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Chapter 4. Getting started with virtualization on IBM Z

You can use KVM virtualization when using RHEL 8 on IBM Z hardware. However, enabling the KVM hypervisor on your system requires extra steps compared to virtualization on AMD64 and Intel 64 architectures. Certain RHEL 8 virtualization features also have different or restricted functionality on IBM Z.

Apart from the information in the following sections, using virtualization on IBM Z works the same as on AMD64 and Intel 64. Therefore, you can see other RHEL 8 virtualization documentation for more information when using virtualization on IBM Z.

4.1. Enabling virtualization on IBM Z

To set up a KVM hypervisor and create virtual machines (VMs) on an IBM Z system running RHEL 8, follow the instructions below.


  • RHEL 8 is installed and registered on your host machine.
  • The following minimum system resources are available:

    • 6 GB free disk space for the host, plus another 6 GB for each intended VM.
    • 2 GB of RAM for the host, plus another 2 GB for each intended VM.
  • Your IBM Z host system is using a z13 CPU or later.
  • RHEL 8 is installed on a logical partition (LPAR). In addition, the LPAR supports the start-interpretive execution (SIE) virtualization functions.

    To verify this, search for sie in your /proc/cpuinfo file.

    # grep sie /proc/cpuinfo/
    features        : esan3 zarch stfle msa ldisp eimm dfp edat etf3eh highgprs te sie


  1. Load the KVM kernel module:

    # modprobe kvm
  2. Verify that the KVM kernel module is loaded:

    # lsmod | grep kvm

    If KVM loaded successfully, the output of this command includes kvm.

  3. Remove any pre-existing virtualization packages and modules that your system already contains:

    # yum remove -y libvirt* qemu* @virt
    # yum module reset virt
  4. Install the packages in the virt:av/common module:

    # yum module install virt:av/common
  5. Start the libvirtd service.

    # systemctl start libvirtd
  6. Verify that your system is prepared to be a virtualization host:

    # virt-host-validate
    QEMU: Checking if device /dev/kvm is accessible                : PASS
    QEMU: Checking if device /dev/vhost-net exists                 : PASS
    QEMU: Checking if device /dev/net/tun exists                   : PASS
    QEMU: Checking for cgroup 'memory' controller support          : PASS
    QEMU: Checking for cgroup 'memory' controller mount-point      : PASS
  7. If all virt-host-validate checks return a PASS value, your system is prepared for creating VMs.

    If any of the checks return a FAIL value, follow the displayed instructions to fix the problem.

    If any of the checks return a WARN value, consider following the displayed instructions to improve virtualization capabilities.

Additional information

  • Note that if virtualization is not supported by your host CPU, virt-host-validate generates the following output:

    QEMU: Checking for hardware virtualization: FAIL (Only emulated CPUs are available, performance will be significantly limited)

    However, attempting to create VMs on such a host system will fail, rather than have performance problems.

4.2. How virtualization on IBM Z differs from AMD64 and Intel 64

KVM virtualization in RHEL 8 on IBM Z systems differs from KVM on AMD64 and Intel 64 systems in the following:

PCI and USB devices

Virtual PCI and USB devices are not supported on IBM Z. This also means that virtio-*-pci devices are unsupported, and virtio-*-ccw devices should be used instead. For example, use virtio-net-ccw instead of virtio-net-pci.

Note that direct attachment of PCI devices, also known as PCI passthrough, is supported.

Supported guest OS
Red Hat only supports VMs hosted on IBM Z if they use RHEL 7 or RHEL 8 as their guest operating system.
Device boot order

IBM Z does not support the <boot dev='device'> XML configuration element. To define device boot order, use the <boot order='number'> element in the <devices> section of the XML. For example:

<disk type='file' device='disk'>
  <driver name='qemu' type='qcow2'/>
  <source file='/path/to/qcow2'/>
  <target dev='vda' bus='virtio'/>
  <address type='ccw' cssid='0xfe' ssid='0x0' devno='0x0000'/>
  <boot order='2'>

Using <boot order='number'> for boot order management is also preferred on AMD64 and Intel 64 hosts.

Memory hot plug
Adding memory to a running VM is not possible on IBM Z. Note that removing memory from a running VM (memory hot unplug) is also not possible on IBM Z, as well as on AMD64 and Intel 64.
NUMA topology
Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) topology for CPUs is not supported by libvirt on IBM Z. Therefore, tuning vCPU performance using NUMA is not possible on these systems.
VMs on an IBM Z host can use the vfio-ap cryptographic device passthrough, which is not supported on any other architectures.
SMBIOS configuration is not available on IBM Z.
Watchdog devices

If using watchdog devices in your VM on an IBM Z host, use the diag288 model. For example:

  <watchdog model='diag288' action='poweroff'/>
The kvm-clock service is specific to AMD64 and Intel 64 systems, and does not have to be configured for VM time management on IBM Z.
v2v and p2v
The virt-v2v and virt-p2v utilities are supported only on the AMD64 and Intel 64 architecture, and are not provided on IBM Z.
Nested virtualization
Creating nested VMs requires different settings on IBM Z than on AMD64 and Intel 64. For details, see Chapter 18, Creating nested virtual machines.
No graphical output in earlier releases
When using RHEL 8.3 or an earlier minor version on your host, displaying the VM graphical output is not possible when connecting to the VM using the VNC protocol. This is because the gnome-desktop utility was not supported in earlier RHEL versions on IBM Z. In addition, the SPICE display protocol does not work on IBM Z.

Additional resources