Chapter 1. Understanding InfiniBand and RDMA
InfiniBand refers to two distinct things:
- The physical link-layer protocol for InfiniBand networks
- The InfiniBand Verbs API, an implementation of the remote direct memory access (RDMA) technology
RDMA provides access between the main memory of two computers without involving an operating system, cache, or storage. Using RDMA, data transfers with high-throughput, low-latency, and low CPU utilization.
In a typical IP data transfer, when an application on one machine sends data to an application on another machine, the following actions happen on the receiving end:
- The kernel must receive the data.
- The kernel must determine that the data belongs to the application.
- The kernel wakes up the application.
- The kernel waits for the application to perform a system call into the kernel.
- The application copies the data from the internal memory space of the kernel into the buffer provided by the application.
This process means that most network traffic is copied across the main memory of the system if the host adapter uses direct memory access (DMA) or otherwise at least twice. Additionally, the computer executes some context switches to switch between the kernel and application. These context switches can cause a higher CPU load with high traffic rates while slowing down the other tasks.
Unlike traditional IP communication, RDMA communication bypasses the kernel intervention in the communication process. This reduces the CPU overhead. The RDMA protocol enables the host adapter to decide after a packet enters the network which application should receive it and where to store it in the memory space of that application. Instead of sending the packet for processing to the kernel and copying it into the memory of the user application, the host adapter directly places the packet contents in the application buffer. This process requires a separate API, the InfiniBand Verbs API, and applications need to implement the InfiniBand Verbs API to use RDMA.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux supports both the InfiniBand hardware and the InfiniBand Verbs API. Additionally, it supports the following technologies to use the InfiniBand Verbs API on non-InfiniBand hardware:
- Internet Wide Area RDMA Protocol (iWARP): A network protocol that implements RDMA over IP networks
- RDMA over Converged Ethernet (RoCE), which is also known as InfiniBand over Ethernet (IBoE): A network protocol that implements RDMA over Ethernet networks