Enter to select the boot option. The Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux window opens and you can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using the graphical user interface.

    Note

    The installation program automatically begins if no action is performed in the boot window within 60 seconds.

  9. Optionally, edit the available boot options:

    1. UEFI-based systems: Press E to enter edit mode. Change the predefined command line to add or remove boot options. Press Enter to confirm your choice.
    2. BIOS-based systems: Press the Tab key on your keyboard to enter edit mode. Change the predefined command line to add or remove boot options. Press Enter to confirm your choice.

Additional Resources

3.1.5. Booting the installation from a network using PXE

When installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a large number of systems simultaneously, the best approach is to boot from a PXE server and install from a source in a shared network location. Follow the steps in this procedure to boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation from a network using PXE.

Note

To boot the installation process from a network using PXE, you must use a physical network connection, for example, Ethernet. You cannot boot the installation process with a wireless connection.

Prerequisites

  • You have configured a TFTP server, and there is a network interface in your system that supports PXE. See Additional resources for more information.
  • You have configured your system to boot from the network interface. This option is in the BIOS, and can be labeled Network Boot or Boot Services.
  • You have verified that the BIOS is configured to boot from the specified network interface. Some BIOS systems specify the network interface as a possible boot device, but do not support the PXE standard. See your hardware’s documentation for more information. When you have properly enabled PXE booting, the system can boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program without any other media.

Procedure

  1. Verify that the network cable is attached. The link indicator light on the network socket should be lit, even if the computer is not switched on.
  2. Switch on the system.

    Depending on your hardware, some network setup and diagnostic information can be displayed before your system connects to a PXE server. When connected, a menu is displayed according to the PXE server configuration.

  3. Press the number key that corresponds to the option that you require.

    Note

    In some instances, boot options are not displayed. If this occurs, press the Enter key on your keyboard or wait until the boot window opens.

    The Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot window opens and displays information about a variety of available boot options.

  4. Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select the boot option that you require, and press Enter to select the boot option. The Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux window opens and you can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using the graphical user interface.

    Note

    The installation program automatically begins if no action is performed in the boot window within 60 seconds.

  5. Optionally, edit the available boot options:

    1. UEFI-based systems: Press E to enter edit mode. Change the predefined command line to add or remove boot options. Press Enter to confirm your choice.
    2. BIOS-based systems: Press the Tab key on your keyboard to enter edit mode. Change the predefined command line to add or remove boot options. Press Enter to confirm your choice.

Additional Resources

3.2. Installing RHEL using an ISO image from the Customer Portal

Use this procedure to perform a graphical installation of RHEL using a Binary DVD ISO image that you downloaded from the Customer Portal.

Note

This section provides quick installation instructions. For more detailed information about customizing the installation settings and parameters, and completing the installation, see Chapter 4, Customizing your installation.

Prerequisites

Warning

When performing a GUI installation using the Binary DVD ISO image file, a race condition in the installer can sometimes prevent the installation from proceeding until you register the system using the Connect to Red Hat feature. For more information, see BZ#1823578 in the Known Issues section of the RHEL 8.2 Release Notes document.

Procedure

  1. From the boot menu, select Install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.x.
  2. Press the Enter key on your keyboard.
  3. From the Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.x window, select your language and location.
  4. Click Continue to proceed to the Installation Summary window.

    Note

    The Installation Summary window is the central hub to configure the Red Hat Enterprise Linux graphical user interface. The default settings assigned by the installation program are displayed under each category.

  5. From the Installation Summary window, accept the default Localization and Software options.
  6. Optional: Select Software > Connect to Red Hat.

    1. Configure the Connect to Red Hat options to attach RHEL subscriptions, install RHEL from the CDN, configure System Purpose, and to enable Red Hat Insights.
    2. Click Done to accept the changes and return to the Installation Summary window.
  7. Select System > Installation Destination.

    1. From the Local Standard Disks pane, select the target disk.
    2. Click Done to accept the selection and the default setting of automatic partitioning, and return to the Installation Summary window.
  8. Select System > Network & Host Name.

    1. Toggle the Ethernet switch to ON to enable network configuration.

      1. Optional: Select a network device and click Configure to update the network interface configuration.
    2. Click Done to accept the changes and return to the Installation Summary window.
  9. Optional: Select System > KDUMP.

    1. Change the default KDUMP settings for your requirements.
    2. Click Done to accept the changes and return to the Installation Summary window.
  10. Optional: Select System > Security Policy.

    1. Select the profile that you require, and click Select profile.
    2. Click Done to accept the changes and return to the Installation Summary window.
  11. Select User Settings > Root Password. The Root Password window opens.

    1. Type your password in the Root Password field.
    2. Type the same password in the Confirm field.
    3. Click Done to confirm your root password and return to the Installation Summary window.
  12. Optional: Select User Settings > User Creation. The Create User window opens.

    1. Optional: Type the user account name in to the Full name field, for example: John Smith.
    2. Type the username in to the User name field, for example: jsmith.
    3. Optional: Select the Make this user administrator check box if the user requires administrative rights (the installation program adds the user to the wheel group ).
    4. Optional: Select the Require a password to use this account check box.

      Warning

      If you give administrator privileges to a user, verify that the account is password protected. Never give a user administrator privileges without assigning a password to the account.

    5. Type a password into the Password field.
    6. Type the same password into the Confirm password field.
    7. Optional: Click Advanced to edit the default settings for the user account in the Advanced User Configuration dialog box. For more information about editing the default settings, see Section 4.8, “Creating a user account”.
  13. Click Done to create the user and return to the Installation Summary window.
  14. Click Begin Installation to start the installation.
  15. When the installation process is complete, click Reboot to restart the system.
  16. From the Initial Setup window, accept the licensing agreement and register your system.

Additional resources

3.3. Registering and installing RHEL from the CDN using the GUI

This section contains information about how to register your system, attach RHEL subscriptions, and install RHEL from the Red Hat Content Delivery Network (CDN) using the GUI.

3.3.1. What is the Content Delivery Network

The Red Hat Content Delivery Network (CDN), available from cdn.redhat.com, is a geographically distributed series of static web servers that contain content and errata that is consumed by systems. The content can be consumed directly, such as using a system registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. The CDN is protected by x.509 certificate authentication to ensure that only valid users have access. When a system is registered to Red Hat Subscription Management, the attached subscriptions govern which subset of the CDN the system can access.

Registering and installing RHEL from the CDN provides the following benefits:

  • The CDN installation method supports the Boot ISO and the Binary DVD ISO image files. However, the use of the smaller Boot ISO image file is recommended as it consumes less space than the larger Binary DVD ISO image file.
  • The CDN uses the latest packages resulting in a fully up-to-date system right after installation. There is no requirement to install package updates immediately after installation as is often the case when using the Binary DVD ISO image file.
  • Integrated support for connecting to Red Hat Insights and enabling System Purpose.

Registering and installing RHEL from the CDN is supported by the GUI and Kickstart. For information about how to register and install RHEL from the CDN using the GUI, see Section 3.3.2, “Registering and installing RHEL from the CDN”. For information about how to register and install RHEL using Kickstart, see the Performing an advanced RHEL installation document.

3.3.2. Registering and installing RHEL from the CDN

Use this procedure to register your system, attach RHEL subscriptions, and install RHEL from the Red Hat Content Delivery Network (CDN) using the GUI.

Important

The CDN feature is supported by the Boot ISO and Binary DVD ISO image files. However, it is recommended that you use the Boot ISO image file as the installation source defaults to CDN for the Boot ISO image file.

Prerequisites

  • Your system is connected to a network that can access the CDN.
  • You have downloaded the Boot ISO image file from the Customer Portal. See Section 2.6, “Downloading the installation ISO image” for more information.
  • You have created bootable installation media. See Section 2.7, “Creating a bootable installation medium” for more information.
  • You have booted the installation program and the boot menu is displayed. See Section 3.1, “Booting the installation” for more information.

    Important

    The installation source repository used after system registration is dependent on how the system was booted. For more information, see Section 3.3.2.1, “Installation source repository after system registration”.

    Procedure

    1. From the boot menu, select Install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.x.
    2. Press the Enter key on your keyboard.
    3. From the Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.x window, select your language and location.
    4. Click Continue to proceed to the Installation Summary window.

      Note

      The Installation Summary window is the central hub to configure a RHEL installation when using the GUI. The default settings assigned by the installation program are displayed under each category. The Installation Source defaults to Red Hat CDN and Software Selection displays a Red Hat CDN requires registration message.

    5. From the Installation Summary window, the default Localization settings are displayed.

      1. Optional: Change the default settings for your requirements.
    6. Select System > Network & Host Name.

      1. Toggle the Ethernet switch to ON to enable network configuration.

        1. Optional: Select a network device and click Configure to update the network interface configuration.
      2. Click Done to accept the changes and return to the Installation Summary window.
    7. Select Software > Connect to Red Hat.

      Important

      You can register to the CDN using either your Red Hat account or your activation key details.

      1. Click Account.

        1. Enter your Red Hat Customer Portal username and password details.
      2. Optional: Click Activation Key.

        1. Enter your organization ID and activation key. You can enter more than one activation key, separated by a comma, as long as the activation keys are registered to your subscription.
      3. Select the Set System Purpose check box.

        1. Select the required Role, SLA, and Usage from the corresponding drop-down lists.
      4. The Connect to Red Hat Insights check box is enabled by default. Clear the check box if you do not want to connect to Red Hat Insights.

        Note

        Red Hat Insights is a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) offering that provides continuous, in-depth analysis of registered Red Hat-based systems to proactively identify threats to security, performance and stability across physical, virtual and cloud environments, and container deployments.

      5. Optional: Expand Options.

        1. Select the Use HTTP proxy check box if your network environment allows external Internet access only or access to content servers through an HTTP proxy. Clear the Use HTTP proxy check box if an HTTP proxy is not used.
        2. If you are running Satellite Server or performing internal testing, select the Custom server URL and Custom base URL check boxes and enter the required details.

          Important
          • The Custom server URL field does not require the HTTP protocol, for example nameofhost.com. However, the Custom base URL field requires the HTTP protocol.
          • To change the Custom base URL after registration, you must unregister, provide the new details, and then re-register.
      6. Click Register to register the system. When the system is successfully registered and subscriptions are attached, the Connect to Red Hat window displays the attached subscription details.

        Note

        Depending on the amount of subscriptions, the registration and attachment process might take up to a minute to complete.

      7. Click Done to return to the Installation Summary window.

        1. A Registered message is displayed under Connect to Red Hat.
    8. Select Software > Software Selection.

      1. Choose the required options from Base Environment and Additional software for selected environment. The Server with GUI base environment is the default base environment and it launches the Initial Setup application after the installation completes and you restart the system.
      2. Click Done to accept the selection and return to the Installation Summary window.
    9. Select System > Installation Destination.

      1. From the Local Standard Disks pane, select the target disk.
      2. Click Done to accept the selection and the default setting of automatic partitioning and return to the Installation Summary window.
    10. Optional: Select System > KDUMP.

      1. Change the default KDUMP settings for your requirements.
      2. Click Done to accept the changes and return to the Installation Summary window.
    11. Optional: Select System > Security Policy.

      1. Select the profile that you require and click Select profile.
      2. Click Done to accept the changes and return to the Installation Summary window.
    12. Select User Settings > Root Password. The Root Password window opens.

      1. Type your password in the Root Password field.
      2. Type the same password in the Confirm field.
      3. Click Done to confirm your root password and return to the Installation Summary window.
    13. Optional: Select User Settings > User Creation. The Create User window opens.

      1. Optional: Type the user account name in to the Full name field, for example: John Smith.
      2. Type the username in to the User name field, for example: jsmith.
      3. Optional: Select the Make this user administrator check box if the user requires administrative rights (the installation program adds the user to the wheel group ).
      4. Optional: Select the Require a password to use this account check box.

        Warning

        If you give administrator privileges to a user, verify that the account is password protected. Never give a user administrator privileges without assigning a password to the account.

      5. Type a password into the Password field.
      6. Type the same password into the Confirm password field.
      7. Optional: Click Advanced to edit the default settings for the user account in the Advanced User Configuration dialog box. For more information about editing the default settings, see Section 4.8, “Creating a user account”.
    14. Click Begin Installation to start the installation. The required packages are downloaded from the CDN.
    15. When the installation process is complete, click Reboot to restart the system.
    16. From the Initial Setup window, accept the licensing agreement.

Additional resources

3.3.2.1. Installation source repository after system registration

The installation source repository used after system registration is dependent on how the system was booted.

System booted from the Boot ISO or the Binary DVD ISO image file
If you booted the RHEL installation using either the Boot ISO or the Binary DVD ISO image file with the default boot parameters, the installation program automatically switches the installation source repository to the CDN after registration.
System booted with the inst.repo=<URL> boot parameter
If you booted the RHEL installation with the inst.repo=<URL> boot parameter, the installation program does not automatically switch the installation source repository to the CDN after registration. If you want to use the CDN to install RHEL, you must manually switch the installation source repository to the CDN by selecting the Red Hat CDN option in the Installation Source window of the graphical installation. If you do not manually switch to the CDN, the installation program installs the packages from the repository specified on the kernel command line.
Important
  • You can switch the installation source repository to the CDN using the rhsm Kickstart command only if you do not specify an installation source using inst.repo= on the kernel command line or the url command in the Kickstart file. You must use inst.stage2=<URL> on the kernel command line to fetch the installation image, but not specify the installation source.
  • An installation source URL specified using a boot option or included in a Kickstart file takes precedence over the CDN, even if the Kickstart file contains the rhsm command with valid credentials. The system is registered, but it is installed from the URL installation source. This ensures that earlier installation processes operate as normal.

3.3.3. Verifying your system registration from the CDN

Use this procedure to verify that your system is registered to the CDN using the GUI.

Warning

You can only verify your registration from the CDN if you have not clicked the Begin Installation button from the Installation Summary window. Once the Begin Installation button is clicked, you cannot return to the Installation Summary window to verify your registration.

Prerequisite

Procedure

  1. From the Installation Summary window, select Connect to Red Hat.
  2. The window opens and displays a registration summary:

    Method
    The registered account name or activation keys are displayed.
    System Purpose
    If set, the role, SLA, and usage details are displayed.
    Insights
    If enabled, the Insights details are displayed.
    Number of subscriptions
    The number of subscriptions attached are displayed.
  3. Verify that the registration summary matches the details that were entered.

3.3.4. Unregistering your system from the CDN

Use this procedure to unregister your system from the CDN using the GUI.

Warning
  • You can unregister from the CDN if you have not clicked the Begin Installation button from the Installation Summary window. Once the Begin Installation button is clicked, you cannot return to the Installation Summary window to unregister your registration.
  • When unregistering, the installation program switches to the first available repository, in the following order:

    1. The URL used in the inst.repo=<URL> boot parameter on the kernel command line.
    2. An automatically detected repository on the installation media (USB or DVD).

Prerequisite

Procedure

  1. From the Installation Summary window, select Connect to Red Hat.
  2. The Connect to Red Hat window opens and displays a registration summary:

    Method
    The registered account name or activation keys used are displayed.
    System Purpose
    If set, the role, SLA, and usage details are displayed.
    Insights
    If enabled, the Insights details are displayed.
    Number of subscriptions
    The number of subscriptions attached are displayed.
  3. Click Unregister to remove the registration from the CDN. The original registration details are displayed with a Not registered message displayed in the lower-middle part of the window.
  4. Click Done to return to the Installation Summary window.
  5. Connect to Red Hat displays a Not registered message, and Software Selection displays a Red Hat CDN requires registration message.
Note

After unregistering, it is possible to register your system again. Click Connect to Red Hat. The previously entered details are populated. Edit the original details, or update the fields based on the account, purpose, and connection. Click Register to complete.

3.4. Completing the installation

Wait for the installation to complete. It might take a few minutes.

After the installation is complete, remove any installation media if it is not ejected automatically upon reboot.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 starts after your system’s normal power-up sequence is complete. If your system was installed on a workstation with the X Window System, applications to configure your system are launched. These applications guide you through initial configuration and you can set your system time and date, register your system with Red Hat, and more. If the X Window System is not installed, a login: prompt is displayed.

To learn how to complete initial setup, register, and secure your system, see Chapter 5, Completing post-installation tasks.