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Chapter 20. Getting started with XFS

This is an overview of how to create and maintain XFS file systems.

20.1. The XFS file system

XFS is a highly scalable, high-performance, robust, and mature 64-bit journaling file system that supports very large files and file systems on a single host. It is the default file system in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. XFS was originally developed in the early 1990s by SGI and has a long history of running on extremely large servers and storage arrays.

The features of XFS include:

Reliability
  • Metadata journaling, which ensures file system integrity after a system crash by keeping a record of file system operations that can be replayed when the system is restarted and the file system remounted
  • Extensive run-time metadata consistency checking
  • Scalable and fast repair utilities
  • Quota journaling. This avoids the need for lengthy quota consistency checks after a crash.
Scalability and performance
  • Supported file system size up to 1024 TiB
  • Ability to support a large number of concurrent operations
  • B-tree indexing for scalability of free space management
  • Sophisticated metadata read-ahead algorithms
  • Optimizations for streaming video workloads
Allocation schemes
  • Extent-based allocation
  • Stripe-aware allocation policies
  • Delayed allocation
  • Space pre-allocation
  • Dynamically allocated inodes
Other features
  • Reflink-based file copies
  • Tightly integrated backup and restore utilities
  • Online defragmentation
  • Online file system growing
  • Comprehensive diagnostics capabilities
  • Extended attributes (xattr). This allows the system to associate several additional name/value pairs per file.
  • Project or directory quotas. This allows quota restrictions over a directory tree.
  • Subsecond timestamps

Performance characteristics

XFS has a high performance on large systems with enterprise workloads. A large system is one with a relatively high number of CPUs, multiple HBAs, and connections to external disk arrays. XFS also performs well on smaller systems that have a multi-threaded, parallel I/O workload.

XFS has a relatively low performance for single threaded, metadata-intensive workloads: for example, a workload that creates or deletes large numbers of small files in a single thread.

20.2. Comparison of tools used with ext4 and XFS

This section compares which tools to use to accomplish common tasks on the ext4 and XFS file systems.

Taskext4XFS

Create a file system

mkfs.ext4

mkfs.xfs

File system check

e2fsck

xfs_repair

Resize a file system

resize2fs

xfs_growfs

Save an image of a file system

e2image

xfs_metadump and xfs_mdrestore

Label or tune a file system

tune2fs

xfs_admin

Back up a file system

dump and restore

xfsdump and xfsrestore

Quota management

quota

xfs_quota

File mapping

filefrag

xfs_bmap